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3Chemistry Practical 17

Title: Determination of the enthalpy change using Hesss Law Method: Refer to Chemistry HL Practical Handbook pg. 70

Data Collection:
Part A Quantitative data Trial 1 2 Mass of magnesium ribbon (g) 0.0001 0.2300 0.2305 Temperature (T/C) 0.5 Initial 28.0 28.0 Final 39.5 40.5

Volume of hydrochloric acid = 50.0 0.5 ml Concentration of hydrochloric acid = 0.5 mol dm-3 Qualitative data 1. When the magnesium ribbon is rubbed with the sand paper, the white layer is scrapped off thus exposing the metallic grey layer. 2. As the cleaned magnesium ribbon is added to the hydrochloric acid, it reacts vigorously. Gas bubbles are released followed by a rapid increase in temperature. A colourless aqueous solution is obtained as the final product. Part B Quantitative data Trial 1 2 Mass of magnesium oxide (g) 0.0001 0.4643 0.4909 Temperature (T/C) 0.5 Initial 28.0 28.0 Final 31.5 41.5

Volume of hydrochloric acid = 50.0 0.5 ml Concentration of hydrochloric acid = 0.5 mol dm-3 Qualitative data 1. The magnesium oxide is in white powder form. 2. When added to the hydrochloric acid solution, the reaction is less vigorous. The white powder dissolves in the acid and produces a colourless aqueous solution. There was also increased in temperature but the raise is less compared to the reaction with magnesium ribbon.

Data Proccesing:
Part A Trial 1 2 The increase in temperature, T (C) 11.5 3.05 12.5 3.02

The stoichiometry of the reaction:

Mg (s) + 2HCl (aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)


Trial 1:

Atomic mass of Mg = 24.31 g mol 1 0.2300 g number of moles of Mg = 24.31 g mol -1 = 0.009461 0.04 %mol 50.0 ml 0.5 M number of moles of HCl = 1000 = 0.025 1.00 % mol 0.009461 mol Mg will react with 0.01892 mol of HCl, Mg is the limiting reactant. Heat change in the reaction, q = mass of mixture specific heat capacity temperatu re rise = 50.0 g 4.18 J g -1 K -1 11.5 C = 2400 4.05 % J q Entalphy change, H1 = number of moles 2400 J = 0.009461 mol = - 254000 4.09 % J mol -1 = - 254 10 kJ mol -1

Trial 2:

Atomic mass of Mg = 24.31 g mol -1 0.2305 g number of moles of Mg = 24.31 g mol -1 = 0.009482 0.04 % mol 50.0 ml 0.5 M number of moles of HCl = 1000 = 0.025 1.00 % mol 0.009482 mol Mg will need 0.01896 mol of HCl, HCl is excessive, Mg is limiting reactant Heat change in the reaction, q = 50.0 g 4.18 J g -1 K -1 12.5 C = 2610 4.02 % J 2610 J Entalphy change, H 2 = 0.009482 mol = - 275000 4.06 % J mol -1 = - 275 11 kJ mol -1

Average H from both trial s H1 + H 2 = 2 ( 254) + (- 275) = 2 = 265 8.15 % kJ mol -1 = 265 22 kJ mol -1

Part B

Trial 1 2

Increase in temperature, T (C) 3.5 3.37 % 3.5 3.37 %

The stoichiometry of the reaction:

MgO (s) + 2HCl (aq) H2O (l) + MgCl2 (aq)


Trial 1:

Molecular mass of MgO = 40.31 g mol -1 0.4643 g number of moles of MgO = 40.31 g mol -1 = 0.01152 0.02 % mol 50.0 ml 0.5 M number of moles of HCl = 1000 = 0.025 1.00 % mol 0.01152 mol MgO will react with 0.02304 mol of HCl, MgO is the limiting reactant. Heat change in the reaction, q = mass of mixture specific heat capacity temperatu re rise = 50.0 g 4.18 J g -1 K -1 3.5 C = 732 4.37 % J q Entalphy change, H1 = number of moles 732 J = 0.01152 mol = - 63500 4.39 % J mol -1 = - 63.5 2.8 kJ mol -1

Trial 2:

Molecular mass of MgO = 40.31 g mol - 1 0.4909 g Number of moles of MgO = 40.31 g mol -1 = 0.01218 0.04 % mol 50.0 ml 0.5 M number of moles of HCl = 1000 = 0.025 1.00 % mol 0.01218 mol MgO will react with 0.02436 mol of HCl, MgO is the limiting reactant. Heat change in the reaction, q = mass of mixture specific heat capacity temperatu re rise = 50.0 g 4.18 J g -1 K -1 3.5 C = 732 4.37 % J q Entalphy change, H1 = number of moles 732 J = 0.01218 mol = - 63500 4.41 % J mol -1 = - 60.1 2.8 kJ mol -1
Average H from both trial s H 1 + H 2 2 ( 63.5) + (-60.1) = 2 = 61.8 8.80 % kJ mol -1 = = 61.8 5.4 kJ mol -1
Using Hesss Law, Mg (s) + 2HCl (aq) MgO (s) + 2HCl (aq) Mg (s) + 2HCl (aq) H20 (l) + MgCl2 (aq) Mg (s) + H20 (l) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) H20 (l) + MgCl2 (aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) MgO (s) + 2HCl (aq) H = -265 22 kJ mol-1 H = -61.8 5.4 kJ mol-1 H = -265 22 kJ mol-1 H = 61.8 5.4 kJ mol-1 H = -203 27 kJ mol-1

MgO (s) + H2 (g)

The entalphy change for the reaction between magnesium and water is - 203 27 kJ mol -1

Conclusion

Hesss Law can be used to calculate the standard enthalpy change of the reaction between magnesium and water. The enthalpy change of the reaction, Hrxn = - 203 27 kJ mol-1.