COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -- Lib. ...
S. Bonaventurae Bagnoregis
S. R. E. Episc. Card. Albae atque Doctor Ecclesiae Universalis
St. Bonaventure of Bagnoregio
Cardinal Bishop of Alba & Doctor of the Church
Commentaria in Quatuor Libros Sententiarum
Magistri Petri Lombardi, Episc. Parisiensis SECUNDI LIBRI
Commentaries on the Four Books of Sentences
of Master Peter Lombard, Archbishop of Paris BOOK TWO
COMMENTARIUS IN DISTINCTIONEM III.
PARS I. ARTICULUS I. Quaestio II.
COMMENTARY ON DISTINCTION III
PART I ARTICLE I Question 2
Opera Omnia S. Bonaventurae, Ad Claras Aquas, 1885, Vol. 2, pag. 94-99 Cum Notitiis Originalibus
Latin text taken from Opera Omnia S. Bonaventurae, Ad Claras Aquas, 1885, Vol. 2, pp. 94-99. Notes by the Quaracchi Editors.
QUAESTIO II. Utrum materia, ex qua compositi sunt Angeli, sit eadem cum materia corporalium.
QUESTION 2 Whether the matter, out of which the Angels have been composed, is the same with the matter of corporals?
SECUNDO DATO, quod habeant1 compositionem SECOND GRANTED, that (the Angels)1 have a
ex materia et forma, large sumto nomine materiae ad omne potentiale, quod cum alio venit ad constitutionem tanquam fundamentum rei; quaeritur de illa materia, utrum sit eadem cum materia corporalium. Non loquor de identitate secundum essentiam numeralem, sicut Socrates senex est idem sibi puero secundum substantiam;2 sed loquor secundum identitatem naturae communis, ut sicut omnes anuli de auro dicuntur habere eandem materiam per naturam composition out of matter and form, having taken the name of “matter” regarding every potential, which together with another comes to the constitution (of a thing) as the fundament of the thing; there is asked concerning that matter, whether it be the same with the matter of (things) corporal. I am not speaking of an identity according to the essence of a number, just as Socrates, the old man, is the same according to substance to himself, as a boy; but
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another (part) in another.4 but substance is one genus.
3. intellectual and lacking an intellect ». quo mensurantur omnia quae sunt in illo genere ».
am speaking according to the identity of a common nature. sed numerus est in spiritualibus et corporalibus uniformiter. quam ipse prius de nihilo condidit. What (is) more express than this? 2. quod
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10/04/12 10:39 p. who considers the essences of things: therefore in the genus of substance there is one something. ut vult Philosophus in decimo primae Philosophiae. it is necessary. Et quod sit idem per essentiam. qui considerat rerum intentiones.. According to the authority of (St. that one find some nature common among them. Sed illud non potest esse principium extrinsecum. erit vel materia.COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -.. Si materia. aliquam naturam communem in eis reperire. alia in alio. species multiformes divisit ». according to which there are measured all in that genus. cunctarum rerum.m. necesse est. quo mensurantur omnia in illo genere. 3. vel forma. ratione videtur: « In quolibet genere est reperire unum primum. Sed hoc non potest esse forma: restat ergo. videtur. But that cannot be an extrinsic principle. as the Philosopher wants in the tenth (book) of (his) First Philosophy. intellectualium et intellectu carentium. according to which there are measured all which are in that genus ». if form.org/bonaventura/opera/bon02094. just as all rings of gold are said to have the “same” matter through nature or essence. seems: 1. but the unity of form necessarily presupposes the unity of matter: ergo etc. but (also) according to the metaphysician.. not only according to the logician. et alia pars secundum substantiam sit in uno. it seems by reason: « In any genus there is a finding of one prime (being). divided the multiform species of all other things. it will be either matter. so that. that is of (those) sensible and insensible. Item. which He Himself first founded from nothing. Quid hoc expressius? 2. hoc est sensibilium et insensibilium. (you) also (number) ten angels — for the number of the Angels will be supplied out of men — therefore it is necessary. habeo propositum. si forma. quod insit eis secundum aliquod commune. who considers the intentions (i.franciscan-archive. but there is a number among spiritual and corporal (things) in a uniform manner.4 sed substantia est unum genus. Likewise. and/or matter. vel materia. in the first chapter:3 « The Omnipotent God out of the formless matter. Likewise. secundum quam haec passio insit.
sive essentiam. . whensoever any common passion is in some subjects.Lib. sed secundum metaphysicum. sed unitas formae necessario praesupponit unitatem materiae: ergo etc. cum tamen numeraliter varietur. Auctoritate Augustini de Mirabilibus sacrae Scripturae primo capitulo:3 « Omnipotens Deus ex informi materia. et decem angelos — numerus enim Angelorum supplebitur ex hominibus — ergo necesse est. and/or form. e.6 according to which you number ten men. non tantum secundum logicum. both one part (of the common matter) according to substance is in one (of them).6 quo numeras decem homines.
http://www. cum secundum huius maiorem et minorem participationem intrinsecam5 res illius generis magis et minus sint: ergo cum principium intrinsecum non sit nisi forma. qui considerat essentias rerum: ergo in genere substantiae est unum aliquod. because according to the same number. I have (arrived at) the proposed. since according to the greater or lesser intrinsic5 participation in this things of that genus are more or less: therefore since there is no intrinsic principle but form. even though (their matter) varies according to number [numeraliter]. quandocumque aliqua passio communis inest aliquibus subiectis. quia eodem numero. Item.) Augustine On the Wonders of Sacred Scripture.
. that it be in them according to something common. meanings) of things. If matter. And that it is the same (thing) through essence.
7 aut distinguitur. on the contrary: that in which spiritual and corporal (things) differ / most of all. (text. 4 In hac propositione. together with edition 1.
Vat. (III. therefore they have a form. “On Difference”. cf. c. 6 Trusting in codices H K P Q T Y and bb for standard of measure [modo] we have substituted number [numero]. et V.COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -. cum edd. 1 substantiis pro subiectis. ff. 4. together with edition 1. . text. I. or not?” If not: therefore (the matter of one and of the other) are the same through essence: if so: since every distinction is from form.
The Vatican edition reads an Angel has [Angelus habeat]. — On the following proposition. q.. Likewise. Aristot. in which several codices preface to the word the intentions [intentiones] the words the reasons and [rationes et]. and then after all [omnia] codex H adjoins which are [quae sunt]. sed sicut materia habet esse incompletum. that a perfect distinction is from form. IV.) maxime text. 1. sed non est Augustini. 6 Fide codd. U X Y interserunt reperire. de mensura dicit. Bks. have. de Substantia. loc. have substances [substantiis] for subjects [subiectis]. H K P Q T Y bb pro modo substituimus numero. IX. 1 possibile pro potentiale. 3 Book I. Paulo superius cod. and a little below this read But one cannot find this according to form [reperire] for But this cannot be form [esse]. says concerning measure.. cum ed. 3 Libr. c. voci intentiones praemittunt rationes et. 5 Non pauci codd.m. de Praedicab. V cum originali ex nihilo pro de nihilo. vide Schol. III and V. which only codex cc and edition 1. 2. quod tantum cod. see above d. 1.. Angelus habeat.
according to which this passion is in (them). but this work is not by (St.).
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10/04/12 10:39 p. c de Differentia. On the Predicaments. — In this text codex V. ita et distinctionem incompletam. 4 In this proposition. 1. quaero tunc. cfr.
