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Wing Chun

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For other uses, see Wing Chun (disambiguation).


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Wing Chun

A wing chun front kick (right) against a turning kick. This illustrates the principles of centerline and simultaneous attack and defence.

Also known as

Wing Chun, Wing Tsun, Ving Tsun

Focus

Striking, Trapping

Country of origin

China

Creator

Ng Mui

Famous practitioners

Sum Nung,[1] Yip Man,[2]Bruce Lee,[3]

Wing Chun

Traditional Chinese

Simplified Chinese

Literal meaning

fist of spring chant

[show]Transcriptions

Alternative Chinese name

Chinese

Literal meaning [show]Transcriptions

fist of eternal spring

Wing Chun (Chinese: ; pinyin: yng chn; literally "spring chant"), also romanised as Ving Tsun or Wing Tsun, (and sometimes substituted with the characters "eternal springtime"[4]); (also known as SnakeCrane style); is a concept-based Chinese martial art and form of self-defense utilising both striking and grappling while specialising in close-range combat. The alternative characters "eternal spring" are also associated with some other southern Chinese martial arts, including Weng Chun Kungfu and White Crane Weng Chun (Yong Chun).[5][6]
Contents
[hide]

1 History 2 Characteristics 2.1 Balance, structure and

stance

o o o o o
techniques

2.2 Relaxation 2.3 Centerline 2.4 Punches 2.5 Kicks 2.6 Uncommitted

o
sensitivity

2.7 Trapping skills and

o o

2.8 Close range 3 Curriculum 3.1 Forms and san sik


hand

3.1.1 Empty

dummy

3.1.2 Wooden

3.1.3 Forms 3.1.4 Weapon

o o o o
6 Branches 7 See also

3.2 Chi sao 3.3 Chi gerk 3.4 Mook Wan 4 Southern martial art 5 Global spread 5.1 In popular culture

8 References

9 Sources

[edit]History

Part of the series on

Chinese martial arts

List of Chinese martial arts

Terms

Kung fu () Wushu ()

Qigong () Historical places

Shaolin Monastery () Wudang Mountains () Mount Hua () Mount Emei ()

Kunlun Mountains () Historical people

Yue Fei () Yim Wing-chun () Hung Hei-gun () Fong Sai-yuk () Dong Haichuan () Yang Lu-ch'an () Wu Quanyou () Ten Tigers of Canton () Chen Fake () Chan Heung () Wong Fei-hung () Sun Lu-t'ang () Huo Yuanjia () Yip Man ()

Wang Zi-Ping () Famous modern actors

Bruce Lee () Jackie Chan () Sammo Hung () Yuen Biao ()

Jet Li () Donnie Yen () Man-Cheuk Chiu

Jing Wu Legendary figures

Bodhidharma () Zhang Sanfeng () Eight immortals ()

Five Elders () Related

Hong Kong action cinema Wushu (sport)

Wuxia ()
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talk

Main article: History of Wing Chun

edit

The earliest known mentions of Wing Chun date to the period of Red Boat Opera. The common legend as told by Ip Man[7] involves the young woman Yim Wing-chun, (Wing Chunliterally means 'forever springtime' or 'praising spring',) at the time after the destruction of theSouthern Shaolin Temple and its associated temples by the Qing government: After Wing-Chun rebuffs the local warlord's marriage offer, she says she'll reconsider his proposal if he can beat her in a martial art match. She soon crosses paths with a Buddhist nun--Ng Mui, who was one of the Shaolin Sect survivors, and asks the nun to teach her boxing. The legend goes that Ng Mui taught Yim WingChun a new system of martial art that had been inspired by Ng Mui's observations of a confrontation between a Snake and a Crane; this then-still nameless style enabled Yim Wing Chun to beat the warlord in a one-on-

one fight. Yim Wing-Chun there-after marries Leung Bac-Chou and teaches him the style, which is later named after her. Since the system was developed during the Shaolin and Ming resistance to the Qing Dynasty, many legends about the creator of Wing Chun were spread to confuse enemies, including the story of Yim Wing Chun. This perhaps explains why no one has been able to accurately determine the creator or creators of Wing Chun.[8]
[edit]Characteristics

This unreferenced section requires citations to ensureverifiability.

