CLEARING AND EARTHWORK

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Clearing and Earthwork
SECTION 201 - CLEARING AND GRUBBING (Labor 20-55 percent) & SECTION 202 – ADDITIONAL CLEARING AND GRUBBING
General There are too many variables reflected in the bids to use them solely as a basis for costs. Therefore Figure 201-1 is given as a starting point for an "average" new construction project. The designer will need to consider the uniqueness of the project and estimate accordingly. Also consider the amount of vacant (no clearing) area in relation to the acreage being cleared. The factors used are based on the use of the hydraulic excavator for clearing/pioneering. Clearing may need to be adjusted to meet total mechanical clearing. Clearing Classification Classification by volume per acre of timber within clearing limits The classification of clearing by volume per acre is shown on Figure 201-1, this section. It is essential that timber volumes be estimated within accuracy standards. Estimators should request gross volume figures for estimating use. Clearing cost estimates should compensate for down material as well as that which is standing. In some cases the down volume is insignificant while in others it may be more difficult to handle than standing volume. Therefore, an adjustment factor for down material of 0 to 1.2 is appropriate. Example: Gross volume from timber cruise: ............ 12 Mbf/Acre Gross down volume: .................................. 6 Mbf/Acre Factor for down material: .......................... 0.5 Volume for classification: 12 + (6 x 0.5) = 15 Mbf/Acre Classification by Stand Description Clearing classification by stand description is based on a uniform mixture of large and small trees. The classification can be based on the stem spacing and average diameter as shown on Figure 2012, this section, or by the guidelines below. Additional items to be considered are the amount and size of down material and the size of stumps and limbs.

• • • •

EXTRA LIGHT: Few tops and limbs. Few, if any, cull logs. Low scattered brush. Little or no falling or yarding of unmerchantable timber required. LIGHT: Light to moderate amount of tops and limbs. Few cull logs. Light brush. Little to moderate falling or skidding of unmerchantable required. MEDIUM: Light to moderate amount of cull logs. Many tops and limbs. Tall brush or dense unmerchantable trees requiring falling. Some unmerchantable material requiring skidding. HEAVY: Many tops and limbs from dense stand of unmerchantable timber. Tall, heavy brush or dense unmerchantable pole stand requiring falling and bucking numerous cull logs. Yarding of unmerchantable necessary. EXTRA HEAVY: Much cull material requiring falling. Many large, downed cull trees. Area may be swampy or wet. Closely spaced extra large stumps. Thick duff and other organic material.

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Purchaser.35 .Clearing and Earthwork Figure 201-1 Clearing and Grubbing (Costs Based on Windrowing) T imber to Government. or Cooperator 6000 5000 4000 Dollars per Acre 3000 2000 1000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Right of Way Volume (MBF/Acre ) T imber to Government. or Cooperator Right of Way Volume (MBF/Acre) 0 Dollars per Acre 1980 5 2200 10 2420 15 2640 20 2860 25 3080 30 3300 35 3520 40 3740 45 3960 50 4180 (02/2009) . or Cooperator Timber to Government. Purchaser. Purchaser.

Clearing and Earthwork FIGURE 201-2 Equivalent Volume using Average Diameters and Stem Spacing 140 EXTRA LIGHT (0-5 MBF/Acre) 120 100 LIGHT (5-15 MBF/Acre) 80 60 MEDIUM (15-30 MBF/Acre) 40 HEAVY (30-50 MBF-Acre) 20 EXTRA HEAVY (50+ MBF/Acre) 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 AVERAGE DIAMETER (INCHES) (02/2009) .36 .

6 – 2.1-1.28 (02/2009) .75 1. "scattering" in steep terrain or in areas of dense undergrowth can result in significantly higher costs than windrowing.3 1. Logs. If stumps are to be split or partially buried.4-2. Adjustments can be made to meet local project conditions. Care must be exercised in applying this factor.1. For example.0 1.0 long boom machine due to high cut/fill Slash/Cleanup Factor Clearing estimates must be based on the lowest cost treatment option allowable to the contractor.4 Different treatment methods may be specified for Tops and Limbs.15) = 1. the following table should be used to prorate costs based on the treatment method specified for each type of slash.40)(1.6) + (0.00) + Stumps (0. When this occurs. COST PERCENTAGE FOR SLASH TREATMENT Tops & Limbs Logs Stumps 40 If method (7) is designated for Stumps: Example: Treatment Methods: Tops and Limbs . however.1 Moderate (20 to 45 percent) 1.Clearing and Earthwork Topographic Factor The cost-per-acre figures should be adjusted by the following topographic factors: Ground Slope Factor Gentle (under 20 percent) 1.6 .35)(1.Pile and Burn Logs .0 Steep (over 45 percent) 1. and Stumps.15 for scattering would apply for average side slopes and open understory.25)(1. The adjustment factor 1.1.37 .1 1.Windrow Stumps .15 .Scatter 30 35 20 25 50 Adjusted Slash Treatment Factor = Tops & Limbs Logs (0. Treatment Method Windrow Windrow and Cover Scattering Burying Chipping Pile and Burn Deck Unmerchantable Material Disposal in Cutting Units Removal Piling Placing slash on embankment slopes Factor 1.25 1.1 1.35 1.2 2. the factor used for them may need to be adjusted.2.3 Areas that require more than one pioneer or a 1.0 . The cost-per-acre figures must also be adjusted by the slash cleanup factor if the required treatment method is other than windrowing.0 1.0 1.