4. ch. ponunt.
http://www. arg. cum ed. 1). which is more congruent with Aristotle (concerning which.. that (it is) matter. Porphyry. . cit. ch. But this cannot be form: therefore it remains. Item. has out of nothing [ex nihilo] for from nothing [de nihilo]. ad opp. a. Metaphysics. (then I ask) “Either (matter) is distinguished. . VI. O Et quod sit eadem pro Et quod sit idem. 5 Not a few codices. text 3. together with the Vatican. (IX. I. ch. quod distinctio perfecta est a forma. . e. quae ex Averroe sumta est. Si tu dicas. If you say. p. A little below this after in the genus of substance there is [in genere substantiae est] codices U X and Y insert a finding of [reperire]. A little above this codex O reads And that it is the same (i. but just as matter has an incomplete ‘to be’. — In hoc textu cod. Paulo inferius post in genere substantiae est codd. 1). About the beginning of the argument some codices. — De seq. q. Metaph. H adiungit quae sunt. 2. Porphyr. “On Substance”. et paulo inferius reperire pro esse. IV and VI (text 1) ff.org/bonaventura/opera/bon02094. I. Si non: ergo sunt idem per essentiam: si sic: cum omnis distinctio sit a forma. Circa initium arg. 2 perperam extrinsecam. . aliqui codd. 1. c.franciscan-archive. prop. seqq. together with the original. glossando: abstrahatur etiam materia spiritualium ab omni forma. 2 Cfr. 4th opposed argument). aut non. abstrahatur materia corporalium ab omni forma. quod Aristoteli magis congruit (de quo vide supra d. 1.) Augustine: see the Scholium to Question 1.. together with editions 1 and 2. On the Predicables. . complectuntur ea quae Aristot. . the matter of corporal (things) is abstracted from every form. c. et dein post omnia cod. iterum materia spiritualium. 1 cum Vat.). ad q. Mox plures codd. U praeterea addit communes. 3. in qua plures codd. have faultily extrinsic [extrinsecam].Lib. 4. (Bks. there are comprised those which Aristotle. codex U moreover adds common [communes]. which has been taken from Averroës. so also an incomplete distinction. Aristotle. matter) [Et quod sit eadem] for And that it is the same (being) [Et quod sit idem]. Next several codices. cod. most of all in text 7. ergo habent formam. a.html
materia. 1. again the matter of spiritual things7 (is also abstracted from every form). cc et ed. contra: illud in quo maxime differunt spiritualia et corpo.. 1.
. cit. de Praedicam.. 7. loc. 2 Cf. (Bk.) seqq. 7 Vat. ch./ -ralia. 1. p. 1. have possible [possibile] for potential [potentiale].
ab omni forma.
6. aut in habitudine. If you say. ut videtur. reads explicitly the words added in English: is abstracted from every form. forma generis est abstrahibilis a formis specierum sive a differentiis.m. then either (“matter” in the
5. spiritualium materia est materia. tunc aut erit dictum per convenientiam in essentia. 5. quod in alio. corporal (things) differ / most of all. Item. that (they differ) through (their) capacity: on the contrary: matter is not its own capacity through essence:1 therefore it happens that it is abstracted from (its) capacity..Lib. (a univocation) is withdrawn from that comparison. is simplicity and composition. the form of a genus is abstractable from the forms of the species or from the differences.COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -. cum dicitur: materia rerum corporalium est materia. 95 corpo. Si dicas. aut est convenientia in solo nomine. non videtur. quae consequitur ipsam essentiam materiae:3 ergo multo fortius non differunt quoad ipsam materiam. or in a habitude. contra: materia non est sua capacitas per essentiam:1 ergo contingit eam abstrahi a capacitate. Therefore the matter of (things) spiritual and corporal is abstracted from (their) capacity. sed materia abstracta ab omni forma est ita simplex. when there is said: “the matter of things corporal is matter”. Item. aut in essentia. per quid differant. Consideretur igitur materia spiritualium et corporalium sub forma generis.4 Si solo in nomine: ergo cum sit aequivocatio in primo principio. If in a comparison. Likewise.html
The Vatican edition. Abstrahatur ergo materia spiritualium et corporalium a capacitate.franciscan-archive. the assigning of no difference: therefore the essence (of both) is the same through nature.
. “the matter of (things) spiritual is matter”. I ask. e. which is consequent to the essence3 itself of matter: therefore much more strongly do they not differ in regard to matter itself. quod per capacitatem.
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10/04/12 10:39 p. 6. But the form of a genus is naturally prior to [prior quam] the form of the differences. either there is a convening in a name alone. corporeum et incorporeum sunt differentiae: ergo ab his potest abstrahi. but matter abstracted from every form is thus simple.4 If in a name alone: therefore since there is an equivocation in a first principle. quaero tunc]. as a point: therefore it has no divisibility [partibilitatem]: therefore if in this they do not differ. there is entirely a granting of no (difference). abstrahitur ab illa comparatione. or in an essence. nec differunt quantum ad formam. ut punctus: ergo nullam partibilitatem habet: ergo si in hoc non differunt.2 quod prius est animal quam homo. . .
http://www. est simplicitas et compositio. that (they differ) in the other (i. Sed forma generis naturaliter est prior quam forma differentiarum.org/bonaventura/opera/bon02094. as it seems.2 that “animal” is prior to “man”. glossing. then I ask [abstrahatur etiam . it does not seem. ergo nulla est univocatio. sed substantia dicit formam generis. in composition). . “Through what do they differ?”. Si in comparatione. quaero. but “substance” means a form of a genus./ -ralia. therefore there is no univocation. aut aequivocatio pura. just as the Philosopher says.. nullam omnino est dare. sicut dicit Philosophus. “corporeal” and “incorporeal” are differences: therefore (the former) can be abstracted from these latter. Therefore the matter of spiritual and corporal (things) is considered under the form of a genus. nullam assignare differentiam: ergo essentia est eadem per naturam. nor do they differ as much as regards the form.
or (is) a pure equivocation.org/bonaventura/opera/bon02094. alterum. et sic consideratur ut immutabilis: ergo etc. because he is speaking of it. Cum ergo materia subiecta corporalibus formis nullo modo possit capere formas spirituales per individuam perfectionem. ratione videtur: sicut potentia agendi essentialiter consequitur formam. that (these powers) differ through essence.html
second proposition) will have been said through a convening in essence. that he is speaking of it (i. 2. quae recte dividuntur.
in the twelfth (book) of (his) Confessions:5 « Two have Thou made Lord. aliud prope nihil ». so the power of suscepting is essentially. the other near nothing ». quod differunt per essentiam. Severinus) Boethius says On the Two Natures and One Person of Christ. that it did not have (something) of any form into which form it would be changed ». unum non intrat in constitutionem alterius. And again in the twelfth (book): « There are two which lack seasons [carentia temporibus]: the one. which was so formless.9 sed necessario sequitur. Item. matter) according to a ‘to be’. one does not enter into the constitution of the other. quod sine ullo defectu contemplationis et sine ullo intervallo mutationis tua aeternitate perfruatur. Item. Et iterum in duodecimo: « Duo sunt carentia temporibus: unum. 3. such that for any effect and/or act there is ordained one form. Likewise. nec e converso quia nunquam de Angelo potest fieri corpus. If you say.) Bede7 too and the other Saints divide (it) in the same manner. one near Thee. (St. if the nature of an Angel is divided against a corporal nature or (the nature) of corporals: ergo6 etc. unum prope te. ut ex alia forma in quam formam mutaretur. sive ut intelligitur sub omnimoda informitate. nor vice versa. are transmutable into [ad] one another. nay more essentially. this is nothing. that if there are diverse prime and essential powers of some forms. non haberet ».) Augustine (says)
Confessionum: « Duo fecisti Domine.Lib.m. and thus it is considered as immutable: ergo etc. according to which it had been deprived of every form. nor vice versa: therefore they differ
2. Si ergo. because from an Angel there can never come to be a body.COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -. sunt ad invicem transmutabilia. whatsoever communicate in matter.
ON THE CONTRARY:
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10/04/12 10:39 p. which without any defect of contemplation and without any interval of change thoroughly enjoys Thy Eternity. nec e converso: ergo differunt per essentiam. (regarding) those which are rightly divided. If. sicut dicit Boethius de Duabus Naturis et una persona Christi. ad quem non alia.8 but (things) spiritual and corporal are not of this kind: ergo etc..8 sed spiritualia et corporalia non sunt huiusmodi: ergo etc. therefore. just as is clear in the antecedent and consequent (passages). immo essentialius consequitur materiam. quia loquitur de ea. or as it is understood under an omnimodal formlessness. consequent to matter. quodsi sunt diversae potentiae primae et essentiales aliquarum formarum. .. ita quod ad aliquem effectum vel actum ordinatur una forma.. 3. secundum quod omni forma erat privata. it seem by reason: just as the power of acting is essentially consequent to form. Therefore since matter subjected to corporal forms can in no manner grasp spiritual forms through individual perfection. Beda7 etiam et alii Sancti sic dividunt. sicut patet in antecedentibus et consequentibus.. Likewise.9 but it necessarily follows.franciscan-archive.
http://www. ita potentia suscipiendi essentialiter. just as (St. quaecumque communicant in materia. the other. Si tu dicas. quod ita informe erat. quod loquitur de ea secundum esse. si angelica natura dividitur contra corporalem naturam sive corporalium: ergo6 etc. to which no other (form is ordained).
