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Erratum
Page 320,
line 22,

for 12 ounces read 12 grains

Tissnndier's Photography.

PHOTOGRAPHY .

.LONDON SPOTTISWOODE : I'KINTED BV AND CO. NEW-STKEET SQUARE AND PARLIAMENT STREET .

.

/- .

LOW. AND CHINA. MARSTON. AUTHOR OF 'ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHINA AND ITS PEOPLE. & SEA RLE. LOW. CROWN BUILDINGS.' ETC.HISTORY AND HANDBOOK OF PH OTOGR A PH Translated from the French of GASTON TISSANDIER EDITED BY J. Street 1877 .S. F. 419 421 Broome. INDO-CHINA. WITH UPWARDS OF SEVENTY ILLUSTRATIONS LONDON SAMPSON.G.' 'THE STRAITS OF MALACCA. THOMSON. l88 FLEET STREET 1876 NEW YORK S CO \' I LL MANUFACTURING COMPANY «!y: Nos.R.

.

* the infant just beginning to grow. capable of results. at producing at the very outset itself as such strange once stamped a work something grand. itself into as soon as born. one of the it latest of the prodigies of in 1838.' could not have been applied to the daguerreotype. And indeed to every enlightened mind. $o to speak. Hardly forty years have . An art so novel. no childhood or growth at The daguerreo- type is .P R K FACE. by the side of the scope and the electric battery. as vigour. full of vitality and It is Franklin's words with respect to the balloon. extraordinary. prospered with such rapidity have had. amongst the most tele- Arago placed the daguerreotype remarkable conquests of genius. ' must appear a great event in the history of progress. which has grown and as to all. modern science was discovered the The daguerreotype. transformed photograph. the fixing of the image or picture of the * camera obscura or dark chamber by chemical agents.

the author was impressed with the importance of the subject it^ . to photography. and which even comes to the assistance of the besieged reducing its city. into the dwellings of the poor as well as of the rich. every civilised country. for the picture of that which he loves. messages to the easy burden of a bird ! In studying the plan of this work. which accompanies the astronomer into the depths of the heavens. . elapsed and the new invention has spread abroad and it become in so well known. T. that sublime and beneficent art its which gives us at such little cost the human its visage in exacti- tude. the micrographer into the invisible world. In this second edition which follows so closely on the first. He has endeavoured to make as is his sketch at once a practical guide to the amateur conquests when narrated with photographer. Unhappy indeed is he who can- not have recourse. which presents to our eyes as in a mirror the scenery of distant lands. G. in writing he experienced a deep admiration.iv PREFACE. some in gaps. have been filled up from the large number of new facts which have come to light. which lends aid to all the sciences. and an attractive and instructive history. which the development of the art rendered some degree inevitable. that has penetrated everywhere. that of all scientific truth and sincerity. which it has been his aim to impart to the reader.

. THE ORIGIN OF PHOTOGRAPHY. HUMPHRY DAVY. PART I. AND JAMES WATT — — PACK — .. DEGOTTI THE SCENE PAINTER EARLY LIFE OF DAGUERRE INVENTION OF THE DIORAMA THE CAMERA OR DARK ROOM CHEVALIER THE OPTICIAN— THE HISTORY OF AN UNKNOWN FIRST LETTER OF DAGUERRE TO NIEPCE — — — I4 CHAPTER THE TWO BROTHERS NIEPCE III. I CHAPTER II. I.CONTENTS. PORTA AND THE DARK ROOM FABRICIUS THE ALCHEMIST LUNA CORNEA PROFESSOR CHARLES'S SILHOUETTES WEDGWOOD. B.. THEIR YOUTH THEIR WORKS THE PYRELOPHORE — HYDRAULIC MACHINE— NICfiPHORE'S RESEARCHES IN HELIOGRAPHY— RESULTS OBTAINED — — — 26 . DAGUERRE. THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY CHAPTER J. NICfiPHORE NIEPCE.

