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Jonathan Z. Smith
i l O W COULD ONE REFUSE an invitation to meditate aloud on the question of connections at the outset of our meeting when the issue was so fetchingly framed by Jim Wiggins? He called, several months ago, to tell me that the Program Committee had just met, here in Anaheim, and concluded that there appeared to be nothing programmatic about our Annual Meeting. Jim recalled that 1 had once suggested that, if our present course of atomization continued, allowing, at any given moment, no less than sixteen simultaneous fifteen minute sound bites (with an equivalent number in the parallel SBL meeting), the Academy might do better (and save some money) simply to provide each member with the tools that enable solitary vice, with an individual phone booth and a credit card, and give up the fiction of a plenum. "Is there," Jim asked, "anything unifying, any contrary centripetal impulse governing our activities as an Academy?" In asking me to address this question in what he, then, termed a "kick-off speech" (now pleonastically dignified as an "inaugural opening address"), Jim left me with the rueful sense that I was to attempt a task similar to that undertaken by the artist, Christo (itself a not insignificant name), wrapping gauze around an already existent and somewhat recalcitrant object. The blurb in the Religious Studies News did nothing to dispel this unease. The auguries do not bode well. After all, in its recent mail survey of member's "primary research," the AAR found it necessary to set out nine"geographic areas," eighteen "traditions," eleven "approaches," and twenty-eight "subject areas," with the doubtless unintended ironic result that if you, like me, understood religion to be the object of your studies, you had to write it in, under the rubric "other"! I chose the title, "Connections," in part because it shares with 'religion' the root sense of 'binding' (although built on a different root, *ned rather than *leigh), but more particularly in homage to that remarkable BBC and PBS series on the history of science and technology, James
Downloaded from http://jaar.oxfordjournals.org/ at Referral based access control for AAR - OUP on April 15, 2012
Jonathan Z. Smith is the Robert O. Anderson Distinguished Service Professor of the Humanities at the University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. This article was delivered as the Opening Address at the Academy's 1989 Annual Meeting.
that becomes clear and necessary only in retrospect (Burke:28791). The result of the 'turn' is "vague societies of religion" and the "chaos of discourse about religion. taken together.OUP on April 15. Chester Warren Quimby.Journal of the American Academy of Religion Burke's Connections. is of a similar character. The Central and Western sections have become vague societies of religion. Despite the short shrift given to the rationale for the change of name from the already renamed National Association of Bible Instructors to the American Academy of Religion in our founding document of 1964 (Beck. With the benefit of hindsight. The Bible departments of our own section are fast changing to Departments of religion. a field of study that has chosen. and is comfortable with. we have moved "from the clarity of the Book to the chaos of discourse about religion" (quoted in O'Donovan:311). in his presidential address. We are an indigenously American enterprise. This could not have been said fifty years ago. from the very first paragraph of the first issue of the Journal of Bible and Religion (the ancestor oiJAAR) with the celebration of the same 'turn' in a remark at our seventy-fifth anniversary banquet in Chicago fifty-one years later. in 1984. especially at its more advanced levels. In 1933.oxfordjournals. to a highly contested construct: religion. Burke portrays a more haphazard process." Our scholarly 'turn' is understood by both to be from a sharp focus on an object. resembling bricolage. et al. is Downloaded from http://jaar. and the second celebrates. with barely concealed delight.' indeed. the so-called 'secular' academy as a setting and our neighbors in the human sciences as colleagues and conversation partners for our work. Our coherence. our 'turn. that. or the heroism of individual geniuses and inventors. authoritatively. a work directed towards a theoretical object: religion. the Bible.:200). 2012 . Eschewing the usual picture of a process of lineal inevitable development. so that now although we only are left they are seeking our life to take it away. the latter title has proved prescient. to be religious. understood. The study of religion.org/ at Referral based access control for AAR . arguably. as an Academy. Let me begin with two historical snapshots. The early hope that we [NABI] might become an influential national society has failed. The distance we have collectively traveled can be marked by contrasting a complaint from the beginning of our 'turn. it is possible to maintain that the three elements in our title. Charles Long proclaimed. constitute a first mapping of our commonality. (Quimby: 1) By way of contrast. lamented: That all is not well with the teaching of the English Bible is a wellknown and all too bitter axiom. Although the first quotation denigrates. The Southern section—the very core of the 'Bible Belt'—was stillborn.' their language is wholly congruent.