. (St. hoc nihil est.
a. concerning which. IV. it is clear that etc. tamen substantia animata sensitiva intelligitur. cc et ed. patet etc. Sent. aut analogia. propter quod simul quidem eas auferunt. specie autem priorem differentiam esse oportet. (X. prop. or a univocation (of the term “matter”).
http://www. sensitive substance. differentiae vero non amplius simul auferunt genus.. p. such as if matter be simple. 1. quia Angeli facti sunt ad videndum claritatem summae lucis. ostenditur hoc a parte finis. the “rational” and “irrational” are taken away. si non. ch.
Libr. . ad 4. this is shown on the part of (their) end. 15. 3. Idem dicitur in liro de Causis. in reply to n. XI. Likewise. 4 In other words: either there is an equivocation. ita nec materia pars corporis. 4 Aliis verbis: aut est aequivocatio. on which account they indeed take those (differences) away together (with themselves).. ergo etc. 1. a. non autem simul auferuntur ab eis. q. Metaphysics. deest in. a. there is a divisibility [partibilitas] in corporal things: therefore. F prosequitur: nullo modo erit materia Angeli rerum corporalium. Sent.): Nam genere quidem posterior est. proposition 1. 1.franciscan-archive. Scholium. aut non. Metaph. ad 1. 3. Which if this is absurd (. .html
through essence. The same is said in the Book of Causes. Quodsi hoc absurdum est11 — quia dimensiones secundum rationem infinitam consequuntur materiam secundum se: cum ergo sit in corporalibus et spiritualibus. nota 1. Cfr. Likewise. since (matter) is in corporal and spiritual (things and there is no divisibility in spiritual things).m. aut univocatio. d.org/bonaventura/opera/bon02094. 1. Therefore. p. because Angels have been made to see the clarity of the Most High Light. q. — Sequens textus est ibid. q. (c. and Metaphysics. 3. c de Communitatibus et differentiis generis: « Genera quidem priora sunt iis quae sunt sub se positae differentiis. Non a parte formae. .. above d. if not.
5. either (divisibility) is consequent to matter itself according to itself. c. because « every form is one consisting in a simple essence »:10 therefore principally on the part of matter and originally (so). . as much as concerns itself. 3 Understand: (its) capacity for form [capacitatem ad formam] (cf. II. in reply to n. at the beginning. Item. as a point (is): therefore just as a point cannot be the matter and/or a part of a surface. 1) and Porphyry. 7. de quibus cfr.COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -. Aristotle. 4. 4. 5 Cap.).. 3. yet the animated. which is the soul. 1 (Bk. supra d. I. 7. Vide supra pag. d. Metaph. 1. so neither (can) matter (be) a part of a body. On the Predicables. d.
Cf.).. 3. 7.Lib. Item. 1. . I. it is consequent to matter according to itself)11 — because dimensions according to an unlimited reckoning [rationem infinitam] are consequent to matter according to itself: therefore. 1. ch. 12. I. Bk. (such a divisibility is) either on the part of form. Paulo superius post intrat in pluribus codd.. 1. “On the Commonalities and Differences of a Genus”: « Genera are indeed prior to those which have been placed under them according to differences. ch. Not on the part of form. 1. . or an analogy. II. XI. cf.
Topics. de Praedicab. c. nam etsi omnes interimantur. IV. 1. — At the end of the argument codex cc and edition 1 have prime [prima] for
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10/04/12 10:39 p. Aut igitur consequitur ipsam materiam secundum se. q. p. 3 Intellige: capacitatem ad formam (cfr. a. — In fine arg. text 2 (Bk.. n. for with “animal” removed. 6): For indeed it is posterior to genus. Sent. 6. or (it is) not. Aristot. 2 (III. quae est anima ». 1): and Sent. 4. 7. Bk. I.
Cfr. but they are not taken away from those (placed under them) together with those (differences). n. p. or on the part of matter radically. 1. cod. 1. et IV. q. partibilitas inest rebus corporalibus: aut ergo a parte formae. d. 4. c. text. IV. is understood ».) et Porphy. X. I. 1 prima pro pura. but it is necessary that a difference be prior to species. ut punctus: ergo sicut punctus non potest esse materia vel pars superficiei. ut si materia sit simplex. c. c. Topic. III. 60.). for even if all (differences) are destroyed. quantum est de se.. et I. Bk. Schol. ch. but differences do not more amply take away the genus together (with themselves). 6 Cod. de Preadicam. ch. 5. q. quia « omnis forma est in simplici essentia consistens »:10 ergo principaliter a parte materiae et originaliter. aufertur rationale et irrationale. sublato enim animali. Bk. Cf. in princ. On the Predicaments. 3 (ch. aut a parte materiae radicaliter. 4.
n. 2. A little above this after enter [intrat] there is missing in several codices into [in]. See above d.1 et quod magis permiscetur et magis unitur ei. qui docet. 1. 8 Chapter 6: For only those who have the common subject of one matter can be changed and transformed into themselves. 1. Quae verba. 1. in the body of the Question.org/bonaventura/opera/bon02094. et ibid. 9 Cfr. 2. p. p.COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -.
pure [pura]. 6: Sola enim mutari transformarique in se possunt quae habent unius materiae commune subiectum. existere primitus in materia prima et praecedere formam in materia. p. aa indefinitam pro infinitam. Which words. p. (those which are) per se or in the nature of dimension alone. 2. — In codex F there is added and the Philosopher On Generation and Corruption [et Philosophus de Generatione et corruptione]. 9 Cf. n. but terminated dimensions follow form in matter. A T vel individuam pro per individuam. q.1 and what is more mixed together with (it) and more united to it. ad opp.. q. where in Book I. — Paulo inferius cod. it is consequent to matter according to itself. 89. text 1 there is said: (There is) one matter of all having a transmutation into one another. F additur et Philosophus de Generatione et corruptione. 11 Hic supplendum est: consequitur materiam secundum se. — A little below this codex cc and edition 1 have there are powers. 7 See above d. nota 5. 12. dimensiones vero terminatas sequi formam in materia. and/or those similar. 89. dimensiones interminatas i. 1.. Si ergo forma Angeli unitur suae materiae maxima but the matter of corporals is of itself a shadow. 3. footnote 5. I. 1. footnote 1. On the Six Priniciples. per se seu in natura dimensionis tantum.
p. et]. after therefore since (matter) is [cum ergo sit] and codex I after corporal (things) and [corporalibus et] add not [non]. at the beginning. ergo etc. p. a.franciscan-archive. et cod. If. F sed cum pro ut si. exist for the first time in prime matter and precede form in matter. p. cc et ed. [nullo modo erit materia Angeli rerum corporalium. 1. e. de Substantia orbis in princ. — Cod. ch. a. 2.m. who teaches.
