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Wing Chun

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For other uses, see Wing Chun (disambiguation).
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Wing Chun

A wing chun front kick (right) against a turning kick. This illustrates the principles of centerline and simultaneous attack and defence.

Also known as

Wing Chun, Wing Tsun, Ving Tsun


Striking, Trapping

Country of origin



Ng Mui

Famous practitioners

Sum Nung,[1] Yip Man,[2]Bruce Lee,[3]

Wing Chun

Traditional Chinese

詠春拳 咏春拳

Simplified Chinese

Literal meaning

fist of spring chant

also romanised as Ving Tsun or Wing Tsun. literally "spring chant").4 Punches 2. pinyin: yǒng chūn.[5][6] Contents [hide] • • o 1 History 2 Characteristics 2. The alternative characters 永春 "eternal spring" are also associated with some other southern Chinese martial arts. including Weng Chun Kungfu and White Crane Weng Chun (Yong Chun).[show]Transcriptions Alternative Chinese name Chinese 永春拳 Literal meaning [show]Transcriptions fist of eternal spring Wing Chun (Chinese: 詠春.2 Relaxation 2.1 Forms and san sik .7 Trapping skills and o • o 2.1 Balance.8 Close range 3 Curriculum 3. is a concept-based Chinese martial art and form of self-defense utilising both striking and grappling while specialising in close-range combat. (and sometimes substituted with the characters 永春 "eternal springtime"[4]).3 Centerline 2. (also known as SnakeCrane style).5 Kicks 2. structure and stance o o o o o techniques 2.6 Uncommitted o sensitivity 2.

3 Forms 3.1.1 In popular culture 8 References 9 Sources [edit]History Part of the series on Chinese martial arts List of Chinese martial arts Terms .1.1.4 Weapon o o o • • o • • • • 6 Branches 7 See also 3.3 Chi gerk 3.2 Wooden   s 3.1 Empty  dummy 3.4 Mook Wan 4 Southern martial art 5 Global spread 5.2 Chi sao 3.1. hand 3.

   Kung fu (功夫) Wushu (武術) Qigong (氣功) Historical places      Shaolin Monastery (少林寺) Wudang Mountains (武當山) Mount Hua (華山) Mount Emei (峨嵋山) Kunlun Mountains (崑崙山) Historical people                Yue Fei (岳飛) Yim Wing-chun (嚴詠春) Hung Hei-gun (洪熙官) Fong Sai-yuk (方世玉) Dong Haichuan (董海川) Yang Lu-ch'an (楊露禪) Wu Quanyou (吳全佑) Ten Tigers of Canton (廣東十虎) Chen Fake (陳發科) Chan Heung (陳享) Wong Fei-hung (黃飛鴻) Sun Lu-t'ang (孫祿堂) Huo Yuanjia (霍元甲) Yip Man (葉問) Wang Zi-Ping (王子平) Famous modern actors     Bruce Lee (李小龍) Jackie Chan (成龍) Sammo Hung (洪金寶) Yuen Biao (元彪) .

    Jet Li (李連杰) Donnie Yen (甄子丹) Man-Cheuk Chiu(赵文卓) Jing Wu(吴京) Legendary figures     Bodhidharma (菩提達摩) Zhang Sanfeng (張三丰) Eight immortals (八仙) Five Elders (五祖) Related    Hong Kong action cinema Wushu (sport) Wuxia (武俠) This box:  view  talk  Main article: History of Wing Chun edit The earliest known mentions of Wing Chun date to the period of Red Boat Opera. this then-still nameless style enabled Yim Wing Chun to beat the warlord in a one-on- . who was one of the Shaolin Sect survivors. She soon crosses paths with a Buddhist nun--Ng Mui. and asks the nun to teach her boxing. The common legend as told by Ip Man[7] involves the young woman Yim Wing-chun. (Wing Chunliterally means 'forever springtime' or 'praising spring'. The legend goes that Ng Mui taught Yim WingChun a new system of martial art that had been inspired by Ng Mui's observations of a confrontation between a Snake and a Crane.) at the time after the destruction of theSouthern Shaolin Temple and its associated temples by the Qing government: After Wing-Chun rebuffs the local warlord's marriage offer. she says she'll reconsider his proposal if he can beat her in a martial art match.