It is our particular group of editors who create a canon—one that is responsive and responsible to no other community than the academy—by their decisions on what to include and exclude. (Achtemeienxx. 1 believe) that Christianity functions in a manner similar to a natural taxon. while other things about which the reader may have been in confusion will be shown to have enough evidence to clear up the difficulties. much of what was once considered certain will be shown to rest on the smallest foundations of factual knowledge. has struggled with the construction of the Harper's Dictionary of Religion. because there is no empirical corpus. To quote the HBD's "Preface": Because the articles represent great care in reaching conclusions only where the evidence will support such conclusions. but "new religions" will provide the second largest number. emphasis added). While this bi-locality is not innocent of implications for the question of unity (to which I shall want to return).' Downloaded from http://jaar. Any Bible dictionary. For beyond its physical dimensions and some technical matters of format. a positivistic rhetoric governs the enterprise. First of all. the analogy breaks down.SmitkConnections unique among the human sciences in its bi-locality. often denoted in our professional shorthand by the dualism seminary/university. every name used three or more times). the largest number of entries (no surprise) refer to Christianity. in the assignments for the Harper's Dictionary ofReligion. as well as a traditional list of theological topoi. wholly the creation of the academy. 2012 . Secondly. the insistence on construct and conflict is equally characteristic of the university. and the pages of this Dictionary reflect that adventure. While one might argue (unsuccessfully. For example. Such a rhetoric would be sheerly impossible in our Dictionary ofReligion.OUP on April 15. Whether merited or not. has as its conceptual spine a concordance. working with an expansive yet delimited corpus. because there is no delimited corpus. conceived as an analogue to the SBL's Harper's Bible Dictionary. Scholarship is an adventure in learning. to which is added a variety of historical and archeological terms conceived to have relevance to the age and setting of the books. connections are not 'at hand. as the Editorial Board.oxfordjournals. on behalf of the AAR. in which newfacts constantly open up new horizons of information. by its very nature. For the focus on objects and authority is appropriate to the seminary. here it helps clarify the reasons for the differing evaluations by Quimby and Long. a list of every name. I have been repeatedly struck by the force of this wider duality over the past year.org/ at Referral based access control for AAR . even when it is being most speculative. 'new religion' is clearly an artificial class. place and thing mentioned in the Bible (in the case of HBD.
OUP on April 15. in Bill Green's precise formulation. As the philosophical debate over definitions has taught us. each and every item will have to be supplied with a cross-reference to an appropriate generic term developed within the academic study of religion. by its nature. Thirdly. a view that sees scholars as participating endlessly in "negotiatory or transactional" processes. celebrate "new horizons of information." the vistas it offers its readers must be the unfolding of questions of interpretation. From this perspective. there can be no concordance-like citation of textual loci to supply contextual meaning. We must invite them.org/ at Referral based access control for AAR . Rather. texts. . behaviors. a "forum" for negotiating and renegotiating constructions of significance as it is a means of transmitting "new information" (Bruner: 122-23). to "use their intellects and imaginations to engage with previously unconsidered peoples. suggest. such as ours. which will serve as the sole locus for their conjunction. if not more. as a thought experiment. 2012 'See the AAR's mission statement as contained in the Program Book for the 1968 Annual Meeting (5): "It is the aim of the Academy to function as a meeting place where the study of religion in its broadest dimension may be fostered. . What we share are the intellectual problems attendant on such an enterprise. expressed by the majority of our organizational units. over "Enlightenment" ideals of "objectivity" and agreement (Rorty). is as much. Rather.Journal of the American Academy of Religion Terms do not 'cluster' in documentary.[and] to confront the previously unconsidered in their own assumptions and in themselves" concerning religion (Green:278).oxfordjournals. There are no 'given' metonymic or syntagmatic relations. Finally. At stake is a view of the academic enterprise that challenges positivistic notions of authority and facticity. Hence. for example." the participation in an ongoing "conversation" and debate. geographical or historical space. Terms can be related only in intellectual space. In Richard Rorty's terminology. in a Dictionary that cannot. we have chosen "solidarity. experiences and ideas. 1 could continue in this vein and persist in using the proposed Dictionary as an emblem for our endeavor. and it is this relationship that our Dictionary will have to explore and evaluate. The establishment of permanent Sections of the Academy. that our collective work is "naturally"1 divided by geographic Downloaded from http://jaar. connections will have to be forged by the scholars' work. That is to say. alongside of maintaining the fiction. this means that the Dictionary of Religion will have to break with the archaic (though still puzzlingly prevalent) notion that words name things. I could. a professional society. constructing our Annual Meeting's Program Book in a manner analogous to the Dictionary. Their relations will be metaphoric and paradigmatic. . words refer to other words.