. 3. Vat dein post cum ergo sit. 1. — Codex aa reads undelimited [indefinitam] for unlimited [infinitam]. 2. 8 Cap. vel similia probabiliter exciderunt ante quia dimensiones. I. — In cod. a. — What follows confirms and explains this proposition from Averroës. de Sex principiis. cod. The Vatican edition then. q. — The following text is ibid. I. ch. arg. ergo etc]. q. 2nd opposed argument. 96 sed materia corporalium de se tenebra est. 3. 1. supra pag. that unterminated dimensions. et. dicitur: Una omnium materia habentium ad invicem transmutationem. [diversae potentiae per se et essentiales] for there are diverse prime and essential powers [diverseae potentiae primae et essentiales] and codices A and T have and/or individual [vel individuam] for through individual [per individuam]. ubi libr. e. tanto minus cognoscit et magis est tenebrosum. the form of an
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10/04/12 10:39 p.Lib.. 1. cognizes so much the less and is more shadowy. 2. 6 Codex F proceeds thus: in no manner will the matter of an Angel (be the matter) of corporal things. — Somewhat after this codex F has but since [sed cum] for such as if [ut si]. therefore. 10 Gilbert of Porretain. text. Porretanus. and codex ff after an unlimited reckoning [ratoinem infinitam] puts etc. 1 per se pro primae et codd. q. 2. 7. 10 Gilb. c. [etc. 11 Here one must understand by supplying: Wherefore if this is absurd. a. On the Substance of the Orb.] and omits what follows. and ibid. a. in corp. I post spiritualibus addit non. i. 5 Chapter 7. — Quod sequitur confirmat et explicat hanc propositionem ex Averroe. consequitur materiam secundum se. 60. et omittit quod sequitur. probably fell from (the text) before (the words) because dimensions [quia dimensiones]. I. . q. ff post rationem infinitam ponit etc. above d. a. 15.
http://www. 1.. I. and [Quodsi hoc est absurdum. — Aliquanto post cod..html
Vide supra d. diverse and essential through themselves.
however. et attendere ad rationes moventes. he was made for this sake alone. that about this question wise men seem to be opposed [contrariari] to wise men. that one (thing). et ipsa est quod ignobilissimum in genere entium. deinde disponens ad formam. namely through privation and through analogy. such as whiteness (is) in the genus of color: it is clear that etc. qui magis fuerunt veritatis inquisitores. Cognitio per privationem est prius removendo formam. and to attend to the reasons moving (these). nunquam habet materiam conformem per unitatem naturae materiae corporali.
Angel is united to its matter by the greatest indivision. For certain (clerics) posited. Si ergo propter hoc solum factus est. 6. ita quod neutri sunt decepti. — Si quis autem velit diligenter considerare. it seems. substantia eius esset ineptissima ad contemplandam lucem. its substance would be most inept for the contemplating of the Light.2 If. (Matter’s) cognition through privation is prior to (the intellect’s) removing form. such that neither have been deceived. quod est una per essentiam. and (matter) itself is what is most ignoble in the genus of beings. quod utraque opinio secundum diversas vias verum dicat. that there is no positing of matter as a measure of the genus of the substance of things. therefore. Item. For great and profound clerics both in theology and in philosophy.
It must be said. he never has a matter conform to corporal matter through a unity of nature. according to diverse ways. scilicet per privationem et per analogiam.COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -. quod materia in spiritualibus et corporalibus differt nec habet unitatem nisi analogiae.html
indivisione. 6. quia quae magis participant de ratione materiae.
Dicendum. that matter in spiritual and corporal (things) differs and that it does not have a unity except (that) of analogy. therefore.. ut albedo in genere coloris: patet etc. who understand matter according to its essence. Nam magni et profundi clerici et in theologia et in philosophia. solutionem tum negantem tum affirmantem verum dicere. because (it is) « near nothing ». Likewise.. that those. debet esse perfectissimum in genere illo. videbit. . videtur. For matter is knowable in a twofold manner. that (matter) is one through essence. are less beings. eos autem melius asseritur. diversificati sunt. quod circa hanc quaestionem sapientes videntur contrariari sapientibus. posit that it is the same. Materia enim dupliciter est scibilis..
http://www. ought to be the most perfect one in that genus. who were greater inquisitors of the truth. quod non sit ponere materiam tanquam mensuram generis substantiae rerum. he will see.
CONCLUSIO. CONCLUSION In a twofold way there is demonstrated.Lib. — Alii posuerunt. — Others posited. et considerando
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10/04/12 10:39 p. took diverse positions [diversificati sunt]. If.franciscan-archive. speaks the truth. quae istarum positionum sit probabilior et verior.
. Quidam enim posuerunt. metaphysically. — If anyone. which of these positions of theirs is more probable and more true. minus sunt entia. Duplici via monstratur. because what participate more from the reckoning of matter.2 Si ergo illud unum. quod est mensura generis.m. wants to diligently consider. But the reason for this diverse position was the diverse manner of cognizing matter. then (its
Ratio autem huius diversae positionis fuit diversus modus cognoscendi materiam. but it is asserted. that each opinion. that both the one denying (this) and affirming (this) speaks the truth. quia « prope nihil ». which is the measure of a genus.org/bonaventura/opera/bon02094. qui metaphysice materiam secundum suam essentiam intelligunt et eandem esse ponunt.
cognition is) disposing to (the cognition of) form. habitudo autem materiae est per potentiam. then superior bodies. . or under the reckoning of a movable.m. entirely no diversity will appear. dixerunt etiam. nulla omnino diversitas apparebit. esse eandem per analogiam. quia nec materia corporalium est nata sustinere formas spirituales. There is also in them the reckoning of participation according to a more and less. lastly inferior bodies. but what more accedes to the nature of accidents is more elongated (from this reckoning). that it is the same according to analogy. nec e converso. postremo corpora inferiora. tam substantialis quam accidentalis.. dixerunt. hinc est. et ita haec cognitio est per comparationem materiae ad formam mediante potentia. Sicut enim materia corporalium sustinet et dat suis formis existere et subsistere. Est etiam ibi ratio participationis secundum plus et minus. quod autem plus accedit ad naturam accidentium magis elongatur. hence it is. dixerunt. but the habitude of matter is through potency. quod eadem est in spiritualibus et corporalibus per essentiam. both substantial and accidental. in inferioribus formae substantiali et quantitati et contrarietati. si enim ab omnibus formis et ab omnibus accidentibus separetur utraque materia. and in this manner the metaphysician considers (it). Et hi non dixerunt. for if each matter be separated from all forms and from all accidents. therefore. because neither is the matter of
Considerantes igitur materiam secundum privationem omnis formae. et sic considerat metaphysicus. Considering. that spiritual substances. deinde corpora superiora.. in superior bodies (under) the substantial form and quantity. through (a consideration of what is) prior and more true. in corporibus superioribus formae substantiali et quantitati. because there is a consimilar habitude there.Lib. For just as the matter of (things) corporal sustains and gives to its forms (their) ‘existing’ [existere] and ‘subsisting’ [subsistere]. aut sub ratione mobilis.COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -.org/bonaventura/opera/bon02094. quod esset eadem proprie. Quoniam.html
ipsam essentiam nudam in se quasi tenebram intelligibilem. Nam in spiritualibus substat5 formae substantiali tantum. et sic considerat naturalis philosophus. quia est ibi consimilis habitudo. that it is the same in (things) spiritual and corporal through essence. in quantum praebet fulcimentum formae in ratione mobilis.
. And since what is purely in the genus of substance participates more from the reckoning of one standing and independent through itself.
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10/04/12 10:39 p. they said. And these did not say. inasmuch as it proffers a support to form in the reckoning of a being. they said. and thus this cognition is through the comparison of matter to form by means of potency. as an intelligible shadow. in quantum praebet fulcimentum formae in ratione entis. For in spiritual (things matter)5 stands under [substat] the substantial form only. — Considerantes autem secundum analogiam sub ratione potentiae. are substances. matter according to a privation of every form. and (is prior) to considering (its) bare essence itself in itself. But considering matter according to analogy. esse eandem secundum analogiam.
http://www. namely under the reckoning of potency. that (the matter of each) was the same properly.4 Potentia autem materiae dupliciter potest comparari ad formam: aut in quantum praebet ei fulcimentum in ratione entis. so also the matter of (things) spiritual. Considerantes autem materiam secundum analogiam. quod substantiae spirituales per prius et verius sunt substantiae. in inferior (bodies under) the substantial form and quantity and contrariety. scilicet sub ratione potentiae.3 — Cognitio autem per analogiam est per consimilem habitudinem. Et quoniam quod pure est in genere substantiae plus participat de ratione per se stantis et independentis.4 But the potency of matter can be compared to form in a twofold manner: either inasmuch as it proffers to it a support in the reckoning of a being [ratione entis].franciscan-archive.3 — But (its) cognition through analogy is through a consimilar habitude. and in this manner the philosopher of nature [naturalis philosophus] considers it. ita etiam materia spiritualium.
cum ed. quibus ens determinatur ».. I. 3 Under this respect Aristotle considers matter in Metaphysics. text. after the Most High Light [claritatem]. XII. after as [quasi] insert a certain [quandam] for an. 2-7.Lib.. text. secundum quod est complementum eius.. text 1 ff (Bk.
