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1.

Introduction
Objective- Study, optimization and design of small scale wind generator for college campus. About Project- We have selected a suitable type of wind turbine, studied and selected the aerofoil section, calculated the power output for wind energy available in college campus and designed various components linked with it.

Wind turbine design is the process of defining the form and specifications of a
wind turbine to extract energy from the wind. A wind turbine installation consists of the necessary systems needed to capture the wind's energy, point the turbine into the wind, convert mechanical rotation into electrical power, and other systems to start, stop, and control the turbine.

2. Wind Energy in World & India


From an emerging fuel source twenty years ago, three factors have turned wind energy into a mature and booming global business:

There is growing global demand for emissions-free wind power, which can be installed quickly, virtually everywhere in the world. Generation costs have fallen dramatically over the last 15 years; moving closer to the cost of conventional energy sources. Modern wind turbines have improved dramatically in their power rating, efficiency and reliability.

More importantly, wind energy is the only power generation technology that can deliver the necessary cuts in CO2 in the critical period up to 2020, when greenhouse gases must peak and begin to decline, to avoid dangerous climate change. The 120.8 GW of global wind capacity will produce 260 TWh and save 158 million tons of CO2 every year.
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Over the past decade, global wind power capacity has continued to grow at an average cumulative rate of over 30%. The United States passed Germany to become the number one market in wind power, and China's total capacity doubled for the fourth year in a row. Three key regions are continuing to drive global wind development: North America, Europe and Asia, with the lion's share of 2011's new installations evenly distributed between them. Wind energy has grown into an important player in the world's energy markets, with the 2011 market for turbine installations worth about 66.8 billion. This market is likely to be worth 111.7 billion by 2015. The industry today employs over 400,000 people, and that number is expected to be in the millions in the near future.

3. Wind Energy availability in India


Total Installed Capacity: 173626.40 MW Energy Shortage: 8.5% Growth in Demand: 3.7% Proposed Capacity Additions: 62,3700 MW by 2012 The states with highest wind power concentration are Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh. Growing concern for the environmental degradation has led to the world's interest in renewable energy resources. Wind is commercially and operationally the most
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viable renewable energy resource and accordingly, emerging as one of the largest source in terms of the renewable energy sector. Today the Indian market is emerging as one of the major manufacturing hubs for wind turbines in Asia. Currently, seventeen manufacturers have an annual production capacity of 7,500 MW. According to the World Institute for Sustainable Energy (WISE), the annual wind turbine manufacturing capacity in India is likely to exceed 17,000 MW by 2013. Wind energy will witness abundant opportunities in the developing economies such as India, where the power supply situation and infrastructure development efforts provide a huge market for active investment.

4. Why Wind Turbines?


Since the 1980s, when the first commercial wind turbines were deployed, their installed capacity, efficiency and visual design have all improved enormously. Although many different pathways towards the ideal turbine design have been explored, significant consolidation has taken place over the past decade. The vast majority of commercial turbines now operate on a horizontal axis with three evenly spaced blades. These are attached to a rotor from which power is transferred through a gearbox to a generator. The gearbox and generator are contained within a housing called a nacelle. Some turbine designs avoid a gearbox by using direct drive. The electricity is then transmitted down the tower to a transformer and eventually into the grid network. Wind turbines can operate across a wide range of wind speeds - from 3-4 meters per second up to about 25 m/s, which translates into 90 km/h (56 mph). The majority of current turbine models make best use of the constant variations in the wind by changing the angle of the blades through 'pitch control', by turning or yawing the entire rotor as wind direction shifts and by operating at variable speed.
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Operation at variable speed enables the turbine to adapt to varying wind speeds and increases its ability to harmonies with the operation of the electricity grid. Sophisticated control systems enable fine tuning of the turbines performance and electricity output. Modern wind technology is able to operate effectively at a wide range of sites with low and high wind speeds, in the desert and in freezing arctic climates. Clusters of turbines collected into wind farms operate with high availability, are generally well integrated with the environment and accepted by the public. Using lightweight materials to reduce their bulk, modern turbine designs are sleek, streamlined and elegant. The main design drivers for current wind technology are: reliability grid compatibility acoustic performance (noise reduction) maximum efficiency and aerodynamic performance high productivity for low wind speeds offshore expansion Wind turbines have also grown larger and taller. The generators in the largest modern turbines are 100 times the size of those in 1980. Over the same period, their rotor diameters have increased eight-fold. The average capacity of turbines installed around the world during 2007 was 1,492 kW, whilst the largest turbine currently in operation is the Enercon E126, with a rotor diameter of 126 meters and a power capacity of 6 MW. Ongoing innovations in turbine design include the use of different combinations of composite materials to manufacture blades, especially to ensure that their weight is kept to a minimum, variations in the drive train system to reduce loads and increase reliability, and improved control systems, partly to ensure better compatibility with the grid network.

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5. Wind Turbine Parts


5.1 Rotor
All large wind turbines have three blades fixed to the main shaft. Together these blades are called the rotor. The wind turbine rotor includes the hub and propellerlike blades that turn as the wind blows. Most turbine designs feature three aerodynamically designed blades made of fiberglass and plastic. When the wind blows, the blades lift, rotate and turn the rotor, which creates mechanical energy. A small rotor with a big generator will not generate the full power, while a small generator with a big rotor will generate full power at low winds, But the large rotor will require a strong tower and require better control in high winds, the generator will also need to run at lower RPM. A rotor consisting of blades with aerodynamic surfaces. When the wind blows over the blades, the rotor turns, causing the generator or alternator in the turbine to rotate and produce electricity. The length of the blades varies a lot with each wind turbine. On a wind turbine like this one a blade is 25-27 metres long. However, on the biggest wind turbines they can reach 39 metres. That is as tall as a 13-story building! The rotor is the component which, with the help of the rotor blades, converts the energy in the wind into rotary mechanical movement. Currently, the three-blade, horizontal axis rotor dominates. The rotor blades are mainly made of glass-fibre or carbon-fibre reinforced plastics (GRP, CFRP). The blade profile is similar to that of an aeroplane wing. They use the same principle of lift: on the lower side of the wing the passing air generates higher pressure, while the upper side generates a pull. These forces cause the rotor to move forwards, i.e. to rotate.