and logs. BRUSHING (Labor 50-90) General: The designer will need to consider the uniqueness of the project and estimate accordingly. The topographic factors and the ground cover should be considered when selecting the type of equipment and slash treatment method to be used. This cost range considers the grubbing of the roadbed. no separate allowance is generally required.0 1. Production rate approximately 750 ft per hour.38 . Topographic Factor: assume work is being accomplished along and existing roadbed with cuts and fills needing special attention. If equipment can not operate safely use the hand labor factor. and for windrowing right-of-way slash in dense lodgepole pine stands. Clearing Classification By Stand Description: Clearing classification by stand description is based on an average mixture of size. where required. Cost allowance for painting and branding of logs.Clearing and Earthwork Other Factors Additional areas and/or strips may need to be cleared.1 1. The unit cost should be adjusted by the following factors Ground Slope Gentle (under 20 percent) Moderate (20 to 40 percent) Steep (over 45 percent) Factor 1. Consider the spacing as well as the diameter of the trees and brush to be cleared when classifying the material. spacing. Heavy ($1500-$3000/mile) Trees and brush scattered throughout the entire roadway. Production rate approximately 400 ft per hour. for burning bays. but not grubbed.3 (02/2009) . but not stumps. Clearing costs associated with campgrounds will normally be higher. decking areas. Production rate approximately 200 ft per hour. Average cost: $30 per tree. Consider the area being cleared and the type of equipment that can operate safely. Light ($400-$750/mile) Few trees and low brush scattered along the shoulders of the roadway. This cost range considers the grubbing of the roadbed. is considered incidental to the clearing cost estimate. The cost allowances for these situations should consider the treatment of tops and limbs. and density of the trees and brush. The factors for each of these is shown above. Extra Heavy ($3000-$4000/mile) Trees and brush densely spaced along the entire roadway. Production rate approximately 1000 ft per hour. Medium ($750-$1500/mile) Trees and brush along the entire length of the shoulders of the roadway. INDIVIDUAL REMOVAL OF TREES (Labor 80 percent) This includes falling and treating hazard trees that lie outside of the clearing limits.

labor. Slash Cleanup Factor: The unit cost should be adjusted by the following factors Treatment Method (4)Scattering (5)Burying (7)Piling and Burning (11)Piling (12)Placing slash on embankment slopes Factor 1.50 1. needs to be considered. etc.39 . etc. The average BASE COST of common excavation in ID or MT is $1.EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT (Labor 20-45 percent) Localized conditions (slope. one for construction of catch basins and one for culvert installation. Excavation for constructing catch basins on reconstruction projects which add drainage should have the same unit cost as the culvert excavation. Consideration should be given to the salvage value and disposal method of the culvert. move-in and move-out of any special equipment. Note: In addition to the above costs for removal of bridges. move-in and move-out of any special equipment. Use the equipment and labor costs in computing the cost (see Equipment Rates and Labor Rates).50 1. (02/2009) . etc.35 1. Also consider if the culvert is being replaced at the same location.REMOVAL OF STRUCTURES & OBSTRUCTIONS (Labor 30-50 percent) Removal of Existing Bridges: This item should be estimated on an individual basis..30 1. disposal.. Use the equipment and labor costs in computing the cost (see Equipment Rates and Labor Rates).Clearing and Earthwork Labor Factor: Labor factor of 1. needs to be considered. Cost of equipment. disposal. pipes. Separate pay items should be used. classification.25 should be applied to projects that do not use a machine to do at least part of the brushing operation. Removal and Stockpiling/Disposing of Cattleguards: This item must be estimated on an individual basis. therefore. labor. Cost of equipment. additional allowances may be necessary for removal of approach fills. and for disposal of hazardous and toxic materials such as creosoted beams. etc.. Removal and Disposal of Pipe Culverts: This should be estimated using time and equipment. costs should be similar. reclamation and rehabilitation work.35 SECTION 203 . Both jobs will be done using the same equipment.80/cy.) have more impact on costs for small jobs because a full range of conditions may not exist as in a larger job. SECTION 204 .