Cfr. 5 Understand together with codex bb matter [materia]. 4 Aristot. Bk. sic haec ad substantiam etc. 1. 1 Item obiicitur a parte finis pro Item ostenditur hoc a parte finis. Then codices K U Y And Z.
http://www. et secundum quod subiectum non potest denudari a forma. n. ch. a. bb ee and ed 1 dispositionem pro disponens. et aliqui codd. I in hac prop. c.). considerat materiam VII. VI. 1). . above d. Physics. 7. F K et quanto magis pro et quod magis. Aristot. — Trusting in codex Z we have substituted to considering [considerando] for to a considering of [considerare]. 1. — Codex I in this proposition prefixes to the words is through potency [per potentiam] (the words) regarding form [ad formam]. — Cod. et etiam exemplum albedinis in genere coloris occurit. Codex T reads then the disposition regarding form [tunc dispositionem ad formam]. 4). Cod. forma autem sustentat subiectum. Aristotle. Next codex T has can be considered regarding [potest considerari] for can be compared to [potest comparari]. 70: Subiectum sustentat formam. 4 Aristotle. text 8 (Bk. Metaph. 8. 2 (St. codd. cf. Concerning those which follow. that is it the same through analogy.org/bonaventura/opera/bon02094. .. (IX. Metaphysics. so these to a substance etc. where the properties of matter are reviewed. (VI. 15. 15. Bk. subjoin Itself [ipsius]. (V. together with edition 1 have Likewise there is objection on the part of (there) end [Item obiicitur a parte finis] for Likewise this is shown on the part of (their) end [Item ostenditur hoc a parte finis]. VII. ut K X Y post quasi interserunt quandam. 1. — But considering (it) according to analogy under the reckoning of potency. text. Nam materia potest esse fulcimentum variationis secundum situm et formam. I. (XI.): Subiecta autem natura scibilis est secundum analogiam. Bk. Bk. — Averroes. c. IX. Aristot.). text 70: The subject sustains the form. 7.. ch. Mox codd. . Mox cod.. text 69 (ch. X. T ponit dispositiones. T potest considerari pro potest comparari.. Cf. ch. nor vice versa. secundum quod forma non potest esse sine subiecto. 3. De iis quae sequuntur cfr. quod sustinet variationes quoad proprietates corporales. 1). VI. .franciscan-archive.. I. ita in spiritualibus quoad spirituales. I. n. 1. ut enim ad statuam aes. footnote 10. and there even occurs the example of whiteness in the genus of color. supra pag. p. . text. and there is in them the reckoning of a prior and posterior in participating. for as the formlessness of matter [materia et informe] holds itself to a bronze statue. nota 10. 7. Metaph.html
sicut in corporalibus est aliquid. Confessions. Bk. according to
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10/04/12 10:39 p. ch. ch. bb materia. text. before it accepts a form. Phys. ubi ipsam definit « quae per se ipsam neque quid neque quantum neque aliquid aliud quippiam dicitur. ubi proprietates mensurae recensentur. Book X. verbis per potentiam praefigit ad formam. Physics. — Non pauci codd. according to which the form cannot be without a subject. 7. Next codices F and K have and as much as it is [et quanto] for and what is [et quod]. 16. texts 2-7 (Bk. 3 Sub hoc respectu Aristot. 7. — De seq.
. Phys. so in spirituals in regard to spiritual (properties). 7): But subjected nature is knowable according to analogy. 5 Subaudi cum cod. such as K X and Y. For matter can be the support of variation according to site and form.
Cf. 69. VI. . or to a form. — On the following proposition. Since. V. Confess. I. (c. — Not a few codices. Bk. 4. XI. et est ibi ratio prioris et posterioris in participando. 1. Dein codd. Cfr. they said also. 2 August. 3). Metaphysics. XII. text. c. p. Metaph. ch. cf. according to which a being is determined ». which sustains variations in regard to corporal properties.
corporals bound to sustain spiritual forms. inasmuch as it proffers a fundament to form in the reckoning of a movable. c.). and some codices. 1 seqq. cfr. but the form sustains the subject. text 16 (Bk. aut ad formam materia et informe se habet. priusquam accipiat formam. q. Aristotle.m. — Fide cod Z substituimus considerando pro considerare. X.COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -. K U Y Z post claritatem subiiciunt ipsius. prop.). X.) Augustine. — Averroës. just as in corporals there is something. where he defines it as « what is indeed said through itself (to be) neither the something nor the quantum nor the anything else.
COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -. quod spiritualium et corporalium non est materia una. insofar as the explanation of things which depend upon a principle [resolution principiatorum] is made [stat] according to it. whether movable
Vel aliter potest dici. et quod verum dicunt secundum diversas vias et secundum diversos modos intelligendi. Ex his patet ratio diversitatis et via harum positionum. we are speaking of it. And the response to the objections is clear.html
which it is its compliment. From these (considerations) the reason for the diversity and the way of these positions is clear. Nam ad materiam resolvit naturalis. quoniam materia in Angelis non habet possibilitatem ad transmutationem formarum substantialium nec est possibilis ad recipiendum formas corporales. or according to site only. Et inde est. least (properly) in spirits — and hence it is also. who considers every body.1 ut in substantiis spiritualibus. et perditionem. qui considerat omne ens: et unusquisque resolvit secundum amplitudinem suae considerationis. aut ad receptionem influentiae et habituum. And hence it is. that of spiritual and corporal (things) there is not one matter. less properly in incorruptible bodies. matter is the lowest (entity). quod dicit Philosophus. ad eam resolvi physicus universalis. ut in superioribus.
http://www.1 as in spiritual substances. Nor is there a contradiction. or according to the reception of an influence and of habits. qui considerat generationem et corruptionem. si quis recte intelligat utramque. who considers generation and corruption. quia minumum habent de hac possibilitate — et secundum hoc materia est infimum.
p.m. if one understands each (side) rightly. secundum quod tres sunt. prout ad eam stat resolutio principiatorum.
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10/04/12 10:39 p. qui considerat omne corpus mobile sive ad situm. explains [resolvit] (them) according to matter.2 considering (as he does) the potency of matter in relation to form as a movable. that they are sometimes said (to be) “immaterial”. 97 ut in corporibus corruptibilibus. Et secundum hanc considerationem proprie est materia in corporibus corruptibilibus. ad eam resolvit metaphysicus. minus proprie in corporibus incorruptibilibus. quod dicuntur aliquando immateriales. as in corruptible corporals. qui docent. aut ad situm tantum. and according to which the subject cannot be denuded of (its) form. et auctoritates inveniuntur ad partes oppositas. Et patet responsio obiectorum. And according to this consideration matter is properly in corruptible bodies. quod cum loquimur de unitate materiae. ideo tripliciter possumus loqui.franciscan-archive. and the loss (of them). because they have the least of this possibility — and according to this. the physicist of the universe [physicus universalis]. loquimur de ipsa. Et sic currunt diversae rationes. minime in spiritibus — et inde etiam est.. Nec est contradictio. For the (philosopher) of nature. that the Philosopher says. that when we speak of the unity of matter. And/or it can be said in another manner. And thus run the diverse reasons. according to which there are three (sciences). as in superior (bodies).. for that reason we can speak in a threefold manner. that (such) an explanation [resolutio] is made according to a material principle.Lib. since matter in the Angels does not have a possibility for the transformation of substantial forms nor is it able [possibilis] to receive corporal forms. and (thus) are found authorities for the opposed sides. resolutionem facere ad principium materiale. And they did not posit matter as one. Et hi non posuerunt materiam unam. and that they speak the truth according to diverse ways and according to diverse manners of understanding. . sive ad formam.2 considerans potentiam materiae in relatione ad formam ut mobilem.