[edit]Balance,

structure and stance

Some Wing Chun practitioners believe that the person with better body structure will win. A correct Wing Chun stance is like a piece of bamboo, firm but flexible, rooted but yielding. This structure is used to either deflect external forces or redirect them.[citation needed] Balance is related to structure because a well-balanced body recovers more quickly from stalled attacks and structure is maintained. Wing Chun trains the awareness of one's own body movement derived from muscular, tendon, and articular sources. Performing Wing Chun's forms such as Chum Kiu or the Wooden Dummy form greatly improve proprioception. Wing Chun favours a high, narrow stance with the elbows kept close to the body. Within the stance, arms are positioned across the vitals of the centerline. Shifting or turning within a stance is carried out variantly on the heels, balls, or middle (K1 or Kidney 1 point) of the foot depending on lineage. All attacks and counter-attacks are initiated from this firm, stable base. Wing Chun rarely compromises structure for more powerful attacks because this is believed to create defensive openings which may be exploited. Structure is viewed as important, not only for reasons of defense, but also for attack. When the practitioner is effectively "rooted", or aligned so as to be braced against the ground, the force of the hit is believed to be far more devastating. Additionally, the practice of "settling" one's opponent to brace them more effectively against the ground aids in delivering as much force as possible to them. [9][10]
[edit]Relaxation

Softness (via relaxation) and performing techniques in a relaxed manner, is fundamental to Wing Chun.

Tension reduces punching speed and power. Muscles act in pairs in opposition to each other (e.g.

biceps and triceps). If the arm is tensed, maximum punching speed cannot be achieved as the biceps will be opposing the extension of the arm. In Wing Chun, the arm should be relaxed before beginning the punching motion.

Unnecessary muscle tension wastes energy and causes fatigue. Tense, stiff arms are less fluid and sensitive during trapping and chi sao. A tense, stiff limb provides an easy handle for an opponent to push or pull with, whereas a relaxed limb

provides an opponent less to work with.

A relaxed, but focused, limb affords the ability to feel "holes" or weaknesses in the opponent's

structure (see Sensitivity section). With the correct forwarding these "holes" grant a path into attacking the opponent.

Muscular struggle reduces a fight to who is stronger. Minimum brute strength in all movement

becomes an equalizer in uneven strength confrontations. This is very much in the spirit of the tale of Ng Mui.
[edit]Centerline

While the existence of a "central axis" concept is unified in Wing Chun, the interpretation of the centerline concept itself is not. Many variations exist, with some lineages defining anywhere from a single "centerline" to multiple lines of interaction and definition. The most commonly seen interpretation emphasizes attack and defense along an imaginary horizontal line drawn from the center of the practitioner's chest to the center of the enemy's chest. The human body's prime striking targets are considered to be on or near this line, including eyes, nose, throat, solar plexus and groin. Wing Chun techniques are generally "closed", with the limbs drawn in to protect the central area and also to maintain balance. In most circumstances, the hands do not move beyond the vertical circle that is described by swinging the arms in front, with the hands crossed at the wrists. To reach outside this area, footwork is used. A large emphasis and time investment in training Chi Sao exercise emphasizes positioning to dominate this centerline. The stance and guard all point at or through the center to concentrate physical and mental intent of the entire body to the one target. Wing Chun practitioners attack within this central area to transmit force more effectively, since it targets the "core center" (or "mother line", another center defined in some lineages and referring to the vertical axis of the human body where the center of gravity lies). For example, striking an opponent's shoulder will twist the body, dispelling some of the force and weakening the strike, as well as compromising the striker's position. Striking closer to the center transmits more force directly into the body.
[edit]Punches

Because of the emphasis on the center line, the vertical fist straight punch is the most common strike in Wing Chun. However, the principle of simultaneous attack and defense (Lin Sil Die Dar) suggests that all movements in the Siu Nim Tau with a forward execution flow into a strike if no effective resistance is met, without need for recomposure. Other explicit examples of punches can be found in the Chum Kiu and Bil Jee forms, although

