BHAGWAN SINGH BISHT DPGD/JL10/1509 SPECIALIZATION: OPERATIONS
WELINGKER INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT & RESEARCH Year of Submission: June, 2012
I take the opportunity of submitting this dissertation to express my deep regards towards those who have offered their invaluable assistance and guidance in the hour of need.
I sincerely acknowledge with a deep sense of gratitude and show inductance to Mr.G.Varadarajan & Mr.Vijay Hange of Essar Logistic Ltd. for encouragement they gave me during the initial phase of the project. Highly obliges operations staff of Essar Logistic Ltd. For their guidance, advice and cooperation.
Mr.G.Varadarajan, Mr.Vijay Hange and all my colleagues has been inspiring and without inspiration, guidance, the project would have remained a dream. Last but not the least; I would also like to thanks my sister, who had given her kind co-operation and encouragement. I admit that co-operation and morality are keywords to success.
(Bhagwan Singh Bisht)
Place: Pune Date: 2nd June, 2012
APPENDIX – 1
CERTIFICATE FROM THE GUIDE
This is to certify that the project report titled “TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT”
is prepared by Bhagwan Singh Bisht, student of Post Graduate Diploma in Business Administration (PGDBA); (academic year 2010-12) has satisfactorily & successfully carried out the project work. The project is submitted in partial fulfillment of PGDBA course in the academic year 2010-12 as per the rules of the Welingker Institute of Management.
DIRECTOR DR. ASHOK JOSHI
PROJECT GUIDE (PROF.DAMLE)
Place : Pune Date : 20.04.2012
I take an opportunity to present this project report on “TOTAL QUALITY
MANAGEMENT” and put before the readers some useful information
regarding my project. I have made sincere attempts and taken every care to present this matter precise and compact form, the language being as simple as possible. I am sure that the information contained in this volume would certainly prove useful for better insight in the scope and dimension of this project in its true perspective. The task of completion of the project though being difficult was made quite simple, interesting and successful due to deep involvement and complete dedication of my colleagues.
Introduction of TQM Aspects of TQM What is Quality? Introduction about Enterprise Veer Enterprises SEASON’Z Ice Cream Practical Experience Types of Machinery Packing material Conceptualization Principles of TQM Four C’s of TQM Factors effecting the commitment of employees Operationalization of the concept Quality Management History of Quality Management Quality Improvement Process—Tools & Techniques TQM Improvement Methodology Objectives Research Methodology Limitations Conclusion Recommendations
attitude and organization of a company that aims to provide. results in an organisation doing the right things right. However. competitiveness or financial return. its customers with products and services that satisfy their needs. TQM is the way of managing for the future. ﬁrst time. and defects and waste eradicated from operations. TQM. Many companies have difficulties in implementing TQM. combined with effective leadership. As a result many people are sceptical about TQM. Total Quality is a description of the culture. and continue to provide. internally and externally. productivity. and is far wider in its application than just assuring product or service quality – it is a way of managing people and business processes to ensure complete customer satisfaction at every stage.INTRODUCTION OF TQM
Total Quality Management is an approach to the art of management that originated in Japanese industry in the 1950's and has become steadily more popular in the West since the early 1980's. with things being done right first time. when
. Surveys by consulting firms have found that only 20-36% of companies that have undertaken TQM have achieved either significant or even tangible improvements in quality. The culture requires quality in all aspects of the company's operations.
People in companies that have implemented TQM are more likely to have the basic understanding necessary for implementing EDM/PDM. look at the world-class companies that have adopted it
the most effective way to spend TQM introduction funds is by training top management. and people involved with customers
it's much easier to introduce EDM/PDM in a company with a TQM culture than in one without TQM.
Some useful messages from results of TQM implementations:
if you want to be a first-rate company. people involved in new product development.you look at successful companies you find a much higher percentage of successful TQM implementation. they are more likely to view EDM/PDM as an information and workflow management system supporting the entire product life cycle then as a departmental solution for the management of CAD data
ASPECTS OF TQM
. don't focus on the secondrate companies who can't handle TQM. For example.
c) Continuous improvement. and they are supported by the key management functions of people. These are the foundations of TQM. comes first. The company believes it will only be successful if customers are satisfied.
TQM has a customer-first orientation. f) Employee participation. Customer satisfaction is seen as the company's highest priority.
The core of TQM is the customer-supplier interfaces. The customer.a) Customer-driven quality. The TQM company is sensitive to customer requirements and responds rapidly to them. In the TQM
. processes and systems in the organisation. b) Top management leadership and commitment. e) Actions based on facts. and g) A TQM culture. not internal activities and constraints. This core must be surrounded by commitment to quality. communication of the quality message. and at each interface lie a number of processes. d) Fast response. both externally and internally. and recognition of the need to change the culture of the organisation to create total quality.
and merely meeting specifications or reducing customer complaints. and in creating and deploying
. operating as a customer to some functions and as a supplier to others.context.instead it delegates and pays lip service. Attempts to implement TQM often fail because top management doesn't lead and get committed . It has to be introduced and led by top management. Commitment and personal involvement is required from top management in creating and deploying clear quality values and goals consistent with the objectives of the company. This is a key point. The concept of requirements is expanded to take in not only product and service attributes that meet basic requirements.
TQM leadership from top management
TQM is a way of life for a company. Each part of the company is involved in Total Quality. but also those that enhance and differentiate them for competitive advantage. and has to treat these internal customers with the same sensitivity and responsiveness as it would external customers. The Engineering Department is a supplier to downstream functions such as Manufacturing and Field Service. `being sensitive to customer requirements' goes beyond defect and error reduction.
well defined systems. The development and use of performance indicators is linked. methods and performance measures for achieving those goals. TQM also recognizes that product quality is the result of process quality. In turn this will lead to an improvement in product quality. use of EDM/PDM. and to an increase in customer satisfaction. As a result. continuous improvement of the quality of the product is seen as the only way to maintain a high level of customer satisfaction. there is a focus on continuous improvement of the company's processes. directly or indirectly. and to management and employee remuneration. and the way customer relationships are managed. These systems and methods guide all quality activities and encourage participation by all employees. to customer requirements and satisfaction. Improvement cycles are encouraged for all the company's activities such as product development. Once it is recognized that customer satisfaction can only be obtained by providing a high-quality product.
Continuous improvement of all operations and activities is at the heart of TQM. This
. This will lead to an improvement in process quality. As well as recognizing the link between product quality and customer satisfaction.
the company has to respond rapidly to customer needs.implies that all activities include measurement and monitoring of cycle time and responsiveness as a basis for seeking opportunities for improvement. When problems do occur within the product development process. The customer-driven approach helps to prevent errors and achieve defect-free production.