. which teach.org/bonaventura/opera/bon02094.
ideo solum dicit eandem4 materiam generabilium et corruptibilium. et communitatem generis et rei. the metaphysician. explains (it) according to the same [ad eam]. Physicus enim non dicit. considers matter. most of all of a substance being through itself [substantiae per se entis]. according to the metaphysician. but
Omnium istorum philosophorum consideratio vera est. et secundum hunc physicum est eadem materia in omnibus corporalibus. the pondering of a unity of matter.html
regarding site.5 for that reason one is bound [oportet] to recur to the unity of a principle. eandem esse materiam nisi in corporalibus. through which they are mutable according to site. such as (the passion which is) the divisibility of the movable. and for that reason he explains every corporal thing according to matter. et ideo resolvit ad materiam omnis rei corporalis. there is in all (things).franciscan-archive. ut partibilitatem mobilis. And since all such are transmutable into [ad] one another.5 ideo oportet recurrere ad principii unitatem. and in this manner it is only in these inferior (things). but they judge differently.org/bonaventura/opera/bon02094. hoc est materia. For the physicist3 of the lower world [physicus inferior]. not only of analogy. which form supports.m. et maxime substantiae per se entis. sive ad formam. in which there is also a considering of the act of being. non aequivocationem. et videt eandem passionem in inferioribus et superioribus. gives and presents this (stability). as it is the principle of generation and corruption. whether according to site..6 quia nunquam venit ad considerandum materiam secundum essentiam. and this (act) form gives. cuius principium est materia. et hunc dat forma. being through themselves. in qua est considerare et actum essendi. or regarding form.Lib.
http://www. For the physicist does not say. considerat materiam. not an equivocation. qui negotiatur circa generationem et corruptionem. and that.4 — The physicist of the superior world [Physicus superior] considers matter itself mutable. Et quoniam omnia talia sunt ad invicem transmutabilia. and he sees the same passion among inferior and superior (bodies). ideo secundum metaphysicum in omnibus per se entibus est pondere unitatem materiae. et hanc dat et praestat illud cui innititur forma.
. . and according to this physicist matter is the same in all corporal (things). that is matter. per quam mutabilia sunt ad situm. explains (them) according to the same [ad eam]: and each one explains (the object of his science) according to the amplitude of his consideration.
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10/04/12 10:39 p. for that reason he says only that the matter of generable and corruptible (things is) the same. and (likewise he considers) the stability to exist through one’s self. — Physicus superior considerat ipsam materiam mutabilem sive ad situm. ut est principium generationis et corruptionis. who considers every being. non analogiae solum. The consideration of all of these philosophers is true. sed differenter iudicant. — Metaphysicus considerat naturam omnis creaturae. et stabilitatem per se existendi.. and a commonality of genus and thing.6 because he never comes to consider matter according to (its) essence. or according to form.COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -. — The metaphysician considers the nature of every creature. who busies (himself) about generation and corruption. And since “to be through itself” [per se esse] in spiritual and corporal (things) means a commonality [communitatem]. for that reason. that there is the same matter except in corporal (things). et sic est solum in his inferioribus. Et quoniam per se esse in spiritualibus et corporalibus dicit communitatem. the principle of which is matter. Nam physicus3 inferior.
sic dicet. not thus that a
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10/04/12 10:39 p. . (VII.
Cod. intelligible form. et aliquod in corruptibilibus. ideo dignius habent hoc nomen subiectum quam hoc nomen materia .Lib. De naturalibus autem. quod sole et luna et stellae aut sint formae sine
Codex U adds well of them [eorum]. quod animatur per animam aut vivit per vitam. but out of a body and an animated. Averroes super hunc locum dicit: Substantiae vero aeternae. . VII. differentem secundum esse. for that reason they have this name “subject” in a manner more worthy than this name “matter” . for indeed perhaps certain ones do not have matter. 2 Aristotle in Metaphysics. abstracted from every ‘to be’. and without a doubt it has some ‘being’ [esse] in corporal (things). which (it does) not (have) in spiritual ones. si ut metaphysicus. because there is not in them a potency for corruption. sed ex corpore et forma animata intelligibili. less congruously. If as a (philosopher) of nature. et ideo dicit Themistus. abstracto omni esse. non ita quod anima sit res animata.m. that is. . ideo hi qui posuerunt materiam eandem in spiritualibus et corporalibus. Et quoniam nobiliori modo iudicat metaphysicus quam scientiae inferiores. differing according to (its) ‘to be’.html
sed solum secundum esse. ch.. text 12 (Bk. 4. those celestial substances do not have a matter. there is not in them a matter. et quia..org/bonaventura/opera/bon02094. together with other manuscripts. but their mater is something existing in act. when the theologian treats this question. cc et ed. cum aliis mss. — Metaphysicus vero non tantum secundum esse.) ait: « In naturalibus igitur et generabilibus substantiis necesse est ita procedere. there is no finding of nor even the fashioning of [fingere] a diversity in matter. ut prius ostensum est. U bene addit eorum. sed sunt animata per se et viva . . 12.COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -. since they should serve him zealously. Averroës on this passage says: But eternal substances. — But the metaphysician does not only consider (it) according to its ‘to be’. but only what is mobile according to place ». which (it does) not (have) in incorruptibles. . that it is one through essence. quod non in incorruptibilibus. non esse eandem. (being themselves) elevated more highly. . minus congrue habet. but (also) according to (its) essence. Metaph. et absque dubio aliquod esse habet in corporalibus. . cum ei famulentur. sed solum quae seccundum locum mobilis est ». he will say that it is the same through (its) essence. And for that reason. VIII. corpus. thus he will say. scil. Bk.
only according to (its) ‘to be’ [esse]. fortassis etenim quaedam non habent materiam. aut pertractat eam sicut naturalis. A little below this on the authority of codex cc and edition 1 we have put corruptible bodies [corporibus corruptibilibus] for corporal and corruptible (things) [corporalibus et corruptibilibus]. or as a metaphysician. melius iudicaverunt. has. altius elevati. quod non in spiritualibus. non ita quod illic et aliquid. Si ut naturalis. aut non talem. However concerning natural. non est reperire nec etiam fingere diversitatem in materia. sed perpetuis substantiis alia ratio est. sed materia earum est aliquid existens in actu. VIII. aut sicut metaphysicus. non est in eis materia. which the Vatican edition.. Paulo inferius auctoritate cod. or not such (a matter). because they have not been composed out of matter and form. because he can accept the standards of measure of all sciences. in natural and generable substances it is necessary to proceed thus. esse unam per essentiam. quamvis secundum diversas considerationes utrique potuerint dicere verum. namely a body. istae substantiae caelestes non habent materiam. si quis recte procedet . . either he treats it thoroughly as a (philosopher) of nature. that it is not the same.
. ideo dicit. quod Vat. scil quia non sunt compositae ex materia et forma. And since the metaphysician judges in a more noble manner than the inferior sciences. judged better. . for that reason those who posit that matter (is) the same in spiritual and corporal (things). cum hanc quaestionem tractat theologus. as has been shown beforehand. substances there is another reason.7 and because. dicet eandem esse per essentiam. text. 1 posuimus corporibus corruptibilibus pro corporalibus et corruptibilibus. sed secundum essentiam7 considerat. . 2 Aristot. quia in eis non est potentia ad corruptionem. quia ipse potest accipere modos omnium scientiarum. but perpetual. if as a metaphysician. if one is to proceed rightly . 4) says: « Therefore. c.
http://www. and some ‘being’ in corruptibles.
Et ideo. even though according to the diverse considerations of each they can speak the truth.franciscan-archive. for that reason he says. .
Quod obiicitur: quorum materia est una etc. — Vel aliter. it must be said. who of all corporal things. sicut manifeste innuit Augustinus in libro de Mirabilibus sacrae Scripturae.html
materiis. et ratione possibilitatis. sicut est dispositio in materia intellectus. omit except [nisi]. 4 Plures codd. reads philosopher [philosophus] for physicist [physicus]. What is objected: “whose matter is one” etc. but not of spiritual ones. IV. distinguitur ratione actualitatis. dicendum. unam materiam esse vult. refragante contextu. quod loquitur de materia secundum esse. ratione cuius est prope nihil. approaches God in the highest manner [summe]. such as K X Y and aa.
soul is an animated thing. not thus that it and something. who was a most lofty metaphysician. text. 4 Several codices. 3 Vat. wants that there is entirely one matter. Aristotle.). . tum physico inferiori. plures alii perperam omnem. omittunt nisi.COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -. 5 Cf. or have matters through equivocation.