Eschewing past bold talk of the sui generis. if pressed. but are rarely the objects of." preferring. we seem to prefer the notion that it is indefinable. .OUP on April 15.' but have used it more to support a highly generalized notion of homo symbolicus rather than any hard-edged structuralist or semiotic theory. |!) Chairmen of the Sections. our corporate discourse about religion. we might attempt a similar system of cross-references for each presentation.org/ at Referral based access control for AAR . A conservative count shows that some thirty-two papers in twenty-three sections directly address important aspects of this topic. making it possible to read the program both serially and horizontally. I could turn to the results of an informal analysis of the programs of the past ten Annual Meetings and of the contents of JAAR for the same period in an attempt to expose the set of tacit understandings which inform. history and social formation. provide leadership for groups naturally taking shape within the Academy along disciplinary. much of our speech appears to intend to claim that there is a religious 'aspect. the other. a strong commitment to particularity. we have no discemable concern with the theory of translation. increasingly. While we are persistently concerned with the ethics of intercultural translation. .:200. a sense of responsibility to the specificity and integrity of our diverse objects of study. We seem. Such a retrospective cross-referencing is one way of tracing connections as well as fulfilling the intentions of the founders of the AAR. Thirteen of them are clustered in four sections.' or 'dimension' to some subject or area of human experience and expression which has nonreligious dimensions as well. We have. who. to see religion as something deeply embedded in human culture. While notions of transcendence hover in the background. believing that "specialists in religion particularly require breadth" (Beck. the 'religious' most frequently appears to be conceived as a sort of 'extraplus' (the "most integrative" is quite common). All of this is congruent with two deeply held positions: the one. 1965:4). increasingly disinterested in talk of "religion in essence and manifestation.Smith: Connections areas. three of which have the misfortune to be scheduled to meet at the same time later this afternoon.' 'perspective. . Or. taken note of the 'linguistic turn.' 'approach. as a group.' Indeed." (emphasis added) . a Downloaded from http://jaar. 2012 devoted to specific fields. disciplines or subjects within the study of religion [is intended] to strengthen the Academy's role as such a meeting place. To take up only one topos that it is my lot to be engaged with at this meeting: Sacrifice. Religion and Violence. rather.lines. et al. Holbrook: 103-4) argued that the new Academy "must establish generalizing as well as specializing resources" (anon. chronological periods or religious traditions.oxfordjournals. but we have no apparent interest in defining 'religion.
to put the question another way. not processes of proof. while our subject matter. however. survey research. and hope to gain your assent to the correspondence of my ethnography. but not Weber and never Marx. and no longer Turner or Mary Douglas. however. in the comparative enterprise. this has neither sundered the field nor led to major revisionary projects as it has. but not Levi-Strauss. in our several sections. The nineteenth century models of the research university (under which we still largely operate) owe much to the sort of organizational thinking epitomized in Adam Downloaded from http://jaar.oxfordjournals. Geertz still looms large. the question of the relationship or priority of the insider and outsider has been much discussed—but.Journal of the American Academy of Religion strong reluctance to engage with theory.OUP on April 15. . Both of these positions have led to a surprising lack of interest. 2012 . which has available to it. but. Favored figures come and go.org/ at Referral based access control for AAR . for example. a common-sense posture of respect for pluralism prevails. it is often without an articulated claim of privilege. have been cheerfully abandoned to the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion. it must be asked whether the question of unity and coherence is an appropriate one to ask of a professional society that participates (regardless of the actual location of individual members) fully in the ethos of the modern research university. Our disinclination towards theory. In general. Tillich remains the unacknowledged theoretician of our entire enterprise. Of late. integration and unification. reasons for raising the question of the appropriateness of impulses towards unity. . While statistically we are still focused on the West. is often characterized by imperialistic impulses towards totalism. rather. given our disciplinary history. we frequently juxtapose materials but almost never explicitly compare them. has not led us to embrace more empirical pursuits. in anthropology. Given what has already been said. Economics of religion. conceived as a sphere of contestation with an uncertain center and blurred boundaries. need the study of religion mirror its subject matter in these respects? There are other. and the like. more general.1 could go on and on. literary criticism has emerged as the most interesting conversation partner. Thus. determinism. it is time to pause in order to revisit and revision Jim Wiggins's original question in a way that will focus less on the matter of religion and more on the nature of the academy. religion. rhetorics of persuasion. . replacing symbolic anthropology and strands of continental philosophy. Durkheim has become interesting. and to which the notion of some clarifying Pentecost can appear only as a nostalgic fantasy? Is not the drive to unity more appropriate (to invoke our professional shorthand of bi-locality once again) to the seminary and its agendum than to the university? Or. rather.
