Wing Chun

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Wing Chun

A wing chun front kick (right) against a turning kick. This illustrates the principles of centerline and simultaneous attack and defence.

Also known as

Wing Chun, Wing Tsun, Ving Tsun

Focus

Striking, Trapping

Country of origin

China

Creator

Ng Mui

Famous practitioners

Sum Nung,[1] Yip Man,[2]Bruce Lee,[3]

Wing Chun

Traditional Chinese

詠春拳 咏春拳

Simplified Chinese

Literal meaning

fist of spring chant

including Weng Chun Kungfu and White Crane Weng Chun (Yong Chun).1 Balance. structure and stance o o o o o techniques 2. is a concept-based Chinese martial art and form of self-defense utilising both striking and grappling while specialising in close-range combat.5 Kicks 2. (and sometimes substituted with the characters 永春 "eternal springtime"[4]).[show]Transcriptions Alternative Chinese name Chinese 永春拳 Literal meaning [show]Transcriptions fist of eternal spring Wing Chun (Chinese: 詠春.7 Trapping skills and o • o 2. (also known as SnakeCrane style).8 Close range 3 Curriculum 3. literally "spring chant").6 Uncommitted o sensitivity 2. also romanised as Ving Tsun or Wing Tsun.3 Centerline 2. The alternative characters 永春 "eternal spring" are also associated with some other southern Chinese martial arts.4 Punches 2. pinyin: yǒng chūn.[5][6] Contents [hide] • • o 1 History 2 Characteristics 2.1 Forms and san sik .2 Relaxation 2.

1 Empty  dummy 3.1. hand 3.3 Forms 3.1.2 Wooden   s 3.1.4 Weapon o o o • • o • • • • 6 Branches 7 See also 3.1 In popular culture 8 References 9 Sources [edit]History Part of the series on Chinese martial arts List of Chinese martial arts Terms .3 Chi gerk 3.1.4 Mook Wan 4 Southern martial art 5 Global spread 5.2 Chi sao 3.

   Kung fu (功夫) Wushu (武術) Qigong (氣功) Historical places      Shaolin Monastery (少林寺) Wudang Mountains (武當山) Mount Hua (華山) Mount Emei (峨嵋山) Kunlun Mountains (崑崙山) Historical people                Yue Fei (岳飛) Yim Wing-chun (嚴詠春) Hung Hei-gun (洪熙官) Fong Sai-yuk (方世玉) Dong Haichuan (董海川) Yang Lu-ch'an (楊露禪) Wu Quanyou (吳全佑) Ten Tigers of Canton (廣東十虎) Chen Fake (陳發科) Chan Heung (陳享) Wong Fei-hung (黃飛鴻) Sun Lu-t'ang (孫祿堂) Huo Yuanjia (霍元甲) Yip Man (葉問) Wang Zi-Ping (王子平) Famous modern actors     Bruce Lee (李小龍) Jackie Chan (成龍) Sammo Hung (洪金寶) Yuen Biao (元彪) .

and asks the nun to teach her boxing. She soon crosses paths with a Buddhist nun--Ng Mui. (Wing Chunliterally means 'forever springtime' or 'praising spring'. who was one of the Shaolin Sect survivors. The legend goes that Ng Mui taught Yim WingChun a new system of martial art that had been inspired by Ng Mui's observations of a confrontation between a Snake and a Crane.    Jet Li (李連杰) Donnie Yen (甄子丹) Man-Cheuk Chiu(赵文卓) Jing Wu(吴京) Legendary figures     Bodhidharma (菩提達摩) Zhang Sanfeng (張三丰) Eight immortals (八仙) Five Elders (五祖) Related    Hong Kong action cinema Wushu (sport) Wuxia (武俠) This box:  view  talk  Main article: History of Wing Chun edit The earliest known mentions of Wing Chun date to the period of Red Boat Opera.) at the time after the destruction of theSouthern Shaolin Temple and its associated temples by the Qing government: After Wing-Chun rebuffs the local warlord's marriage offer. this then-still nameless style enabled Yim Wing Chun to beat the warlord in a one-on- . she says she'll reconsider his proposal if he can beat her in a martial art match. The common legend as told by Ip Man[7] involves the young woman Yim Wing-chun.