arms are positioned across the vitals of the centerline. A correct Wing Chun stance is like a piece of bamboo. Muscles act in pairs in opposition to each other (e. not only for reasons of defense. Performing Wing Chun's forms such as Chum Kiu or the Wooden Dummy form greatly improve proprioception. stable base. the practice of "settling" one's opponent to brace them more effectively against the ground aids in delivering as much force as possible to them. firm but flexible. Since the system was developed during the Shaolin and Ming resistance to the Qing Dynasty. Within the stance. This perhaps explains why no one has been able to accurately determine the creator or creators of Wing Chun. In Wing fight.[8] [edit]Characteristics This unreferenced section requires citations to ensureverifiability. Structure is viewed as important.  Tension reduces punching speed and power.[citation needed] Balance is related to structure because a well-balanced body recovers more quickly from stalled attacks and structure is maintained. This structure is used to either deflect external forces or redirect them. Wing Chun favours a high. maximum punching speed cannot be achieved as the biceps will be opposing the extension of the arm. tendon. but also for attack. which is later named after her. including the story of Yim Wing Chun. Additionally. or aligned so as to be braced against the ground. and articular sources. [9][10] [edit]Relaxation Softness (via relaxation) and performing techniques in a relaxed manner. balls. When the practitioner is effectively "rooted". [edit]Balance. rooted but yielding.g. Wing Chun trains the awareness of one's own body movement derived from muscular. or middle (K1 or Kidney 1 point) of the foot depending on lineage. the force of the hit is believed to be far more devastating. structure and stance Some Wing Chun practitioners believe that the person with better body structure will win. Wing Chun rarely compromises structure for more powerful attacks because this is believed to create defensive openings which may be exploited. All attacks and counter-attacks are initiated from this firm. the arm should be relaxed before beginning the punching motion. . Yim Wing-Chun there-after marries Leung Bac-Chou and teaches him the style. narrow stance with the elbows kept close to the body. biceps and triceps). is fundamental to Wing Chun. many legends about the creator of Wing Chun were spread to confuse enemies. Shifting or turning within a stance is carried out variantly on the heels. If the arm is tensed.

Wing Chun practitioners attack within this central area to transmit force more effectively. whereas a relaxed limb provides an opponent less to work with. another center defined in some lineages and referring to the vertical axis of the human body where the center of gravity lies). The stance and guard all point at or through the center to concentrate physical and mental intent of the entire body to the one target. the interpretation of the centerline concept itself is not. but focused. A large emphasis and time investment in training Chi Sao exercise emphasizes positioning to dominate this centerline. the vertical fist straight punch is the most common strike in Wing Chun.  Muscular struggle reduces a fight to who is stronger. although . without need for recomposure.   Unnecessary muscle tension wastes energy and causes fatigue. since it targets the "core center" (or "mother line". Striking closer to the center transmits more force directly into the body. [edit]Centerline While the existence of a "central axis" concept is unified in Wing Chun. To reach outside this area. footwork is used. as well as compromising the striker's position. solar plexus and groin. with the limbs drawn in to protect the central area and also to maintain balance. the principle of simultaneous attack and defense (Lin Sil Die Dar) suggests that all movements in the Siu Nim Tau with a forward execution flow into a strike if no effective resistance is met. This is very much in the spirit of the tale of Ng Mui. Other explicit examples of punches can be found in the Chum Kiu and Bil Jee forms. The most commonly seen interpretation emphasizes attack and defense along an imaginary horizontal line drawn from the center of the practitioner's chest to the center of the enemy's chest. the hands do not move beyond the vertical circle that is described by swinging the arms in front. Wing Chun techniques are generally "closed". For example. stiff limb provides an easy handle for an opponent to push or pull with. [edit]Punches Because of the emphasis on the center line. striking an opponent's shoulder will twist the body. stiff arms are less fluid and sensitive during trapping and chi sao. Many variations exist. However. nose. limb affords the ability to feel "holes" or weaknesses in the opponent's structure (see Sensitivity section). with some lineages defining anywhere from a single "centerline" to multiple lines of interaction and definition. with the hands crossed at the wrists. The human body's prime striking targets are considered to be on or near this line. With the correct forwarding these "holes" grant a path into attacking the opponent. Minimum brute strength in all movement becomes an equalizer in uneven strength confrontations. In most circumstances. throat.  A relaxed. Tense. A tense. including eyes. dispelling some of the force and weakening the strike.