56 Method E – Layer Placement (Roller Compaction) $0. 4 Sieve $1. make an allowance or estimate under Section 160) ID or MT/cy Method A – More than 80% retained on a No.40 .54/LF Note: If hydraulic excavators are used. Tolerance Class: See Finishing Compaction Method: (Does not include water.75 1.90 Note: If applicable.98/LF 45-60 percent slope: $1.25 1.5-1.0 Cost* ID $71. there will be no additional cost for benching fill slopes as work will be done during clearing/pioneering.5 1.75 $14.53 $20.35 $16.4 Sieve $1.0 5.5 2.49 * For Double Lane.51 $55.4 Sieve $1.14 $45. Finishing: Scarifying: Add Light Average Heavy $/Station (Single Lane) ID or MT $12.78 I/J/K/L/M 0.Clearing and Earthwork Material adjustment factors are as follows: Type Common Loose rock Talus rock Small glacial Boulders Rippable rock Large glacial boulders Solid/Shot rock Base costs are to be adjusted by adding the following if required.30 Method D – Layer Placement (Hauling and Spreading Equipment) $0.$/Station Tolerance Class A B/C D/E Rate (days/mi) 3.32 (02/2009) . make a subsidiary allowance to this pay item for contractor quality control for Compaction Methods (b) and (c).35 F/G/H 0.02 Method B – 50% to 80% retained on a No. Benching Fill Slopes: 30-45 percent slope: $0.0 1.5 $9.0 5. multiply single lane cost by 1.47 $25.78 Factor 1.16 Method C – Less than 50% retained on a No.75 3.96 $12.94 $18.50 $24.0-8.63 MT $86.0 Shaping and Finishing: Single Lane Roads with Ditch -.

81/sta $7. Haul: Haul should be included under this item at the rate of $0. relatively flat ground: Stripping topsoil with tracked loader and placing in stockpile within 300 ft.15/LF are applicable. additional costs of $.76 $25. Loading Material into Trucks: Common and loose rock Ripped rock Blasted rock and large boulders ID or MT/cy $0.25 I/J/K/L/M 0. This assumes the work being done at start of excavation immediately following pioneering.25 0.78 * For Double Lane.05 to $.79 $37. for both Idaho and Montana Conservation of Topsoil: Stripping topsoil and windrowing with grader.75 Cost* ID $39.96 $12.61 $14.35. estimates are made under Section 204 Compaction Prior to Base and Surfacing Work (if required): Double Lane Singe Lane $5.53 Conservation of Rock: For use when excavating with a dozer or excavator and placing in small stockpile within 300 ft.$/Station Tolerance Class A B/C D/E Rate (days/mi) 2.16/Sta.Clearing and Earthwork Single Lane Roads without Ditch -.75 /sta (02/2009) . multiply single lane cost by 1.41 .54 $18.68 F/G/H 0.11 /sta Slope Blending: Depending on material and type of slope blending specified. When excavating and hauling to central stockpile or use point.94 MT $49. Yd.5 $9. (91m): Traffic Control: Open to traffic twice during work shift Open to traffic once during work shift Open to traffic at end of work shift 30 percent of Base excavation cost plus options 15 percent of Base excavation cost plus options 5 percent of Base excavation cost plus options $12. the added cost of excavation should be covered above under Loading Material into Trucks.0 1.98 $6.25 $4. Slope rounding is a more deliberate practice.41 $1.20 /sta $23.98 $1.

if specified. Drainage Excavation and Furrow Ditches Drainage excavation can be estimated most easily by the lineal foot. • Quality Control: estimate based on sampling and testing noted under Section 153 and as specified in FSSS 153 for project.75/LF. costs range from $0. The same piece of equipment is required for small quantities or larger amounts. estimate by time and equipment procedures.15/LF (02/2009) .42 . Site conditions govern more than size considerations.Clearing and Earthwork Water: estimate under Section 160. Rounding Cut Slopes This work. Estimate by time and equipment.50 to $0. Pit Development: estimate under Section 641. or include an allowance under this item. and not to blending of the cutslope with the natural ground during initial excavation which is can be done by a hydraulic excavator. but one may use something less efficient for very small amounts. Earth Berms Continuous Berms cost about $15 per station or $. applies to sophisticated "rounding" after initial pioneering and excavation. Drainage Dips Drainage dips on reconstruction can be estimated at $125 to $200 each depending on material and distance between dips.