firm but flexible. [9][10] [edit]Relaxation Softness (via relaxation) and performing techniques in a relaxed manner. narrow stance with the elbows kept close to the body. arms are positioned across the vitals of the centerline.[8] [edit]Characteristics This unreferenced section requires citations to ensureverifiability. Shifting or turning within a stance is carried out variantly on the heels. Wing Chun trains the awareness of one's own body movement derived from muscular. biceps and triceps). maximum punching speed cannot be achieved as the biceps will be opposing the extension of the arm. not only for reasons of defense. Wing Chun rarely compromises structure for more powerful attacks because this is believed to create defensive openings which may be exploited. which is later named after her.one fight. the arm should be relaxed before beginning the punching motion. This structure is used to either deflect external forces or redirect them. This perhaps explains why no one has been able to accurately determine the creator or creators of Wing Chun. Muscles act in pairs in opposition to each other (e. Wing Chun favours a high. Yim Wing-Chun there-after marries Leung Bac-Chou and teaches him the style. tendon. rooted but yielding. Additionally.  Tension reduces punching speed and power. the force of the hit is believed to be far more devastating.g. or aligned so as to be braced against the ground. A correct Wing Chun stance is like a piece of bamboo. but also for attack. or middle (K1 or Kidney 1 point) of the foot depending on lineage. When the practitioner is effectively "rooted". including the story of Yim Wing Chun. stable base. In Wing Chun. . Within the stance. balls. is fundamental to Wing Chun. many legends about the creator of Wing Chun were spread to confuse enemies. the practice of "settling" one's opponent to brace them more effectively against the ground aids in delivering as much force as possible to them. Since the system was developed during the Shaolin and Ming resistance to the Qing Dynasty. [edit]Balance. If the arm is tensed. All attacks and counter-attacks are initiated from this firm. and articular sources. Performing Wing Chun's forms such as Chum Kiu or the Wooden Dummy form greatly improve proprioception. structure and stance Some Wing Chun practitioners believe that the person with better body structure will win. Structure is viewed as important.[citation needed] Balance is related to structure because a well-balanced body recovers more quickly from stalled attacks and structure is maintained.

with the hands crossed at the wrists. A large emphasis and time investment in training Chi Sao exercise emphasizes positioning to dominate this centerline. Minimum brute strength in all movement becomes an equalizer in uneven strength confrontations. The stance and guard all point at or through the center to concentrate physical and mental intent of the entire body to the one target. with the limbs drawn in to protect the central area and also to maintain balance. Other explicit examples of punches can be found in the Chum Kiu and Bil Jee forms. The most commonly seen interpretation emphasizes attack and defense along an imaginary horizontal line drawn from the center of the practitioner's chest to the center of the enemy's chest. since it targets the "core center" (or "mother line". The human body's prime striking targets are considered to be on or near this line.   Unnecessary muscle tension wastes energy and causes fatigue. Tense. Many variations exist. A tense. without need for recomposure. stiff limb provides an easy handle for an opponent to push or pull with. whereas a relaxed limb provides an opponent less to work with. To reach outside this area. including eyes. throat. as well as compromising the striker's position. the vertical fist straight punch is the most common strike in Wing Chun. [edit]Centerline While the existence of a "central axis" concept is unified in Wing Chun. striking an opponent's shoulder will twist the body. However. Striking closer to the center transmits more force directly into the body. with some lineages defining anywhere from a single "centerline" to multiple lines of interaction and definition. For example. limb affords the ability to feel "holes" or weaknesses in the opponent's structure (see Sensitivity section). the interpretation of the centerline concept itself is not. nose. stiff arms are less fluid and sensitive during trapping and chi sao.  Muscular struggle reduces a fight to who is stronger. the principle of simultaneous attack and defense (Lin Sil Die Dar) suggests that all movements in the Siu Nim Tau with a forward execution flow into a strike if no effective resistance is met. the hands do not move beyond the vertical circle that is described by swinging the arms in front. Wing Chun techniques are generally "closed". footwork is used. This is very much in the spirit of the tale of Ng Mui. [edit]Punches Because of the emphasis on the center line. solar plexus and groin. but focused. another center defined in some lineages and referring to the vertical axis of the human body where the center of gravity lies). With the correct forwarding these "holes" grant a path into attacking the opponent. dispelling some of the force and weakening the strike. In most circumstances.  A relaxed. although . Wing Chun practitioners attack within this central area to transmit force more effectively.