5.2 Gearbox
A gearbox, which matches the rotor speed to that of the generator/alternator. In some wind turbine designs, the rotor turns about two dozen revolutions per minute. However, the generator needs to turn much faster to produce electricity. The turbine gearbox converts the mechanical energy created by the spinning rotor into a speed fast enough to power the turbine generator. With a gearbox we convert between slowly rotating, high torque power which we get from the wind turbine rotor - and high speed, low torque power, which you use for the generator.The
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gearbox in a wind turbine does not "change gears". It normally has a single gear ratio between the rotation of the rotor and the generator. Gears connect the lowspeed shaft coming from the Rotor to the high-speed shaft and increase the rotational speeds from about 30 to 60 rotations per minute (rpm) to about 1000 to 1800 rpm, the rotational speed required by most generators to produce electricity. For a 600 or 750 kW machine, the gear ratio is typically approximately 1 to 50.

5.3 Generator
A wind turbine generator converts electricity from the mechanical energy created when the rotor spins. The electricity is then carried through cables inside the turbine tower and fed into a utility power grid. Wind turbine generators are a bit unusual, compared to other generating units you ordinarily find attached to the electrical grid. One reason is that the generator has to work with a power source (the wind turbine rotor) which supplies very fluctuating mechanical power (torque). At its most basic, a generator is a pretty simple device. It uses the properties of electromagnetic induction to produce electrical voltage - a difference in electrical charge. Voltage is essentially electrical pressure - it is the force that moves electricity, or electrical current, from one point to another. So generating voltage is in effect generating current. A simple generator consists of magnets and a conductor. The conductor is typically a coiled wire. Inside the generator, the shaft connects to an assembly of permanent magnets that surrounds the coil of wire. In electromagnetic induction, if you have a conductor surrounded by magnets, and one of those parts is rotating relative to the other, it induces voltage in the conductor. When the rotor spins the shaft, the shaft spins the assembly of magnets, generating voltage in the coil of wire. That voltage drives electrical current (typically alternating current, or AC power) out through power lines for distribution. For large, commercial size horizontal-axis wind turbines, the generator is mounted in a nacelle at the top of a tower, behind the hub of the turbine rotor. Typically wind turbines generate electricity through asynchronous machines that are directly connected with the electricity grid. Usually the rotational speed of the wind turbine is slower than the equivalent rotation speed of the electrical network - typical rotation speeds for a wind generators are 5-20 rpm
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while a directly connected machine will have an electrical speed between 750-3600 rpm.

5.4 Nacelle
The turbine nacelle houses the controller, gearbox, generator and other turbine components used to convert wind into energy. A nacelle, which protects the gearbox, generator and other components of the turbine from the elements. The nacelle contains the key components of the wind turbine, including the gearbox, and the electrical generator. Service personnel may enter the nacelle from the tower of the turbine. To the left of the nacelle we have the wind turbine rotor, i.e. the rotor blades and the hub. The nacelle sits on top of the tower and contains main technical parts of the wind turbine. Usually made of fiberglass, the nacelle contains the low- and high-speed shafts, the gearbox, the brake and the generator. It also contains the blade pitch control, a hydraulic system that controls the angle of the blades, and the yaw drive, which controls the position of the turbine relative to the wind.

5.5 Tower
The tower construction doesnt just carry the weight of the nacelle and the rotor blades, but must also absorb the huge static loads caused by the varying power of the wind. Generally, a tubular construction of concrete or steel is used. The nacelle often weighs several hundred tonnes and there is also stress from the rotor blades and the force from the wind. A wind turbine generator tower, constituting 15 - 20 % of the costs, plays a substantial role in the economic feasibility of a project. However, higher towers also increase the returns the height of the tower or hub height is a vital factor in the energy yield.As a rule, which height is suitable for a wind turbine generator (WTG), depends on several factors (e.g. costs) and must be decided individually for each location. The tower supports the rotor and positions it high enough into the sky to capture wind flow. The taller the wind turbine tower, the more access the turbine rotor will have to the faster and steadier wind flows present at higher altitudes. The tower of the wind turbine carries the nacelle and the rotor. Towers for large wind turbines may be either tubular steel towers, lattice towers, or concrete towers.
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Guyed tubular towers are only used for small wind turbines (battery chargers etc.) Most large wind turbines are delivered with tubular steel towers, which are manufactured in sections of 20-30 meters with flanges at either end, and bolted together on the site. The towers are conical (i.e. with their diameter increasing towards the base) in order to increase their strength and to save materials at the same time. Lattice towers are manufactured using welded steel profiles. Many small wind turbines are built with narrow pole towers supported by guy wires. The advantage is weight savings, and thus cost. The disadvantages are difficult access around the towers which make them less suitable in farm areas.

Types of towers
The following types of towers are available. However concrete and steel towers are much more common than steel lattice towers: Steel towers usually consist of two to four segments. Concrete towers with climbing formwork are constructed on site and make transport and fitting easier (called in-situ concrete.) But great care must be taken at significant heights and in winter. Pre-cast concrete towers. Here the segments are placed on top of one another on site and braced with steel cables in the wall. Steel lattice towers are very common in India, but can also be found in other countries, like in the USA (western mills) and in Germany. Hybrid towers consist of components of the above-mentioned types of tower. Guyed poles are very common in small wind generators, as on the one hand they are light and on the other can be set up without a crane. Higher towers over 80 m usually have a car or a lift on the inside of the tower to facilitate the ascent.