30% labor 80.00 $ 3.000.55 Adjusted Unit Cost ($/cy) Location .54 0. aggregate surfaced road with ditch.50 $4.420.15 x x x $1.850.2500 LF Finishing: Scarification: light-115 sta.: Idaho .1% of above Total Engineers Estimate including Quality Control Unit Cost Calculation Unit Cost ($/cy) = $360.90 = = = = = = = = = = = $ 1.81 Total Engineers Estimate w/o Quality Control Quality Control .: Montana .50 $4.80 $1.50 / 1.Wage Differential Calculation Unit Cost ($/cy) Specified Road Construction Cost (without Quality Control) $4.000 x x x 0.500 2500 80.603. Tolerance Class G.78 Shaping and Finishing: Compaction prior to base: 262 x $5. Compaction Method (e).80 $1.43 .15 0.000 80. Traffic Control .50 Unit Cost ($/cy) = $363. Location A.355.Zone 3 Location B. hvy-15 sta Shaping and Finishing: 262 sta Compaction prior to aggregate base 262 sta.Zone Calculation Unit Cost ($/cy) Adjusted Unit Cost ($/cy) Zone 3 Unit Cost (Engineers Estimate w/o Quality Control) Zone 3 Unit Cost (Engineers Estimate with Quality Control) $4.80 Quantity x x x 1.25 $ 1.Area 1 (Zone 2) Solution .800.98 1.78 262 x $18.1500 LF.000 Adjustment Factor for Davis Bacon Zones = $4.00 $ 108.92 Scarifying: Light: 115 x $12.000 cy excavation 70 percent common 15 percent rippable rock 15 percent blasting rock Benching: 30-45 % slope .522.00 $ 72.22 $ 360.55 $ 363.470.37 $ 3.920.00 $ 1.84 $ 386.355.N/A.92 w/Quality Control 80.00 3.36 $ 1.47 Heavy: 15 x $25.35 Average: 72 x $16.00 $ 64.958.00 5.Location A.00 Adjustment Factor for Wage Differentials = = $4.000 80.7 0. 45-60% .55 Location .12 = $4.Clearing and Earthwork Example Earthwork Calculation Given: Single lane.70 $ 4.000 x x x 0.000 $4.00 Additions to Base Excavation Benching Fill Slopes: Compaction Method (e): Finishing: (Tolerance Class G) 30-45 percent: 46-60 percent: 1.55 x x 1.00 1.00 Cost = = = $ 100.185. avg-72 sta.37 = w/o Quality Control 80.800. Montana Zone 3 Base Excavation Quantity Quantity Adjustment Base Excavation Cost Material Adjustment Factor Cost Common: Rippable: Blast: 80.958.02 (02/2009) .000.

1% of above Total Engineers Estimate including Quality Control Unit Cost Calculation Unit Cost ($/cy) w/o Quality Control = $ 359.593.25 $ 1.78 Scarifying: Light: 115 x $12.80 Quantity x x x 1.15 0.Zone Calculation Unit Cost ($/cy) Adjustment Factor for Davis Bacon Zones Adjusted Unit Cost ($/cy) Zone 3 Unit Cost (Engineers Estimate w/o Quality Control) Zone 3 Unit Cost (Engineers Estimate with Quality Control) $4.07 = $4.28 $ 1.22 $ 359.470.500 2500 80.29 80.94 Compaction prior to base: 262 x $5.54 0.54 x x 1.000 x x x 0. Idaho Area 1 (Zone 2) Base Excavation Quantity Quantity Adjustment Base Excavation Cost Material Adjustment Factor Cost Common: Rippable: Blast: 80.000 x x x 0.00 $ 1.00 Additions to Base Excavation Benching Fill Slopes: Compaction Method (e): Finishing: (Tolerance Class G) 30-45 percent: 46-60 percent: 1.00 3.90 = = = = = = = = = = = $ 1.185.850.349.49 $4.49 $ 362.800.800.942.000 = $4.98 1.00 Adjustment Factor for Wage Differentials = = $4.522.00 $ 3.00 $ 64.000.35 Average: 72 x $16.Wage Differential Calculation Unit Cost ($/cy) Specified Road Construction Cost (without Quality Control) $4.00 5.84 $ 386.000 80.47 Heavy: 15 x $25.44 .000.000 = $4.20 (02/2009) .81 Total Engineers Estimate w/o Quality Control Quality Control .Location B.15 x x x $1.29 $ 3.7 0.942.00 $108.420.78 Shaping and Finishing: 262 x $14.54 Adjusted Unit Cost ($/cy) Location .80 $1.00 Cost = = = $100.49 $ Unit Cost ($/cy) = 362.49 / 1.80 $1.349.78 w/Quality Control 80.00 1.54 Location .00 $ 72.Clearing and Earthwork Solution .70 $ 3914.000 80.49 $4.