In some lineages of Wing Chun. The punch is not "loaded" by pulling the elbow behind the body. the fist is swiveled at the wrist on point of impact so that the bottom three knuckles are thrust forward adding power to the punch while it is at maximum extension. to the bottom three knuckles. to the middle two knuckles. It is more difficult for an opponent to execute an elbow lock/break when the elbow occupies this position. The punch travels straight towards the target from the guard position (hands are held in front of the chest). and his body as the "hammer". as per the formal name of the punch (which is translated as "The Sun-character Rushing Punch (or Hammer in Cantonese)") [citation needed]. it is thereby supported by the strength of the entire body rather than just a swinging fist.  Strength and Impact. as opposed to the butt end of the bat being thrust forward into the opponent's face (wing chun punch). driving the fists forward as a hammer drives a nail. The vertical punch is the most basic and fundamental in Wing Chun and is usually thrown with the elbow down and in front of the body. A common demonstration of this is the "one-inch punch". with the fist as the "nail". Many skilled practitioners pride themselves on being able to generate "short power" or large amount of power in a short space. This concept is similar to impact loading in engineering. . Depending on the lineage. However. the fist is held anywhere from vertical to horizontal (palm side up). A common analogy is a baseball bat being swung at someone's head (a roundhouse punch). a practitioner typically would thrust his full body weight towards his opponent. a short burst of energy in which the arm is momentarily tensed at the conclusion of the strike. the practitioner would step in closer and closer to the opponent. it can be used as a disorienting finisher. a punch that starts only an inch away from the target yet delivers an explosive amount of force.  Protection. and therefore has more impact. The elbow is kept low to cover the front midsection of the body. Also with the elbow down. which would cause far more damage than a glancing hit and is not as easy to evade. When executed correctly. The punches may be thrown in quick succession in a "straight blast" or "chain punching". Wing Chun practitioners believe that because the elbow is behind the fist during the strike. Wing Chun favours the vertical punch for several reasons:  Directness. With each successive punch. it offers less opening for the body to be attacked while the forearm and punch intercept space towards the head and upper body. Wing Chun is often criticized for encouraging weaker punches that do not utilise the whole body[citation needed]. Wing Chun punches are delivered using Fa Jing. This aids in generating power by use of the entire body structure rather than only the arm to strike.these punches may appear to be superficially different they are simply the result of the punch beginning from a different origin position while following the same fundamental idea. The contact points also vary from the top two knuckles. to punch in a straight line following the shortest distance between the fist and the opponent.