. cc et ed.. Therefore. non autem spiritualium. 6).
http://www. by reason of which (the Angel). who restricts this unity to the matter of earthly things. 1. c.
p.franciscan-archive. just as (St. aut habent materias per aequivocationem. quod loquitur de materia secundum
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10/04/12 10:39 p. (IV. the reasons proving. pluries philosophus pro physicus. is objected.. are to be conceded. Metaph. just as there is a disposition in a matter of understanding. non secundum essentiam. text. Quod ergo obiicitur. qui fuit altissimus metaphysicus.) Augustine. V. 6. which is in matter of itself. For below there is a contrasting of the metaphysician [metaphysicus] both to the physician of the superior world [physicus superiori]. several others faultily have all [omnem]. that matter is distinguished against the nature of an Angel. 3 The Vatican edition. 12.org/bonaventura/opera/bon02094. that it speaks of matter according
2. not according to essence.. 5 Cfr. Opponitur enim infra metaphysicus tum physico superiori. that matter is the same through essence in spiritual and corporal (things). it must be said. but they are animated through themselves and alive . Bk. that it speaks of matter according to ‘being’. in hac prop. 2. qui istam unitatem restringit ad materiam rerum terrenarum. hic et in seqq. that the Sun and Moon and stars are either forms without matters. and (it is distinguished) according to the reckoning of the possibility..1 which is in the Angel. Metaphysics. among (all) creatures. 98 Concedendae igitur sunt rationes probantes materiam eandem per essentiam in spiritualibus et corporalibus. quod distinguitur materia contra angelicam naturam. ch. 6 Not a few codices in this proposition.. have common [communem] for the same [eandem]. 7 In codex cc and edition 1 there is added and inasmuch as it itself is only a substance in potency [et in quantum ipsa est substantia in potential solum]. 1 additur et in quantum ipsa est substantia in potentia solum. What. 7 In cod. . . ratione cuius summe inter creaturas appropinquat Deo. by reason of which it is near nothing. ut K X Y aa communem. Aristot. and to the physician of the inferior world [physico inferiorri]. 6 Non pauci codd. breaking with the context. it is distinguished according to the reckoning of the actuality. therefore. 1. 12 (Bk. — And/or in another manner..1 quae est in Angelo. qui omnium omnino corporalium rerum. which is animated through a soul either lives through life. manifestly hints at in the book On the Wonders of Sacred Scripture. V. here and very often in the following. quae est in materia de se. and for that reason Themistius says.m.Lib. dicendum.
. consimilar discourses. quamvis ipsa in se sit « simplici essentia consistens ». materiam esse diversam. What is objected concerning divisibility [partibilitate]. insofar as it suscepts a corporal form. dicendum.html
esse. nay it holds itself indifferently to every (form). quod materia est tenebra. then (that possibility) is reduced to act. et ideo capacitas consequens essentiam materiae indifferenter se habet ad formam sive spiritualem. that the power of matter considered according to itself is not more for this form than for another. (and) this concerns the matter of a transmutable. Omnes enim loquuntur de materia secundum esse. ut punctus.4 5. tunc reducitur ad actum. by reason of which things are said to be “transmutable” into [ad] one another. that matter is diverse.m. which is under a spiritual ‘being’: hence it is. quod tenebra dicitur ratione privationis formae.4
5. . Wherefore when it is said. and similarly that. Et quia in Angelis facta est sub actu perfecto. quod extensio est a materia. quae5 forma lumen est. quod3 a materia secundum suam essentiam. and the other.org/bonaventura/opera/bon02094. it must be said. yet it does not have an actual simplicity. and when the nature of a corporal form is given to that matter.
. sed quia materia nunquam exspoliatur ab omni esse. as a point (does). et quae semel est sub esse corporali nunquam exuitur.Lib. et ideo sermo ille secundum physicum et in genere physici est intelligendus. non tamen habet actualem simplicitatem. that the matter consequent to the ‘to be’ in (things) spiritual and corporal is different [alia et alia] 4. dicendum. hoc est de materia transmutabili. because it lacks an actual extension. yet has a possibility for it. which say. ratione cuius dicuntur res ad invicem transmutabiles. quia materia.2 For matter considered in itself is neither spiritual.
http://www. et similiter illa quae est sub esse spirituali: hinc est. quod potentia materiae secundum se consideratae non est magis ad hanc formam quam ad aliam.
4. immo indifferenter se habet ad omnem. abstracta omni forma. whether a spiritual or a corporal one.2 Nam materia in se considerata nec est spiritualis. nec corporalis. dicendum. that matter is a shadow. and for that reason the capacity consequent to the essence of matter holds itself indifferently to a form.. that it is said (to be) a “shadow” by reason of a privation of form. qui dicunt. quia caret actuali extensione. and for that reason that discourse [sermo] is to be understood according to the physicist and in the kind (belonging) to the physicist. 3. it must be said. but is simple. sive corporalem. but according to its ‘to be’. And because among the Angels has been wrought
to ‘being’.franciscan-archive. it must be said.COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -. because matter. which5 form is a “light”. which is not born to be in matter except with extension. habet tamen possibilitatem ad illam. quod hoc non est ratione ipsius materiae. though it is in itself « one consisting according to a simple essence ». Quod obiicitur de partibilitate. sed secundum esse. and for that reason matter with privation would be repugnant to contemplation. that (it is)3 from matter according to its essence. For all speak of matter according to ‘being’. and what is once under a corporal ‘being’ is never laid aside [exuitur]. But because matter is never despoiled from all ‘being’. quod
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10/04/12 10:39 p. et alii sermones consimiles. quae non est nata esse in materia nisi cum extensione. sed est simplex. it must not be understood. Quod obiicitur. abstracted from every form. prout suscipit formam corporalem. simplex est. et ideo materia cum privatione repugnaret contemplationi. nor corporal. that extension is from matter. is simple. quod materia consequens esse in spiritualibus et corporalibus est alia et alia. What is objected concerning the power of suscepting. Unde cum dicitur. et cum natura formae corporalis illi materiae datur. What is objected. Quod obicitur de potentia suscipiendi. hinc est. non est intelligendum. sublata privatione. that this is not by reason of matter itself.
because it itself is a measure. which are in the genus of substance. since this ought to be (something) most complete. 2. that though some wanted to say. hoc est alterius inquisitionis. who judge that matter is in no manner to be posited among the Angels.m. quaeritur. according to essence or metaphysically. utrum sit unitas specifica. St.
SCHOLION. yet it is not fitting to say this. (and) second in the third Question. « unam non unitate universalitatis. nor of singularity. 2. quod magis in se ipso fulcitum est. in corp. Non enim est tenebra per essentiam. Quod obiicitur. quia ipsa sit mensura. Neither Question has a place in the sentence of those.
http://www. communis..Lib. secundo in q. Bonav. cum hoc debeat esse completissimum.. except perhaps one says “shadow” in a comparative manner: just as every creature is a shadow in respect of the Most High Light. p. if matter is not one. but in an intermediary manner »
6. quae sunt in genere substantiae. About the unity of matter. 1. that it itself. ut supponitur. quod non ponimus materiam unam. 3. What is objected. quod materia non est illud quo omnia mensurantur. Circa unitatem materiae omnibus rebus. quod est mensura omnium. I.html
remota est ab ea ratio tenebrositatis. sic et materia tenebra potest dici et respectu Dei et respectu formae.7 « that whiteness is the measure of all colors ». is one in all created (things). a. Alteram sententiam sequentes disputabant de unitate materiae metaphysicae.6 dicendum. S. qui materiam nullo modo in Angelis ponendam esse censent. circa med. that we do not posit one matter.
under a perfect act. it is impossible to posit some one measuring (principle). q. that matter is not that by which all (things) are measured. with privation withdrawn [sublata]. quod ipsa materia sit illud unum. For it is not a shadow through essence.org/bonaventura/opera/bon02094. (Those) following the other sentence disputed of the unity of matter in a metaphysically manner. hence it is. But what that one (principle) is. Neutra quaestio habet locum in sententia eorum. according to the reckoning by which it is a fundament. impossibile est ponere aliquod unum mensurans. there is first asked in this second Question. common. quod licet aliqui voluerint dicere. that there has been removed from (its matter) a reckoning of shadowiness. tamen illud non est conveniens dicere. Bonaventure judges. sed medio modo » (supra d. whether the unity is a numeric one. Quid autem sit illud unum. SCHOLIUM I. eam esse diversam in spiritualibus et corporalibus
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10/04/12 10:39 p. et in ea ratione est ratio mensurandi. quod materia.).7 « quod albedo est mensura omnium colorum ». as is supposed.