where as. Note: the haul of asphalt and aggregate may be a contract item. make allowance.4 tons per cubic yard. double lane. i. and good sight distance Gravel or paved surface.00/cubic yard-mile depending on haul distance. load. borrow. 35 percent. Cost for Haul. in place. alignment. Use the correct truck for the type of road on the haul route (belly dumps are inappropriate for crooked narrow roads). The costs per ton shown below are based upon 1.12/sta-yd. fair to good alignment. Variable costs should be increased if load limits (bridges. the estimator should consider all the factors that affect the haul over each segment of the haul route. CF. is usually calculated by the cubic-yard-mile. riprap. road conditions. excellent sight distance (02/2009) . do not reduce. in Idaho and Montana is $0. numerous sharp curves. steep grades. costs are incidental to and included in other items of work) Station yards is used when material is moved using dozer pushes. Average Travel Speed 5-15 mph 10-30 mph 25-50 mph Road Characteristics Narrow dirt road. These factors include grade. moderate grades to 6%. riprap. single lane. on two-lane roads no addition is usually necessary since the trucks can turnaround nearby.. a compaction factor adjustment (CF) must be made to provide costs based on excavated cubic yards. turnout spacing. road condition. should be derived with the use of the following procedure. When computing variable haul cost. Also. Cost for cubic yard-mile haul of excavation. aggregate. Sta Yd. compacted in place. Haul of material includes the fixed costs (for the truck only) of spotting.50 to $1. Note that haul of excavation. etc. road width. adequate turnouts. if the subcontractor is expected to pay Davis-Bacon wages) Note: Haul is not a pay item. The average distance from the point of dumping to the turn-around should be included in the variable cost haul distance. If so. when authorized as a pay item. sight distance. and other traffic using the road. if there are similar conditions at the material source which affect travel distance. type of surface.. etc. CF = in place density loose density To compute haul of aggregate. etc. vehicle quantity. therefore. poor sight distances and few turnouts Dirt or gravel surface. Costs shown below are based on loose cubic yards. Haul of materials that are weighed in tons are calculated in ton-miles. Haul of excavated material is to be measured (for payment) in terms of excavated cubic yards in the original position (in place). borrow excavation.Clearing and Earthwork HAUL (Labor: Cu Yd Mile. the compaction factor. etc.45 . cubic yard-mile is used when material is hauled by truck.e. and $. city streets. Loading costs for the loading labor and equipment should be included under the parent specification for that work. On single-lane roads this may range up to 2-3 miles additional length. grades to 8%. and turnaround in addition to the variable "underway" cost while hauling equipment is moving. The following are general guidelines the estimator should use in determining average round-trip travel speeds for haul computations.. etc) on the route preclude loading trucks to rated capacity. 25 percent. good to excellent alignment. must be adjusted to fit the method of measurement.

39 $0.) 12 CY End Dump 20 CY Bottom Dump Variable Cost .43 $1.02 $1.06 $0.99 $0.71 $0.55 $0. QUANTITY___________LOOSE CUBIC YARDS HAUL COST Road Segment Average Speed Roundtrip Length Miles $/CY-Mile or $/Ton-Mile Tons or CY Variable Cost Totals (2) (1) The total haul cost is the sum of the variable costs and fixed cost.51 $1.07 $1.49 $0.54/Ton or $0.$/CY-Mile or $/Ton-Mile: 12 CY End Dump CY Ton $2. the unit cost will be the variable unit cost plus the fixed cost.52 $0.43 $0.69 $0.50 $1.11 $1.76/CY $0.98 $2.31 $0.43 20 CY Bottom Dump CY Ton $2.16 $1.84 $0.65/Ton mph 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 Example The following is an example format to be used for computing variable cost.46 . such as asphalt or riprap.19 $0.62 $0.47 $1.88 $0.Clearing and Earthwork Fixed Cost: (Increase fixed costs to reflect difficult or unique situations in loading or dumping material.99 $1.59 $0.76 $0. Total Cost/CY or Ton =(1)Total Variable Cost + Fixed Cost (2) Loose CY or Ton = (1) (2) + =$ /CY or Ton (02/2009) .92/CY or $0.78 $0.

*Costs include minor structure removal. Recontour the entire road prism to almost preroad conditions. May treat noxious weeds. removing culverts. If applicable make a subsidiary allowance to this pay item for contractor quality control. SECTION 211 – ROADWAY OBLITERATION (Labor 40 percent) Obliteration may range from merely ripping and scarifying the road surface. May treat noxious weeds.500 /mile Method 2 Waterbar or intermittent outslope. concrete or earth barrier. Recontour at Remove CMP's & restore all watercourses to intersection or natural channels & floodplains. etc. $2. May scatter slash on roadway.500 /mile $1000-$2. guardrail. and rounding off the cutslope to complete removal of the road template and recontouring to the original natural profile. May treat noxious weeds. Recontour Method 1 Seed & fertilize. seed and fertilize. seed & fertilize. seed.500 /mile $3. Remove CMP's & restore all watercourses to natural channels & floodplains. Estimator needs to consider the existing condition of the road. Scarify 2-3 inches. Drain dips. *Cost do not include weed treatment. guardrails. barrier Scatter slash on recontoured slope. or Recontour at intersection Recontour at intersection or rock or earth barrier Mitigation Outslope. Normal drainage.000-$7.47 . Remove CMP's & restore all watercourses to natural channels & floodplains. This work is generally performed from the end of the road to the beginning. A laborer should be included to saw replacement slash and seed/fertilize behind the equipment. Clearing and excavation may be required to access the end of the road to perform the roadway obliteration with the required equipment. Method 2 May scatter slash on road. solid rock. drivable waterbars.Clearing and Earthwork SECTION 208 . Higher prices can be expected for excavation of large boulders. and concrete barriers. seed & fertilize. fertilize. May treat noxious weeds. Rip 6-12 inches. *Costs do not include gates. or outslope.500 /mile $7. Selective recontour along the road. Method Method 2 Closure Device Gate Gate. Waterbar or intermittent outslope. May treat noxious weeds.STRUCTURE EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL FOR SELECTED MAJOR STRUCTURES (Labor 50 percent) Costs range from $30/cy to $45/cy.500-$3. Rock or earth Method 2 Rip 12-18 inches. Cost Range* $500-$1. More if large boulders are present or if there are excessive dewatering problems. Scatter clash on recontoured slope.500 up /mile (02/2009) .

