You are on page 1of 4

Chemistry I. Chemistry Theory A. John Dalton developed the theory that mass is not created or destroyed B.

William Cooke developed a cathode ray that proved particles are charged C. Robert Milliken used an oil drop experiment to measure charge to mass ratio D. Joseph John Thompson discovered electrons E. Ernest Rutherford developed a gold foil experiment that proved atoms had empty space II. Types of Radiation A. Alpha Radiation occurs when particles made of two protons and two neutrons are released (He2+ atoms) B. Beta Radiation occurs when an atom emits electrons C. Gamma Rays are when matterless particles are released III. The Quantum Theory A. Waves 1. Smaller waves move faster 2. Speed of waves is measured by frequency B. Light is electromagnetic radiation or wave-like behavior that travels through space C. Wavelength is the shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave D. Frequency is the number of waves that pass at a given point per second E. Amplitude is the waves height from origin to crest F. the Speed of Light is 3.00 * 108 m/s 1. It is measured with the equation C = * G. Quanta are a specific amount of energy that matter can gain or lose H. A Quantum is the minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom I. Plancks Constant (6.626 * 10-34) can be used to determine the energy of a quantum 1. It is used in the equation EQuantum = h * J. Light is emitted in particles called photons K. Ground State is the lowest allowed energy level in an atom L. Atoms enter an Excited State when they gain energy M. Niels Bohr suggested that electrons orbit the nucleus in certain spheres called quantum levels (Each has a number assigned to it from 1 to 7) N. The release of energy 1. When an electron falls to the 1st quantum level UV light is released 2. When an electron falls to the 2nd quantum level visible light is released 3. When an electron falls to the 3rd quantum level Infrared light is released O. n=1 (Lyman Series) n=2 (Balmer Series) and n=3 (Paschen Series) are the levels P. Louis de Brogile hypothesized that particles have wave-like properties 1. de Brogile Equation: = h/mv

Q. Werner Heisenberg believed that position could not be measured without disrupting movement R. Erwin Schrdinger created first Quantum Mechanical Model of an Atom S. Eventually evidence of atomic orbital was found T. Electrons orbit the nucleus in S, P, D, and F sublevels 1. the S sublevel has one orbital 2. the P sublevel has three orbitals 3. the D sublevel has five orbitals 4. the F sublevel has seven orbitals IV. Electron Behavior A. Electron Configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom B. the Aufbau Principle states that electrons try to occupy the lowest energy orbitals C. the Pauli Exclusion Principle states that a maximum of two electrons can occupy an orbital and only if they have opposite spins V. The Elements A. In the 1700s, Antoine Lavoisier listed and studied all the know elements of the time B. John Newlands proposed an arrangement where elements were ordered by increasing atomic mass C. Octaves are the repeating pattern that occurred in every 8th element D. Dmitri Mendeleev and Julius Meyer demonstrated a connection between elemental mass and the elements properties E. Moseley rearranged the table by increasing atomic number, and resulted in clear patterns F. Most of this information became know as Periodic Law VI. Periodic Table Organization A. Groups are the columns B. Periods are the rows C. Groups 1-2 and 13-18 are know as representative elements D. Groups 3-12 are known as transitional elements VII. Classification A. The periodic table has metals, non-metals, and metalloids B. Alkali Metals (first group) create explosive reactions C. The second group contains Alkaline Earth Metals D. Non-metals are elements that are brittle or gaseous E. Halogens (group 17) are very reactive F. Noble gases (group 18) are very non-reactive G. Metalloids Contain properties of metals and non-metals VIII. Periodic Trends A. From left to right Atomic Size will decrease but it will increase from top to bottom B. Valence electrons increase from left to right C. From left to right Ionization Energy increases but it will decrease from top to bottom

D. From left to right Electronegativity will increase but it will decrease from top to bottom IX. Ions A. All atoms try to form the octet and become stable B. Chemical Bonds are the forces that hold two atoms together C. Ionic Bonds form between the positive charges of one atoms nucleus and the other atoms electrons D. The positively charged ion becomes the Cation E. The negatively charged ion becomes the Anion F. Metals are so reactive because they lose valence electrons easily G. Ionic Crystals are formed when a repeated packing of ions into a compound occurs H. The strongest ionic attractions form a Crystal Lattice I. Ions in aqueous solutions that conduct electricity are Electrolytes J. Endothermic reactions absorb heat and Exothermic Reactions release heat K. Lattice Energy is used to break apart ions L. The Electron Sea Model proposed that all metal atoms contribute their valence electrons to forming a sea of electrons M. The electrons in a sea of electrons are call Delocalized Electrons N. As the number of delocalized electrons increases, so does the metals strength X. Covalent Bonding A. Sometimes its possible for atoms to share electrons instead of stealing them B. This allows the atoms in a compound to gain stability C. Diatomic Molecules are molecules made of two of the same atoms that bond to each other naturally 1. Iodine, Bromine, Chlorine, Fluorine, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen D. Sigma Bonds are when atoms have single covalent bonds E. Pi Bonds are when atoms have double or triple covalent bonds F. Lewis Structures are used to describe these bonds G. XI. Chemical Reactions A. Evidence of a reaction: Light, Color, Gas (Bubbles), Heat B. Symbols used in chemical equations 1. means yields (like an equals sign) 2. + signifies the combination of two separate compounds 3. (s) refers to a solid compound 4. (l) refers to a liquid compound 5. (g) refers to a gaseous compound 6. (aq) refers to an aqueous compound C. A Word Equation states the chemical equation in sentence format D. A Skeleton Equation uses symbols to represent the elements and operations XII. Balancing a Chemical Equation A. A Coefficient is a number written before a reactant or a product that signifies the amount of the compound B. The Law of Conservation of Mass states that the amount of atoms in the reactants of an equation must equal the amount of atoms in the product

XIII. Types of Reactions A. Synthesis - a chemical reaction in which two or more substances react to produce a single product 1. A + B C B. Combustion - a reaction in which oxygen combines with a substance and releases heat and light 1. A + O2 AO2 C. Decomposition - a reaction in which one compound breaks down into two or more elements or new compounds 1. AB A + B D. Single Replacement - a reaction in which the atoms of one element replace the atoms of another element 1. A + BX AX + B E. Double Replacement - An exchange of ions between two compounds dissolved in aqueous solutions 1. AX + BY AY + BX\ XIV. The Mole A. Avogadros Number is 6.022 * 1023 B. A mole is the SI base unit to measure the amount of any given substance C. The Molar Mass is the number of grams in one mole of a substance XV. Compound Formulas A. Percent Mass is the percent by mass of one individual element in a compound B. An Empirical Formula is the smallest whole number mole ratio of elements in a compound. C. A Molecular Formula specifies the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule or formula unit of a compound. D. Molecular Mass is the