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MEC 1405 Thermodynamics 1 Experiment 1

28th February 2012

Comparison of the energy required for bringing water to a boil: Electric vs Gas. Aim: To investigate the difference of the energy required for bringing water to boil. Apparatus: Electric kettle equipped with electrical power meter, beaker, thermometer, kettle, gas stove, gas cylinder, stopwatch, electronic scales and beaker. Method: 1. The electric kettle was filled with 0.6 litre of water and the temperature of the water was recorded. The kettle was switched on and the time taken for the water to boil was recorded. The power consumption for the kettle was also noted. 2. The kettle was filled with 0.6 litre of water and the temperature of water was measured. The weight of the gas cylinder was recorded before the gas stove was lit. The kettle was placed on the large burner and after it comes to a boil the weight of the gas cylinder was recorded. 3. The procedure above was repeated for the medium burner of the gas stove. 4. The experiments mentioned above was repeated for 0.9 litre of water. Sources of error: 1. The error due to different heat losses since two types of kettles with different heat capacities were used. 2. The inaccuracy in the measurement of the weight of the gas cylinder of 0.002Kg, this is quite inaccurate since the smallest reading was 0.008Kg 3. The inaccuracy in the measurement of the temperature of 0.1oC, this level of accuracy was sufficient. 4. The inaccuracy in the measurement of the time due to human reaction time. 5. The thermocouple might have not been calibrated properly as temperature readings never reached boiling point, thus introducing a time error in the first reading due to the uncertainty of maximum temperature reading. Precautions: 1. Lagging is used to prevent heat losses in the electric kettle 2. The thermocouple was kept in the middle of the water level to measure the temperature of the water not the that of the base of the kettle or the heater.

3. The LPG burner was given some time so the weight on the scale would be stable and not changing between values, this also ensured steady state conditions, i.e. steady power. Results: 1. Electric kettle filled with 0.6litre of water Initial Power/W 1940 Final Power/W 1940 Initial Final Time /s temperature/oC temperature/oC 15.7 98 149

2. Kettle with 0.6litre of water on large burner Initial Final Initial weight temperature/oC temperature/oC of gas/Kg 14.8 98.0 23.190 3. Kettle with 0.6litre of water on medium burner Initial Final Initial weight oC temperature/oC of gas/Kg temperature/ 16.1 98.0 23.176 4. Electric kettle with 0.9litre of water Initial Power/W 1940 Finale Power/W 1940 Initial Final Time /s temperature/oC temperature/oC 17.7 98.1 188 Final weight of gas/Kg 23.168 Time/s 380 Final weight of gas/Kg 23.180 Time/s 245

6. Kettle with 0.9litre of water on large burner Initial Final Initial weight oC temperature/oC of gas/Kg temperature/ 17.0 98.0 23.166 7. Kettle with 0.9litre of water on medium burner Initial Final Initial weight temperature/oC temperature/oC of gas/Kg 17.3 98.0 23.152 Calculations: 1. Electric kettle filled with 0.6litre of water Final weight of gas/Kg 23.138 Time /s 449 Final weight of gas/Kg 23.154 Time /s 342

2. Kettle with 0.6litre of water on large burner

3. Kettle with 0.6litre of water on medium burner

4. Electric kettle with 0.9litre of water

5. Kettle with 0.9litre of water on large burner

6. Kettle with 0.9litre of water on medium burner

To calculate fuel energy required

1. Electric kettle filled with 0.6litre of water

2. Electric kettle filled with 0.9litre of water

To calculate the power of gas burners

1. Kettle with 0.6litre of water on large burner

2. Kettle with 0.6litre of water on medium burner

3. Kettle with 0.9litre of water on large burner

4. Kettle with 0.9litre of water on medium burner

Conclusion: The following graph was plotted using the values obtained above. Note the difference in the gradient (equating to the power) of graphs even though they were heated with the same