5.6 Blades
The rotor blades capture the wind and transfer its power to the rotor hub. Rotor blades are a crucial and elementary part of a wind turbine. Various demands are placed on them, and they must withstand very great loads. Rotor blades take the energy out of the wind. They "capture" the wind and convert its motive energy into the rotation of the hub. The profile is similar to that of airplane wings. Rotor blades utilize the same "lift" principle: below the wing, the stream of air produces overpressure; above the wing, a vacuum. These forces make the rotor rotate.
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Today, most rotors have three blades, a horizontal axis, and a diameter of between 40 and 90 meters. In addition to the currently popular three-blade rotor, two-blade rotors also used to be common in addition to rotors with many blades, such as the traditional windmills with 20 to 30 metal blades that pump water in the United States. Over time, it was found that the three-blade rotor is the most efficient for power generation by large wind turbines. In addition, the use of three rotor blades allows for a better distribution of mass, which makes rotation smoother and also provides for a "calmer" appearance. The rotor blades mainly consist of synthetics reinforced with fiberglass and carbon fibres. The layers are usually glued together with epoxy resin. Wood, wood epoxy and wood-fibre-epoxy compounds are less widely used. One of the main benefits of wooden rotor blades is that they can be recycled. Aluminium and steel alloys are heavier and suffer from material fatigue. These materials are therefore generally only used for very small wind turbines.

5.7 Hub
The hub is the centre of the rotor to which the rotor blades are attached. Cast iron or cast steel is used. The hub directs the energy from the rotor blades on to the generator. If the wind turbines have a gearbox, the hub is connected to the slowly rotating gearbox shaft, converting the energy from the wind into rotation energy. If the turbine has a direct drive, the hub passes the energy directly on to the ring generator. The rotor blade can be attached to the hub in various ways: either in a fixed position, with articulation, or as a pendulum. The latter is a special version of the two-blade rotor, which swings as a pendulum anchored to the hub. Most manufacturers currently use a fixed hub. It has proved to be sturdy, reduces the number of movable components that can fail, and is relatively easy to construct.

5.8 Pitch
Wind turbines are designed to produce electrical energy as cheaply as possible. Wind turbines are therefore generally designed so that they yield maximum output at wind speeds around 15 meters per second. (30 knots or 33 mph). It does not pay to design turbines that maximize their output at stronger winds, because such strong winds are rare. In case of stronger winds it is necessary to waste part of the excess energy of the wind in order to avoid damaging the wind turbine. All wind
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turbines are therefore designed with some sort of power control. There are two different ways of doing this safely on modern wind turbines. On a pitch controlled wind turbine the turbine's electronic controller checks the power output of the turbine several times per second. When the power output becomes too high, it sends an order to the blade pitch mechanism which immediately pitches (turns) the rotor blades slightly out of the wind. Conversely, the blades are turned back into the wind whenever the wind drops again.

5.9 Brakes
The mechanical type of brake is placed on the small fast shaft between the gearbox and the generator. It is only used as an emergency brake, if the blade tip brake should fail. The brake is also used when the wind turbine is being repaired to eliminate any risk of the turbine suddenly starting. A mechanical drum brake or disk brake is used to hold the turbine at rest for maintenance. Such brakes are usually applied only after blade furling and electromagnetic braking have reduced the turbine speed, as the mechanical brakes would wear quickly if used to stop the turbine from full speed. There can also be a stick brake. The brake is mounted inside the nacelle (the square-shaped casing behind the propeller that contains the gearbox and generator). Most turbines have an anemometer on them to measure the wind-speed. If it rises above a safe level, the brakes come on automatically and bring the rotors to a standstill. It's a shame, because higher wind speeds mean more energy could be produced. But safety always comes first!

6. Types of Wind turbine


6.1 Horizontal axis
Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) have the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower, and must be pointed into the wind. Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane, while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor. Most have a gearbox, which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable to drive an electrical generator.
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Since a tower produces turbulence behind it, the turbine is usually positioned upwind of its supporting tower. Turbine blades are made stiff to prevent the blades from being pushed into the tower by high winds. Additionally, the blades are placed a considerable distance in front of the tower and are sometimes tilted forward into the wind a small amount. Turbines used in wind farms for commercial production of electric power are usually three-bladed and pointed into the wind by computer-controlled motors. These have high tip speeds of over 320 kilometres per hour (200 mph), high efficiency, and low torque ripple, which contribute to good reliability. The blades are usually colored light gray to blend in with the clouds and range in length from 20 to 40 metres (66 to 130 ft) or more. The tubular steel towers range from 60 to 90 metres (200 to 300 ft) tall. The blades rotate at 10-22 revolutions per minute. At 22 rotations per minute the tip speed exceeds 90 metres per second (300 ft/s). A gear box is commonly used for stepping up the speed of the generator, although designs may also use direct drive of an annular generator. Some models operate at constant speed, but more energy can be collected by variable-speed turbines which use a solid-state power converter to interface to the transmission system. All turbines are equipped with protective features to avoid damage at high wind speeds, by feathering the blades into the wind which ceases their rotation, supplemented by brakes.

HAWT advantages
The tall tower base allows access to stronger wind in sites with wind shear. In some wind shear sites, every ten meters up the wind speed can increase by 20% and the power output by 34%. High efficiency, since the blades always move perpendicularly to the wind, receiving power through the whole rotation. In contrast, all vertical axis wind turbines, and most proposed airborne wind turbine designs, involve various types of reciprocating actions, requiring airfoil surfaces to backtrack against the wind for part of the cycle. Backtracking against the wind leads to inherently lower efficiency.