To achieve customer satisfaction. The result is a dramatic
. they are generally discovered and resolved before they can get to the next internal customer. Elimination of waste is a major component of the continuous improvement approach. This implies short product and service introduction cycles. Simplicity is gained through concurrent product and process development. and an emphasis on quality at the design stage. There is also a strong emphasis on prevention rather than detection. Efficiencies are realized from the elimination of nonvalue-adding effort such as re-design. These can be achieved with customer-driven and process-oriented product development because the resulting simplicity and efficiency greatly reduce the time involved.
can't take place.
. then the analysis.
Actions based on facts
The statistical analysis of engineering and manufacturing facts is an important part of TQM.improvement in the elapsed time from product concept to first shipment. Facts and analysis provide the basis for planning. improvement of operations. Usually these people are not managers but workers in the process. and comparison of performance with competitors. data is collected and put in the hands of the people who are in the best position to analyze it and then take the appropriate action to reduce costs and prevent non-conformance. and are not caused by particular employees. errors can't be identified. The statistical approach to process management in both engineering and manufacturing recognizes that most problems are system-related. or engineering test results. and so errors can't be corrected. The TQM approach is based on the use of objective data. and provides a rational rather than an emotional basis for decision making. In practice. review and performance tracking. whether it be of shop floor data. If the right information is not available.
Employees have to be made to feel that they are responsible for customer satisfaction. Employees are encouraged to take more responsibility. They are not going to feel this if they are excluded from the development of visions. TQM links remuneration to customer satisfaction metrics. As people behave the way they are measured and remunerated. A TQM culture It's not easy to introduce TQM. Such participation is reinforced by reward and recognition systems which emphasize the achievement of quality objectives. communicate more effectively. and innovate. They are unlikely to behave in a responsible way if they see management behaving irresponsibly . An open. cooperative culture has to be created by management. act creatively.saying one thing and doing the opposite.
Product development in a TQM environment
. strategies. It's important they participate in these activities.A successful TQM environment requires a committed and welltrained work force that participates fully in quality improvement activities. and plans. On-going education and training of all employees supports the drive for quality.
Management's focus is on controlling the overall process. and interact with their internal customers to deliver the required results. and rework are normal practice. and rewarding teamwork. management and execution. work-arounds.
. Early winners of the Baldrige Award include AT&T (1992).Product development in a TQM environment is very different to product development in a non-TQM environment. IBM (1990). changes. Teams are process-oriented. Product development in a TQM environment is customer-driven and focused on quality. and fire-fighting is necessary and rewarded. Without a TQM approach.
Awards for Quality achievement
The Deming Prize has been awarded annually since 1951 by the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers in recognition of outstanding achievement in quality strategy. Since 1988 a similar award (the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award) has been awarded in the US. Management focuses on supervising individuals. waste. product development is usually carried on in a conflictual atmosphere where each department acts independently. Short-term results drive behavior so scrap.
Motorola (1988). Texas Instruments (1992Xerox.
WHAT IS QUALITY?
A frequently used deﬁnition of quality is “Delighting the customer by fully meeting their needs and expectations”.Milliken (1989). These may include
However. Quality starts with market research – to establish the true requirements for the product or service and the true needs of the customers.
availability. all people. imperative that the organisation knows what these needs and expectations are. cost effectiveness and price. each home.supplier interfaces. each ofﬁce. These are “the quality chains”. Failure to meet the requirements in any part of a quality chain has a way of multiplying. It is.
reliability. suppliers and customer. all departments and all activities and be a common language for improvement. actually to the external customer. quality must span all functions.performance. The failure usually ﬁnds its way to the interface between the organisation and its external customer.
delivery. for an organisation to be really effective.
appearance. In addition. a series of customers. and they can be broken at any point by one person or one piece of equipment not meeting the requirements of the customer. Customers and suppliers There exist in each department.
maintainability. therefore. in the same way that the Japanese achieve this with company wide quality control. the organisation must understand them. having identiﬁed them. and measure its own ability to meet them. internal or external. or in the worst case. and failure in one part of the system creates problems
. The cooperation of everyone at every interface is necessary to achieve a total quality organisation.
To achieve quality throughout an organisation. or can. what must I do to improve this capability?) • Do I continually meet their needs and expectations? (If not. I ﬁnd out what these are? • How can I measure my ability to meet their needs and expectations? • Do I have the capability to meet their needs and expectations? (If not. what prevents this from happening when the capability exists?) • How do I monitor changes in their needs and expectations? Suppliers (internal and external) • Who are my internal suppliers? • What are my true needs and expectations? • How do I communicate my needs and expectations to my suppliers?
. and so the situation is exacerbated.elsewhere. leading to yet more failure and problems. every person in the quality chain must be trained to ask the following questions about every customer-supplier interface: Customers (internal and external) • Who are my customers? • What are their true needs and expectations? • How do. The ability to meet customers’ (external and internal) requirements is vital.
The ideal situation is an open partnership style relationship. These may include: • Leaders not giving clear direction • Not understanding. where both parties share and beneﬁt. Poor practices To be able to become a total quality organisation. or ignoring competitive positioning • Each department working only for itself • Trying to control people through systems • Confusing quality with grade • Accepting that a level of defects or errors is inevitable • Fire ﬁghting. reactive behaviour • The “It’s not my problem” attitude
The essential components of TQM – commitment & leadership
. each person must respect the needs and expectations of their suppliers.• Do my suppliers have the capability to measure and meet these needs and expectations? • How do I inform them of changes in my needs and expectations? As well as being fully aware of customers’ needs and expectations. some of the bad practices must be recognised and corrected.
. ensure they communicate the principles. and middle managers must. A fundamental requirement is a sound quality policy. organising and understanding each activity. with satisﬁed customers and good business results. It is a way of planning. Effective leadership starts with the development of a mission statement. Leaders must take responsibility for preparing. reviewing and monitoring the policy. supported by plans and facilities to implement it. These. strategies and beneﬁts to the people for whom they have responsibility. and of removing all the wasted effort and energy that is routinely spent in organisations. which is translated into action plans down through the organisation. combined with a TQM approach. effectiveness and ﬂexibility of an organisation for the beneﬁt of all stakeholders. Only then will the right attitudes spread throughout the organisation. as well as demonstrating their commitment. It ensures the leaders adopt a strategic overview of quality and focus on prevention not detection of problems. should result in a quality organisation.TQM is an approach to improving the competitiveness. to be successful. it must start at the top with the leaders of the organisation. plus take part in regular improvements of it and ensure it is understood at all levels of the organisation. Whilst it must involve everyone. All senior managers must demonstrate their seriousness and commitment to quality. followed by a strategy.
motivating and supporting people and encouraging effective employee participation The task of implementing TQM can be daunting. • Adopt the philosophy of zero errors/defects to change the culture to right ﬁrst time • Train people to understand the customer/supplier
relationships • Do not buy products or services on price alone – look at the total cost • Recognise that improvement of the systems must be managed
.The 5 requirements for effective leadership are: • Developing and publishing corporate beliefs. values and objectives. The following is a list of points that leaders should consider. often as a mission statement • Personal involvement and acting as role models for a culture of total quality • Developing clear and effective strategies and supporting plans for achieving the mission and objectives • Reviewing and improving the management system • Communicating. they are a distillation of the various beliefs of some of the quality gurus: • The organisation needs a long-term commitment to continuous improvement.