40 CHAPTER V. . CORRESPONDENCE EXCHANGED BETWEEN THE TWO INVENTORS — DISTRUST AND RESERVE OF NIEPCE HIS JOURNEY TO PARIS— HIS INTERVIEWS WITH DAGUERRE HIS JOURNEY TO LONDON ACT OF PARTNERSHIP DEATH OF NIEPCE PAGE — — — — . THE PROGRESS OF A NEW ART. . PHOTOGRAPHY. . THE DAGUERREOTYPE PROCESS — ACCELERATING SUBSTANCES PROVED LENSES PORTRAITS — FIXING AGENTS DISCOVERY OF PHOTOGRAPHY ON PAPER BY TALBOT M. CHAPTER IV. AUGUST lO. — — — 1839 53 CHAPTER VI. THE NIEPCE-DAGUERRE PARTNERSHIP.VI CONTENTS. BLANQUART-EVRARD — — — — IM- 64 CHAPTER SIR VII. DAGUERRE'S RESEARCHES AND STUDIES— HE CEDES HIS INVENTION TO THE STATE ARAGO AND THE DAWN OF PHOTOGRAPHY A BILL LAID BEFORE THE HOUSE REASONS FOR ITS BEING PASSED MEETING OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. THE DAGUERREOTYPE. JOHN HERSCHEL — HYPOSULPHITE VICTOR'S NEGATIVE ON GLASS— GUN-COTTON OF SODA— NIEPCE DE SAINTAND COLLODION 79 .

FIXING AND VARNISHING — — I05 CHAPTER III. THEORY AND PRACTICE. THE NEGATIVE. EXPLANATION OF PHOTOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS— NECESSITY OF LONG PRACTICE MODIFICATIONS IN PROCESSES REQUIRED BY DIFFERENT SORTS OF PHOTOGRAPHY— PHOTOGRAPHY AND TRAVEL LANDSCAPES SKIES PORTRAITS INSTANTANEOUS PHOTO- — — — — — GRAPHY . PRINTING ON PAPER— OF THE NATURE AND QUALITIES OF PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPERS VIGNETTES EXPOSURE TO THE LIGHT 122 TONING— FIXING — ROLLING THE PROOFS — — CHAPTER IV. THE STUDIO AND APPARATUS. THE POSITIVE ON PAPER. CHAPTER I. ARRANGEMENT OF A GOOD STUDIO— THE DARK ROOM — TERRACE — SITTING ROOM — THE INFLUENCE OF LIGHT— ARRANGEMENTS FOR LIGHTING THE OBJECT TO BE PHOTOGRAPHED— THE APPARATUS — LENSES AND CAMERAS I'AGE 89 CHAPTER II. VU PART II. MANIPULATION OF THE PHOTOGRAPH— CLEANING THE PLATE COATING THE PLATE WITH COLLODION— PLACING IT IN THE SILVER BATH EXPOSURE IN THE CAMERA DEVELOPMENT.CONTENTS. 132 . . THE OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

. ETC . THE FIXING OF COLOURS— A MYSTIFICATION — EDMOND BECQUEREL'S experiments— ATTEMPTS OF NIEPCE DE SAINT-VICTOR AND POITEVIN— PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTING . . CHAPTER ENLARGEMENT OF VI. APPARATUS EMPLOYED FOR ENLARGING NEGATIVE PROOFS WOODWARD'S SYSTEM MONCKHOVEN'S APPARATUS— UNIVERSAL SOLAR — CAMERA 147 CHAPTER VII. PROOFS. 169 . PROBLEMS TO BE SOLVED... CHAPTER V. SWAN. PROCESSES. HONEY.Vlil CONTENTS. AND TANNIN — WAXED PAPER PROCESS— PERMANENT PHOTO' GRAPHY BY THE CARBON PROCESS — METHODS OF POITEVIN. • . THE DRY COLLODION PROCESS — EMPLOYMENT OF ALBUMEN. . 153 CHAPTER VIII. PAGE RETOUCHING. ACCIDENTS WITH NEGATIVES AND PROOFS— METHOD OF REMEDYING THE SAME RETOUCHING THE NEGATIVE IMPERFECTIONS IN THE POSITIVE— RETOUCHING PHOTOGRAPHIC PROOFS WITH INDIAN INK— COLOURING PHOTOGRAPHS —PHOTOGRAPHIC CARICATURES 141 — — ..