as a "smokestack industry. but rather in the highly mobile world of professional meetings and conferences. made of discrete parts put together in an assemblage. however. movement through space. vertical departmental organization is being permeated by cross-cutting institutes. workshops and the like. In universities across the country. dismantling the departmental structure (which remains a convenience for receiving mail)." and "consultations" often appear to generate more energy and attract Downloaded from http://jaar. each contributing her or his separate (and often idiosyncratic) labor to form a single knowledge product as it moves down the university's assembly line. decentralization and service functions. while the doors between the rooms stay closed" (Higham: 112).. a parallel process has been at work. The sometimes bewildering variety of "groups. in contradistinction to the older linear and hierarchical model. during the past decade. and they have transferred their loyalties accordingly." Durkheim. 2012 ." which extended the notion of the factory to the cosmos. The nineteenth century image of the university as a knowledge factory. anachronisms. Individual scholars. are the regnant models of production. himself a major theoretician for the French educational system. find their most intellectually profitable associations to be no longer within the fixed space of their campus. not the assembly line. Matter can only be understood in terms of motion— i.OUP on April 15.oxfordjournals. are shifting congeries of special interest or single issue groups where. the conviction that: The universe is an assembled reality. asserted the faith of the tum-of-the century academy that the inevitable interdependence of specialized labor resulted in "organic solidarity. (Toffler: 113).SmitkConnections Smith's striking image of the pin factory: the notion of a number of specialists. Within the AAR.org/ at Referral based access control for AAR ." Be this as it may. Extending the image of John Higham." would seem to doom it to be placed in the "rust belt" along with other. in our contemporary situation. This image was reinforced by a widely shared understanding of 'the ways things are' which Alvin Toffler has wittily labeled "indust-reality. the academy looks like "a house in which the inhabitants are leaning out of the many open windows gaily chatting with the neighbors. thereby making its activities more closely akin to play than to work. in both industry and the academy as well as in the civic realm. What appears to have emerged. similar. a parade of events moving down the [assembly] line of time.e. the traditional. without. everyone contributes to the particular task at hand and where the group will probably not outlast the task." "seminars. Events occur in a linear succession. typically. While Marx might argue (correctly) that the result of the industrial model was "alienation.
OUP on April 15. the other in social sciences." Indeed. observation of other professional societies and meetings will show that fragmentation and centrifugal processes are equally ubiquitous. In a very real sense." has begun to imitate the focused and ad hoc character of the former. one in history. in an effort to deparochialize ourselves (itself. . we glance beyond our borders to other professional meetings within the human sciences. he adds. and. with the introduction of "themes. This argument on what is problematic leads one to suspect that these are intellectual issues inherent in the academic enterprise itself and not indigenous to any particular field or subject matter. but he 'gets' hardly anything in most of the neighboring chemistry journals. Fumer).Journal of the American Academy of Religion more interest than the traditional (and industrial) organization by "sections. the misfit. the bull in the china shop. Indeed.8).org/ at Referral based access control for AAR . poaching their stock and purloining their crops and breaking down their hedges. '1 work harder at that task than most of my colleagues. (Perkins:17-18) Downloaded from http://jaar. in fact. it is not a discipline at all. all of which we share: questions of objectivity/subjectivity/advocacy. 2012 ^Compare the description of meetings of the American Historical Association in Novick (580. and controversies concerning the interpretative privilege of the outside/insider.oxfordjournals. the latter. two important histories of professional societies. Item: The editor of a journal in biology says he expects to understand about fifty percent of the articles he publishes.' The editor of a chemistry journal [says he) understands fifty to eighty percent of the articles he chooses to publish. we will swiftly discern that their condition is analogous to ours. n. deals with everything that ever happened in human society. (Booth:2) The unseemly sprawl of the Modern Language Association is notorious. and those of us in religious studies must feel a wry 'shock of recognition' when we hear statements such as these from academic historians: History is the maverick among disciplines.2 If. have been written around these themes (Novick. We will observe the presence of continued debate over a relatively few issues. Since everything has a history and history. one of the leading impulses of the contemporary academy). potentially at least. Item: The American Institute of Biological Sciences is. On the other hand. the historian is a kind of licensed rustler who wanders at will across his scholarly neighbors' fields. a holding company for more than forty distinct research societies that never jointly meet.