Wing Chun practitioners believe that because the elbow is behind the fist during the strike. the practitioner would step in closer and closer to the opponent. a punch that starts only an inch away from the target yet delivers an explosive amount of force. as per the formal name of the punch (which is translated as "The Sun-character Rushing Punch (or Hammer in Cantonese)") [citation needed]. it is thereby supported by the strength of the entire body rather than just a swinging fist. and therefore has more impact. The punch is not "loaded" by pulling the elbow behind the body. Many skilled practitioners pride themselves on being able to generate "short power" or large amount of power in a short space. A common analogy is a baseball bat being swung at someone's head (a roundhouse punch). In some lineages of Wing Chun. and his body as the "hammer". to the middle two knuckles.  Protection. a short burst of energy in which the arm is momentarily tensed at the conclusion of the strike. as opposed to the butt end of the bat being thrust forward into the opponent's face (wing chun punch). Also with the elbow down. It is more difficult for an opponent to execute an elbow lock/break when the elbow occupies this position. driving the fists forward as a hammer drives a nail. to punch in a straight line following the shortest distance between the fist and the opponent. The vertical punch is the most basic and fundamental in Wing Chun and is usually thrown with the elbow down and in front of the body. a practitioner typically would thrust his full body weight towards his opponent. the fist is held anywhere from vertical to horizontal (palm side up). The elbow is kept low to cover the front midsection of the body. Depending on the lineage. . The contact points also vary from the top two knuckles. the fist is swiveled at the wrist on point of impact so that the bottom three knuckles are thrust forward adding power to the punch while it is at maximum extension. This aids in generating power by use of the entire body structure rather than only the arm to strike. With each successive punch. The punch travels straight towards the target from the guard position (hands are held in front of the chest). Wing Chun favours the vertical punch for several reasons:  Directness. with the fist as the "nail". A common demonstration of this is the "one-inch punch". which would cause far more damage than a glancing hit and is not as easy to evade. The punches may be thrown in quick succession in a "straight blast" or "chain punching". it can be used as a disorienting finisher. Wing Chun is often criticized for encouraging weaker punches that do not utilise the whole body[citation needed]. to the bottom three knuckles.these punches may appear to be superficially different they are simply the result of the punch beginning from a different origin position while following the same fundamental idea. Wing Chun punches are delivered using Fa Jing. However. it offers less opening for the body to be attacked while the forearm and punch intercept space towards the head and upper body.  Strength and Impact. When executed correctly. This concept is similar to impact loading in engineering.

Because of Wing Chun's usage of stance. the rebound of a horizontal punch uses only the arm to strike. When an opponent is "trapped". he or she becomes immobile. This is a desirable trait to a Wing Chun practitioner because it promotes use of the entire body structure to generate power. this kick can also become a knee at close range. the practitioner's position or balance is less affected. Other kicks include a stamping kick (Mook Jong) for very close range and a sweep performed with the heel in a circular fashion. The limb directly in front of the chest. Variations on a front kick are performed striking with the heel. a beginner is often introduced to basic kicking before learning the appropriate form. targeting anywhere between the ribs and the back of the knee. [edit]Uncommitted techniques Wing Chun techniques are uncommitted. Any punches or kicks can be strung together to form a "chain" of attacks. though some have made interpretations of small leg movements in the Siu Nim Tau and Bil Jee to contain information on kicking as well. Aroundhouse kick is performed striking with the shin in a similar manner to the Muay Thai version with most of the power coming from the body pivot. According to Wing Chun theory. Every kick is both an attack and defence. [edit]Trapping skills and sensitivity The Wing Chun practitioner develops reflexes within the searching of unsecured defenses through use of sensitivity. In this elbow-out position the hinge-structure directs force outwards along the limb producing torque in the puncher's body. If the attack fails. Depending on lineage. This means that if the technique fails to connect. [edit]Kicks Kicks can be explicitly found in the Chum Kiu and Mook Jong forms. Training through Chi Sao with a training partner. . This is characteristic of southern Chinese martial arts. break down the opponent gradually causing internal damage. Kicks are delivered in one movement directly from the stance without chambering/cocking. kicks are kept below the waist. Alignment & Structure. Whereas. Traditionally. This kick is usually used as a finisher at closer range. in contrast to northern systems which utilize many high kicks. the practitioner is able to "flow" easily into a follow-up attack. elbow down. vertical nature of the punch allows a practitioner to absorb the rebound of the punch by directing it through the elbows and into the stance. these attacks. the vertical punch is thus more suitable. with legs being used to check incoming kicks or to take the initiative in striking through before a more circular kick can land. Chained vertical punches are a common Wing Chun identifier. one practices the trapping of hands. All Wing Chun techniques permit this. in contrast to one big attack. or a pivot may be involved with the foot and knee on a plane at an angle (Mook Jong). The body may be square and the knee and foot are vertical on contact (Chum Kiu). At short distances this can become a knee.