is an important part of the quality journey. A culture change. dominant values. every time. behaviours.g. from one of acceptance of a certain level of errors or defects to one of right ﬁrst time. The culture in any organisation is formed by the beliefs. e. and using that knowledge to successfully map the steps needed to accomplish a successful change. barriers to pride of workmanship and ﬁction – get facts by studying processes • Constantly educate and retrain – develop experts in the organisation • Develop a systematic approach to manage the
implementation of TQM Culture change The failure to address the culture of an organisation is frequently the reason for many management initiatives either having limited success or failing altogether. rules and the “climate”. norms. standards based only on numbers. Understanding the culture of an organisation. needs two key elements:
.• Adopt modern methods of supervising and training – eliminate fear • Eliminate barriers between departments by managing the process – improve communications and teamwork • Eliminate goals without methods.
In each area or function within an organisation there will be many processes taking place. methods and operations. The only point at which true responsibility for performance and quality can lie is with the People who actually do the job or carry out the process. as discussed in the section on People. which can include action. people. These must be carried out well if an organisation is to achieve its mission and objectives. and each can be analysed by an examination of the inputs and outputs to determine the action necessary to improve quality. which is the transformation of a set of inputs.
. which are groups of smaller processes. The section on Processes discusses processes and how to improve them. and Implementation covers how to prioritise and select the right process for improvement. management systems and performance measurement Everything we do is a Process. which satisfy the customers’ needs and expectations. In every organisation there are some very large processes.• Commitment from the leaders • Involvement of all of the organisation’s people There is widespread recognition that major change initiatives will not be successful without a culture of good teamwork and cooperation at all levels in an organisation. called key or core business processes. into the desired outputs. The building blocks of TQM: processes.
a climate for improvement and a strategy that is implemented thoughtfully and effectively. An efﬁcient and effective way to tackle process or quality improvement is through teamwork. but also. The Systems section discusses the beneﬁts of having such a system. and equally importantly. However. it needs Performance Measures to monitor and control the journey. ideally being cascaded down and most effectively undertaken as team activities and this is discussed in the section on
. It is imperative that the leaders take responsibility for the adoption and documentation of an appropriate management system in their organisation if they are serious about the quality journey. They can. covering roles within teams. and to ensure the desired level of performance is being achieved and sustained. Once the strategic direction for the organisation’s quality journey has been set. and should be. team selection and development and models for successful teamwork. established at all levels in the organisation. how to set one up and successfully implement it. sustain and build upon them. An appropriate documented Quality Management System will help an organisation not only achieve the objectives set out in its policy and strategy. people will not engage in improvement activities without commitment and recognition from the organisation’s leaders. The section on People expands on these issues.each of which has one or several suppliers and customers.
ABOUT THE ENTERPRISE
VEER ENTERPRISES SEASON’Z ICE CREAM
After the discussion of TQM in detail now we will discuss about TQM in a particular manufacturing plant. Here we will discuss that due to production which problems can be decrease the quality of product. We will discuss that how we can be maintain the quality. Every production procedure is differ than another. Every product is shifted from one to next department where quality is the main thing to produce a product. Now we will discuss about the particular product which is produced in manufacturing plant that is ICE CREAM, it is called also frozen desert. Ice cream is food product which demand much care about quality. In ice cream production quality is the main thing every point of production depend upon quality. Without quality we cannot spread our product in the market. Quality is main cause to increase the business. Due to ice cream production we need much consistency of quality. Quality increase the taste of ice cream. Now we will discuss about a firm of ice cream manufacturing. The firm name is VEER ENTERPRISES and the brand name is SEASON’z ice cream. • Firm Name :- Veer Enterprises
• Brand Name :- Season’z Ice cream
• Place • Prop.
:- Ludhiana :- Hardeep Singh
Myself Hardeep Singh. I am the owner of the plant of ice cream. I have the practical knowledge about the quality of ice cream. I am running this factory from last three years.
Now we will discuss every point where quality exist from bottom to top.S. I did not compromise with quality thus I earn less profit. the one thing was in my mind that was a quality maintenance. Raw material is the base of taste. So the raw material should be purchased from the good dealer and good distributor and should be branded company.M.When I established this plant. • Stab • Custard Powder
.The quality of every product is depend on the quality of raw material. Purchasing of raw material :. In ice cream manufacturing raw material is very important thing. The material which is used for making ice cream is that :• Milk • Milk Powder • Sugar • G. I kept one thing in my mind that I will never compromise with quality in any situation.
Milk powder :.• Cream • Essence • Sticks • Water
should be pure and full of fat.Milk powder is also making from milk. If it is not fresh we can not improve the quality.
Milk is the main thing for making ice creams. Milk should be pure quality and should be fresh.
. we purchase milk then milk should be checked by the fat machine and it should be pure and fresh. It is
also called dry milk.5 to making ice cream. In making of ice cream milk powder is used for increase the gravity of milk. When. Many companies are available in the market of dry milk. The minimum fat of milk should be 6 and the maximum 7. But the better one should be purchased like Uttam etc.
Essence :. because it is very
important to increase the quality.Essence are available in many flavors. In ice cream
different types of flavors are used.
8. The expiry date is mentioned by the company on every bottle.Sugar is basic part of taste. In market many companies are available of essence.
6. which is used for making mixture
thicker and light. Cream :. But according to me FBI (Bush) is the best one in this category.Cream should be pure and fresh. Sugar :.GMS is ingredient which is used for smoothness and
to make ice cream fluffy.Custard powder is mainly used in “ Stick
7. Custard powder:.
. It should be neither much nor less.
5. Sugar should be carefully
put in the mixture.It is also ingredient.S. :. FBI(Bush) is best quality product.3. Cream is very helpful in becoming material soft and tasteful. G.M. Stab :. But every essence should be used till the expiry date.
He should have the
. Milk Powder. Essence should be put in the milk accordingly to the quantity of the milk and this mixture should be cooked on the gas burner or the boiler till the giving time according to recipe. Stab. Sugar. Sticks should be
in perfect size and every stick should be in same size.The water is used for making ice candy must should
be filtered.the staff should be skilled because the quality of product is in the hand of staff.Sticks are mainly used in ice candy. Water :. Sticks :. Skilled Staff :.
10. He should have the knowledge about every ingredient. Stick should be in smooth stuff and very clean. If it is done accordingly to the selected ratio of ingredients we can get the best quality and delicious taste. The person who is appointed to make the ice cream should be skilled.
Quality of Mixture To make the mixture every ingredient should be put in the selected ratio because much quantity or less quantity of ingredient and become the cause of bad quality Every ingredients like GMS.9.