HAWT disadvantages
Massive tower construction is required to support the heavy blades, gearbox, and generator.
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Components of a horizontal axis wind turbine (gearbox, rotor shaft and brake assembly) being lifted into position. Their height makes them obtrusively visible across large areas, disrupting the appearance of the landscape and sometimes creating local opposition. Downwind variants suffer from fatigue and structural failure caused by turbulence when a blade passes through the tower's wind shadow (for this reason, the majority of HAWTs use an upwind design, with the rotor facing the wind in front of the tower). HAWTs require an additional yaw control mechanism to turn the blades toward the wind. HAWTs generally require a braking or yawing device in high winds to stop the turbine from spinning and destroying or damaging itself.

6.2 Vertical axis wind turbine


Vertical-axis wind turbines (or VAWTs) have the main rotor shaft arranged vertically. Key advantages of this arrangement are that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective. This is an advantage on sites where the wind direction is highly variable, for example when integrated into buildings. The key disadvantages include the low rotational speed with the consequential higher torque and hence higher cost of the drive train, the inherently lower power coefficient, the 360 degree rotation of the aerofoil within the wind flow during each cycle and hence the highly dynamic loading on the blade, the pulsating torque generated by some rotor designs on the drive train, and the difficulty of modeling the wind flow accurately and hence the challenges of analyzing and designing the rotor prior to fabricating a prototype. With a vertical axis, the generator and gearbox can be placed near the ground, using a direct drive from the rotor assembly to the ground-based gearbox, hence improving accessibility for maintenance. When a turbine is mounted on a rooftop, the building generally redirects wind over the roof and this can double the wind speed at the turbine. If the height of the rooftop mounted turbine tower is approximately 50% of the building height, this is near the optimum for maximum wind energy and minimum wind turbulence. It should be borne in mind that wind speeds within the built environment are generally much lower than at exposed rural sites.

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It is difficult to mount vertical-axis turbines on towers, meaning they are often installed nearer to the base on which they rest, such as the ground or a building rooftop. The wind speed is slower at a lower altitude, so less wind energy is available for a given size turbine. Air flow near the ground and other objects can create turbulent flow, which can introduce issues of vibration, including noise and bearing wear which may increase the maintenance or shorten its service life.

VAWT advantages
No yaw mechanism is needed. A VAWT can be located nearer the ground, making it easier to maintain the moving parts. VAWTs have lower wind start up speeds than the typical the HAWTs. VAWTs may be built at locations where taller structures are prohibited. VAWTs situated close to the ground can take advantage of locations where rooftops, mesas, hilltops, ridgelines, and passes funnel the wind and increase wind velocity.

VAWT disadvantages
Most VAWTs have a average decreased efficiency from a common HAWT, mainly because of the additional drag that they have as their blades rotate into the wind. Versions that reduce drag produce more energy, especially those that funnel wind into the collector area. Having rotors located close to the grounds where wind speeds are lower due and do not take advantage of higher wind speeds above. Because VAWTs are not commonly deployed due mainly to the serious disadvantages mentioned above, they appear novel to those not familiar with the wind industry. This has often made them the subject of wild claims and investment scams over the last 50 years.

6.3 Subtypes
Darrieus wind turbine They have good efficiency, but produce large torque ripple and cyclical stress on the tower, which contributes to poor reliability. They also generally require some external power source, or an additional Savonius rotor to start turning, because the starting torque is very low. The torque ripple is reduced by using three or more
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blades which results in greater solidity of the rotor. Solidity is measured by blade area divided by the rotor area. Newer Darrieus type turbines are not held up by guy-wires but have an external superstructure connected to the top bearing.

Savonius wind turbine


These are drag-type devices with two (or more) scoops that are used in anemometers, Flettner vents (commonly seen on bus and van roofs), and in some high-reliability low-efficiency power turbines. They are always self-starting if there are at least three scoops.

7. Selection of Aerofoil to Design the Blade of a Wind Turbine


An airfoil or aerofoil is the shape of a wing or blade (of a propeller, rotor or turbine) or sail as seen in cross-section. An airfoil-shaped body moved through a fluid produces an aerodynamic force. The component of this force perpendicular to the direction of motion is called lift. The component parallel to the direction of motion is called drag. Subsonic flight airfoils have a characteristic shape with a rounded leading edge, followed by a sharp trailing edge, often with asymmetric camber. Two types of forces exerts on an aerofoil (of different camber angle) when established in stream lined air flow 1. One because of normal pressure force exerted on Projected area when looking by standing from incoming air flow (Frontal area). This force more contributes to increase drag force. 2. Second because of difference of pressure force between upper and lower surfaces because of Bernoullis effect. The direction of resultant force will be perpendicular to the surface, according to Pascals law. This force contributes to the lift force. When selecting an aerofoil section this become very important to know about environmental conditions where we are going to install our wind turbine. Another requirement is to know about, how much maximum consistent power we want to extract from our wind turbine? Now our objective is14 STUDY, OPTIMIZATION AND DESIGN OF WIND GENERATOR FOR COLLEGE CAMPUS

1. To increase maximum coefficient of lift. 2. To reduce maximum coefficient of drag. 3. To widen the range of angle of attack possible before stall condition. Unavailability of testing apparatus like Wind tunnel and Computational fluid Dynamics analysis module, we optimized and selected airfoils by looking after various aerofoil sections already tested and analyzed by National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL (USA). Testing parameters taken by NREL were Reynolds number from 150000 to 700000. Mach number below 0.3. Angle of attack from -4 to 20. NREL's S-Series airfoils come in thin and thick families. Thin airfoil shows more aerodynamic benefits than thick one. The Tip, Primary and Root aerofoil exist at 95%, 75% and 40% of the radius of blade with corresponding thickness of 15% 18% and 21% of the chord. As the data available S835, S833 and S834 aerofoil are suitable to place at positions of Root, Primary and Tip to produce power in range of 2-20 KW with blade length of 1-3 meter.