break down the opponent gradually causing internal damage. If the attack fails. Training through Chi Sao with a training partner. This is a desirable trait to a Wing Chun practitioner because it promotes use of the entire body structure to generate power. [edit]Trapping skills and sensitivity The Wing Chun practitioner develops reflexes within the searching of unsecured defenses through use of sensitivity. Because of Wing Chun's usage of stance. Whereas. Any punches or kicks can be strung together to form a "chain" of attacks. one practices the trapping of hands. the practitioner's position or balance is less affected. in contrast to one big attack. vertical nature of the punch allows a practitioner to absorb the rebound of the punch by directing it through the elbows and into the stance. According to Wing Chun theory. At short distances this can become a knee. [edit]Uncommitted techniques Wing Chun techniques are uncommitted. the practitioner is able to "flow" easily into a follow-up attack. This is characteristic of southern Chinese martial arts. or a pivot may be involved with the foot and knee on a plane at an angle (Mook Jong). in contrast to northern systems which utilize many high kicks. kicks are kept below the waist. In this elbow-out position the hinge-structure directs force outwards along the limb producing torque in the puncher's body. This means that if the technique fails to connect. Traditionally. The limb directly in front of the chest. The body may be square and the knee and foot are vertical on contact (Chum Kiu). Other kicks include a stamping kick (Mook Jong) for very close range and a sweep performed with the heel in a circular fashion. elbow down. All Wing Chun techniques permit this. Chained vertical punches are a common Wing Chun identifier. he or she becomes immobile. a beginner is often introduced to basic kicking before learning the appropriate form. When an opponent is "trapped". Every kick is both an attack and defence. Alignment & Structure. though some have made interpretations of small leg movements in the Siu Nim Tau and Bil Jee to contain information on kicking as well. with legs being used to check incoming kicks or to take the initiative in striking through before a more circular kick can land. This kick is usually used as a finisher at closer range. these attacks. this kick can also become a knee at close range. Aroundhouse kick is performed striking with the shin in a similar manner to the Muay Thai version with most of the power coming from the body pivot. the vertical punch is thus more suitable. Kicks are delivered in one movement directly from the stance without chambering/cocking. Depending on lineage. Variations on a front kick are performed striking with the heel. the rebound of a horizontal punch uses only the arm to strike. [edit]Kicks Kicks can be explicitly found in the Chum Kiu and Mook Jong forms. targeting anywhere between the ribs and the back of the knee. .

Chinese philosophy: "Greet what arrives. focuses on coordinated movement of bodymass and entry techniques to "bridge the gap" between practitioner and opponent and move in to disrupt . balance. firmly ingraining the cardinal tools for interception and adaptation. They can be loosely grouped into three broad categories: 1) focus on building body structure through basic punching.[14] Siu Nim Tao (小念頭. xiǎo niàn tóu. The most commonly seen Wing Chun generally comprises six forms: three empty hand forms. This also means that there are a few different ideas concerning what constitutes progression in the curriculum from form to form. turning. "little practice"). and two weapons forms. and 3) sensitivity training and combination techniques. Siu Lim Tao is the foundation or "seed" of the art from which all succeeding forms and techniques depend. [edit]Empty hand The first. many Wing Chun practitioners practice "entry techniques"—getting past an opponent's kicks and punches to bring him within range of Wing Chun's close range repertoire. Yale Cantonese: síu lihn tàuh.Yip Man [attribution needed] [edit]Close range Wing Chun teaches practitioners to advance quickly and strike at close range. the focus. "little idea" or 小念 "little imagination") or Siu Lim Tao (小練 頭 頭. and stepping drills. "seeking the The second form.Yale Cantonese: cham4 kiu4. San Sik (translated as Separate Forms) are compact in structure. a shorter person with a shorter range can defeat a larger person by getting inside his range and attacking him close to his body. Some branches view the symmetrical stance as the fundamental fighting stance. while others see it as more a training stance used in developing technique. Depending on lineage. While the Wing Chun forward kick can be considered a long range technique. one "wooden dummy" form. so only a general description of overlap between different schools of thought is possible here.Yale Cantonese:síu nihm tàuh. 2) fundamental arm cycles and changes. escort what leaves and rush upon loss of contact".xiǎo liàn tóu. It is from the forms and san sik that all Wing Chun techniques are derived. and most important form in Wing Chun. content and intent of each form can have distinct differences which can therefore have far reaching implications. 尋橋 Chum Kiu (尋橋.[12] for others this is the engine. standing. Forms also train the practitioner in the fundamental movement and the correct force generation of Wing Chun. Using a car analogy: for some branches this would provide the chassis.pinyin: xún qiáo.[13]It serves basically as the alphabet for the system. relaxation and sensitivity. This means that theoretically. [edit]Curriculum [edit]Forms and san sik Forms are meditative. if the correct techniques are applied. [11] Fundamental rules of balance and body structure are developed here. solitary exercises which develop self-awareness. Chum Kiu.

