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ADVANCED LEVEL PHYSICS (AS LEVEL) Physical Quantities and Units 1.

Physical Quantity:
A ysic l qu n i y com is s num ic l m gni ud nd uni . ysic l qu n i y, n is num ic l m gni ud nd

Ex m l : in fo c of n N w on , fo c is N w on is uni . In symbol Uni

F=10N
P ysic l qu n i y Num ic l m gni ud

Note: When stating a physical quantity, two items needed to be mentioned; the first is its numerical value and second is the unit. Fundamental Unit (Base Unit):
W n ysic l qu n i y is n d d o m su , s nd d siz of s nd d siz is known s unit fo icul ysic l qu n i y. ) P ysic l qu n i i s ysic l qu n i y. If l ng m i) ii) iii) Foo Y ds Mil s d min d by com ing m o qu n i y is qui d. T is

s nd d siz o

uni of

Ex m l : B sid s

of od is 5 m o

ysic l qu n i y is l ng . T suc s

uni fo l ng

is m

uni s of l ng

H nc sci n is f mili o on uni find difficul i s w n ncoun s o sys ms of uni s ( l oug on uni c n b conv d in o no by conv sion f c o ) so uni s of ll diff n ysic l qu n i i s c n b l d o b s o fund m n l uni s. Sci n is s g d o v common sys m uni c ll d System International of m su m n s w ic us s s v n b s uni s fo s v n b s qu n i i s summ iz d b low.

Base Quantity
M ss L ng Tim El c ic u n T m u

Unit Name Kilog m M S cond Am K lvin Symbol Kg M S A K

Amoun of subs nc Mol Luminous in nsi y nd l Note: dv n g of sys m in ) T Meter is uni of l ng v cuum in on s cond.

n ion l is

Mol cd ysic l qu n i y

s only on uni . dis nc v ll d by lig in

nd is qu l o 1/299 792 458 of

b) The kilogram is uni of m ss nd is qu l o m ss of kilogram ( l inum-i idium cylind ) k s v s, P is.

international prototype

uni of im nd is du ion of x c ly 9192 631 770 iods of di ion c) The Second is co s onding o nsi ion b w n wo y fin l v ls of g ound s of c sium 133 om.

Derived Quantities:
P ysic l qu n i i s o n b sic qu n i i s c ll d Derived quantities. A d iv d qu n i y is combin ion of v ious b sic qu n i i s, -g wo k=Fo c x dis l c m n c.

Derived Unit:
T d iv d uni fo d iv d qu n i y c n b ob in d f om l ions i b w n d iv d qu n i i s wi b sic qu n i i s. T s uni s ob in d using oduc o quo i n of on o mo b sic uni s wi ou inclusion of ny num ic l f c o s (on X on s cond) coulomb= on m

Note:
i) A f om di n nd s di n( uni of ngl is di n nd uni of solid ngl , s di n, offici lly d sign d s subsidiary uni s nd c n b d sb s o d iv d s conv ni nc dic s) ll o uni s us d in sys m c ll d derived uni s. ii) Som conv ni nc
iii) T

d iv d uni s l iv ly com l x w n x giv n s ci l n m s ( -g kgm2 s -3A -2gis c ll d


uni w ic is n m d f son

ss d in b sic uni o m, ).
.

nd fo

symbol fo

s c i ll

The derived units with special names:


Derived quantity Fo c P ssu En gy, wo k Pow F qu ncy g El c omo iv fo c R sis nc onduc nc Induc nc Unit Name N w on P sc l Joul W H z oulomb Vol O m Si m ns H n y Symbol N= Kgms -2 P =kgm -1 s -2 J= kgm 2s -2 W= kgm -2 s -3 Hz= s -1 =As V= kgm 2 s -3 A -1 = kgm 2 s -3 A -2 S= kg -1m -2 s 3 A 2 H= kgm 2 s -2 A -2

ci nc M gn ic flux M gn ic Flux d nsi y

F d W b T sl

F= kg -1m -2 s 4 A 2 Wb= kg m 2 s -2 A -1 T= kg s -2 A -1

Power of Ten and Prefixes:


I is v y common in ysics o ncoun qu n i i s w ic v y big nd v y sm ll. T dius is, fo x m l , v y big v lu , s im s o b 6400,000 m. On o nd dius of yd og n nucl us is v y sm ll qu n i y, oxim ly 0.000 000 000 000 0013 m. H i is v y sy o c l ssly nd unwi ingly dd o omi on o mo z os. To ov com is obl m, sci n is c n do ny wo m ods ) Us of sci n ific no b) P fix s. ions ( s nd d fo m)

Scientific Notation:
T dius of , 6 400 000 m c n b w i 000 0013 m, c n b w i n s 1.310-15m. n s 6.4X106m.R dius of yd og n nucl us, 0.000 000 000

Prefixes:
P fix s s nd d us d wi fix s P fix yoc o Z o o f mo Pico n no Mic o mili uni s symbols o indic d cim l mul i l s o submul i l s. Mos of

Submul i l s 10-24 10-21 10-18 10-15 10-12 10-09 10-6 10-3

Symbol y z f n m

Mul i l yo z x T Gig M g Kilo

P fix 1024 1021 1018 1015 1012 109 106 103

Symbol y z

g M k

Dimensions:
T dim nsions of ysic l qu n i i s indic ow i is l of ysic l qu n i y c n b w i n s ( ysic l qu n i y). d o b sic qu n i i s. T dim nsions

Base Quantity Base unit L ng M M ss Kg Tim S El c ic cu n A T m u K Amoun of subs nc Mol Luminous in nsi y cd Example: A is ob in d by mul i lying on l ng by no dis nc , dius o m ly conv ni n w ys of s ying l ng ) nd of l ng squ d i) [A ]=[l ng Xb d ]=LXL=L2

Dimension L M T A N I ( ms suc s b fo dim nsions of

d , wid , os

ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) And o i) ii) iii) iv)

[V loci y]=[dis l c m n / im ]=L/T=LT-1 [Acc l ion]=[c ng in v loci y]= LT-1/T= LT-2 ion]=M LT-2

[Fo c ]= [m ss X cc l

[Wo k]=[fo c X dis l c m n ]= M LT-2 X L= ML 2 T-2 [El c ic c g ]=[ u n X Tim ]=AT

[F qu ncy]=[1/ [S

iod]=[1/T]=T-1

in]=[ x nsion/o igin l l ng ]=L/L (w ic is non dim nsion l o dim nsionl ss) x m l s

[S

cific H H

ci y]= L 2 T-2 -1 ci y]= ML 2 T-2 -1N-1

[Mol [T

m l conduc ivi y]= ML T-3 -1

[El c ic Po n i l]= ML 2 T-3 I-1

v)

[El c ic

sis nc ]= ML 2 T-3 I-2

Dimensionless or Unit-less Quantities:


T s qu n i i s w ic in ios of qu n i i s ving s m dim nsions o uni s. Qu n i i s w ic v no uni s ssoci d wi m dim nsionl ss ( -g f c iv ind x). Som qu n i i s ( -g ngl ) dim nsionl ss v n oug y v n ssoci d uni . Ex m l includ l iv d nsi y, s in.

Uses of Units and Dimensions:


a) To check homogeneity of physical equations: A ysic l qu ion is u i s c iv of sys m of uni s us d fo ysic l qu n i i s m n ion d in qu ions. E c m in qu ion s s m dim nsions nd uni s. T dim nsions of n qu ion is s id o b omog n ous if ll ms in i v s m dim nsions o uni s( is ysic lly co c qu ion mus v s m dim nsion o uni s on bo ig nd sid nd l f nd sid of qu ion). Note: Only qu n i i s wi s m dim nsions c n b dd d, sub c do l qu d in n qu ion. l, m ss of

Example: A s ud n cl ims iod of sim l ndulum T is bob m, nd cc l ion du o g vi y g by following fo mul .

d o i s l ng

T=k

k is dim nsionl ss qu n i y

LHS= Uni s of T=s

RHS= uni s of k

=(kgm/ms-2)1/2=(kgs2)1/2 v s m uni . T qu ion c nno b co c . ysic lly w ong. In o wo ds qu ion is

T qu n i i s on bo sid s of qu ion don T qu ion is inhomogeneous nd fo dimensionally inconsistent. Example: A s cond s ud n cl ims

following fo mul fo

iod of sim l

ndulum

T=k

symbols

i usu l m ning is co

c.