(Cost allowance for painting and branding of logs.see Section 201. turnouts.) Excavation: Self balanced sections. turnarounds. To determine costs.3 Widening Factors (Clearing): Method No additional widening Slough widening. where required. Note: an additional allowance may be made for these items.2 (02/2009) .48 .25 to .35 1. R/W timber volume value should not be made a consideration of bid for clearing items on public works contracts. survey. or cooperator-owned timber such as that found on timber sale contracts. slough widening. finishing and/or shaping. use the procedure outlined below.0 1. Step 1 Determine base Clearing and Grubbing Costs in dollars per mile by entering Table 212-1 (for 3/4:1 backslopes) or Table 212-2 (for 1:1 backslopes) with known values for sideslopes and right-of-way volume per acre. design. desired end product.Clearing and Earthwork SECTION 212 LINEAR GRADING (Labor 45 percent) This section is intended for use on single purpose roads in relatively gentle/moderate and uniform terrain.75). Be sure to use the correct table for the appropriate road backslope. Tables 212-1 and 212-2 show clearing cost for Government. and erosion control. or haul.1 1. excavation. turnarounds Factor 1. Compaction factor used (.toe of fill) (minimum 25' width) Topographic factor . curve widening.0-1. turnouts. The specification combines clearing and grubbing. Use of Tables 212-1 through 212-4 on the following pages is quite appropriate and fits the intent of the specification. on public works contracts R/W timber should be decked by the contractor to be sold by the Forest Service. A high degree of sophistication is not warranted when developing the cost estimate for this work. Slash Disposals Factors: Method Windrowing Scattering Piling Factor 1.15-1. The entire preconstruction effort including location. No allowance for drain dips.) Adjust the clearing cost by multiplying the base clearing and grubbing cost by the slash disposal adjustment and the widening factors. (Note: the minimum clearing width is 25 feet or 3 acres per mile. no separate allowance is required. log truck curve widening. and road template. The assumptions listed below were used in preparing the tables: Clearing and Grubbing: Clearing limits (top of cut . purchaser. The tables consider each of the typical sections commonly used in the Region. is considered incidental to clearing. and risk factor. and cost estimating should be consistent with the road standard. It can be used in conjunction with most construction control methods.

0) + (% Blast & Boulders)(5. Step 5 Total results in steps 1. Step 3 Determine base excavation costs in dollars per mile using Table 212-3 with known values for backslopes and sideslopes. 2.0 1.15 (02/2009) .0) Topography Factor: Method Self balanced sections Some through fills and free haul Widening Factor (Excavation): Method No additional widening Slough widening. 3.49 . log truck curve widening.5-1. Factor 1. turnouts.0 1. and additional widening by multiplying the base excavation cost by the respective adjustment factors. Cost Guide. turnarounds Drainage Dips: see Cost Guide Section 204 Haul: see Cost Guide Section 204 Total Excavation Cost = (Base Cost) x (Material Factor) x (Topography Factor) x (Widening Factor) + (Drainage Dips) + (Haul) Step 4 Determine seeding cost in dollars per mile by using Table 212-4. Add additional cost for scarifying (if necessary).75) + (% Rip)(3.25 Factor 1. Material Factor: (% Common)(1. Adjust the excavation cost for materials.0) + (%Loose Rock)(1.Clearing and Earthwork Step 2 Add allowance for Individual Removal of Trees – Section 201. haul. topography. and 4 to determine unit cost. drainage dips. etc.