turning. if the correct techniques are applied. It is from the forms and san sik that all Wing Chun techniques are derived. While the Wing Chun forward kick can be considered a long range technique. [edit]Empty hand The first.Yip Man [attribution needed] [edit]Close range Wing Chun teaches practitioners to advance quickly and strike at close range.pinyin: xún qiáo. many Wing Chun practitioners practice "entry techniques"—getting past an opponent's kicks and punches to bring him within range of Wing Chun's close range repertoire. and most important form in Wing Chun. This also means that there are a few different ideas concerning what constitutes progression in the curriculum from form to form. standing. escort what leaves and rush upon loss of contact". Siu Lim Tao is the foundation or "seed" of the art from which all succeeding forms and techniques depend.xiǎo liàn tóu. This means that theoretically. xiǎo niàn tóu. firmly ingraining the cardinal tools for interception and adaptation. relaxation and sensitivity. 2) fundamental arm cycles and changes. solitary exercises which develop self-awareness. "seeking the The second form.[13]It serves basically as the alphabet for the system.Yale Cantonese:síu nihm tàuh. Using a car analogy: for some branches this would provide the chassis. Yale Cantonese: síu lihn tàuh. The most commonly seen Wing Chun generally comprises six forms: three empty hand forms. [edit]Curriculum [edit]Forms and san sik Forms are meditative. Depending on lineage. San Sik (translated as Separate Forms) are compact in structure. so only a general description of overlap between different schools of thought is possible here.[12] for others this is the engine. a shorter person with a shorter range can defeat a larger person by getting inside his range and attacking him close to his body.[14] Siu Nim Tao (小念頭. and 3) sensitivity training and combination techniques. balance. focuses on coordinated movement of bodymass and entry techniques to "bridge the gap" between practitioner and opponent and move in to disrupt . Chum Kiu. 尋橋 Chum Kiu (尋橋. and stepping drills. one "wooden dummy" form. They can be loosely grouped into three broad categories: 1) focus on building body structure through basic punching. and two weapons forms. the focus. Forms also train the practitioner in the fundamental movement and the correct force generation of Wing Chun. "little idea" or 小念 "little imagination") or Siu Lim Tao (小練 頭 頭. while others see it as more a training stance used in developing technique. [11] Fundamental rules of balance and body structure are developed here. "little practice").Yale Cantonese: cham4 kiu4. content and intent of each form can have distinct differences which can therefore have far reaching implications. Some branches view the symmetrical stance as the fundamental fighting stance.Chinese philosophy: "Greet what arrives.

It is here that the open hand forms are pieced together and understood as a whole.pinyin: biāo zhǐ. Biu Jee. 鏢指 Biu Tze (鏢指. Although representative of a human opponent.Yale Cantonese: stepping (translational). the form takes on more emphasis of an "uprooting" context adding multi-dimensional movement and spiraling to the already developed engine. and footwork. human. whether it be from pivoting (rotational) or bridge"pinyin: chen qiáo. and to develop full body power. For some branches this is the turbo-charger of the car. Such movements include very close range elbow strikes and finger thrusts to the throat. a thick wooden post with three arms and a leg mounted on a slightly springy frame representing a stationary human opponent." Some interpret this to mean the form should be kept secret. and "emergency techniques" to counter-attack when structure and centerline have been seriously compromised. For some branches bridge". The Hong Kong wall mounted version of the Wooden Dummy [edit]Forms . Wooden dummy practice aims to refine a practitioner's "wooden dummy") understanding of angles. Muk Yan Jong(木人樁. It also teaches methods of recovering position and centerline when in a compromised position where Siu Nim Tao structure has been lost.[15][16] Close-range attacks using the elbows and knees are also developed here. a third degree of freedom involving more upper body and stretching is developed for more power. Still other branches view this form as imparting deadly "killing" and maiming techniques that should never be used if you can help it.their structure and balance.Yale Cantonese: bìu jí. low kicks and sweeps. is composed of extreme short-range and extreme long-range techniques. developed in Chum Kiu. Likewise for some branches. but an energetic one. recovering your "engine" when it has been lost.[17] As well as pivoting and stepping. A common wing chun saying is "Biu Jee doesn't go out the door. the 木人 pinyin: mùrénzhuāng.Yale dummy is not a physical representation of a 樁 Cantonese: muhk yàhn jòng. For others it can be seen as a "pit stop" kit that should never come in to play. such as when the practitioner is seriously injured. this form provides the engine to the sám kìuh. Alternately "sinking bodyweight in striking is a central theme. "darting fingers") The third form. positions. For branches who use the "sinking bridge" interpretation.) car. [edit]Wooden dummy The Muk Yan Jong form is performed against a "wooden dummy". others interpret it as meaning it should never be used if you can help it.

