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Name: ............................ Subject: Agricultural Science Teachers name: ..................... Form: .........................

(I) Introduction

Name of project: The Production of Tomatoes Location: ST Clair Dacon Secondary School Duration: 10-14weeks Description of activities Sketch layout of activities

Drain 35cm 60cm walk way Drain

Walk way

Description: clearing of the land was done. Lines were set from one end to another.
The construction of drains and bed were done, at a length of 38ft and and a width of 5ft. Fertilizer (NPK) was in corporated into the soil. The bed was watered and holes were dug about 1 inch deep and 38 cm between plants and 60cm between rows. Seedlings were transplanted from the seed trays to the holes which was covered with soil and watered.

Materials: Lines, seed, Fertilizer (NPK), Insecticides (Diazioan) and weed control (Gramoxone).

Equipment: cutlass, hoe, wheel borrow, hand scoop ,watering cans ,stick and hand fork

Week one (1): Land Preparation of beds Date: 15/01/09 Clearing, ploughing and construction of drains

Week two (2): Construction of drains and bed Date: 20/01/09

Week three (3): Seedlings transplanted. Date: 20/01/09 How: Removed plants from tray, dug holes, placed plants in the holes and applied pesticide (Diazioan)

Week four (4): watered seedlings Date: 29/01/09 12/05/09 (Daily activity)

Week five (5) Application of Fertilizer to the planting seed Date: 03/02/09

Week six (6): Daily observation Date: 19/02/09

Week seven (7) Weed bed, Pruning and Staking pruning: 25/02/09 and 11/03/09 Staking: 28/02/09and 10/03/09 Weeding: 28/02/09, 10/03/09 and 20/04/09 Week eight (8) Application of Fertilizer to the planting Date:25/04/09

Week nine (9)weeding and watering Date:30/04/09

Week ten (10)water Date:05/04/09

Week eleven (11) Harvesting and Marketing Date:08 /04/09

Land Preparation The location where land preparations were to be situated was very bushy. A cutlass was used to clear the high grass. The grass was taken away in a wheel burrow and was disposed of .The rake was used to get rid of roots left behind by plants. The soil was then softened with a fork; the soil was very turgid. A hoe was used to form the bed and construct a drainage path for water during torrential rainfall to help prevent erosion.

Transplanted tomato seedlings. The tomato seedlings were in a tray containing many plants, but before they could be planted in the bed, the bed was to be properly prepared meaning; it was soaked with water from watering cans and ploughed to specification. A hand scoop was used to dig five (5) holes for the seedlings to be placed in, measured one hand fork or scoop apart. One tomato seedling was placed in each hole with soil covering its roots. After transplanting the plants were sprayed with an insecticide called malathion which was mixed with water in watering cans to prevent pest and insects from destroying the young seedlings.

A picture showing a tomato seedling in a tray

NB: The number of tomato seedlings to be planted on the bed was planted according to the size of the bed which was measured by using hand forks.

Watering tomato plants This was a daily activity which was very important. It was so important that it had to be done every day except on rainy days. Water was taken to the field via watering cans which were filled from a nearby tap. When watering the plants, the cans were to be a certain height level from the plant to prevent the plant from being damaged. When the soil seemed soaked a stick was used to turn the soil (plough) so that the water can pass though the soil. NB: most tomatoes from other beds died as a result of water logging where by too much water was given to the plant.

Daily Observations This was done from the day of transplanting until the day of harvesting, monitoring the plant for an update on their conditions meaning noticing if the plant is suffering from any disease, making note of changes happening to the plant, when certain processes were to be taken place e.g. pruning, and make records of stolen produce. NB: observations were not done on weekends.

Application of Fertilizer This activity was to apply fertilizer (NPK) to the tomato plants. The band application method was done in applying fertilizer to the tomato plants.

Weed bed, pruning and staking Weeding was done due to the extensive amount of grass growing upon the bed throughout the past weeks. This was done manically by the use of hands and sometimes a hand fork to prevent the bed from being overcrowded with weeds. After this was done the tomato plants were pruned, meaning the tomato suckers, or side shoots, that appears in the crotch between the stem and a branch were removed. If left to grow, they will become another main stem with branches, flowers, fruit and more suckers of their own.

Harvesting and Marketing Harvesting was done in preparations for marketing. Most of the tomatoes in the field were ripe. The ripe and half ripe tomatoes were picked by the stalk, washed and bagged then were taken away in boxes for sale.
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(ii) Complete budget


Crop

Projected income

No of plants

Tomato

15

No of Fruits Per lb 75

Unit Cost

Total Cost

$4.00 per lb

$300.00

Projected Expenditure Item Seed Fertilizer(NPK) Insecticides (Malathion) Water Labour Bags Transportation Herbicide (Gramoxine) Total Quantity 25 18lbs tsp 20 g 2 days lb 3 trips tsp Unit Cost $0.10c $3.00 $5.00 $10.00 $10.00 $12.00 $15.00 $10.00 Total $22.50 $54.00 $2.50 $10.00 $20.00 $3.00 $45.00 $5.00 $162.00

Projected income: $300.00 Projected expenditure: $162.00 Projected surplus PI PE =$138(surplus)

(iii) Actual income and expenditure

Actual income
Crop No of plants No of Fruits Per lb 80 Unit Cost Total Cost

Tomato

18

$5.00 per lb

$400.00

Actual expenditure
Item Seed Fertilizer(NPK) Insecticides (Malathion) Water Labour Bags Transportation Herbicide (Gramoxine) Total Quantity 25 18lbs tsp 20 g 2 days lb 3 trips tsp Unit Cost $0.80c $2.50 $21.00 $10.00 $10.00 $10.00 $15.00 $48.00 Total $2.50 $20.00 $3.72 $10.00 $20.00 $10.00 $45.00 $3.57 $114.57

Actual income: $400.00 Actual expenditure: =$114.57 Actual surplus AI AE = $285.43

(iv) Analysis
1. Projected income was $300 and the actual income was $400 by $100

2. Actual expenditure was less then the projected expenditure by $ 47.43 3. Projected surplus was less than the Actual surplus by $52.57

General Comments Two major problems were encountered throughout this project, that of spoilage of the tomato fruits and theft of these fruits by individuals. Conclusion The project was a successful one due to the amount of fruits produced and the profit made.

Recommendations The area should be fenced to prevent the entrance of thieves. Fertilizer(NPK) application must be done frequently for the plants to grow Seedlings need to be transplanted in favorable weather conditions Insecticides(Diazinon) should be applied more frequently to protect the plants from insects and pests.

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