PHOTOGLYPTY (THE WOODBURY PROCESS). HELIOGRAPHY. WOODBURY — IMPRESSION OF A GELATINISED PLATE INTO A BLOCK OF METAL— WORKING OF PHOTOGLYPTIC METHODS IN PARIS — DESCRIPTION OF MESSRS. CHAPTER I. ETC. VITRIFICATION OF A PHOTOGRAPH CAMARSAC'S PROCESS—JEWELRY ENAMEL METHOD OF MAKING— POITEVIN'S METHOD PER2I4 MANENT GLAZE PHOTOGRAPHS — — — . PHOTOGRAPHIC ENAMELS. — THE ALBERTYPE OBERNETTER'S PROCESS MODERN HELIOGRAPHY — 1/9 CHAPTER II. PHOTOSCULPTURE.CONTENTS. AN UNEXPECTED DISCOVERY PHOTOGRAPHY APPLIED TO SCULPTURE WILLEME'S process IN 1861 DESCRIPTION OF PHOTO208 SCULPTURE — — CHAPTER IV. PAGE THE DAGUERREOTYPE PLATE TRANSFORMED INTO AN ENGRAVED PLATE — D0NN6 — FIZEAU THE PHOTOGRAPHIC ENGRAVING OF NIEPCE DE SAINT-VICTOR — PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHY AND HELIOGRAPHY INVENTED BY A. I99 LEMERCIER CHAPTER III. POITEVIN — PROCESSES OF BALDUS. GARNIER. IX PART III. THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. GOUPIL'S ESTABLISHMENT — M.

. . RUTHERFURD. ETC. —THE LUNAR MOUNTAINS THE SPOTS ON THE SUN. IMPORTANCE OF PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTS FOR THE HISTORY OF THE HEAVENS 249 — — . MICROSCOPIC DESPATCHES DURING THE SIEGE OF PARIS. WARREN DE LA RUE. THE TOY MICROSCOPES OF THE PARIS INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS —450 DEPUTIES IN THE SPACE OF A PIN's HEAD ARRANGEMENTS OF PHOTOMICROGRAPHIC APPARATUS THE NATURAL SCIENCES AND PHOTOMICROGRAPHY RESOU^RCES BORROWED FROM THE HELIOGRAPH 220 — — — CHAPTER VI. CHAPTER V.X CONTENTS. GRUBB. ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY. CHAPTER Vni. CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHY DIFFICULTIES OF ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS— MESSRS. PAGE PHOTOMICROGRAPHY. • . A FEW WORDS ON STEREOSCOPIC VISION— MEANS OF MAKING PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTS APPEAR IN RELIEF— WHEATSTONE'S STEREO- . PHOTOGRAPHIC REGISTERING INSTRUMENTS. ETC. . THE STEREOSCOPE. — CHAPTER VH.. .. APPLICATION OF MICROSCOPIC PHOTOGRAPHY TO THE ART OF WAR —THREE MILLION PRINTED LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET ON THE TAIL OF A PIGEON ENLARGEMENT OF THE DESPATCHES THEIR CONVEYANCE BY CARRIER-PIGEONS 235 — — . IMPORTANCE OF REGISTERING INSTRUMENTS PHOTOGRAPHIC BAROMETERS AND THERMOMETERS THE REGISTRATION OF THE VIBRATIONS OF THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE— RONALD'S PHOTOELECTROGRAPH PHOTOGRAPHIC PHOTOMETRY PHOTOGRAPHY OF COLUMNS OF WATER RAISED BY A TORPEDO OF THE PHENOMENA OF THE INTERFERENCE OF THE RAYS OF THE SPECTRUM 268 — — — — — CHAPTER IX.

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ART. . REPRODUCTION OF ENGRAVINGS.CONTENtS. CHAPTER LAND-SURVEYING XI. PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHY -PANORAMIC CAMERA— THE HELIOTYPE PROCESS THE PHOTO-TINT PROCESS EPITOME OF THE WET COLLODION PROCESS AND USEFUL FORMULAE— SENSITISING BATH — DARK ROOM OPERATIONS— FIXING POSITIVE SILVER-PRINTING FORMULA— SIMPLE METHOD OF PREPARING DRY PLATES ENGLISH AND FRENCH WEIGHTS AND MEASURES -313 — — — — . — THE ART OF WAR— WORKS OF ART CRIMINALS AND JUDICIAL PHOTOGRAPHY — THE MIRACLES OF INSTANTANEOUS PHOTOGRAPHY 306 — APPENDIX. VOYAGES OF DISCOVERY PHOTOGRAPHY BY THE MAGNESIUM LIGHT PHOTOGRAPHIC * PORTRAITS CONSIDERED AS HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS 297 — — . THE FUTURE OF PHOTOGRAPHY. PHOTOGRAPHY ART? ITS USES IN RELATION TO PAINTING. — . . 327 et seq. INDEX 323 ADVERTISEMENTS relating to photography . xi SCOPE — MONOSTEREOSCOPE— HOW PAGE STEREOSCOPIC PHOTOGRAPHS 287 ARE PRODUCED CHAPTER IS X.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

FULL-PAGE ENGRAVINGS.
PORTRAIT FROM LIFE BY THE PHOTO-TINT PROCESS
PROFESSOR CHARLES'S EXPERIMENT

....
.
.