Helper. The hands of every staff member should be covered with gloves and head with cloth or cap. The other staff should be also skilled. The machine should be purchased from branded company.
Quality of machinery The machineries which are used to produce ice cream should be good quality and should be purchased from well know company.ability to produce the ice cream in any flavor.
TYPES OF MACHINES
Machine is the main processor to produce the quality. Different types of machines are used to produce ice cream. The all staff should have the efficiency to do work continues. He should have the ability to give the shape to ice cream clearly. The head of the department should be able to produce the quality in product and he should be able to operate the all machines properly.
. who helps the ice cream maker should be knowledgeable about his work.
Boiler 2. SIGMA is a branded company which is famous in all over India for ice cream machines. Charner
A Indian branded company which is manufacturing machines that is “SIGMA”.There are four types of machines which are mainly used in this process that are:1. Because the accuracy of this machine is better than local company machines. Homonizer 3. My own factory I purchased all machines from this company.
1.Boiler should be purchased from branded company the
mixture should be Boiled 15-20 mins. Boiler :.
. Gauge should be accurate of the boiler.
2.After making the mixture. Where mixture is pressed by the piston for getting the smoothness and better quality and then mixture is come out from a pipe.
. the mixture is passed
into the homonizer. The mixture put in the bowl and it reaches in the piston. Homonizer :.
3. Every gauge of charner should have accuracy. Charner :. The normal
charner have ten liter capacity to produce ice cream in one time. The charner takes twenty minute to ready one lot.
.Here mixture is reached in final process. All gauges should be in running condition.
The both sides of every brick box should be laminated. The inner and outer side should be laminated. it washes with water and after complete the work it washes again with water. The main thing is that ice cream should be packed properly and sealed properly in the wrapper and brick box. Packing Packing is the last stage which keep maintain the quality.
. Every packing wrapper and brick boxes should be made by better quality poly and better paper or card sheets. The expiry date should be mentioned on every packing material and manufacturing date also should be mentioned. Every packing material should be food grade. Before using the charner. Which is approved by health department. The ice cream should be packed properly in the wrapper and brick boxes.The blades of charner should be sharped.
It is must for getting quality. There should be proper ventilation in the factory.the all side of factory should be clean the floor of the factory should be washed daily. Cleanliness is must for the customer’s specially for children health even it is must quality maintenance. Every tub and jar in which material is kept should be covered with net. cleanliness is must to produce the better quality. tubs etc should be washed before and after using.
. Ice cream should be stored in rows and columns so that it remain safe and in original shape. Every thing which is used to produce ice cream like steel bucket. The door of the freezer should be properly closed and the freezer should be switched on continues 24 hours. steel jar. Cleanliness is also checked by the health department. The temperature of the freezer should be in minus (-) degree. And generator should be available in the factory. Cleanliness Cleanliness is the main cause to increase the quality . It should be near about of minus -20 to -26. Do not keep the material without cover.Storage The packed ice cream should be stored in the freezer. Garbage of the factory should placed in separate place.
It will adversely affect the organization. Quality means fitness for use. So to make the people happy is the responsibility of the organization. Quality means productivity. and timely delivery. The higher degree of commitment toward work will improve productivity and will decrease rejection cause due to human factor. total customer satisfaction. QUALITY:1. 2. competitive cost.
This is Total Quality Management Project Report.If human resource of organization is not happy with the organization. So this study is helpful to measure the level of commitment toward work and to know the factor affecting the commitment level. Human resource is the most important factor for any organization and success of any Organization is depending upon its resource . 3. Quality means conformance to specification and standard.
TOTAL: Every one associated with the company is involved in continuous improvement. first time. at all level.
. TOTAL QUALITY:It means all the people of the organization are committed to product quality by doing right things right. QUALITY: Customer express and implied requirement is met fully.4. commitment to quality in the workforce and promoting to open decision making. every time by employing organization resource to provide value to customer. Quality is what the customer says 6. Quality means getting every one to do what they have agreed to do and to do it right the first time and every time. 5. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT: It is the process designed to focus external/internal customer expectation preventing problems building. in all functional area. Conformance to requirements.
To improve existing lever of quality.
. To maintain existing lever of quality.MANAGEMENT: Decision in a planned way. Effective utilization of resource.
Quality system measure& record 7. Management by fact 3. Continuous improvement 5. Strong leadership 6. Team work. Competence 3. Commitment 2. speed. People oriented technology. Delight the customer 2. Communication
.PRINCIPLES OF TQM
1. Team accountable.
FOUR C’S OF TQM
1. People based management 4. correct problem 8.
4. The treatment of individual by the management The lever of worker’s satisfaction with the salaries The level of worker pride in the company and its activity Worker reaction to the formal communication network in the organization. Continuous improvement
FACTOR AFFECTED THE COMMITMENT OF THE EMPLOYEES
General worker attitude toward the company. General worker attitude toward the supervisor.
. Lever of satisfaction toward job standard. The lever of consideration the supervisor shows to his subordination. The workload & work pressure level.
.Intrinsic job satisfaction level of the worker. Worker attitude toward the fellow worker.
I have explained earlier. In the company. increase the
. I measured the degree of implementation in the organization and what are the factor that are affected the commitment lever and to check how much they are satisfaction with the TQM implement. I have collected the data from them and after that I have tabulated them and interpreted them and give the recommendation. I have made the questionnaire which consisting of multiple-choice questions. They sum up various finding.OPERATIONALISATION OF THE CONCEPT
I have studied on impact of employee’s commitment toward. They found that apply TQM has directly increased their morale. they already have implemented TQM so through this study. Focus of the problem: The main emphasis will be on to find out quality employee’s commitment toward their work as a result total quality implementation. For this purpose. Review of Existing literature: Many people have work on this topic.
VIKALPA etc. While many total
. These are the finding of various researchers.satisfaction lever and commitment toward their work. But the effect of TQM on employees commitment in the company has so far not undertaken. Several articles have been published in different journals. magazines and newspaper such as HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW.
TQ(S)M Squared In May's issue of Focus. Paul Varga of Service Graphics wrote an article entitled TQ(S)M= Total Quality (Sales) Management. This project has been done first time in the company. THE
many of our commercial customers were implementing their own quality programs. While the basic tenets of quality have always been appealing. Quality in the sales and marketing process first became a critical issue to me about six years ago. Our "bid" prices were uplifted by others to reflect the cost of non-compliance. imagine my plight as a sales executive for a high technology company faced with the following scenarios: Many of our Department of Defense Subcontractors (at the time about 40% of our business) were imposing their vendor quality programs on us. TQ(S)M is a critical issue for sales and executive management. At the time. all of which were bad news if you did not comply. At the same time. The sales teams were not equipped to deal with any of these programs. Each customer had their own program. Our salespeople found themselves being measured against yardsticks they didn't understand.quality management programs have fallen into disfavor. Paul's comments about the value of TQ(S)M struck a chord based on some tough experiences over past years. and others were applying Six Sigma
. Other customers were beginning to look at ISO 9000. Motorola was telling us that we would be required to compete for the Baldrige award. We were found non-compliant by some customers and not allowed to compete.
while others had their unique programs. Many of the tough goals the corporation had set for itself were non-compliant when compared to those goals our customers were setting for their suppliers (us!!). We had to recognize that sales and
. development and administration.
