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METHODOLOGY NOTES Powell, 2003

QDA is a 5 stage process 1. Get to know your data -read and re read text, listen, re listen tape -write any impressions as you move. -examine data quality, explain limitations of data 2. Focus your analysis - write down the questions you hope to answer- this is the starting point of the analysis - 2 common approaches are - A) Focus analysis by question or topic, time period or event- put data/responses for each question together---later explore links between questions - B) Focus analysis by case, individual or group- group data by group, caregivers, social workers and nurses - The two approaches may be combined 3. Categorise information - coding To bring meaning to words or text before you identify themes, organize text into coherent categories that summarise or brings meaning to text. - Involves reading and re-reading text. - 2 methods: Use pre set categories and search fitting data or use emergent where u read text to identify recurring ideas - Can combine the 2..starting with pre defined ones and adding new ones as they emerge - Iterative process- so defn of categories may change. - Continue building new categories and sub categories until no new ones emerge - Cross index for data that falls into two categories

4. identify patterns within and in between categories - Within category description- summarize information paertaing to one theme and note
similarities and differences between responses You may create larger super categories..wrk fro smaller ones upwards Relative importance of categories may be measured by frequency with which a particular theme comes up Relationships-two or more themes may occur consistently together in the dataconsider drawing a matrix-look for opposing data to relationships.

5. Interpretation- bring it all together - use themes and connections to explain findings - Start by listing key findings that emerged from categorizing data - Ask question- what are the major lessons? Anything new? Application to other settings? - Outline your results in a report. Include descriptive quotes.

Ryan, A.B. (2006) 1. Why Analyse data? -Data will not speak for itself in its raw(transcrips/notes) form. Data is not findings. Findings are what had emerged from data- thru analysis Post-positivist research typically yields a large amount of qualitative data. In its raw state, it is suitable for an archive, but not for presentation in a thesis of a limited number of words. -Analysis produces evidence-findings require evidence- quotes/words provide the evidence and
the analysis frames their experience (cf Richardson, 1990: 39) and sets it in context.

-Analysis makes the familiar strange -sheds more light on research questions 2. What analysis entail? The complete process of analysis requires that the data be organised, scrutinised, selected, described, theorised, interpreted, discussed and presented to a readership.