it provides us with the possibility of meta-languages which give grounds for the attempt to negotiate across fragmentation in language intelligible to both ourselves and to other intellectual fields of inquiry. . . .Discourse across the discipline had effectively collapsed. Moreover. . or some candidate for paradigm. wider audience.they can't figure themselves out either. historical works of considerable originality and even brilliance appeared every year. Among subcommittees of historians there were higher levels of fruitful interaction and higher critical standards than at any time in the past. . each of these three areas connect the insular work of a particular association with a different.org/ at Referral based access control for AAR . . "Theory killed him dead. things had never been better. . despite the chaos of particular clarities in the wider world of professional associations. there are connections. It is not the possibility of unity that I want to stress today.OUP on April 15. (Novick:592) I do not rehearse these anecdotes (which are but a few from a collection whose name is Legion) in order to comfort us: "See.Smith: Connections or: The bad news [in the 80's] was that the American historical profession was fragmented beyond any hope of unification." most learned societies have found sustained public attention to matters of theory to be both necessary and enlivening. . . For. early fact gathering is restricted to the wealth of data that lie ready to hand. ." Rather. A philosopher of science writes: In the absence of a paradigm. thus strengthening internal coherence as well as connections to the wider academy. One thing the American historical community could not do was sustain a disciplinewide discussion on the meaning of the historical venture as a whole. New fields were being explored in innovative ways. The first of these is theory. The good news was that the fragments were doing very well indeed. . 2012 . but rather the relationship of theory to argument and contestation. all of the facts that could possibly pertain to the development of a given science are likely to seem equally relevant.This is the situation that creates the schools characteristic of Downloaded from http://jaar.At the level of everyday practice.oxfordjournals. What has emerged is at least three areas of common concern and discourse which give them a functional (although surely not a substantive) unity. To the degree that theory is a second-order discourse. . . Despite our apparent assent to the proposition enunciated in one of Rudyard Kipling's Plain Tales.In the absence of a reason for seeking some particular form of more recondite information. I have spent some time since being asked to make this presentation reading through the proceedings of various learned societies and speaking with a number of their officers. I intend them by way of a challenge. .
as significant in that they address our theoretical problems. it must be externally supplied. of reports on whatever happens to be at hand—"and then. Hans Penner's Impasse and Resolution: A Critique of the Study ofReligion (1989). Too many schools of thought are engaged in producing 'illustrations' rather than evidence for assertions of descriptive facts and theoretical interpretations. and its attendant operations (such as comparison) are disciplined exaggerations in the service of knowledge. Contestation arises over competing claims to comprehend the same data. but incongruous within an academy." "and then. therefore. perhaps by a current metaphysic. . . we illicitly use that claim to justify anything we happen to study as being self-evidently significant. 2012 . nor is it guaranteed by something merely being "there. evaluation and criticism. an argument that. . who challenge each other's specific truth claims with cross-validation and critical argument. The parataxis of illustrations. (Kuhn: 15-17) While a leading student of the human sciences observes: Many of the problems of the social sciences are due to the lack of effective 'disputatious' communities of scholars. They provide both the grounds and the means by which we re-vision phenomena as our data. Stunning. [Lacking an internal paradigm].org/ at Referral based access control for AAR ."—without ever forcing confrontation that characterizes so many of our sections results in a comity appropriate to a club.10 Journal of the American Academy of Religion the early stage of a science's development. No natural history can be interpreted in the absence of at least some implicit body of intertwined theoretical and methodological belief that permits selection. But significance is not a matter of peacock-like selfdisplay.oxfordjournals. Our AAR colleagues in theology and biblical studies have demonstrated that disciplined arguments between rival constructions of stipulated. theoretical works continue to be produced by individual members of the AAR— works such as Wayne Proudfoot's Religious Experience (1985)." Theory. can never be settled at the level of data. . or by personal or historical accident. the most important function of theory for an academy such as ours is to force an answer to that most blunt of all questions: "So what?" Too much of what we do (especially in the format of our meetings) may be placed somewhere between show-and-tell and paraphrase. Having persuaded ourselves that. important because it is ultimate). nor. as well as stunningly different. shared data is possible and desirable. religion is ultimately important (or. . It is not that we lack theoretical resources. . and Peter Homan's The Ability to Mourn (1989)—but they are not produced out of the Academy. J. Samuel Preus's Explaining Religion (1987). save Downloaded from http://jaar.OUP on April 15. (Fiske and Schweder:9) That is to say. by another science. whatever else it is.