.

Frontispiece

To face p. ID

DAGUERRE'S DIORAMA

THE DARK ROOM
SPECIMEN OF A HELIOGRAPHIC ENGRAVING.
ing by Gustave

.

,,13 ,,90
, ,

(After a Draw. ,

Dore

)

.

.

.

1

96

THE SOLDIER OF MARATHON
FACSIMILE OF

,,197
23O

THE PHOTOGRAPH OF A FLEA, OBTAINED BY THE PHOTOMICROGRAPHIC APPARATUS
. .

.

,,

ENLARGING MICROSCOPICAL DESPATCHES DURING THE SIEGE OF PARIS

,,241
247

DEPARTURE OF

CARRIER-PIGEONS

FROM THE

CHAMPS,,

^LYSfiES, PARIS

SALLERON's

photographic

barometer

and THERMO,,

METER
photo-electrographic instrument at
tory, FOR REGISTERING

275

kew

observa-

THE STATE AND VARIATIONS

OF THE ELECTRICITY OF THE AIR

....
ITS

,,

277

IOCKYER'S APPARATUS FOR ANALYSING AN ALLOY OF GOLD

AND SILVER BY THE PHOTOGRAPHY OF

SPECTRUM

,,

285

XIV

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

APPARATUS

FOR

OBTAINING

THE TWO PROOFS OF THE
To face p. 295
. . .

STEREOSCOPE
FAC-SIMILE OF A STEREOSCOPIC PHOTOGRAPH

,,

296
302 307

PHOTOGRAPHY AND EXPLORATION

,,

THE POLfiMOSCOPE

,,

WOODCUTS IN TEXT.
PAGE

THE DARK ROOM
THE IMAGE OF THE SUN FORMED ON THE SHADOW OF A TREE
JOSEPH NIEPCE

2
3

'44
59
6$

DAGUERRE
DAGUERREOTYPE POLISHER
MERCURIAL DEVELOPING BOX
GILDING THE DAGUERREOTYPE PLATE

66
69

PHOTOGRAPHIC BELLOWS CAMERA

THE

LENS,

WITH

ITS

RACKWORK AND CAP

....
.

94
96

SIMPLE PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS

97
99
IOC
lOI

THE CAMERA STAND

THE DARK SLIDE
TWIN-LENS CAMERA, SHOWING DARK SLIDE AND DIAPHRAGMS

THE HEAD-REST
PLATE-HOLDER
COATING THE PLATE.
FIRST POSITION OF

IO3

I06

THE HANDS

.

.

IO9

SECOND POSITION OF THE HANDS
SENSITISING TRAY
.

IO9
Ill
.

SILVER

HOOK FOR RAISING AND LOWERING THE PLATE

.

Ill

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

XV
PAGE 112

GLASS BATH IN CASE WITH GLASS DIPPER

.

.

.

.

WASHING THE DEVELOPED IMAGE
RACK FOR DRYING
PLATE BOX
. .

II4
II

PLA'.'ES
._

119

fHE PRINTING FRAME
PRINTING FRAMES EXPOSED TO THE LIGHT
SIMPLE PRINTING FRAME
.
. . .

124 I26 I26
1

THE ROLLING PRESS
PORTABLE PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS

29

I36

PHOTOGRAPHIC CARICATURE

I44
I49

MONCKHOVEN'S ENLARGING CAMERA
LIEBERT'S ENLARGING APPARATUS

I50
1

THE SOLDIER OF MARATHON
PHOTOGLYPTIC PRESS

97

202
.

TURN-TABLE REQUIRED FOR TAKING PHOTOGLYPTIC PROOFS

203

PHOTO-ENAMEL BROOCH
DUSTING-SIEVE

217

TOY MICROSCOPE OF THE EXHIBITION OF
MICROSCOPE FITTED TO THE CAMERA

.....
.

1

867

....

2X8

220 224

ARRANGEMENT OF THE PHOTOMICROGRAPHIC APPARATUS ON A BENCH
VERTICAL MICROSCOPE ADAPTED TO THE CAMERA FOR PHOTOMI-

226

CROGRAPHY
PHOTOMICROGRAPHIC APPARATUS FOR ARTIFICIAL LIGHT
.