. which is the measure of all. 6. cum illud praesupponat illam. but because. . dat esse fixum. nisi quis forte dicat tenebram comparative: sicut creatura omnis tenebra est respectu summae lucis. sicut dicitur in decimo primae Philosophiae. just as is said in the tenth (book) of The First Philosophy. so too matter can be said (to be) a “shadow” both in respect of God and in respect of the form. this belongs to another investigation [inquisitionis]. 2.COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -. utrum sit unitas numerica. since the latter presupposes the former. si non est materia una. ipsam secundum essentiam sive metaphysice esse unam in omnibus creatis. sed quia. because it tastes [sapit] and participates more from the nature of the genus of substance. that matter. et sic patet illud.franciscan-archive. nec singularitatis. grants a fixed ‘being’ [esse fixum]. I. And for that reason it must be said. by which it is perfected. whether the unity is a specific one. ratione qua est fundamentum. quia plus sapit et participat de natura generis substantiae. primo in hac q. « one not by a unity of universality. Et ideo dicendum. to all things. and thus that is clear. that matter itself is that one (principle of measurement).6 it must be said. which (genus) is in itself more supported (by matter). qua perficitur. censet. and in that reckoning it is the reason for being measured.
IX.org/bonaventura/opera/bon02094. ubi unitas temporis repetitur ab unitate materiae. 8 De quo vide supra d.). cf. F V est. p.. 1. that God is the measure. e. whether spiritual or corporal [formam sive spiritualem. 2. cum ed. 1: Vel aliter. 2. 2 In codex aa there is adjoined explicitly form. 12. sed debere intelligi in sensu transcendentali i. Aliquanto inferius plures codd. F K cc satis bene distinguit (scil. sed ratione actualitatis. Porretano prolata. aa adiungitur formam sive spiritualem. i. of all (things). cc et ed. A little below this after possibility [possibilitatis] codex cc and edition 1 subjoin and privation [et privationis]. Vat. cum nonnullis codd.
Cod. 7. numerantur. 1. 1 comparatione. Augustine) distinguishes [distinguitur] for it is distinguished [distinguitur]. but according to the reckoning of the actuality [Vel aliter../ -ments. p. not according to a reckoning of contrariety. infra d. codex bb has he distinguishes the reasons [distinguit rationes] for it is distinguished according to the reckoning [distinguitur ratione]. 1. p.
p. q. a. I. 2. 2. aa in comparatione pro comparative. q. 6 Very many codices. sive corporalem. q. it distinguishes against the nature of an Angel.Lib. 5 The Vatican edition. Somewhat below this several codices. (IX. together with not a few codices. in (his) book On the Six Principles. contradicente contextu. Near the end of the solution several codices read and also in respect of the form [et etiam respectu formae] for and in respect of the form [et respectu formae]. Augustinus) pro distinguitur. II. e./ -mentorum. q. q. have according to a comparison [comparatione]. quod Deus est omnium mensura extra genus. et etiam respectu formae pro et respectu formae. d. Nam . 7 Text 7 (Bk. 1. I. 1. cod. c. ch. near the middle).franciscan-archive.
Codex cc and edition 1 read: And/or in another manner. 3 Supple cum codd. and that it is not one but according to analogy. outside of the ten genera of predica. For .m. cc et ed. 7 Text. that the terms “specific” and “numeric” cannot be accepted in (their) proper sense. Cfr.
http://www. I. terminos specifica et numerica non posse accipi in sensu proprio. . a. 2. . distinguitur contra naturam angelicam non ratione contrarietatis. q. bb distinguit rationes pro distinguitur ratione. together with 3 first editions. 2).COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -. together with codices F K and cc has sufficiently well (St. that it is diverse in spiritual and corporal creatures. a. distinguitur contra naturam angelicam non ratione contrarietatis. 2. 5 Vat. extra decem genera praedica.
. 2.. codex aa in a comparison [in comparatione] for in a comparative manner [comparative]. Concerning the following proposition. 2 In cod. a. have are numbered [numerantur] for are measured [mensurantur]. cum 3 primis edd. 1. together with edition 1. below d. sed ratione actualitatis]. sive corporalem]. Circa finem solutionis plures codd. . but ought to be understood in (their) transcendental sense.
Ex praedicits autem facile intelligitur. 2. at the end. outside the genus (of measure). Paulo inferius post possibilitatis cod. 1. 6 Plurimi codd. p. nec unam nisi secundum analogiam. contradicting the context. 1 subnectunt et privationis. d. where the unity of time is sought from a unity of matter.
(above d. in libro Sex Princip. has because [quia] for which [quae]. q. 3 Supply together with codices F and V it is [est]. 2. 2. 2. 1. De seq. 12. c. is touched upon. .html
creaturis. a. Moreover from the aforesaid it is easily understood. 4 Ex definitione formae a Gilb. a. . propositione cfr. p. in the body of the Question. 1. The Vatican edition. a. com codd. 2. 8 Concerning which see d. where. 4 As quoted from the definition of form by Gilbert of Porretain. in fine. quia. II. Cf. 2. ubi tangitur. ch. 99
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ideo nec genus nec species esse potest.
predica. are © 2007.html
praedica. 8. 4. Auctores pauci. Moreover the “homogeneous” is properly said (to be) that which has all (of its) parts in the same reckoning [partes omnes eiusdem rationis].org/bonaventura/opera/bon02094. In solutione consentiunt Scotus. 1. a. 1. 3. 8.
http://www. Items in square [ ] brackets contain Latin terms corresponding to the previous English word(s). all emendations and corrections of the Latin text. de Rerum princip. una quaestione hanc et sequentem absolvunt. Richard. 2008 by Br. qui de his tractant.. Haec unitas magis explicatur infra q. 3 (at the end of the body of the Question) and is called by the Seraphic Doctor a “unity of homogeneity”. and of which any part (thereof) receive the predication of the whole. who treat of these (matters). not that of the Latin text. Doctore unitas homogeneitatis. a. This unity is explained more below in q. q. here in q. — But (Bl. such as water. (in fine corp.COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -. hic a.. q. agree. Alexis Bugnolo. 2. likewise they are a freer translation than that which is necessitated by the body of the text. tantum argumenta pro responsione affirmativa et negativa affert et solvit. a. the HTML markup. .m. q. quae dicunt aliquomodo actum » (hic in corp. Items in round ( ) brackets are terms implicit in the Latin syntax or which are required for clarity in English.) et vocatur a S../ -mentorum. The / symbol is used to indicate that the text which follows appears on the subsequent page of the Quaracchi Edition. q.Lib. 1. 3. 2.
This English Translation and the digitization of the Latin and English texts. The few authors. a Med. and all notes by the Translator. a Tar.franciscan-archive. which mean in some manner an act » (here in the body of the Question).
. 4. For metaphysical matter is « a being entirely in potency.
II.).) Peter of Tarentaise. In the solution (Bl. 1..
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10/04/12 10:39 p. The translation of the notes in English corresponds to the context of the English text. ut aqua. to proffer his own judgment concerning the (diverse) sentences. Nam materia metaphysica est « ens omnino in potentia. — Sed Petr. for that reason it can be neither a genus nor a species. Homogeneum autem dicitur proprie id quod habet partes omnes eiusdem rationis.. 3 only mentions and solves the arguments for the affirmative and negative. quin suum de his sententiis iudicium proferant. de Rerum principio. hic q. and Richard of Middleton./ -ments. a. et cuius quaelibet pars recipit praedicationem totius. resolve this and the following (Question) in one question. II. John Duns) Scotus. or notes added by the English translator. here in a.