these punches may appear to be superficially different they are simply the result of the punch beginning from a different origin position while following the same fundamental idea, to punch in a straight line following the shortest distance between the fist and the opponent. The vertical punch is the most basic and fundamental in Wing Chun and is usually thrown with the elbow down and in front of the body. Depending on the lineage, the fist is held anywhere from vertical to horizontal (palm side up). The contact points also vary from the top two knuckles, to the middle two knuckles, to the bottom three knuckles. In some lineages of Wing Chun, the fist is swiveled at the wrist on point of impact so that the bottom three knuckles are thrust forward adding power to the punch while it is at maximum extension. The punches may be thrown in quick succession in a "straight blast" or "chain punching". When executed correctly, it can be used as a disorienting finisher. Wing Chun is often criticized for encouraging weaker punches that do not utilise the whole body[citation needed]. However, as per the formal name of the punch (which is translated as "The Sun-character Rushing Punch (or Hammer in Cantonese)") [citation needed], a practitioner typically would thrust his full body weight towards his opponent, with the fist as the "nail", and his body as the "hammer". With each successive punch, the practitioner would step in closer and closer to the opponent, driving the fists forward as a hammer drives a nail. Wing Chun punches are delivered using Fa Jing, a short burst of energy in which the arm is momentarily tensed at the conclusion of the strike. This concept is similar to impact loading in engineering. Wing Chun favours the vertical punch for several reasons:

Directness. The punch is not "loaded" by pulling the elbow behind the body. The punch travels straight

towards the target from the guard position (hands are held in front of the chest).

Protection. The elbow is kept low to cover the front midsection of the body. It is more difficult for an

opponent to execute an elbow lock/break when the elbow occupies this position. This aids in generating power by use of the entire body structure rather than only the arm to strike. Also with the elbow down, it offers less opening for the body to be attacked while the forearm and punch intercept space towards the head and upper body.

Strength and Impact. Wing Chun practitioners believe that because the elbow is behind the fist during

the strike, it is thereby supported by the strength of the entire body rather than just a swinging fist, and therefore has more impact. A common analogy is a baseball bat being swung at someone's head (a roundhouse punch), as opposed to the butt end of the bat being thrust forward into the opponent's face (wing chun punch), which would cause far more damage than a glancing hit and is not as easy to evade. Many skilled practitioners pride themselves on being able to generate "short power" or large amount of power in a short space. A common demonstration of this is the "one-inch punch", a punch that starts only an inch away from the target yet delivers an explosive amount of force.

Alignment & Structure. Because of Wing Chun's usage of stance, the vertical punch is thus more

suitable. The limb directly in front of the chest, elbow down, vertical nature of the punch allows a practitioner to absorb the rebound of the punch by directing it through the elbows and into the stance. This is a desirable trait to a Wing Chun practitioner because it promotes use of the entire body structure to generate power. Whereas, the rebound of a horizontal punch uses only the arm to strike. In this elbow-out position the hinge-structure directs force outwards along the limb producing torque in the puncher's body.
[edit]Kicks

Kicks can be explicitly found in the Chum Kiu and Mook Jong forms, though some have made interpretations of small leg movements in the Siu Nim Tau and Bil Jee to contain information on kicking as well. Depending on lineage, a beginner is often introduced to basic kicking before learning the appropriate form. Traditionally, kicks are kept below the waist. This is characteristic of southern Chinese martial arts, in contrast to northern systems which utilize many high kicks. Variations on a front kick are performed striking with the heel. The body may be square and the knee and foot are vertical on contact (Chum Kiu), or a pivot may be involved with the foot and knee on a plane at an angle (Mook Jong). At short distances this can become a knee. Aroundhouse kick is performed striking with the shin in a similar manner to the Muay Thai version with most of the power coming from the body pivot. This kick is usually used as a finisher at closer range, targeting anywhere between the ribs and the back of the knee, this kick can also become a knee at close range. Other kicks include a stamping kick (Mook Jong) for very close range and a sweep performed with the heel in a circular fashion. Every kick is both an attack and defence, with legs being used to check incoming kicks or to take the initiative in striking through before a more circular kick can land. Kicks are delivered in one movement directly from the stance without chambering/cocking.
[edit]Uncommitted

techniques

Wing Chun techniques are uncommitted. This means that if the technique fails to connect, the practitioner's position or balance is less affected. If the attack fails, the practitioner is able to "flow" easily into a follow-up attack. All Wing Chun techniques permit this. Any punches or kicks can be strung together to form a "chain" of attacks. According to Wing Chun theory, these attacks, in contrast to one big attack, break down the opponent gradually causing internal damage. Chained vertical punches are a common Wing Chun identifier.
[edit]Trapping

skills and sensitivity

The Wing Chun practitioner develops reflexes within the searching of unsecured defenses through use of sensitivity. Training through Chi Sao with a training partner, one practices the trapping of hands. When an opponent is "trapped", he or she becomes immobile.