have.oxfordjournals. have they received sustained critical attention within the Academy. After all. It has been good to see. Library of Congress 1984:138).SmitkConnections 11 for the occasional award or session. a number of harbingers of its return. "LC 351." And. The Education Committee has been revitalized. to questions of theory. but rather under the classification. "Education/ Christian Education/ Education Under Church Control" (Library of Congress 1975:11. our ancestor. . alongside of their research journal." which denotes.org/ at Referral based access control for AAR . interest in the Bible was maintained. most exciting of all.OUP on April 15. Committees and commissions on educational affairs abound. It deals with methods and contents of courses of study. In the past. and the application of religion to character building. JAAR has published on pedagogy and religious studies in secondary schools. The second element is education. in recent years. a second journal or newsletter wholly devoted to teaching. The Section on the Academic Study of Religion is more focused. . in both the natural and the human sciences. This is in deference to our organizational history. from grade school textbooks to advanced certification. the National Association of Bible Instructors. while pedagogy was largely left behind. I am sensible of a considerable irony in commending this topic to you. In some. JAAR is not classified by the Library of Congress along with other general publications in its field. The inaugural issue of the Critical Review of Books in Religion concentrated on textbook review. distinguished itself from the Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis on the grounds that the: SBL has for its primary object technical and creative research. Attention to discourse on education. and they have frequently been the source of proposals and the site of controversies that have engaged the attention and energy of the entire profession. since our Boston meeting three years ago. because their subject matter is taught in secondary. collegiate and graduate schooling. in the Association of American Colleges' inquiry into "study in depth. . to it fall matters relating to pedagogy and education. there is a wide range to their concerns. as one of a dozen learned societies. (Peritz:29) When the Association was reconfigured as the AAR. JAAR is not to be found in "BL" alongside other broadly based journals in religious studies. method and practice is a central matter of persistent concern in most professional associations. unique among learned society publications. Many learned societies. The AAR is participating. presidential addresses routinely focus on some aspect of eduction. Downloaded from http://jaar. the priority of research was newly affirmed (see Holbrook). 2012 . For many associations.NABI has a mission of its own.
