Name: ___________________________________ First Exam Biology 172
Student ID Number: _______________________ Spring 2012
Write your name and student ID number (without a space between the sets of 4 numbers) on this exam booklet. Write your name and student ID number on the scan sheet and fill in the bubbles. Do not write any other information on the scan sheet! Answer all 51 questions. Choose the best answer. Bubble in your answers on the scan sheet. Use only a #2 pencil. Hand in the scan sheet inside this exam booklet. Both must be handed in for credit. 1. Archaeplastids, which include red and green algae and land plants, are thought to have descended from a heterotroph that engulfed a(n) _____. a. Brown alga. b. Alpha proteobacterium. c. Cyanobacterium d. Euglenoid e. Archaean bacterium. 2. What is a soredium? a. An asexual reproductive structures in lichens. b. A mycorrhiza reproductive structue. c. Lichens structure consisting of a mass of algal cells surrounded by fungal hyphae. d. Sexual spores of the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. e. Both a and c are correct. 3. A phylum of fungi where all species form arbuscular mycorrhizae: a. Ascomycetes b. Zygomycetes c. Glomeromycetes d. Basidiomycetes e. Chytridiomycetes 4. If you have a life cycle in which meiosis gives rise to spores, the life cycle is said to be: a. Sporic b. Zygotic c. Gametic d. Asexual e. None of the above. 5. A plant that is homosporous is one that has: a. One type of spore. b. Two types of spores. c. bisexual gametophytes. d. Megasporophylls and microsporophylls. e. Both a and c are correct. 6. A characteristic common to seed plants is a. The mature seed is enclosed in a fruit. b. The mature seed is borne naked. c. Heterospory d. Homospory e. Microphyll 7. Plants will flower when: a. They receive the correct continuous night length b. The soil reaches a certain temperature. c. Approximately a year has passed since they last flowered. d. They receive the correct continuous day length. e. The nutrients in the soil become depleted. 8. The Ginkgophyta and Cycadophyta are gymnosperms that have a characteristic that is left over from their aquatic ancestor. What is this characteristic? a. The pollen grain that still produces flagellated swimming sperms b. Absence of support tissue. c. The spore is the dispersal unit. d. Standing water is still required for sexual reproduction. e. Absence of vascular tissue. 9. The following can be found in the life cycle of Rhizopus stolonifer: a. Asexual spores borne in sporangia. b. septate mycelium c. Flagellated asexual spores. d. Zygosporangia formed during sexual reprodction. e. Both a and d are correct.
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10. The plant hormone involved in ripening of fruit is: a. Auxin b. Gibberellin c. Abscisic acid d. Ethylene e. Florigen 11. The angiosperm seed differs from that of the gymnosperm in that: a. Endosperm is the food supply for the embryo. b. Female gametophyte is the food supply for the embryo. c. A single integument forms the seed coat. d. Their seeds are borne naked. e. They are always wind dispersed. 12. Primary growth refers to: a. Meristematic growth where cells are constantly dividing b. Increase in the diameter of a plant. c. Stem elongation between the base of a tree and the first internode. d. Elongation of a stem or root, just below the apical meristem. e. Both elongation and increase in diameter of a stem. 13. Select the characteristic that is found in plants, but is the poorest adaptation to the terrestrial environment. a. Waxy cuticle. b. Sterile cells surround reproductive structures. c. Embryo stage being retained in the archegonium. d. Standing water needed for the fertilization of the egg with a swimming sperm. e. Seeds. 14. In what part of the leaf does photosynthesis occur? a. Upper and lower epidermis. b. Veins of the leaf. c. Bundle sheath cells. d. Mesophyll e. Fiber cells
15. The following statement concerning secondary growth is incorrect: a. It is present in most monocots and eudicots. b. It is absent in annual plants. c. It is derived from the vascular cambium and cork cambium. d. It increases the diameter of plants. e. It is absent in monocots. 16. The vegetative (nutritionally active) bodies of fungi are a. Usually growing in their food. b. Referred to as a mycelium. c. Composed of hyphae. d. Able to derive their food by the process of absorption. e. All of above are correct. 17. The following is not a characteristic that can be found in the fungi: a. Cell wall composed of cellulose. b. Reproduction by spores. c. Absorption of food. d. Body is composed filamentous structure called mycelium e. Heterotroph. 18. The part of the root that absorbs most of the water and minerals is: a. The part nearest the base of the stem. b. At the root meristem. c. At the zone of elongation. d. At the zone of maturation. e. At the root cap 19. A tuber is a _____ modification. a. Stem b. Leaf c. Root d. Axillary bud e. Apical bud 20. Which of the following can evade the human immune system by frequently changing their surface proteins? a. Plasmodium. b. Trichomonas. c. Entamoeba. d. Trypanosoma. e. Both a and d are correct.