Chinese philosophy: "Greet what arrives, escort what leaves and rush upon loss of contact"- Yip Man [attribution needed]
[edit]Close

range

Wing Chun teaches practitioners to advance quickly and strike at close range. While the Wing Chun forward kick can be considered a long range technique, many Wing Chun practitioners practice "entry techniques"getting past an opponent's kicks and punches to bring him within range of Wing Chun's close range repertoire. This means that theoretically, if the correct techniques are applied, a shorter person with a shorter range can defeat a larger person by getting inside his range and attacking him close to his body.
[edit]Curriculum [edit]Forms

and san sik

Forms are meditative, solitary exercises which develop self-awareness, balance, relaxation and sensitivity. Forms also train the practitioner in the fundamental movement and the correct force generation of Wing Chun. San Sik (translated as Separate Forms) are compact in structure. They can be loosely grouped into three broad categories: 1) focus on building body structure through basic punching, standing, turning, and stepping drills; 2) fundamental arm cycles and changes, firmly ingraining the cardinal tools for interception and adaptation; and 3) sensitivity training and combination techniques. It is from the forms and san sik that all Wing Chun techniques are derived. Depending on lineage, the focus, content and intent of each form can have distinct differences which can therefore have far reaching implications. This also means that there are a few different ideas concerning what constitutes progression in the curriculum from form to form, so only a general description of overlap between different schools of thought is possible here. The most commonly seen Wing Chun generally comprises six forms: three empty hand forms, one "wooden dummy" form, and two weapons forms.
[edit]Empty hand The first, and most important form in Wing Chun, Siu Lim Tao is the foundation or "seed" of the art from which all succeeding forms and techniques depend. [11] Fundamental rules of balance and body structure are developed here. Using a car analogy: for some branches this would provide the chassis,[12] for others this is the engine.[13]It serves basically as the alphabet for the system. Some branches view the symmetrical stance as the fundamental fighting stance, while others see it as more a training stance used in developing technique.[14]

Siu Nim Tao (; xio nin tu;Yale Cantonese:su nihm tuh; "little idea" or "little imagination") or Siu Lim Tao ( ;xio lin tu; Yale Cantonese: su lihn tuh; "little practice").

Chum Kiu (;pinyin: xn qio;Yale Cantonese: cham4 kiu4; "seeking the

The second form, Chum Kiu, focuses on coordinated movement of bodymass and entry techniques to "bridge the gap" between practitioner and opponent and move in to disrupt

their structure and balance.[15][16] Close-range attacks using the elbows and knees are also developed here. It also teaches methods of recovering position and centerline when in a compromised position where Siu Nim Tao structure has been lost. For some branches bridge". Alternately "sinking bodyweight in striking is a central theme, whether it be from pivoting (rotational) or bridge"pinyin: chen qio;Yale Cantonese: stepping (translational). Likewise for some branches, this form provides the engine to the sm kuh;) car. For branches who use the "sinking bridge" interpretation, the form takes on more emphasis of an "uprooting" context adding multi-dimensional movement and spiraling to the already developed engine.

Biu Tze (;pinyin: bio zh;Yale Cantonese: bu j; "darting fingers")

The third form, Biu Jee, is composed of extreme short-range and extreme long-range techniques, low kicks and sweeps, and "emergency techniques" to counter-attack when structure and centerline have been seriously compromised, such as when the practitioner is seriously injured.[17] As well as pivoting and stepping, developed in Chum Kiu, a third degree of freedom involving more upper body and stretching is developed for more power. Such movements include very close range elbow strikes and finger thrusts to the throat. For some branches this is the turbo-charger of the car. For others it can be seen as a "pit stop" kit that should never come in to play, recovering your "engine" when it has been lost. Still other branches view this form as imparting deadly "killing" and maiming techniques that should never be used if you can help it. A common wing chun saying is "Biu Jee doesn't go out the door." Some interpret this to mean the form should be kept secret, others interpret it as meaning it should never be used if you can help it.

[edit]Wooden dummy

The Muk Yan Jong form is performed against a "wooden dummy", a thick wooden post with three arms and a leg mounted on a slightly springy frame representing a stationary human opponent. Muk Yan Jong(; Although representative of a human opponent, the pinyin: mrnzhung;Yale dummy is not a physical representation of a Cantonese: muhk yhn jng; human, but an energetic one. Wooden dummy practice aims to refine a practitioner's "wooden dummy") understanding of angles, positions, and footwork, and to develop full body power. It is here that the open hand forms are pieced together and understood as a whole.