their 7 principles of Luk Dim Boon Kwun(Tai-uprooting. Also referred to as "Dragon Pole" by some branches. "Long Pole"— a tapered wooden pole ranging anywhere from 8 to 13 feet in length. the student is ready to progress to weapons. Chui Da ("Chase Striking"). Fa Kuen ("Variegated Fist"). Jin Jeung ("Arrow Palm"). with the last principle:Lau. The Siu Lien Tao (Little First Training) of Cho Ga Wing Chun is one long form that includes movements that are comparative to a combination of Siu Nim Tao. and Biu Jee of other families. Also. kit-deflect. or Flowing counting as half a point. a few family styles of Wing-Chun (especially those coming from the "Hong Sun Hay Ban Tong" (Red Boat/Junk Opera Society) have a combination advanced form called.Both the Way Yan (Weng Chun) and Nguyễn Tế-Công branches use different curricula of empty hand forms. Sup Saam Sao ("Thirteen Hands"). wan-circle. or 六點半 "Six and A Half Point 棍 Pole". lauflowing) are used throughout the unarmed combat as well. Jin Kuen ("Arrow Fist"). these weapons forms can be used as an exercise to strengthen the forearms and wrists even further. Also known as Yee Jee Seung Do ("Parallel Shape Double Knives") and Baat 八斬刀 Jaam Do (Eight Chopping/Slashing Knives"). Leung Ting demonstrating the Long Pole . The Tam Yeung and Fung Sang lineages both trace their origins to Leung Jan's retirement to his native village of Gu Lao. The name six and a half point pole comes from these 7 principles. the idea is to be able to extend that force further to the end of a weapon as an extension of the body. lan-to expand. [edit]Weapons Once correct force generation in the open-handed forms is achieved. Joy Kuen ("Drunken Fist"). With the open hand forms delivering force to the end of the finger tips. got-cut down. dim-shock. where he taught a curriculum of San Sik. Chum Kiu.[citation needed] Luk Dim Boon Kwun. using the same principles. A form involving a pair of large "Butterfly Knives". slightly smaller than short swords (Dao). Historically the knives were also referred to as Dit Ming Do ("Life-Taking Knives"). For some branches that use "Six and A Half Point Pole". The other major forms of the style are Sui Da ("Random Striking"). and Chi Sao Lung ("Sticking Hands Set"). "Saam Baai Fut" (3 Bows to Buddha) which includes many flow/leak techniques from all of the first 'standard' 6 forms. Also.

" is the lower-body equivalent of the upper body's Chi-sao training. quickly and with the appropriate technique. somewhat rare training-tool in some families of Wing-chun. thereby training each other to sense changes in body mechanics. Term for the principle. An actual "form" set-up in some schools. Chi Sao additionally refers to methods of rolling hands drills (Luk Sao). Other branches do a version of this where each of the arms roll in small separate circles. This increased sensitivity gained from this drill helps a practitioner attack and counter an opponent's movements precisely. and to instruct the student in "flow" from technique to technique. and a great deal of strength and conditioning is experienced prior to continuing. According to Sum Nung. momentum and "feel". is another. Also Jook Wan Huen (bamboo link ring). other schools just train techniques and strategies without a formulated "set" pattern. his skill with them could not compare to Yuen Kay San's. Luk Sao is most notably taught within the Pan Nam branches where both the larger rolling drills and the method where each of the arms roll in small separate circles are taught. each practitioner uses one hand from the same side as they face each other. Luk Sao participants push and "roll" their forearms against each other in a single circle while trying to remain relaxed. Because the legs are stronger. it should not be confused with sparring/fighting. The aim is to feel forces. though it can be practiced or expressed in a combat form. Chi Sao is a sensitivity drill to obtain specific responses. many will usually not place the emphasis required in the lower body. the Mook-Wan is used for training the wrists and forearms. and drills used for the development of automatic reflexes upon contact and the idea of "sticking" to the opponent. Mandarin chǐshǒu) or "sticking hands". Also. because students are busy concentrating on upper body movements. pressure. [edit]Chi gerk "Sticking-legs. Chi Sao drills begin with one-armed sets called Dan Chi Sao which help the novice student to get the feel of the exercise. In some lineages (such as the Yip Man and Jiu Wan branches). test resistances and find defensive gaps. they are usually harder to relax during drills.The Yuen Kay-San/Sum Nung branch also historically trained throwing darts (Biu). [edit]Southern martial art . so they are not part of the current curriculum. An approximately 10 inch to 14 inch ring made of bamboo or ratan (some schools use a "metal" ring (progressively)). Chi-gerk is first experienced by way of various strength and conditioning drills. Cantonese chi1 sau². [edit]Chi sao Chi Sao (Chinese 黐手. [edit]Mook Wan "Wooden Ring". In Wing Chun this is practiced through two practitioners maintaining contact with each other's forearms while executing techniques.