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21. The following are characteristic that charophytes and plants have in common except: a. Phragmoplast present during mitosis. b. Chloroplast structure. c. Rosette cellulose synthesizing complex. d. Waxy cuticle. e. Sperm ultrastructure. 22. The following hormone generally inhibits growth: a. Cytokinin b. Gibberellin c. Abscisic acid d. Florigen e. All of above are correct. 23. There have recently been proposed revisions of the concept of the plant kingdom. The proposed Viridiplantae would include the traditional plant kingdom and: a. Red algae and all green algae. b. Charophytes and red algae. c. Red algae. d. All green algae. e. Charophytes 24. The following is true of sucrose transport in plants: a. It starts from a source and goes to a sink. b. It occurs by bulk flow in sieve tube members. c. It is driven by negative pressure. d. The source is always leaves. e. Both a and b are correct. 25. The following cell type has lignin in their cell wall a. Parenchyma b. Collenchyma c. Fibers d. Sieve tube members e. Companion cell
27. Which algal group has chloroplasts much like those found in plants? a. Red algae b. Diatoms c. Green algae d. Brown algae e. Dinoflagellates 28. The following is a mutualistic relationship that plant roots have that aides in enhancing nutrient uptake: a. Rhizobium nodules in legume roots. b. Epiphytes growing on trees. c. Parasitic plants growing on trees. d. Mycorrhizae e. Both a and d are correct. 29. The term for the transfer of pollen to the ovule is: a. Fertilization b. Syngamy c. Pollination d. Plasmogamy e. Double fertilization 30. When you were 5, your dad made a swing for you that hung from a branch, from a tree that was 16 ft tall. The seat of the swing was 3 ft. off the ground. You are now 18 and the tree is 25 feet tall. How high from the ground is the seat now? a. 3 ft. b. 6 ft. c. 9 ft. d. 12 ft. e. 15 ft.
31. Haustoria are specialized structures that: a. Are utilized by parasitic species of fungi to enter the cells of their hosts. b. Are organelles of members of the Apiocomplexans that are used to enter the cells of their hosts. c. Serve as a nutritional source for mycorrhizal fungi. 26. Mycelium that is dikaryotic refers to: d. Produce spores in fungi. a. Septate mycelium that has one nucleus per cell. e. Serve as a means of locomotion for ciliates. b. Coenocytic mycelium. c. Septate mycelium that has two nuclei per cell. d. Septate mycelium with variable numbers of nuclei per cell. e. Mycelial cells that are devoide of nuclei.