Second was finding a quality training program that focused on the needs of salespeople.measurement criteria. The sales organization wanted to comply with our customers' needs and continue to be recognized as a quality business partner. our corporation had defined and implemented an aggressive quality program. no one had spoken with the salespeople or with the customers. None had programs targeted to the sales and marketing functions. Most had developed their own programs with minimal help from quality professionals. However. we had to learn how to take a close look at ourselves and clean up our own house. We had several challenges:
The first was getting our own company to recognize that quality is defined by the customer. but did not know where to begin. Like our customers. I visited some of the Baldrige award winners to discover how they had trained their sales organizations. The quality professionals seemed to focus on the "hard" sides of business--manufacturing.
First. we caught the attention of our chairman and the rest of the corporation.). It helps when the Chairman of the Board chairs that council. the job became fairly easy at that point. (These 44 customers represented a significant amount of business. we began introducing our people to the basic concepts of quality and
.marketing are definable processes. I had the opportunity to present our customers' quality requirements to our corporate quality council.
Then we undertook developing our own quality programs. each failure hit the salesperson in the wallet!!
The first step was relatively easy. both as a corporation and as sales professionals--after all. just as the other functions in an organization. We had to define our process. but it meant our survival.) Frankly. We mapped the 44 customer driven quality programs and compliance requirements against our corporate quality goals. Once it became obvious that meeting our internal quality goals would not meet our customers' quality requirements and that we faced losing business. define how to measure ourselves and then seek to improve our processes (the Japanese and quality guru's call it Kaizen. It was one step in becoming customer focused. It took a lot of work.
We realized that we could adopt a simple process and apply that. but could not capture the attention of management. we started becoming attentive to a number of other factors---returns. I remember countless individuals talking about small problems impacting our customers that we needed to fix. We started to examine the process of selling. the number of telephone rings in our offices and telemarketing centers and other measurements. I think our people always knew we could and should do better. Rather than just tracking revenue. with discipline. expenses and a few other things. but taken separately they didn't catch our attention. On second thought. maybe they established better awareness with the executive management staff. to
. Then we sponsored a number of projects to understand where we were and to make small improvements. In hindsight. How did we define our process from the overall management of the business down to the daily activities of the salespeople? How could we do this without creating a bureaucracy which diverted our focus--satisfying our customers' requirements and profitably growing our business? Benchmarking some leading sales organizations helped us tremendously. Finally we began to undertake the big task. We opted for simplicity. Each of these projects started establishing awareness in different parts of the organization.customer satisfaction. Now we were paying attention. delivery.
not the way we wanted it to be. to improving the effectiveness and productivity of each salesperson.
In each selling situation. They are really interested in my business and my problems!"
Our results were tremendous.
Our process forced us to focus on the way the world was. Our forecast integrity improved tremendously. to coaching and developing everyone in the organization. the selling process and each sales situation. Our customers started looking at us as a valued business partner. We were growing. cost per order dollar was declining. Only upon implementing this process were we able to see the PHENOMENAL results it produced! We started to see the following:
We had a common language and process to manage the business. not our need to sell. we began to focus on the customer need to buy. We drove a fact base approach to managing the organization. to territory management. Customers would call me and ask "What have you done? Your salespeople are asking me questions I have never been asked before. Our company was becoming much more customer focused. The productivity of the sales organization was improving.
. We were no longer "blacklisted" as noncompliant by our customers.everything that we did--from business management.
specifically. examine the factors driving all of us to improve the quality and effectiveness of our sales organizations. Many companies in this area need to train their salespeople in partnering with their automotive customers in implementing the QS9000 programs.
. Supplier participation is an important factor in this standard--our salespeople stand at the forefront of working with customers in assuring that we comply with the needs of our customers.TQ(S)M makes sense! In the greater Cleveland area. One organization adopting a process similar to that I described reduced its sales cycle by an average of 40%. consider the results other companies have achieved by introducing a quality and process orientation to sales. The automotive industry has adopted a standard by which it will measure all suppliers--QS9000. Organizations I have managed have reduced cost per order dollar by over 20%. ISO9000 is driving other companies. If those reasons are not important enough. One organization implementing this process orientation has enabled itself to become the strategic vendor of choice to many of its customers--purely because of the ability of the sales organization to focus on its customers' problems.
gurus. It provides the competitive edge. Whether you call it total quality or not.
Quality Management history. TQM theories. and organisational commitment
improvement. creating customer focused partnerships which drive growth and profitability is key to all sales executives. it makes the sales organization more effective and productive.TQ(S)M makes business sense! As Paul's article pointed out.
The materials listed and linked from this page are subject to Crown Copyright. ideas. Enterprise and Regulatory Reform. from mere 'inspection' to Total Quality Management.The history of quality management. and its modern 'branded interpretations such as 'Six Sigma'. Please note that since the replacement of the UK Department of Industry by the Department for Business.now the Department for Business. and for teaching and training others. These free resources. since the Quality Management technical and historical content is unaffected by the DTI branding the materials remain relevant for training. teams and organizations. and the performance improvements that are generally desired for individuals. has led to the development of essential processes. the branding on the materials is now obsolete. for study and learning. materials and tools are an excellent guide to the quality management area. Nevertheless. change management. theories and tools that are central to organizational development.
. These free pdf materials are provided by permission of the UK Department of Industry .which is gratefully acknowledged. learning and reference. Enterprise and Regulatory Reform . for practical application in organizations.
Juran did more than teach the Japanese about quality management.effectively for quality to become part of part of people's behaviour and attitudes .It is appropriate to note the passing a little while back now.
HISTORY OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT
The roots of Total Quality Management can be traced to early 1920's production quality control ideas. and the positive ethical management of people. a seminal figure in the history of quality management. who died 28 February 2008. and notably the concepts developed in
. He was also arguably the first quality expert to emphasise that no quality management system works unless people are empowered and committed to take responsibility for quality .an ethos. age 103. of Joseph Juran.as an ongoing process . The section below on Kaizen explains the connections between the true ethos of quality management.