The Hong Kong wall mounted version of the Wooden Dummy

[edit]Forms

Both the Way Yan (Weng Chun) and Nguyn T-Cng branches use different curricula of empty hand forms. The Tam Yeung and Fung Sang lineages both trace their origins to Leung Jan's retirement to his native village of Gu Lao, where he taught a curriculum of San Sik. The Siu Lien Tao (Little First Training) of Cho Ga Wing Chun is one long form that includes movements that are comparative to a combination of Siu Nim Tao, Chum Kiu, and Biu Jee of other families. The other major forms of the style are Sui Da ("Random Striking"), Chui Da ("Chase Striking"), Fa Kuen ("Variegated Fist"), Jin Jeung ("Arrow Palm"), Jin Kuen ("Arrow Fist"), Joy Kuen ("Drunken Fist"), Sup Saam Sao ("Thirteen Hands"), and Chi Sao Lung ("Sticking Hands Set"). Also, a few family styles of Wing-Chun (especially those coming from the "Hong Sun Hay Ban Tong" (Red Boat/Junk Opera Society) have a combination advanced form called; "Saam Baai Fut" (3 Bows to Buddha) which includes many flow/leak techniques from all of the first 'standard' 6 forms.
[edit]Weapons

Once correct force generation in the open-handed forms is achieved, the student is ready to progress to weapons. With the open hand forms delivering force to the end of the finger tips, the idea is to be able to extend that force further to the end of a weapon as an extension of the body, using the same principles. Also, these weapons forms can be used as an exercise to strengthen the forearms and wrists even further.
Also known as Yee Jee Seung Do ("Parallel Shape Double Knives") and Baat Jaam Do (Eight Chopping/Slashing Knives").

A form involving a pair of large "Butterfly Knives", slightly smaller than short swords (Dao). Historically the knives were also referred to as Dit Ming Do ("Life-Taking Knives").[citation
needed]

Luk Dim Boon Kwun, or "Six and A Half Point Pole".

"Long Pole" a tapered wooden pole ranging anywhere from 8 to 13 feet in length. Also referred to as "Dragon Pole" by some branches. For some branches that use "Six and A Half Point Pole", their 7 principles of Luk Dim Boon Kwun(Tai-uprooting, lan-to expand, dim-shock, kit-deflect, got-cut down, wan-circle, lauflowing) are used throughout the unarmed combat as well. The name six and a half point pole comes from these 7 principles, with the last principle:Lau, or Flowing counting as half a point.

Leung Ting demonstrating the Long Pole

The Yuen Kay-San/Sum Nung branch also historically trained throwing darts (Biu). According to Sum Nung, his skill with them could not compare to Yuen Kay San's, so they are not part of the current curriculum.
[edit]Chi

sao

Chi Sao (Chinese , Cantonese chi1 sau, Mandarin chshu) or "sticking hands". Term for the principle, and drills used for the development of automatic reflexes upon contact and the idea of "sticking" to the opponent. In Wing Chun this is practiced through two practitioners maintaining contact with each other's forearms while executing techniques, thereby training each other to sense changes in body mechanics, pressure, momentum and "feel". This increased sensitivity gained from this drill helps a practitioner attack and counter an opponent's movements precisely, quickly and with the appropriate technique. Chi Sao additionally refers to methods of rolling hands drills (Luk Sao). Luk Sao participants push and "roll" their forearms against each other in a single circle while trying to remain relaxed. The aim is to feel forces, test resistances and find defensive gaps. Other branches do a version of this where each of the arms roll in small separate circles. Luk Sao is most notably taught within the Pan Nam branches where both the larger rolling drills and the method where each of the arms roll in small separate circles are taught. In some lineages (such as the Yip Man and Jiu Wan branches), Chi Sao drills begin with one-armed sets called Dan Chi Sao which help the novice student to get the feel of the exercise, each practitioner uses one hand from the same side as they face each other. Chi Sao is a sensitivity drill to obtain specific responses, it should not be confused with sparring/fighting, though it can be practiced or expressed in a combat form.
[edit]Chi

gerk

"Sticking-legs," is the lower-body equivalent of the upper body's Chi-sao training. Chi-gerk is first experienced by way of various strength and conditioning drills, and a great deal of strength and conditioning is experienced prior to continuing. Because the legs are stronger, they are usually harder to relax during drills. Also, because students are busy concentrating on upper body movements, many will usually not place the emphasis required in the lower body.
[edit]Mook