0 Widening Factor = 1. without mulch.7 = $294 per mile Cost = ($4.020 + $212 + $7.350per mile *1.0) + (0.020 per mile Step 2: Allowance for Removal of Trees Miscellaneous 12 Trees *$30 per tree / 1.3 *1.590 per mile *1. self balanced sections.15 Drainage Dips = 4 @ $125/ 1.0 *1.50 . Seed.0) + (0 *5. Step 3: Base excavation cost = $4.2 = $10.350 per mile (Table 212-1) Adjusted Clearing Cost: Slash Disposal Factor = 1.85 *1.7 miles = $212 per mile.15 *3.2 Cost = $8. 45%): $18.098 per mile (02/2009) .156 + $710 = $15.098 per mile *1. and 4 drainage dips. Step 1: Base Clearing Cost = $8.000 feet. one turnaround per mile.156 per mile Step 4: Seeding Cost = $710 per mile (Table 212-4) (calculated under Section 625) Step 5: Unit Cost = $10.00 = $18. 3/4:1 backslope. dry method. Allow for turnouts every 1.0 *1.590 per mile (Table 212-3) Adjusted excavation cost: Material Factor = (0. Purchaser owned Windrow construction slash Hazard Trees: 12 (Total) Excavation classification: 85 percent common 15 percent rip 0 percent blast Template: 14 ft w/o ditch.7 miles Average side slope: 30 percent R/W timber classification: Light-Med (15 MBF/Ac). no through fills or free haul.152 per mile Adjust for Zone 3 (labor.Clearing and Earthwork Example Linear Grading Calculation: Location: Montana Zone 3 Length: 1.0 Widening Factor = 1.15) + $294 = $7.3 Topography Factor = 1.0) = 1. normal curve widening.

040 $14.830 $8.040 $9.500 $7.020 $10.620 $9.350 $11.920 $9.890 $10.040 $10.780 $7.640 $10.830 $10.780 $6.080 $9.380 $7.350 $10.920 $9.200 $8.890 $9.080 $9.350 $8.590 $12.380 $7.920 $9.780 $8.890 $9.380 $6.920 $10.230 $7.040 $10.500 $9.350 $8.080 $9.860 $8.230 $8.380 $6.920 $9.010 $16.200 $8.890 $10.920 $9.780 $6.780 $8.290 $15.350 $8.920 $13.230 $8.440 $14.040 $10.750 $11.350 $8.380 $6.920 $11.500 $7.890 $9.230 $7.080 $9.090 $10.200 $9.890 $10.860 $17.420 Table 212-1 Vol/Acre 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 15 15 15 15 15 15 20 20 20 20 20 20 25 25 25 25 25 25 (02/2009) .040 $9.230 $8.500 $9.500 $7.350 $8.Clearing and Earthwork Clearing and Grubbing Cost per mile for Specification 212 Backslope: 3/4 : 1 Road Template SS% 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 Purchaser Owned R/W Timber 12 w/o 14 w/o 12 w/ Ditch Ditch Ditch $7.080 $11.230 $7.070 $7.410 $8.500 $7.200 $8.080 $9.380 $7.200 $9.080 $13.100 $10.110 $11.51 .080 $12.010 $10.240 $7.780 $6.500 $7.040 $10.040 $9.200 $9.310 $9.780 $6.

500 $13.770 $14.070 $17.550 $12.070 $13.500 $15.870 $12.910 $13.770 $11.550 $13.550 $13.52 .910 $13.400 $13.200 $15.440 Table 212-1 (Continued) Vol/Acre 30 30 30 30 30 30 35 35 35 35 35 35 40 40 40 40 40 40 45 45 45 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 50 50 (02/2009) .500 $11.110 $15.700 $11.770 $10.340 $16.550 $12.130 $16.300 $15.860 $11.860 $10.910 $13.860 $10.340 $12.660 $14.910 $18.Clearing and Earthwork Clearing and Grubbing Cost per mile for Specification 212 Backslope: 3/4 : 1 Road Template SS% 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 Purchaser Owned R/W Timber 12 w/o 14 w/o 12 w/ Ditch Ditch Ditch $11.990 $14.730 $23.860 $10.500 $11.340 $12.910 $14.240 $13.340 $12.370 $13.700 $18.370 $13.070 $13.550 $12.770 $10.700 $12.580 $12.340 $12.700 $12.700 $24.860 $17.390 $11.910 $16.500 $11.340 $12.070 $13.770 $10.320 $13.700 $11.160 $12.210 $14.500 $11.400 $14.860 $11.370 $15.700 $11.500 $11.370 $13.400 $14.400 $13.860 $11.070 $13.400 $13.770 $10.770 $12.830 $18.370 $15.790 $20.370 $15.410 $11.550 $13.070 $13.400 $21.340 $14.070 $15.780 $13.550 $20.400 $14.700 $12.910 $13.760 $21.