LHS= uni s of T=s

RHS= uni s of k T

=(m/ms-2)1/2=s

qu ion is omog n ous. I is lso s id o b dimensionally consistent. m ic l m n yi lds v lu of k o b 2. T co c ysic l

Note: A igo ous m

. If ins d, fo mul fo iod is nc T=2 s own qu ion is s ill dim nsion lly consis n bu

iod is w i ysic lly w ong.

n s T=3

,i c nb

conclusions:
i) ii) Equ ions w ic gov n d by L ws of ysics mus b dim nsion lly consis n .

How v , dim nsion lly consis n qu ions n d no b l ws of ysics ( is if dim nsions d b n s m on c of qu ion, w would know only i mig b co c , fo m od do s no ovid c ck on ny num ic l f c o s). T m od do s no ll us w qu ion is w ong.

iii)

Cases where an equation can be homogeneous and yet incorrect:


)

Incorrect coefficient: co c qu ion


2

l ing

fo mul fo mo ion und

unifo m cc l

ion is

s=u +1/2 nd no

qu ion w ic
2

sb nw i

n w ongly

s=u +2

I s s m uni s fo c m in qu ion; bu is w ong b c us nd 2 m on ig sid of fi s qu ion is nd co ffici n of ig sid of s cond qu ion is 2 ins d of . b) Missing Terms:

co ffici n of s cond m on

T s=1/2

l ions i b w
2

n s,u,

nd m y b jus w i

n s

w ic is incom l c) Extra terms

nd w ong; l oug

qu ion is omog n ous.

T bov o uni s

qu ion m y b w ongly w i o ms, fo x m l ,


2

n wi

n x

m w ic

s m dim nsion

s=u +v +1/2 co c n ss of

ysic l qu ion is confi m d x

im n lly.

Deriving Physical Equations:


D mining ysic l qu n i y usu lly d nds on numb of o x m l iod of sim l ndulum d nds on i s l ng nd cc l uni s o dim nsions, n qu ion c n b d iv d o l iod T wi b low. ysic lly qu n i i s. Fo ion du o g vi y g. using l nd g. T x m l is giv n

Dimensional Analysis:
T f c in w ic n qu ion mus b dim nsion lly omog n ous n bl s ysic l qu n i i s l d o c o . ndulum dic ions o b m d w y

Example: P iod of sim l

Ex im n s ows iod of sim l ndulum ind nd n of m li ud of oscill ion oviding i is sm ll. T fo i m y b son bly b su os d fo sm ll oscill ions iod d nds only on m ss m of bob, l ng l of s ing nd cc l ion du o g vi y g, if w x ss l ions i s P iod= kmxly gz , w qu ion mus v [P iod]=[ mx][ ly][ gz] T=MxLy (LT-2 )z T= MxLy+z T-2z Equ ing (fo M) 0=x (fo L) 0=y+z (fo T) 1=-2z Solving giv s x=0, z=-1/2 , y=1/2 P iod = km0l1/2 g-1/2 indic s of M, L nd T on c sid of qu ion giv s k is dim nsionl ss nd x, y nd z s m dim nsions ,so unknown indic s, n sinc c sid of

i- P iod= k Note: dim nsion l n lysis do s no ovid m m ic lly n lysis of y c i d ou in v lu of oving ( im dim nsionl ss cons n k; iod of sim l ndulum)

fo mul T= 2 do s. How v si u ions w m m ic l n lysis is oo difficul ; dim nsion l n lysis is icul ly us ful in suc c s s lik is uill s fo mul (in fluid m c nics, w ic inv s ig s dy flow of liquid (w ) oug i ) nd S ok s L w(in fluid m c nics, A low v loci i s, f ic ion l fo c on s ic l body moving oug fluid cons n v loci y is qu l o 6 im s oduc of v loci y, fluid viscosi y, nd dius of s .) -T
i

nd- (No : x

i l on in

n ion l sys m uni s

ss

ly b n dd d)i

P d on Augus ,2000 nd u d d fo fif Si H bib U.S. 0333-4382319 (Isl m b d, P kis n)

im in J n2010