Wan

"Wooden Ring", is another, somewhat rare training-tool in some families of Wing-chun. An approximately 10 inch to 14 inch ring made of bamboo or ratan (some schools use a "metal" ring (progressively)), the Mook-Wan is used for training the wrists and forearms, and to instruct the student in "flow" from technique to technique. An actual "form" set-up in some schools, other schools just train techniques and strategies without a formulated "set" pattern. Also Jook Wan Huen (bamboo link ring).
[edit]Southern

martial art

Main article: Southern Chinese martial art Wing Chun, together with Hung Gar and Choi Lei Fut, is named as one of "The Three Great Martial Art Schools of the South", which originated and became popular in Southern China.
[edit]Global

spread

Wing Chun is practiced globally, in over 64 countries.[18] It is the world's most popular form of Southern Kung Fu.[19]
[edit]In

popular culture

Donnie Yen has also caused tremendous impact in the martial arts world through his various films. Yen is widely credited by many as the person responsible in popularizing the traditional martial arts system known as Wing Chun. Donnie Yen played the role of Wing Chun Grandmaster in the 2008 movie, Ip Man, which was a huge box office success[citation needed], re-defining the genre of action films. This has led to a tremendous increase in the numbers of people taking up Wing Chun, allowing hundreds of new Wing Chun schools to be opened up in Mainland China and other notable parts of Asia.[20] Ip Chun, the eldest son of Ip Man even mentioned that he is grateful to Donnie Yen for making his family art popular and allowing his father's legacy to be remembered. [21]
[edit]Branches

Main article: Branches of Wing Chun


[edit]See

also
Wing Chun terms List of Movies Featuring Wing Chun

[edit]References

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

^ Complete Wing Chun: The Definitive Guide to Wing Chun's History and Traditions Robert Chu, Ren Ritchie, Y. Wu

Google Books. Books.google.com (1998-06-15). Retrieved on 2012-01-14. ^ Complete Wing Chun: The Definitive Guide to Wing Chun's History and Traditions Robert Chu, Ren Ritchie, Y. Wu

Google Books. Books.google.com (1998-06-15). Retrieved on 2012-01-14. ^ Wing Chun Kung Fu: Traditional Chinese King Fu for Self-Defense and Health Ip Chun, Michael Tse Google Books.

Books.google.com. Retrieved on 2012-01-14. ^ in usage : Leung Ting, Roots and Branches of Wing Tsunand Robert Chu, Rene Ritchie, Y. Wu, Complete Wing

Chun: The Definitive Guide to Wing Chun's History and Traditions and Ritchie, Rene, "What's in a name?" ^ Weng Chun Kung Fu

6. 7. 8. 9.

^ Yong Chun White Crane Kung Fu ^ Translation of Ip Man's account of Wing Chun's History ^ The Secret History of Wing Chun: The Truth Revealed, By Benny Meng and Alfredo Delbrocco ^ "Rediscovering the Roots of Wing Chun". Kung Fu Magazine. Retrieved 2010-02-06. ^ "Integrative Wing Chun". Kung Fu Magazine. Retrieved 2010-02-06. ^ The Simple Basics of a Complex Art By Michel Boulet ^ Wing Chun Stance by Jim Fung ^ The Hidden Power of Siu Nim Tau by Tsui Sheung Tin ^ martialarts2 ^ The Forms of Wing Chun Kuen Kung Fu | Reading Academy Wing Chun & Kali ^ Ving Tsun Martial Arts Studio Training ^ City Wing Chun Training Notes ^ Orange County Wing Chun FAQ's ^ Kung Fu Magazine's Description of Wing Chun ^ Ip Chun (), 84yo wing chun legend | YOUTUBE VIDEO ^ | Singapore

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.
[edit]Sources

Chu, Robert; Ritchie, Rene; & Wu, Y. (1998). Complete Wing Chun: The Definitive Guide to Wing Chun's History and

Traditions. Boston: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3141-6.

Leung Ting (1978). Wing Tsun Kuen. Hong Kong: Leung's Publications. ISBN 962-7284-01-7. Ritchie, Rene, "Wing Chun Concepts".