"darting fingers") The third form.their structure and balance. recovering your "engine" when it has been lost. developed in Chum Kiu. Muk Yan Jong(木人樁. positions. low kicks and sweeps.[15][16] Close-range attacks using the elbows and knees are also developed here. [edit]Wooden dummy The Muk Yan Jong form is performed against a "wooden dummy". It is here that the open hand forms are pieced together and understood as a whole. this form provides the engine to the sám kìuh. It also teaches methods of recovering position and centerline when in a compromised position where Siu Nim Tao structure has been lost. For some branches this is the turbo-charger of the car. others interpret it as meaning it should never be used if you can help it. Alternately "sinking bodyweight in striking is a central theme." Some interpret this to mean the form should be kept secret. Still other branches view this form as imparting deadly "killing" and maiming techniques that should never be used if you can help it.) car. Although representative of a human opponent. and "emergency techniques" to counter-attack when structure and centerline have been seriously compromised. Likewise for some branches.Yale Cantonese: stepping (translational). Biu Jee. is composed of extreme short-range and extreme long-range techniques.[17] As well as pivoting and stepping. and footwork. the 木人 pinyin: mùrénzhuāng. whether it be from pivoting (rotational) or bridge"pinyin: chen qiáo.pinyin: biāo zhǐ.Yale dummy is not a physical representation of a 樁 Cantonese: muhk yàhn jòng. A common wing chun saying is "Biu Jee doesn't go out the door. For some branches bridge". Wooden dummy practice aims to refine a practitioner's "wooden dummy") understanding of angles. Such movements include very close range elbow strikes and finger thrusts to the throat. but an energetic one. a third degree of freedom involving more upper body and stretching is developed for more power.Yale Cantonese: bìu jí. 鏢指 Biu Tze (鏢指. human. a thick wooden post with three arms and a leg mounted on a slightly springy frame representing a stationary human opponent. and to develop full body power. For others it can be seen as a "pit stop" kit that should never come in to play. For branches who use the "sinking bridge" interpretation. The Hong Kong wall mounted version of the Wooden Dummy [edit]Forms . such as when the practitioner is seriously injured. the form takes on more emphasis of an "uprooting" context adding multi-dimensional movement and spiraling to the already developed engine.