More about the Quality Management gurus and their theories. stratification. Just In Time (JIT). etc. Juran and Deming. and Armand Feigenbum. pioneered there by Americans Feigenbum. parameter design. histograms.. Management By Walking About (MBWA).Japan beginning in the late 1940's and 1950's.. Genichi Taguchi. cause and effect diagrams. system design. QUALITY MANAGEMENT GURUS AND THEORIES Quality Management resulted mainly from the work of the quality gurus and their theories: the American gurus featured in the 1950's Japan: Joseph Juran. check-sheets.. Do. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)
. Check. W Edwards Deming. Pareto analysis. Act (PDCA) cycle. who further extended the Quality Management concepts after the Japanese successes. the Japanese quality gurus who developed and extended the early American quality ideas and models: Kaoru Ishikawa. scatter-charts. Quality Improvement Teams (QIT). notably Philip Crosby and Tom Peters. McKinsey 7-S Framework. and the 1970-80's American Western gurus. including the development and/or use of the Plan. process control charts. tolerance design ('Taguchi methodology'). and Shigeo Shingo.
together with the acknowledgement that the right organizational culture is essential for effective Total Quality
Management.Total Quality Management features centrally the customer-supplier interfaces.. PROCESSES . A number of processes sit at each interface.. and the importance of communicating this quality commitment. More about the fundamentals and structures of the TQM model. This is a central aspect to Total Quality Management. Central also is an organizational commitment to quality. processes and systems in the organization. More about Total Quality Management process and process improvement methods. (external and internal customers and suppliers).UNDERSTANDING PROCESSES AND METHODS FOR PROCESS IMPROVEMENT Understanding processes is essential before attempt is made to improve them..
.. including the people.. and also to more modern quality and process improvement interpretations and models such as Six Sigma..
A summary of quality tools is below Developing people and teams People are a fundamental component within any successfully developing organization.. prioritising and improving processes which are critical to quality. matrix analysis. inspire the people to work well. Logically therefore. measuring. Statistical Process Control (SPC). These process improvement tools and techniques include: DRIVE (Define. creatively. Take away the people and the organization is nothing. Take away the people's motivation.QUALITY PROCESS 8IMPROVEMENT TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
A wide range of tools and techniques is used for identifying. the organization is nothing. bar charts. such as Six Sigma. Control charts. Again these ideas and methods feature prominently in modern interpretations of Total Quality Management methodology. Identify. and again. Verify. Conversely. brainstorming. scatter diagrams. Review. check-sheets. Pareto analysis. and the organization can fly. cause and effect. productively. Execute). flow-charting. 'dot plot' and tally charts. process mapping. commitment and ability to work together in well-organised teams. the development and proper
. force field analysis. histograms.
Modern measurement focuses on the essential activities. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT There are many ways to measure organizational performance other than financial output or profit. training and developing and motivating people. assessing. Performing' model. There are a wide range of models that are used in selecting. among which are classical models such as Belbin. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS A 'Total Quality organization' generally benefits from having an effective Quality Management System (QMS). Therefore Quality Management Systems focus on customer expectations and ongoing review and improvement. Norming." Customer expectations inevitably drive and define 'performance' criteria and standards. resources and other factors . John Adair's Action Centred Leadership model. Myers Briggs Type Indicator (see the personality models section).utilization of people are vital to the success of all quality management initiatives.many less intangible than
. Storming. Bruce Tuckman's
'Forming. A Quality Management System is typically defined as: "A set of co-ordinated activities to direct and control an organization in order to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of its performance.
Here is an explanation of
benchmarking.traditional indictors . TQM SELF-ASSESSMENT AND AWARDS USING THE EFQM® MODEL Any organization can assess itself provided it has the commitment to so so.. These include modern methods such as Balanced Scorecard. EXCELLENCE AND THE EUROPEAN QUALITY
MANAGEMENT MODEL The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model® is a useful framework for developing quality and excellence within an organization.that impact on final outputs.. Here are some ideas... and a questionnaire by which an organization (or a department or process team) can assess its readiness for benchmarking. and a process for quality and excellence self-assessment. and a framework for the self-assessment. TQM BENCHMARKING AND QUESTIONNAIRE (READINESS FOR BENCHMARKING) Benchmarking is a widely used term within the field of organizational measurement and management . TQM IMPLEMENTATION FRAMEWORK AND BLUEPRINT
KAIZEN Kaizen is a very significant concept within quality management and deserves specific explanation:
. along with the other resources in this section. It includes the following elements:
TQM Processes Tools and techniques People and teamwork Quality management system Performance measurement EFQM Excellence Model® Self-assessment
This blueprint for achieving organizational excellence is based on many years of research.Here is a framework and 'blueprint' for the implementation of a quality improvement or 'excellence' initiative. Enterprise and Regulatory Reform. now replaced by the Department for Business. education and advisory work in the European Centre for Business Excellence (ECforBE). It is. information and advice initially from the UK Department of Industry. and the research and education division of Oakland Consulting plc.
Kaizen is a way of thinking. Kaizen should be 'lived' rather than imposed or tolerated. materials. commonly translated to mean 'continuous improvement'.
. sustainable and innovative. working and behaving. To eliminate waste of time. at all levels. stable. resources and effort
and increase productivity. and has for many years since been interpreted and adopted by 'western' organizations all over the world. Kaizen continues to be a successful philosophical and practical aspect of some of the best known Japanese corporations. money. Originally developed and applied by Japanese industry and
manufacturing in the 1950s and 60s. and specifically within the methods of Total Quality Management and 'Lean Manufacturing'.Kaizen (usually pronounced 'kyzan' or 'kyzen' in the western world) is a Japanese word. The aims of a Kaizen organization are typically defined as:
To be profitable. embedded in the philosophy and values of the organization. Kaizen is a core principle of quality management generally.
To create a harmonious and dynamic organization where every
employee participates and is valued. every minute of every day.•
To make incremental improvements to systems.
Everyone involved in a process or activity.
. Key concepts of Kaizen:
Every is a key word in Kaizen: improving everything that
everyone does in every aspect of the organization in every department. however apparently
Everyone is expected to participate. less disruptive and more sustainable than improving one thing by 100% when the need becomes unavoidable. providing feedback
and suggesting improvements to their area of work. 1%
improvements to 100 things is more effective. processes and
activities before problems arise rather than correcting them after the event. has valuable knowledge and participates in a working team or Kaizen group (see also Quality Circles below).
Evolution rather than revolution: continually making small.
Management practice enables and facilitates this. At its best.•
Every employee is empowered to participate fully in the
improvement process: taking responsibility. Like any methodology however. and which helps to align 'hard' organizational inputs and aims (especially in process-driven environments). This encourages commitment and interest.
Every employee is involved in the running of the company. or worse cause them to be counter-productive. Kaizen is a carefully nurtured philosophy that works smoothly and steadily. poor interpretation and implementation can limit the usefulness of Kaizen practices. checking and co-ordinating their own activities. with 'soft' management issues such as motivation and empowerment.
. leading to fulfilment and job satisfaction. and is
trained and informed about the company. without
fixing the basic structure and philosophy. Kaizen teams use analytical tools and techniques to review systems and look for ways to improve (see Quality Tools below).
Kaizen is poorly integrated with processes and people's thinking. Kaizen is unsuccessful typically where:
Kaizen methods are added to an existing failing structure.