Description of aerofoil

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7.1 S833 AIRFOIL Pressure DistributionsThe in viscid pressure distributions for the S833 airfoil at various angles of attack are shown in figure 2.

Transition and Separation LocationsThe variation of boundary-layer transition location with lift coefficient for the S833 airfoil is shown in figure 3. In the method of references 19 and 20, the transition location is defined as the end of the laminar boundary layer whether due to natural transition or laminar separation. Transition is normally confirmed in experiments, however, by the detection of an attached turbulent boundary layer. Thus, for conditions that result in relatively long laminar separation bubbles (low lift coefficients for the upper surface, high lift coefficients for the lower surface, and low Reynolds numbers), the apparent agreement between the theoretical and
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experimental transition locations is poor. In actuality, the difference between the predicted and measured transition locations represents the length of the laminar separation bubble (from laminar separation to turbulent reattachment). Accordingly, for conditions that result in shorter laminar separation bubbles (high lift coefficients for the upper surface, low lift coefficients for the lower surface, and high Reynolds numbers). The variation of turbulent boundary-layer separation location with lift coefficient for the S833 airfoil is shown in figure 3. A small, trailing-edge separation is predicted on the upper surface at all lift coefficients. This separation is caused by the separation ramp (fig. 2). Separation is predicted on the lower surface at lift coefficients in the lower half of the operating range for the intended application. Such separation usually has little effect on the section characteristics.

Section Characteristics
1.Reynolds number effects- The section characteristics of the S833 airfoil are
shown in figure 3. The criterion assumes that the maximum lift coefficient has been reached if the drag coefficient of the upper surface is greater than 0.01719(1106/R)1/8, which is based on correlations with results for Reynolds numbers from 0.7 x 106 to 1.5 x 106 from the Pennsylvania State University LowSpeed, Low-Turbulence Wind Tunnel. Thus, the maximum lift coefficient for the design Reynolds number of 0.40 x 106 is estimated to be 1.10, which meets the design objective. Based on the variation of the upper-surface separation location with lift coefficient, the stall characteristics are expected to be docile, which meets the design goal. Low profile-drag coefficients are predicted over the range of lift coefficients from below 0 to 0.86. Thus, the lower limit of the low-drag, liftcoefficient range is below the design objective of coefficient of lift on lower surface= 0.30, although the upper limit of the low-drag range is also below the design objective of coefficient of lift=0.90, primarily to meet other, more important goals. The zero-lift pitching moment coefficient is predicted to be -0.14, which satisfies the design constraint. Because of boundary-layer displacement effects not accounted for in the present analysis, the pitching moment coefficient is generally over predicted by about 20 percent. Therefore, the actual zero-lift pitching-moment coefficient should be about -0.12.
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2.Effect of roughness- The effect of roughness on the section characteristics of


the S833 airfoil is shown in figure 3. The maximum lift coefficient for the design Reynolds number of 0.40 x 106 with transition fixed is estimated to be 1.11, an increase of 1 percent from that with transition free. For the rough condition, the maximum lift coefficient for the design Reynolds number is estimated to be 1.13, an increase of 3 percent from that with transition free. Thus, the design requirement has been satisfied. The effect of roughness on the maximum lift coefficient is nearly constant with Reynolds number. The drag coefficients are, of course, adversely affected by the roughness.

7.2 S834 AIRFOIL


Pressure DistributionsThe inviscid pressure distributions for the S834 airfoil at various angles of attack are shown in figure 4. Transition and Separation LocationsThe variations of transition and separation locations with lift coefficient for the S834 airfoil are shown in figure 5. A small, trailing-edge separation is predicted on the upper surface at all lift coefficients. This separation is caused by the separation ramp (fig. 4). Separation is predicted on the lower surface at lift coefficients below the operating range for the intended application. Such separation usually has little effect on the section characteristics.

Section Characteristics1.Reynolds number effects- The section characteristics of the S834 airfoil are
shown in figure 5. Using the previously described criterion, the maximum lift coefficient for the design Reynolds number of 0.40 x106 is estimated to be 1.00, which meets the design objective. The stall characteristics are expected to be docile, which meets the design goal. Low drag coefficients are predicted over the range of lift coefficients from below 0 to 0.78. Thus, the lower limit of the lowdrag range is below the design objective of coefficient of lift at upper surface = 0.20, although the upper limit is also below the design objective of coefficient of lift at lower surface= 0.80, primarily to meet other, more important goals. The zero-lift pitching-moment coefficient is predicted to be -0.08, which satisfies the
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design constraint. The actual zero-lift pitching-moment coefficient should be about -0.06. 2.Effect of roughness- The effect of roughness on the section characteristics of the S834 airfoil is shown in figure 5. The maximum lift coefficient for the design Reynolds number of 0.40 x 106is unaffected by fixing transition because transition on the upper surface is predicted to occur forward of 2-percent chord at the maximum lift coefficient. For the rough condition, the maximum lift coefficient for the design Reynolds number is estimated to be 1.02, an increase of 2 percent from that with transition free. Thus, the design requirement has been satisfied. The effect of roughness on the maximum lift coefficient is nearly constant with Reynolds number. The drag coefficients are, of course, adversely affected by the roughness.

7.3 S835 AIRFOIL


Pressure DistributionsThe inviscid pressure distributions for the S835 airfoil at various angles of attack are shown in figure 6. Transition and Separation LocationsThe variations of transition and separation locations with lift coefficient for the S835 airfoil are shown in figure 7. A small, trailing-edge separation is predicted on the upper surface at all lift coefficients. This separation is caused by the separation ramp (fig. 6). Separation is predicted on the lower surface at all lift coefficients within the operating range for the intended application. Such separation usually has little effect on the section characteristics.