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32. Branches on a stem are derived from the following structures: a. Nodes b. Axillary buds c. Lateral meristems d. Adventitious roots e. Pericycle 33. A biological cycle with a period of about 24 hours is called: a. A biological clock b. A short or long day plant. c. A triple response d. Photoperiodism e. A circadian rhythm 34. Which of the pairs of terms are incorrectly matched as monocots vs dicot characteristics? a. Fibrous root vs tap root. b. Vascular bundles scattered vs vascular bundles in a ring. c. Leaves with parallel veins vs leaves with branching veins. d. Simple leaves vs compound leaves. e. Single cotyledon vs two cotyledons. 35. Monocot flowers generally differs from eudicots in that: a. They have unisexual flowers. b. The number of floral parts is usually in 3's. c. They lack sepals and petals. d. The number of floral parts are usually in 4's and 5's. e. Their flowers are always adapted for wind pollination. 36. Elements that are required in by plants in relatively large amounts are: a. Macronutrients b. Essential nutrients c. Micronutrients d. In the organic matter of humus. e. Only present in soil. 37. The nucleomorph of Bigelowiella natans of the Rhizaria super group is a structure that is used as supporting evidence of: a. Endogenous origin of the nucleus and e.r. b. Primary endosymbiosis c. Secondary endosymbiosis d. Serial symbiotic origin of the mitochondrion. e. None of the above.
38. A leaf that is modified to produce spores is a: a. Microphyll b. Sporophyll c. Megaphyll d. Petal e. Axillary bud 39. A category of mycorrhiza in which the mycelium of the fungus is mostly wrapped around the root tip and may also grow between the cells of the root cortex is a(n): a. Endomycorrhiza b. Arbuscular mycorrhiza. c. Ectomycorrhiza d. Rhizobium e. Ectorhizoid. 40. The following group of plants lack vascular tissue: a. Bryophytes b. Lycophytes c. Pteridophytes d. Angiosperms e. Gymnosperms 41. Lateral root formation is derived from: a. Vascular cambium b. Pericycle c. Endodermis d. Apical meristem e. Axillary bud 42. A flash of red light followed by a flash of far red light given during the middle of the night to a short day plant will likely: a. Convert florigen to its active form. b. Stimulate flowering c. Inhibit flowering d. Cause increased flower production. e. Have no effect upon flowering. 43. Sieve tube members are unusual in that they are: a. Nonliving cells that transport water and minerals. b. Nonliving cells that transport sugar. c. Living cells that lack nuclei, as well as other organelles. d. Have retained the ability to divide. e. Both b and d are correct.
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44. The following is not an advantage that a seed, as a dispersal unit, has over a spore. a. It has a protective seed coat. b. The embryo has a food supply. c. It can remain dormant until the conditions are optimal for germination. d. It is single celled. e. Its formation does not require standing water. 45. The following is not a characteristic of seed plants: a. Male gametophyte contained in pollen. b. Female gametophyte contained in ovule. c. Heterospory d. Bisexual gametophyte. e. Food supply that feeds embryo during seed dormancy. 46. Why were the Parabasalid and Diplomonads once thought to have diverged early in the evolution of eukaryotes? a. It was once thought that they did not have mitochondria. b. It was once thought that they did not have chloroplasts. c. They lacked perioxisomes. d. Their cell walls were more similar to prokaryotes than eukaryotes. e. Protein synthesis was more similar to prokaryotes than eukaryotes. 47. Serial symbiosis resulted in the origin of the following organelle: a. Nucleus b. Chloroplast c. Mitochondrion d. Ribosome e. Both b and c are correct. 48. The Pr form of the phytochrome pigment has maximum absorption in the ________ part of the spectrum. a. Red b. Far red c. Ultraviolet d. Blue e. Green
49. Moss life cycle differs from that of other plant life cycles in that: a. Standing water is required for sexual reproduction to occur. b. The sporophyte is nutritionally dependent upon the gametophyte stage. c. It is a sporophyte dominant life cycle. d. Sterile cells do not protect the eggs and sperm. e. They do not produce seeds. 50. The only phylum of fungi that have flagellated stages is: a. Basidiomycetes b. Ascomycetes c. Chytridiomycetes d. Zygomycetes e. Glomeromycetes 51. Secondary endosymbiosis refers to: a. Endosymbioses that gave rise to golgi and ribosomes. b. Endosymbioses that resulted from engulfment of a eukaryotic red or green alga. c. Recently evolved symbiotic relationship such as mycorrhizae. d. Endosymbiotic origin of the chloroplast from a cyanobacterium e. Endosymbiotic origin of the mitochondrion from a proteo-bacterium
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