. Kaizen works best when it is 'owned' by people. for example the Y-Theory principles described by Douglas McGregor. such initatives depend heavily on commitment from above. Executive/leadership doesn't understand or support Kaizen.•
Training is inadequate. who see the concept as both empowering of individuals and teams. Employees and managers regard Kaizen as some form of imposed
procedure. the spirit of Kaizen.is reflected in many 'western' concepts of management and motivation. As ever. and a truly practical way to improve quality and performance. whose involvement drives the change and improvement in the first place. critically:
to encourage and support Kaizen. and to ensure improvements produce not only better productivity and
profit for the organization. lacking meaningful purpose. Interestingly. which is distinctly Japanese in origin notably its significant emphasis upon individual and worker
empowerment in organizations . and thereby job satisfaction and reward. but also better recognition and reward and other positive benefits for employees.
Maslow's Needs Hierarchy and related thinking.which
might be regarded as cold and detached and focused on 'things' not people. Adams' Equity Theory. teamwork. profit . communication.Theory.
progressive 'humanist' ideas about motivating and managing
people . Fascinatingly. tools. The point is that in all effective organizations a very strong mutual dependence exists between:
systems.the 'hard' inputs and
outputs (some say 'left-side brain'). and keep them aligned.the 'soft' inputs and outputs ('right-side brain') Kaizen helps to align these factors. recognition and
reward . motivation.which might be regarded as too compassionate and caring to have a significant place in the optimization of organizational productivity and profit. we can now see that actually very close connections exist between:
the fundamental principles of Quality Management . processes. and
people. and Charles Handy's motivational theories. productivity.
The main Quality Tools are:
The '5 Whys' .Quality tools 'Quality Tools' refers to tools and techniques used in support of Kaizen and other quality improvement or quality management programmes and philosophies. in which primary categories are generally pre-determined according to context.fishbone-structured diagram for
identifying cause/effect patterns. See fishbone diagram and usage examples for project management. also found in business process modelling.
potentially used in brainstorming. Quality Tools are used at all levels of an organization .
.typically in 'quality circles' or Kaizen work teams to analyse and review activities and uncover inefficiencies.
Run Charts .
Fishbone/Ishikawa Diagrams .a graph which plots data/change along a timeline.
Flowcharts . Based mainly on statistical and manufacturing process tools.boxes and arrows method of examining activities.asking 'Why?' at least five times to uncover root
cause of a problem.
especially biggest relative cause. Others tools such as the Fishbone diagram have stayed quite specific to the engineering and manufacturing disciplines. according to known useful criteria
performance/time for a given process. which acts as a template to check conformance and deviation.pre-formatted lists for noting incidence. like flowcharts and checklists.
Checklists/Checksheets . which traditionally have a strong focus and expertise in Kaizen.•
Pareto Charts . which produces a useful visual indication of the relationship between the two variables.a graph which plots points
(typically very many individual instances) according to two variables. etc.
Histograms . based on Pareto theory.
.a bar graph displaying data in simple categories
which together account for a total. Some quality tools. 'Lean' management and other quality management methodologies.
frequency.a line and bar graph displaying cause/effect ratios.. have become part of mainstream management. often in Run Chart format.
Scatter Diagram/Scatterplot .
similar to Kaizen teams. It
. in which case the name tends to imply or symbolise that teams are working in an empowered. The term Quality Circles may be found in more general use outside of these traditional areas. Teams or small groups (the circles) meet to analyse. As with many Quality Tools. especially focused on problem-solving and improvements. and review working practices with a view to making suggestions for improvement in their work and the systems.QUALITY CIRCLES Quality circles. This article contains a summary of implementation of TQM improvement projects in the Manufacturing and Service Sectors over the last 5 years. the specific use of Quality Circles is chiefly concentrated among manufacturing and engineering organizations or in technical departments of this sort. are a key part of any continuous improvement programme. cooperative way. rather than a strict adherence to technical Total Quality Management or related processes. In this context the word 'circle' refers to a team of people.
a common methodology was used as a systematic way to 7 QC tools are widely employed within this methodology
1.highlights difficulties encountered in using specific improvement tools as well as handling of the team members. The DEFINE phase
TQM IMPROVEMNT METHODOLOGY
Throughout these TQM improvement projects.
resource required and potential constraints While this is a simple phase to accomplish. often team members are faced with difficulties for some valid reasons. Some of the common difficulties encountered are as follows:a) Team leader cannot decide whether to use the above tools to select project even though project is already assigned by the management b) Team leader lack experience in directing team members
. Some tools commonly used to help members to select improvement projects are as follows:a) Brain Storming b) Multi Voting c) Selection Grid d) Problem Statement Upon completion of using the tools. goal and target. team members will be able to select and agreed to a project which may be an opportunity for improvement or problem. team members are required to identify improvement projects.In this phase. boundaries of the process to be improved. A Problem Statement is used as a summary of this phase to state the nature of the project.
This analysis is done systematically and logically as follows:a) The scope of the subject matter b) Current performance (problematic) trend c) Identify possible causes of the opportunity or problem d) Detail diagnostic to the root cause of the confirmed true causes Certainly. these steps are performed using common improvement tools include 7-QC tools such as Brainstorming. Often than not. Trend Charting. team members
. As expected. team members do not seems to able to grasp the use of these tools effectively. Fish-Bone Diagram and why-Why Analysis. Team members use these tools selectively to dissect the problem into smaller junks and look at them critically.c) Lack of initial data to support decision making d) Team members are not well verse with the subject matter e) Lack understanding of the improvement tools
2. The ANALYSE phase
This is a critical phase where the current state of the subject matter as well as root causes will be analysed in detail. Data collection.
The reasons for this are several. Based on these causes. Upon completed the Analyse phase. namely. planning to improve them is the key
. some of them are as follows:a) Team leader dominate in team discussion b) Some team members used past experience to make conclusion c) Data collection is tedious d) Lack data analytical skill e) Lack focus during brainstorming on possible causes f) Did not spend enough time to validate the possible causes g) Too judgmental on the causes h) Root cause analysis is often skip after possible causes is identified
3. And to some extend. The IMPROVE phase
There are two steps in this phase. the root causes of the problem is identified. the team members would have some ideas what are some of the causes of the problem. plan the improvement and Implement the improvement plan.make conclusion to the "root cause" too soon without factual data to support.
they are implemented without considering the risk involved. There are several tools involve in doing so. these action / solution cause different set of problem. when an action / solution is identified. Sometime when they are implemented.objective of this IMPROVE Phase. Risk analysis was not enough or lacking before they are implemented. During my consulting projects. often than not. Some of the difficulties encountered by the team members during this IMPROVE phase are as follows:76
. team leaders failed to stay control of the "excitement of success" when action / solution is identified. namely:a) Brainstorming of action / solution b) Selection Grid c) Benchmarking d) Cost-Benefit Analysis e) Control lot and testing f) Pilot the action / solution g) Force-Field Analysis h) Prevention Planner Traditionally.