Section characteristics
1.Reynolds number effects- The section characteristics of the S835 airfoil are
shown in figure 7. Using the previously described criterion, the maximum lift coefficient for the design Reynolds number of 0.25 x 106is estimated to be 1.04, which does not meet the design objective of maximum coefficient of lift = 1.20, primarily because the objective is incompatible with the other requirements, especially the combination of large airfoil thickness and low Reynolds number. The stall characteristics are expected to be docile, which meets the design goal. Low drag coefficients are predicted over the range of lift coefficients from below 0
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to 0.94. Thus, the lower limit of the low-drag range is below the design objective of coefficient of lift at lower surface = 0.40, although the upper limit is also below the design objective of coefficient of lift at upper surface = 1.00, primarily to meet other, more important goals. The zero-lift pitching-moment coefficient is predicted to be -0.14, which satisfies the design constraint. The actual zero-lift pitchingmoment coefficient should be about -0.12.

2.Effect of roughness- The effect of roughness on the section characteristics of


the S835 airfoil is shown in figure 7. The maximum lift coefficient for the design Reynolds number of 0.25 x 106with transitions fixed is estimated to be 1.00, a reduction of 4 percent from that with transition free. For the rough condition , the maximum lift coefficient for the design Reynolds number is estimated to be 1.03, a reduction of 1 percent from that with transition free. Thus, the design requirement has been satisfied. The effect of roughness on the maximum lift coefficient is nearly constant with Reynolds number. The drag coefficients are, of course, adversely affected by the roughness. Trouble in using these aerofoils is, there recommendation to use at high Reynolds number. But in our case Reynolds number is not enough to rotate small wind turbine.

2.1 Low Reynolds number flow effects on an Airfoil


Low Reynolds number corresponds to low relative wind speed over the airfoil. At lower Reynolds numbers, both lift and drag characteristics are different from high Reynolds number flows:

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Figure 2.1: Max section lift coefficient Lift is determined by the pressure distribution around the airfoil. This pressure distribution depends upon the free stream velocity of air around the airfoil. The pressure is related to the velocity distribution as (p+V 2/2 = constant). The velocity distribution around the airfoil is a function of the relative velocity of the airfoil. At low Reynolds number flows, the velocity of the flow around the airfoil is lower than high Reynolds number flow, which decreases lift experienced by the foil. Typical coefficient of lift (CL = L/(_V 2A/2)) variation is shown in 2.1.

Effect on Drag
Drag is created on the airfoil by 2 factors, change of airflow because of the airfoil in the stream, and friction over the surface of the airfoil. Drag coefficient (CD = Fd/1/2_V 2A) increases by orders of

Figure 2.2: Max section drag coefficient magnitude when Reynolds number decreases below 105. The variation of drag coefficient with Reynolds number is shown in 2.2.

21 STUDY, OPTIMIZATION AND DESIGN OF WIND GENERATOR FOR COLLEGE CAMPUS

Aerodynamic Efficiency

Figure 2.3: Aerodynamic efficiency for different Reynolds numbers Aerodynamic efficiency is defined in terms of the lift-to-drag ratio. With decrease in Reynolds number, the non-dimensional lift generated by an airfoil reduces while the non- dimensional drag experienced by the airfoil increases. The combined effort reduces the aerodynamic efficiency drastically. 2.3 shows the aerodynamic efficiency as a function of Reynolds number. It is clear from this figure that airfoil performance deteriorates rapidly as the Reynolds number decreases below 105. In the following chapter, methods to increase aerodynamic performance of airfoils at low Reynolds numbers have been discussed.

Boundary layer and inviscid flow


For the purpose of analysis of air flow around an airfoil, the flow is divided into two regions: an outer region of inviscid flow, and a small flow region near the airfoil where viscous effects dominate [7]. The region near the airfoil contains slow moving air and is known as Boundary Layer. The majority of drag experienced by a body in a fluid is created inside the Boundary Layer. The outer inviscid flow is faster moving air and determines the pressure distribution around the airfoil. The outer flow thus determines the Lift force on the airfoil.

*
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Figure 2.4: Boundary layer

Boundary Layer Separation


A laminar boundary layer starts forming at the nose of the airfoil. After a certain distance along the airfoil, the flow inside the layer transitions to turbulent flow. At high Reynolds numbers, this transition is quick and the turbulent flow inside the layer is able to effectively overcome the adverse pressure gradient downstream of the minimum pressure. However, for low Reynolds number flows, the boundary layer on an airfoil often remains laminar in the adverse pressure gradient region. When the boundary layer travels far enough against the adverse pressure gradient, the speed of the boundary layer falls almost to zero. This detaches the flow from the surface of the airfoil and takes the form of eddies and vortices. The detachment of the flow from the surface is called Boundary Layer Separation. This often results in increased drag, particularly pressure drag, which is caused by pressure difference between the front and rear surfaces of the airfoil.

(a) Boundary layer separation Figure 2.5: Boundary layer separation

(b) Eddies and Vortices

Boundary Layer Control


Flow control through boundary layer manipulation to prevent or postpone separation can significantly reduce the high drag effects of boundary layer at low Reynolds number flow [9, 10]. A variety of methods can be deployed to control the boundary layer:

Surface Suction
The boundary layer formed at the surface of the airfoil is a slow moving layer of air and its depth keeps increasing with the distance from the tip. By sucking in the
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slow moving air from the airfoil surface, the depth of the boundary layer can be reduced. The outer, faster air comes closer to the airfoil and is able to overcome the adverse pressure better than the slower boundary layer. If the slit is arranged suitably, in certain circumstances, the flow may not separate at all.

Figure 2.6: Suction Mechanism for Boundary Layer Control The pressure in the suction area has to be lesser than that at the slit on the airfoil. The pressure in the sink region can be controlled actively using pumps or passively with a venturi tube like arrangement to reduce pressure. The suction can be tangential through a slit or perpendicular to the surface through a permeable surface.