with the last principle:Lau. or 六點半 "Six and A Half Point 棍 Pole". Jin Kuen ("Arrow Fist"). slightly smaller than short swords (Dao). their 7 principles of Luk Dim Boon Kwun(Tai-uprooting.[citation needed] Luk Dim Boon Kwun. [edit]Weapons Once correct force generation in the open-handed forms is achieved. With the open hand forms delivering force to the end of the finger tips. The name six and a half point pole comes from these 7 principles. Also. Also referred to as "Dragon Pole" by some branches. lan-to expand. lauflowing) are used throughout the unarmed combat as well. kit-deflect. Joy Kuen ("Drunken Fist"). A form involving a pair of large "Butterfly Knives". dim-shock. The Siu Lien Tao (Little First Training) of Cho Ga Wing Chun is one long form that includes movements that are comparative to a combination of Siu Nim Tao. "Long Pole"— a tapered wooden pole ranging anywhere from 8 to 13 feet in length. Jin Jeung ("Arrow Palm"). "Saam Baai Fut" (3 Bows to Buddha) which includes many flow/leak techniques from all of the first 'standard' 6 forms. Sup Saam Sao ("Thirteen Hands"). The Tam Yeung and Fung Sang lineages both trace their origins to Leung Jan's retirement to his native village of Gu Lao. the idea is to be able to extend that force further to the end of a weapon as an extension of the body. or Flowing counting as half a point. Historically the knives were also referred to as Dit Ming Do ("Life-Taking Knives"). using the same principles.Both the Way Yan (Weng Chun) and Nguyễn Tế-Công branches use different curricula of empty hand forms. Also. wan-circle. Chum Kiu. Chui Da ("Chase Striking"). a few family styles of Wing-Chun (especially those coming from the "Hong Sun Hay Ban Tong" (Red Boat/Junk Opera Society) have a combination advanced form called. Leung Ting demonstrating the Long Pole . and Biu Jee of other families. the student is ready to progress to weapons. Fa Kuen ("Variegated Fist"). where he taught a curriculum of San Sik. and Chi Sao Lung ("Sticking Hands Set"). Also known as Yee Jee Seung Do ("Parallel Shape Double Knives") and Baat 八斬刀 Jaam Do (Eight Chopping/Slashing Knives"). For some branches that use "Six and A Half Point Pole". got-cut down. these weapons forms can be used as an exercise to strengthen the forearms and wrists even further. The other major forms of the style are Sui Da ("Random Striking").

Also Jook Wan Huen (bamboo link ring). Luk Sao is most notably taught within the Pan Nam branches where both the larger rolling drills and the method where each of the arms roll in small separate circles are taught. Other branches do a version of this where each of the arms roll in small separate circles. thereby training each other to sense changes in body mechanics. An approximately 10 inch to 14 inch ring made of bamboo or ratan (some schools use a "metal" ring (progressively)). his skill with them could not compare to Yuen Kay San's. The aim is to feel forces. This increased sensitivity gained from this drill helps a practitioner attack and counter an opponent's movements precisely. Chi Sao drills begin with one-armed sets called Dan Chi Sao which help the novice student to get the feel of the exercise. test resistances and find defensive gaps. In Wing Chun this is practiced through two practitioners maintaining contact with each other's forearms while executing techniques. Term for the principle. According to Sum Nung. is another. quickly and with the appropriate technique. In some lineages (such as the Yip Man and Jiu Wan branches). though it can be practiced or expressed in a combat form. [edit]Chi sao Chi Sao (Chinese 黐手. many will usually not place the emphasis required in the lower body. the Mook-Wan is used for training the wrists and forearms. [edit]Chi gerk "Sticking-legs. Also. so they are not part of the current curriculum. and a great deal of strength and conditioning is experienced prior to continuing. pressure. Luk Sao participants push and "roll" their forearms against each other in a single circle while trying to remain relaxed. [edit]Mook Wan "Wooden Ring". it should not be confused with sparring/fighting. [edit]Southern martial art . Cantonese chi1 sau². each practitioner uses one hand from the same side as they face each other. An actual "form" set-up in some schools. momentum and "feel". Because the legs are stronger. Chi Sao is a sensitivity drill to obtain specific responses. Mandarin chǐshǒu) or "sticking hands". Chi Sao additionally refers to methods of rolling hands drills (Luk Sao)." is the lower-body equivalent of the upper body's Chi-sao training.The Yuen Kay-San/Sum Nung branch also historically trained throwing darts (Biu). Chi-gerk is first experienced by way of various strength and conditioning drills. they are usually harder to relax during drills. because students are busy concentrating on upper body movements. other schools just train techniques and strategies without a formulated "set" pattern. and drills used for the development of automatic reflexes upon contact and the idea of "sticking" to the opponent. and to instruct the student in "flow" from technique to technique. somewhat rare training-tool in some families of Wing-chun.