Besides tracking and monitoring. The CONTROL phase
This is the most neglected but critical phase to ensure action / solution put in placed are permanently yield expected results. These are the critical components of the whole Improvement Projects to ensure sustainability of the improvement. members tends to keep track of the result without realizing it is the action / solution that bring about the improvement of the results. It cannot be over emphasized the importance of CONTROL. New action / solution involve change. Managing the change is often neglected) d) Some action / solution are not carried out as expected
4. it is important that new action / solution are standardized across the company with simple yet effective work instructions and Standard Operating
. However.a) Action / solution taken causes other problem (Jump into the action without further evaluation of the risk) b) Action / solution does not yield long term result (Member got over exited about the action / solution and forgot about the root causes. forgot about the human factor. c) Line workers refuse to abide to the new action / solution (Focus too much on technical aspect of the action / solution. Not only team need to control the improvement result but equally important the action / solution.
Procedures. They are some basic tools used in this phase. That Management team has included these items in their operation review meeting until such a time they feel it is sustainable. least difficulties were encountered by team members. Perhaps it was due to the fact that most action / solution are taken placed in the work area they are in charge. And they are periodically audited for compliance. namely:a) Trend Charting b) Control Chart c) Documentation d) Audit e) On-job training f) Re-certification During this phase. However. there are cases where teams are set up for a cross-function project in which action / solution to be taken are in work areas not the responsibility of the team members. In which case. team members faced with the following difficulties:a) Action and solution are not carried out consistently b) Some of the line workers are not aware of the changes
c) Tracking is focus on results but did not extend to the action / solution The above article is a compilation of issues in several TQM projects facilitated by the author in various manufacturing and service sectors from year 2001 to 2006. These projects are categorized as:Sales Improvement Projects such as:a) Customer & Market Analysis b) Reduction in Customer Complaints c) Production Uptime d) Delivery Cycle Time e) Loan Processing And Cost Reduction Projects such as:a) Quality Improvement b) Process Optimization c) Increase Boiler Efficiency d) Reduce Material Losses e) Reduce Electricity Consumption
sustaining the effort and so on. To name a few. sustainability and Reward & Recognition. other aspects not included in this article are management commitment. However. Besides these tangible benefits. the above projects were completed and their duration varied depending on project complexity. gain analytical and project improvement skill etc
.f) Reduce Machine Downtime g) Reduce Repair & Maintenance h) Reconcile Insurance Policy Premium etc This article deals with some common difficulties encountered during the implementation of improvement projects with regards to the use of tools. gaining extra understanding to the processes. Also. implementing action and solutions. In summary. improvement and its related cost saving varied too. the cost of project. the project saving ranged from few thousand to a million Malaysian Ringgit. team member work well together as a team than before. As an indication. there are several intangible benefits too.
To study the level of commitment of employees toward their work.OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study are: 1. To find the degree of TQM implemented in the organization.
. 2. 3. To find out factor influencing the commitment.
. The sequence or steps followed have been explained as under: UNIVERSE AND SURVEY POPULATION The universe is the employee working at mill.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology is a way to solve the research problem in a systematic manner. The methodology may differ from problem to problem. I have selected 100 employees 40 FROM THE STAFF. yet the basic approach towards the research remains the same. It may understand as a science of studying how the research is done significantly. 60 FROM THE WORKER for the survey.
This also increases their commitment toward the work and toward the organization. practices followed in the organization.
. I have prepared a questionnaire on the basis of the factors responsible for employee’s commitment in the organization MACRO ANALYSIS (Inferences &Interpretation) The detailed analyses of the results are explained below: MOST OF EMPLOYEES FEELS THAT: Most of the staff member and worker feel that organization is quality conscious toward the employees. But some of employees feel that there is no proper communication. Some of the employee’s feel that thy have proper information about the policies.This research is of EXPLORATARY RESEARCH DESIGN. which I have been collected with the help of questionnaire.I have used the questionnaire method for collecting the data. ANALYSIS PATTERN Data collection: This data is primary data. Most of the facts related with the organization are hided by the management from the employees.
Employees of the organization may hide the fact.
1. Most of the staff’s member feels that their performance is properly measured in the organization.Most of the employees feel that they don’t get rewarded for their good performance.
. 3. so clear conclusion can’t be drawn. Numbers of respondents are very less. 2. The management did not agree to disclose all the confidential data.
The food product business like ice cream can be survive only upon quality and originality. If the product quality is better then people would like our product. Ice cream is a food product where existence of quality is must.
. Without quality we can not spread our product in the market and our brand name can not be get famous without quality. national as well as international level. Quality can raise popularity of our product on region.CONCLUSION
After of the discussion about quality in the particular manufacturing plant we can say that the over all product is depend on quality. In the nutshell we can say that all over business depends upon the better quality.
The suggestions I have given for the betterment are explained below: ü It is very important to provide the opportunity to the employees of the organization to express their ideas or whatever they want to express ü Management should clear their vision mission and goals towards the employees in the organization. ü Management should involve the workers representatives in managerial activities so that the transparency could be maintained and through this they can win the confidence of the employees.
. ü Management should give due importance to mental relaxation &social cultural development of an employees who strives hard for the company.
which make our products the best “Pleasure Food” there is.
Role clarity of each position should be defined and based on that individuals can plan their work accordingly. fruit and chocolate.
Proper cooperation should be necessary in the company. Our passion is inspired by our love for simple ingredients like milk. denial. Taste the fun side of life Mention ice cream and most people think of the Heartbrand.ü
Reward or Praise/appreciation works as magic for an individual and motivates them for work. providing moments of daily pleasure is still really important for our customers and their families. Self-potential system should be encouraged.
We believe that people need small moments of pleasure in their lives. The brand with the big red heart logo is behind many much-loved ice cream classics
. in a way responsible for putting that smile on the consumer's face. we take great pride in believing that we are. restraint and 'less is more'.
There are regular review and comparison of current & past performance to detect gradual deterioration in the strategy.
In a world of stress. Moreover.
lower sugar products.. add up to make a huge difference. We say that because it is a scientifically proven fact that happy people live longer. that ice cream really does make you happy! We believe that little pleasures in life.
. Pleasure is not a sin. Ice Cream makes you happy . Making you happy Few foods are guaranteed to put a smile on people's faces like ice cream. Heartbrand now provides lighter versions for those watching the calories and smaller sizes for smaller appetites. at some point.The pleasure areas . It is actually oxygen for the soul.from indulgent treats like Magnum and Cornetto.its official! A study carried out using FMRI brain scanners showed that eating Wall's had an immediate effect on the part of the brain that is activated when someone is really enjoying themselves . So we now have scientific evidence to prove what we all already knew. to the refreshing fruit tastes of Solero and family favourites like Viennetta.there's something for everyone. as well old favourites . But while ice cream should always be fun. we've an ever-growing range of lower fat.