Blowing of high speed jets


Another method of preventing separation consists of supplying additional energy to the slow moving air in the boundary layer over the airfoil. This can be done by introducing higher velocity air from inside the body as shown in 2.7a and 2.7b. Directly behind the point of injection, a wall jet profile forms in the boundary layer. The high velocity is able to overcome the adverse pressure easily. If the intensity of the blown jet is high enough, even the lift predicted by potential theory can be surpassed. The pressure inside the body has to be higher than the pressure at the slit on the airfoil. This may be attained through pump or creating higher stagnation pressure inside the cavity.

(a) Blowing of air jets over an airfoil (b) Boundary layer velocities on injection of a jet Blowing of air jets over an airfoil
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Vortex creators
Vortex creators or tubulators (2.8) are small vanes attached to the airfoil upstream of the area of separation risk. The vortex creators trip the boundary layer into turbulence, hence giving it more energy. The boundary layer with more energy can overcome greater adverse pressures, so the separation is delayed until a greater magnitude of negative pressure gradient is reached. This effectively moves the separation point further down on the airfoil and may even eliminate separation completely. A consequence of the turbulent boundary layer is increased skin friction relative to a laminar boundary layer, but this is very small compared to the increase in drag associated with separation.

(a) Vortex creators airfoil Figure 2.8: Tubulators

(b) Turbulent boundary layer over

Other Techniques
Extra kinetic energy can be provided to the boundary layer by various other methods like heating the air, active electromagnetic or acoustic disturbances introduced by actuators like micro flaps or MEMS actuators [22, 23, 24]. Active control would require a pressure probe, an active control circuit, and an electronic actuator system coupled with a control algorithm. We are going to implement standard S833, S834 and S835 aerofoil sections by cutting slots to allow flow of velocity efficient area on lower surface towards velocity deficient area on upper surface. This will pull point of separation towards trailing edge. Consequently this will allow us to increase range of angle of attack with streamlined flow over the surface.

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Symbols used L -lift force D -drag force Cl - coefficient of lift cd - coefficient of drag -density w -relative wind velocity c -chord length a- root chord length b- tip chord length u tangential velocity of tip of blade v wind velocity

8. DESIGN AND CALCULATION OF WIND TURBINE COMPONENTS


8.1 CALCULATIONS FOR POWER OUTPUT

TheoryTotal power generated depends upon the ability of aerofoil to extract it. We are calculating power output by analytical method of Bernoullis formula. Coefficient of lift and coefficient of drag plays major role to decide power extracted by a wind turbine. Coefficient of lift and coefficient of drag over the aerofoil, we selected are according to the pressure distribution over the aerofoil surface. And they found to be 1.1, 0.03 respectively.
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Formulae used for calculating lift and drag force are:L= * Cl * * w2 * c D = * Cd * * w2 * c Total diameter of swept area is taken to be 2.1 m. In which blade length is of 1m and hub diameter is 0.1m. When drawing an equilateral triangle over the circle of 10cm the formula used is-

r = 10 cm a = 0.1732 m We have taken tip chord (b) length as 50 % of root chord length (a). So b = 0.5*0.1732 = 0.0866 m Chord length at a point will be a function of distance of that point from root of the blade. That means chord length will decrease linearly from 0.1732 m at root to the 0.0866 m at tip. i.e. average chord length will be 0.1299 m . Relation between chord length and distance of the point from root isc =0.09362 * r + 0.1732 v w

f L f D

To calculate tangential velocity at blade tip, we require to select tip speed ratio and this is taken to be 5. Formula for Tip speed ratio (t) is27 STUDY, OPTIMIZATION AND DESIGN OF WIND GENERATOR FOR COLLEGE CAMPUS

t = and as average wind velocity is taken to be 4 m/s. So, u = 54 = 20 m/s Also, angular velocity of shaft () = u1= 20 rev/s. Formula for relative velocity of wind is w= (u2+v2) w= (400r2+16)

Now we can calculate the value of lift force and drag force by assuming air density to be 1.2 kg/m3,as followL= * 1.1*1.2 (400r2+16) Total three angles of come into existence, they are1. Angle of attack () 2. Settling angle () 3. Angle formed between direction of relative wind velocity and plane rotation of rotor () Formula for is = Tan-1 (-u/v) Two types of forces on rotor are useful force (f) tangential to the tip of the blade and axial force (fx) axial to the shaft. Formulae for fx and f arefx=L sin + D cos f=L cos

28 STUDY, OPTIMIZATION AND DESIGN OF WIND GENERATOR FOR COLLEGE CAMPUS

by using these formulae we will calculate value of fx and f in terms of radius of blade.rt

Now formula for power output isrt

P = rt dr
1.05

P = 0.05 P=[

v r {v2 + (2r)} {(0.09362r) + 0.1732 } 1.2 4 r {16 + (202r)} {(0.09362r) + 0.1732 }

P = 443 watt

8.2 DESIGN OF GEAR TRAIN


The majority of gearboxes of wind turbines use a one- or two-stage planetary gearing system, sometimes referred to as an epicyclic gearing system.In this arrangement, multiple outer gears, planets, revolve around a single centre gear, the sun. In order to achieve a change in the rpm, an outer ring or annulus is required.