5. 2. Y.google. Retrieved on 2012-01-14. together with Hung Gar and Choi Lei Fut. the eldest son of Ip Man even mentioned that he is grateful to Donnie Yen for making his family art popular and allowing his father's legacy to be remembered. "What's in a name?" ^ Weng Chun Kung Fu . Y. Rene. Donnie Yen played the role of Wing Chun Grandmaster in the 2008 movie.[18] It is the world's most popular form of Southern Kung Fu. allowing hundreds of new Wing Chun schools to be opened up in Mainland China and other notable parts of Asia.com (1998-06-15). René Ritchie. Rene Ritchie.google. René Ritchie. which originated and became popular in Southern China. [21] [edit]Branches Main article: Branches of Wing Chun [edit]See also Wing Chun terms List of Movies Featuring Wing Chun   [edit]References 1. Yen is widely credited by many as the person responsible in popularizing the traditional martial arts system known as Wing Chun. 3.google. Wu. Books. Michael Tse – Google Books.[19] [edit]In popular culture Donnie Yen has also caused tremendous impact in the martial arts world through his various films. 4.com (1998-06-15). ^ Complete Wing Chun: The Definitive Guide to Wing Chun's History and Traditions – Robert Chu. Retrieved on 2012-01-14. Wu – Google Books.[20] Ip Chun. [edit]Global spread Wing Chun is practiced globally. Y. is named as one of "The Three Great Martial Art Schools of the South". Wu – Google Books. Complete Wing Chun: The Definitive Guide to Wing Chun's History and Traditions and Ritchie. ^ Complete Wing Chun: The Definitive Guide to Wing Chun's History and Traditions – Robert Chu. Books. in over 64 countries. Books. Retrieved on 2012-01-14.com. Roots and Branches of Wing Tsunand Robert Chu. ^ 永春 in usage : Leung Ting.Main article: Southern Chinese martial art Wing Chun. This has led to a tremendous increase in the numbers of people taking up Wing Chun. ^ Wing Chun Kung Fu: Traditional Chinese King Fu for Self-Defense and Health – Ip Chun. re-defining the genre of action films. which was a huge box office success[citation needed]. Ip Man.

Ritchie. Rene. Ritchie. & Wu. 17. Boston: Tuttle Publishing. 21. 18. Hong Kong: Leung's Publications.6. 20. 13. 84yo wing chun legend | YOUTUBE VIDEO ^ 叶问之子叶准 否认和甄子丹闹不合 | 联合早报 Singapore 10. "Wing Chun Concepts". 15. [edit]Sources  Chu.   Leung Ting (1978). Wing Tsun Kuen. Retrieved 2010-02-06. 14. 19. Kung Fu Magazine. Rene. Retrieved 2010-02-06. 7. ^ Yong Chun White Crane Kung Fu ^ Translation of Ip Man's account of Wing Chun's History ^ The Secret History of Wing Chun: The Truth Revealed. Robert. – By Benny Meng and Alfredo Delbrocco ^ "Rediscovering the Roots of Wing Chun". ISBN 962-7284-01-7. 12. 9. Kung Fu Magazine. ^ "Integrative Wing Chun". (1998). 11. ISBN 0-8048-3141-6. 16. Y. Complete Wing Chun: The Definitive Guide to Wing Chun's History and Traditions. ^ The Simple Basics of a Complex Art – By Michel Boulet ^ Wing Chun Stance by Jim Fung ^ The Hidden Power of Siu Nim Tau by Tsui Sheung Tin ^ martialarts2 ^ The Forms of Wing Chun Kuen Kung Fu | Reading Academy Wing Chun & Kali ^ Ving Tsun Martial Arts Studio – Training ^ City Wing Chun – Training Notes ^ Orange County Wing Chun FAQ's ^ Kung Fu Magazine's Description of Wing Chun ^ Ip Chun (葉準). 8. .

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