380 $6.730 $10.350 $8.520 $7.250 $17.500 $7.500 $9.780 $9.620 $8.410 $15.920 $11.350 $8.890 $9.53 .350 $10.080 $9.780 $6.380 $7.350 $8.780 $8.200 $8.920 $12.710 $13.500 $7.080 $13.600 Table 212-2 Vol/Acre 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 15 15 15 15 15 15 20 20 20 20 20 20 25 25 25 25 25 25 (02/2009) .230 $8.200 $9.200 $8.220 $10.Clearing and Earthwork Clearing and Grubbing Cost per mile for Specification 212 Backslope: 1 : 1 Road Template SS% 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 Purchaser Owned R/W Timber 12 w/o 14 w/o 12 w/ Ditch Ditch Ditch $7.440 $14.920 $9.890 $9.950 $19.310 $8.080 $9.500 $11.380 $7.780 $6.400 $10.030 $10.380 $6.920 $9.380 $6.430 $10.780 $6.230 $8.950 $9.500 $7.450 $10.040 $9.880 $9.080 $9.230 $8.080 $11.500 $7.230 $7.200 $8.380 $7.780 $6.590 $12.010 $9.890 $16.040 $9.860 $18.200 $9.920 $9.920 $8.350 $12.060 $7.800 $14.620 $11.780 $7.890 $10.500 $8.890 $10.350 $8.920 $9.230 $7.230 $7.920 $14.890 $9.040 $9.200 $9.080 $9.890 $10.040 $10.040 $10.040 $10.080 $10.350 $9.

910 $21.550 $12.620 $15.950 $11.580 Table 212-2 (Continued) Vol/Acre 30 30 30 30 30 30 35 35 35 35 35 35 40 40 40 40 40 40 45 45 45 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 50 50 (02/2009) .060 $26.700 $11.370 $15.500 $11.290 $14.070 $13.700 $11.440 $14.370 $13.340 $15.070 $14.400 $13.700 $12.240 $15.400 $14.340 $12.770 $15.860 $11.450 $11.700 $12.340 $12.910 $20.860 $10.070 $13.910 $13.970 $24.000 $22.010 $15.840 $13.400 $14.370 $15.370 $13.910 $15.910 $13.290 $12.400 $14.54 .500 $16.500 $11.070 $19.770 $10.Clearing and Earthwork Clearing and Grubbing Cost per mile for Specification 212 Backslope: 1 : 1 Road Template SS% 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 Purchaser Owned R/W Timber 12 w/o 14 w/o 12 w/ Ditch Ditch Ditch $11.400 $13.370 $13.510 $12.940 $13.550 $12.030 $14.550 $13.860 $13.910 $18.340 $13.730 $23.550 $13.880 $22.700 $12.500 $11.100 $18.370 $15.400 $13.070 $13.150 $27.730 $12.070 $13.500 $15.550 $12.070 $17.770 $10.860 $11.860 $11.860 $10.340 $12.070 $19.340 $12.700 $11.860 $10.910 $13.500 $13.550 $13.770 $10.500 $11.910 $21.770 $10.770 $12.910 $13.340 $18.770 $13.

850 $3.310 $11.510 $1.640 $5.360 $8.850 $4.850 $3.850 $3.540 $2. contact supplier for costs and availability.940 $4.320 $8.850 $3.850 $3.450 12 w/o Ditch $3.210 $1.360 $1.850 $3.990 $7.850 $4.280 Note: Seeding cost does not include the roadbed.100 $10.840 $8.010 Table 212-4 12 w/o Ditch $250 $250 $250 $300 $390 $500 $620 $760 $940 $1.850 $4.020 Backslope 1:1 14 w/o Ditch $3.Clearing and Earthwork Table 212-3 Excavation Cost Per Mile For Specification 212 Road Template SS% 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Backslope 3/4:1 14 w/o 12 w/ Ditch Ditch $3.500 $3.380 $9.850 $3.850 $3.300 Seeding Cost Per Mile for Specification 212 Road Template SS% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Backslope 3/4:1 14 w/o 12 w/ Ditch Ditch $260 $260 $260 $350 $440 $570 $710 $860 $1.960 Backslope 1:1 14 w/o Ditch $270 $270 $270 $370 $480 $600 $760 $960 $1. Seeding cost does not consider native seed.280 $4.060 $1.510 12 w/o Ditch $260 $260 $260 $330 $420 $530 $690 $850 $1.850 $3.450 $13.850 $3.910 $5.660 $17.640 $12.850 $3.850 $3.55 .070 $1.740 12 w/ Ditch $3.960 $7.360 $1.680 $9.440 $4.850 $3.910 $6.430 $6.730 $280 $280 $280 $370 $490 $630 $790 $970 $1.210 $1.850 $3. (02/2009) .240 $10.590 $5.300 $5.180 $1.640 $9.850 $4.870 $6.730 12 w/ Ditch $290 $290 $290 $390 $520 $680 $850 $1.160 $15.860 $7.080 $1.850 $4.740 $2.250 12 w/o Ditch $3. if native seed is required.340 $1.850 $3.850 $3.590 $13.

56 .Clearing and Earthwork End of Clearing and Earthwork (02/2009) .

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