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Planetary gearing systems exhibit higher power densities than parallel axis gears, and are able to offer a multitude of gearing options, and a large change in rpm within a small volume. In order to calculate the reduction potential of a planetary gear system, the first step is to determine the number of teeth, T, that each of the three component gears has. These values will be referred to as: Tsun ,Tannulus, and Tplanet

FORMULA USED

m = D / T ( assume m = 0.3) Where, D = diameter T = no. of teeth Power = 2NT / 60 Where, N = rpm T = torque N1 / N2 = D2/D1
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Where N1= rpm of annulus N2 = rpm of planet ______ D2 = diameter of planet D1 = diameter of annulus As calculated before, N1= 191 rpm. Take, Diameter of annulus = 15 cm. Diameter of sun = 5 cm. By Fig. Dsun + 2Dplanet = Dannulus 5 + 2Dplanet = 15 Dplanet = 5 cm. N1 / N2 = D2/D1 191/ N2 = 5/ 15 N2 = 573 rpm By formula m = D / T 0.3 = 5/ T Tsun = T planet = 16 Again by formula m = D / T 0.3 = 15 / T Tannulus = 50 As calculated before, Power = 443 watt By formula Power = 2NT / 60 443 = 2* 573 * T / 60 Torque = 7.32 Nm

8.3 CALCULATION FOR WEIGHT OF WIND TURBINE

31 STUDY, OPTIMIZATION AND DESIGN OF WIND GENERATOR FOR COLLEGE CAMPUS

To calculate overall weight of wind turbine we require to calculate the weight of individual components. As after designing the components of wind turbine we have their dimensions. With the help of these dimensions we have calculated volume of those components. After defining density for all components individually. Table of weight is shown below.

Name of component Rotor Gear train Shaft

Density (gm/cm3) 0.25 1.78 7.81

Weight (N) 15 9 68

Total estimated weight of wind turbine is 170 N without considering the weight of tower.
0.8 m xm

4 N 15 N

9N

50 N

10 N

32 STUDY, OPTIMIZATION AND DESIGN OF WIND GENERATOR FOR COLLEGE CAMPUS

By taking moment about an assumed point at a distance of x m from drive train and equating it to zero we found the value of x = 0.04 m. This will be the centre of rotation of yawing. 8.4 DESIGN OF TAIL VANE We have taken trapezium shape of tail vane. As area of trapezium = 0.5*(p+q)*h Relations between p, q and h is,q = 2p and h = q, also the length of boom is taken to be 1 m. We are designing this controller such that, when wind deviates by 30 the moment on tail vane becomes sufficient to overcome the torque on yaw bearing about the vertical axis. When equating the corresponding moments value of p is That means value of q will be 0.2328 m, and of h will be 0.1164 m. Now the area of designed vane is 0.02032344 m2.

8.5 DESIGN OF BEARING


A bearing is a device to allow constrained relative motion between two or more parts, typically rotation or linear movement. Bearings may be classified broadly according to the motions they allow and according to their principle of operation as well as by the directions of applied loads they can handle. The purpose of a ball bearing is to reduce rotational friction and support radial and axial loads. It achieves this by using at least two races to contain the balls and transmit the loads through the balls. In most applications, one race is stationary and the other is attached to the rotating assembly (e.g., a hub or shaft). As one of the bearing races rotates it causes the balls to rotate as well. Because the
33 STUDY, OPTIMIZATION AND DESIGN OF WIND GENERATOR FOR COLLEGE CAMPUS

balls are rolling they have a much lower coefficient of friction than if two flat surfaces were rotating on each other. Types of bearing Sliding contact bearing. Rolling contact bearing. We most frequently use anti-friction / rolling element bearings. These bearings are characterized by rolling elements which separate the stationary part from the rotating part. Specific types of these bearings include: Classification methods include: 1) Number of rolling rows (single, multiple, or 4-row), 2) Separable and non-separable, in which either the inner ring or the outer ring can be detached, 3) Thrust bearings which can carry axial loads in only one direction, and double direction thrust bearings which can carry loads in both directions. There are also bearings designed for special applications, such as: railway car journal roller bearings (RCT bearings), ball screw support bearings, turntable bearings, as well as rectilinear motion bearings (linear ball bearings, linear roller bearings and linear flat roller bearings).

Single Row Angular Contact Ball Bearing when compared with sliding bearings, rolling bearings all have the following advantages: (1) The starting friction coefficient is lower and there is little difference between this and the dynamic friction coefficient. (2) They are internationally standardized, interchangeable and readily obtainable. (3) They are easy to lubricate and consume less lubricant. (4) As a general rule, one bearing can carry both radial and axial loads at the same time. (5) May be used in either high or low temperature applications. (6) Bearing rigidity can be improved by preloading.
34 STUDY, OPTIMIZATION AND DESIGN OF WIND GENERATOR FOR COLLEGE CAMPUS

Selection of bearing number W Dynamic equivalent load Wr Radial load Wa Axial load X and Y are the radial and axial load factor for the dynamically loaded bearing V Rotation factor First bearing Dynamic equivalent load is given by :W = XVWr + YWa Wa = 68 N Wr = 17 N V = 1 for all types of bearings when the inner race is rotating. For single row angular contact bearing, X = 0.35 Y = 0.57 Therefore W = 0.35 x 17 + 0.57 x 68 = 44.71 N Dynamic load rating for rolling contact bearing is given by :
C = W (60NLH/106)1/k

Where, C Basic dynamic load rating LH life of bearing in hours W Equivalent dynamic load K = 3, for ball bearing
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N - Speed of shaft in r.p.m. For 10 years bearing life, LH = 10 x 365 x 24 = 87,600 hrs We have N = 191 r.p.m. Therefore C = 44.71 C = 437.5 Bearing no. according to dynamic capacity _____________ Second Bearing (single row angular contact ball bearing) WR = 68 N Wa = 168 N N = 30 r.p.m. X = 0.35 Y = 0.57 LH = 87600 hrs C = W (L/106)1/k C = 119.56 ( C = 646 N Bearing no. according to dynamic capacity _______________

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9 CONCLUSION The following results were obtained by our project


Torque on main shaft 22.15 Nm Torque at 10% frictional losses 19.935 Nm Power output considering 70% losses - 132.9 watts Transmission details Final rpm (N2) 573 rpm Torque 7.32 Nm

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