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o British Imperialism in India KEY IDEA As the Mughal Empire declined, Britain seized almost the whole subcontinent

of India. I n the early 1700s, the Mughal Empire of India fell into decline. By the middle of the century, the British East India Company was becoming the most important power in India. It held huge amounts of land~almost the entire subcontinent. British law forced India to supply raw materials such as tea, indigo (a dye), coffee, and cotton. The law also forced Indian manufacturing out of business. India became even more important when the East India Company built rail lines that linked growing regions in the interior with ports on the coast. India enjoyed some gains from British rule. Its rail system was the third largest in the world and helped make the economy more modern. The British made other improvements, too. They built telephone and telegraph lines, dams, bridges, and canals. They also improved sanitation and public health and built schools. More and more Indians learned to read. British rule caused problems as well. Many economic benefits flowed out of India to Britain. Indian industry died out because of British trade laws. Many farmers and villages lost their ability to feed themselves because they were made to grow cash crops. Many peoples died when famines struck. British racist attitudes damaged Indian culture. By the mid-1800s, many Indians felt growing resentment. When Indian soldiers heard rumors that offended their religious feelings, many rebelled. The East India Company needed a year and British troops-to put it down. The Indians lost because of their own divisions. Muslims and Hindus did not trust each other. After the revolt, the British government took direct control of British India. Indians tried other ways of resisting British control. Leaders such as Ram Mohun Roy urged changes in traditional Indian practices to make Indian society more modern. He hoped to free India of foreign control with these changes. Indians resented the fact that they were treated unfairly. They formed two groups~the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League. Both began to push the British to make changes. In the early 1900s, they called for self-government.

British Imperialism in India Imperialism: the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies. Background: The author of the article is McDougal Littell. They strive to shed light on all aspects of history, the good and the bad, and do not take sides in any issue. They are unbiased, which is always questionable but. Summary: In the early 1700s, it was apparent that the Mughal Empire was in rapid decline, and by the middle of the 1700s, the British East India Company held just about the entire subcontinent of India and its power was growing to insane proportions. British law required India to supply raw materials such as tea, indigo (a dye), coffee, and cotton. It additionally forced Indian manufacturing out of business. When the East India Company built railroads that linked growing regions to the interior with ports on the coast. Thanks to the British, India now had the third largest railway system in the world, their economy was modernized, sanitation, public health, and schools were improved upon, and telephone and telegraph lines, dams, bridges, and canals were built. Indian industry nearly died out because of the British trade laws and famines struck due to a focus by Britain on planting cash crops and not actual fruits and vegetables. The British were racist, which hurt Indian culture. When they rebelled, it took one year for the British to put them down. Britain then took direct control. The Indian National Congress and The Muslim League worked for self-government and getting the British out of India in more peaceful ways. Relation to Imperialism: Imperialism is when you take over another country for economic or political gain, and thats exactly what Britain did with India. Now, you assist that country in developing, but as a compensation, you control the economy and take much more than you gave, as seen with Britain and India. Britain helped develop India, but at the price of controlling their economy through limiting any Indian industry so as to have no competition with British industry, and farming cash crops instead of food for the populace because the British were looking for wealth, not sustaining the population of India.

Capitalism in England Capitalism flourished in 18th-century England by virtue of certain political and economic institutions already in place or in the process of emerging. The accession of William III and Mary II (1689) following the Glorious Revolution and the reestablishment of Parliament as a forceful governmental power required substantial funding. This funding was acquired in the form of loans from wealthy Englishmen, both Whigs and Tories, whose investment in the new regime served to mitigate political discord and buttress the authority of the state. Public credit institutions developed in this period; the Bank of England (a joint-stock company) was

established in 1694. Companies chartered by the Crown and regulated by a corporation of merchants trading overseas had long been in existence throughout Europe. But these enterprises, by which both interested merchants and speculators jointly invested in foreign trade, became increasingly common in the 18th century. Most English joint-stock companies chartered by the Crownfor example, the East India Company (1600) and the Royal African Company (1672) were profitable investments. England's South Sea Company, chartered in 1711 to transport slaves to Spanish America, was initially an attractive speculation. The legal institutions established in England contributed to the maintenance of property rights and the enforcement of contracts underlying public finance, and by 1712 a stock market had emerged to facilitate further investment. When the South Sea Bubble ("bubble" means an inflated speculation) burst in 1720, however, it temporarily discredited investment and ruined the financial market.

Capitalism in England

Capitalism: An economic system arising in 17th-century Europe; based on the principle of private (as opposed to state) investment in and ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods; characterized by the offer of goods for sale in a free market based upon the voluntary exchange between supplier and purchaser for mutual profit. Author Background: Peter Hanns Reill and Ellen Judy Wilson are the authors of this article. They definitely support Capitalism as can be seen of their positive reviews of it as it was used in England in the 18th century. Peter Hanns Reill is a professor and director at UCLA, and has a center for 17th and 18th century studies. Summary: Capitalism flourished in 18th century England by virtue of certain political and economic institutions already in place or in the process of emerging. William III and Mary II, in the year of 1689, became king and queen of England following the Glorious Revolution and Parliament was reestablished as a forceful governmental power, and this required great sums of money. It was acquired in the form of loans from wealth Englishmen, both from the political parties of the Whigs and the Tories, which lessened political tension and bolstered the authority and power of the state. Public credit instutions were developed and in 1694, so was a joint-stock company by the name of the Bank of England. Enterprises such as these, by which both interested merchants and speculators jointly invested in foreign trade, became very common. Relation to Capitalism: : An economic system based on the principle of private investment in and ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods with little, if any, interference from the state; it is characterized by the offer of goods for sale in a free market based upon the voluntary exchange between supplier and purchaser for mutual profit. These joint-stock companies that were on the rise in England were the perfect example of this. They had little interference from the government, and involved a group of people investing in a jointstock company to win profit, which was a branch of capitalism.