Retrieved on 2012-01-14. together with Hung Gar and Choi Lei Fut. [21] [edit]Branches Main article: Branches of Wing Chun [edit]See also Wing Chun terms List of Movies Featuring Wing Chun   [edit]References Rene. Michael Tse – Google Books. [edit]Global spread Wing Chun is practiced This has led to a tremendous increase in the numbers of people taking up Wing Chun. Ip Man. 4.[18] It is the world's most popular form of Southern Kung Fu. the eldest son of Ip Man even mentioned that he is grateful to Donnie Yen for making his family art popular and allowing his father's legacy to be remembered. Y. 2. Y. 3. ^ Wing Chun Kung Fu: Traditional Chinese King Fu for Self-Defense and Health – Ip Chun. "What's in a name?" ^ Weng Chun Kung Fu . 5. Roots and Branches of Wing Tsunand Robert Chu. Retrieved on 2012-01-14. Books. Wu – Google (1998-06-15). Donnie Yen played the role of Wing Chun Grandmaster in the 2008 movie. which originated and became popular in Southern China.[20] Ip Chun.[19] [edit]In popular culture Donnie Yen has also caused tremendous impact in the martial arts world through his various (1998-06-15). Y. re-defining the genre of action films. allowing hundreds of new Wing Chun schools to be opened up in Mainland China and other notable parts of Asia. in over 64 countries. which was a huge box office success[citation needed]. René Ritchie. Books. ^ Complete Wing Chun: The Definitive Guide to Wing Chun's History and Traditions – Robert Chu.Main article: Southern Chinese martial art Wing ^ Complete Wing Chun: The Definitive Guide to Wing Chun's History and Traditions – Robert Chu. Yen is widely credited by many as the person responsible in popularizing the traditional martial arts system known as Wing Chun. Complete Wing Chun: The Definitive Guide to Wing Chun's History and Traditions and Ritchie. René Ritchie. is named as one of "The Three Great Martial Art Schools of the South". Retrieved on Books. Wu. Wu – Google Books. Rene Ritchie. ^ 永春 in usage : Leung Ting.

Retrieved 2010-02-06. 84yo wing chun legend | YOUTUBE VIDEO ^ 叶问之子叶准 否认和甄子丹闹不合 | 联合早报 Singapore 10. ^ The Simple Basics of a Complex Art – By Michel Boulet ^ Wing Chun Stance by Jim Fung ^ The Hidden Power of Siu Nim Tau by Tsui Sheung Tin ^ martialarts2 ^ The Forms of Wing Chun Kuen Kung Fu | Reading Academy Wing Chun & Kali ^ Ving Tsun Martial Arts Studio – Training ^ City Wing Chun – Training Notes ^ Orange County Wing Chun FAQ's ^ Kung Fu Magazine's Description of Wing Chun ^ Ip Chun (葉準).6. Kung Fu Magazine. 19. Kung Fu Magazine. . ISBN 0-8048-3141-6. 7. ^ "Integrative Wing Chun". Rene. 18. 16. Retrieved 2010-02-06. & Wu. Robert. – By Benny Meng and Alfredo Delbrocco ^ "Rediscovering the Roots of Wing Chun". 13. 9. Y. Ritchie. 12. Hong Kong: Leung's Publications. Ritchie. 21. 20. Complete Wing Chun: The Definitive Guide to Wing Chun's History and Traditions. Rene. (1998). Boston: Tuttle Publishing. Wing Tsun Kuen. ^ Yong Chun White Crane Kung Fu ^ Translation of Ip Man's account of Wing Chun's History ^ The Secret History of Wing Chun: The Truth Revealed. ISBN 962-7284-01-7. 8.   Leung Ting (1978). [edit]Sources  Chu. 11. 17. 14. "Wing Chun Concepts". 15.