the first commandment in the Hebrew Bible. 2012 . on Rushdie. It is outrageous to me that. It is distressing to me that this year we have agonized as a nation over questions of desecration. any role as an informing agent concerning this cluster of controversial issues to adjacent professional societies. culminating in this year's general session. This is commonplace in other professional associations. sacrilege and blasphemy (in literature. brings its particular resources and viewpoints to bear on matters of public policy and concern within the wider civic realm. But. Beyond the claims of professional responsibility. Limited by rigid temporal constraints. in art. The third element is public discourse.12 Journal of the American Academy of Religion there has been increased attention to the study of religion in the public schools. Supreme Court continues to apply an inadequate and outmoded eighteenth century philosophe 's definition of religion as coercive dogma to recklessly categorize this or that symbol or activity as Downloaded from http://jaar. in circulating to the membership a letter concerning the Helms' amendment.oxfordjournals. to. in the continual (and sometimes fierce) debates over the "knowledge most worth having. when moved to the center of a professional society's concerns. is a prime mode of fashioning connections. acting. where the academic society." As it joins these issues collectively. should have conceded. this summer.S. "Be fruitful and multiply"). we need to do more. during this meeting. in even the most aggressively secular field. we have been silent as the U. and with respect to public symbols such as the flag) without the benefit of substantial input from the one field of study professionally charged with expertise in such matters. a field begins to define its core and forge its canon. educational discourse and debate. by its conspicuous silence. which might be said to 'own' the question of canon formation. properly. and Martin Marty's continued efforts better to relate the AAR to the Press. there is no other appropriate public forum for this process than the AAR. and which has been deeply involved in teaching and studying both the western classics and the cultural creations of 'other' folk for longer than any other field within the contemporary academy.OUP on April 15. in this area our expertise is best exhibited in the making of hard choices.org/ at Referral based access control for AAR . Jorunn Buckley's organization of a general session. and we need to do it as a corporate body. Within religious studies. It is fantastic to me that our field. the rule of parsimony remains regnant with regard to curricula. and I applaud Jim Wiggins's initiative. While the rule of proliferation seems to govern the research activities and intellectual interests of any group of scholars (an obedience. as a special interest group. as an Academy of Religion.
Connections.J. in a way that.Smith:Connections 13 being 'religious' or 'secular. 1964 Booth. P. D. "Report of the NABI Self-Study Committee. 1968.' However. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.W. San Francisco: Harper & Row. D.. 2012 REFERENCES Achtemeier. and R.oxfordjournals. Harvard University Press.A.1:2-6. aims. Boston: Little." Journal ofBible and Religion 33:3-4. "The Idea of a University as Seen by a Rhetorician. Schweder 1988 Harper's Bible Dictionary. W. Brown. 1985 Anonymous 1965 Anonymous 1968 Beck. it is clear that before we talk to and with the public.. MA: . that we demonstrate. 1986 Burke. I conclude this attempt to sketch a possible view of our connections with the hope (not limited to the surreal location of this year's convention) that our Annual Meetings continue as well to express (carnivallike) not only the seriousness of our enterprise but also the "collective effervescence" of our engaging it together. in the wonderful phrase of Peter Homans (writing on Freud and Weber) that religion can be "an object for the enjoyment of theoretical curiosity" (Homans:339)." University of Chicago Record 23. et al. "Editorial Preface.org/ at Referral based access control for AAR . J."Journal of Bible and Religion 32:200-201. October 17-20. 1988 Bruner. 1978 Fiske. Metatheory in Social Science: Pluralism and Subjectivism. Program of the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Religion. J. Downloaded from http://jaar. shunning univocality. Possible Worlds. nevertheless. we need* at our Annual Meetings.OUP on April 15. to practice speaking and arguing with each other about such matters. Actual Minds. again. at displaying and clarifying informed choices. Cambridge.
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West. $12..95. R. . New York: Morrow. Politics.W.S.org/ at Referral based access control for AAR . Rajchman and C. and History in U.S. pages 3-19.OUP on April 15.S. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-687-09655-3 Christianity and the Superpowers Religion. .95. which may call toll free 1-800-251-3320. Hodgson This book reconstructs a theology of history in light of the challenges of postmodernism. The Third Wave.1:16. . Ed.S. 1980 "The Word of God. $19. "Very important.95. 1933 Rorty. and creative. Editor Essays exploring the relationship between theology and science. Individual customers call toll free 1-800-672-1789 .oxfordjournals." In Post-Analytic Philosophy.U.Soviet relations along with a theological and ethical framework for their reconciliation. Corbett Primary readings on the theme of the origin of human beings' ideas about God." Journal of Bible and Religion 1. ISBN 0-687-07694-3 $21.95. 1985 Toffler. Relations by Alan Geyer Provides a comprehensive overview of U." —Langdon Gilkey The Univeisity of Chicago Cosmos as Creation Science and Theology in Consonance Ted Peters. paper. learned. 2012 Abinqdon Presj Illuminating the relationship between history and theology Through a Glass Darkly Readings on the Concept of God Edited by Julia M. ISBN 0-687-41894-1 God in History Shapes of Freedom by Peter C. C. "Solidarity or Objectivity. hardcover.SmitkConnections 15 Quimby. ISBN 0-687-14968-1 Order from your bookstore. A.A major addition.R. by J. paper. $10. paper. Downloaded from http://jaar.
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