228

229

FACSIMILE OF THE PHOTOGRAPH OF SECTIONS OF IHE STEM OF

A CANE
SECTION OF THE

230

WOOD OF A

FIR-TREE

23O
23I

GROUP OF DIATOMS

XVI

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
TAGE

SECTION OF THE FIN OF A

WHALE

232
233
. .

EPIDERMIS OF A CATERPILLAR
CARRIER-PIGEON WITH PHOTOGRAPHIC DESPATCHES

236

QUILL CONTAINING MICROSCOPIC DESPATCHES FASTENED TO A TAIL FEATHER OF CARRIER-PIGEON
STAMPS, SHOWING

237

WHEN

DESPATCHES WERE FORWARDED OR RE-

CEIVED, PRINTED ON

THE WING

238

FACSIMILE OF A MICROSCOPIC DESPATCH DURING THE SIEGE OF
PARIS

239
.

CHINESE WHISTLES ATTACHED TO CARRIER-PIGEONS

.

.

245

LUNAR MOUNTAINS. AFTER A PHOTOGRAPH BY MR. WARREN DE LA RUE
UNDULATING LINES TRACED ON THE CARRIER OF THE ELECTROGRAPH

254

....

278

BREWSTER'S STEREOSCOPE

29O
29

HEIMHOLTZ'S STEREOSCOPE

MONO-STEREOSCOPIC PRINT
FEVRIER'S pillar STEREOSCOPE

292
293

PLATE FOR SUPPORTING THE CAMERA SCOPIC VIEW

WHEN TAKING

STEREO295

PHOTOGRAPHY BY THE MAGNESIUM LIGHT IN THE CATACOMBS
PANORAMIC CAMERA

303

314

PART

I.

THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

CHAPTER
J.

I.

THE ORIGIN OF PHOTOGRAPHY.
B.

PORTA AND THE DARK ROOM FABRICIUS THE ALCHEMIST — LUNA CORNEA PROFESSOR CHARLES' SILHOUETTES —WEDGWOOD, HUMPHRY DAVY, AND JAMES WATT.

The

discovery of photography ranks amongst the most
;

wonderful applications of modern science

we owe

it

almost solely to the genius of Niepce and Daguerre.

We
had

shall

mention the obstacles which these great minds

to

overcome before solving a problem which had long
;

been looked upon as Utopian

we

shall thus see with

what perseverance the inventor must arm himself
attain his ends.

to
it

But before relating
to look a
little
is

facts

we

think

would be useful

farther into the past to
instructive than the
;

seek their causes.

Nothing

more

impartial history of great discoveries

it

shows us how

slow

is

the march of progress, and

how many beacons

B

THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.
must shine along the course of centuries
inventor into the region of the unknown.
to guide the

First appears a
it,

man who sows
up
to the time
fruitful.

the germ, others follow and cultivate
fertilises

when some genius
of photography
in

and renders

it

The germ

is

the

dark room

(or

camera obscura), discovered
sixteenth century

the second half of the

by

J.

B. Porta, a clever Italian philoFig.
I.

THE DARK ROOM.

sopher.

The

process which the illustrious Neapolitan

employed was most simple.

He made
little

an aperture,
finger,

hardly large enough to admit the
shutter of a

in the

window

so perfectly closed as entirely to

exclude

light.

The

rays of light penetrating through

the circular hole into the dark

room were projected on

to a white screen, on which they depicted the reversed

THE ORIGIN OF PHOTOGRAPHY.
image of exterior
objects.

(Fig.

i.)

The simple ob-

servation of Nature might have led at once to this disFig
2.

THE IMAGE OF THE SUN FORMED ON THE SHADOW OF A TREE.

covery.

The

foliage of trees does not entirely intercept
it

the

sun's

light,

often

allows rays of light to pass

and lens. ! 'We can dis- cover Nature's greatest secrets And truly. and the images of the ruler of the day appear as luminous discs in the midst of the well-defined shadows on the ground. must those have wondered whom ! Porta initiated into the mysteries of his dark room With what bewilderment would they not contemplate this sharp. lifelike. indeed. drawn by the light on a screen. and after describing exclaims with enthusiasm. through the spaces which exist between the leaves. and delicate picture. ' Natural Magic. Porta was enabled to contemplate the representation of exterior objects no longer reversed.THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. passing the light of a candle across a small it and projecting on to a screen. by means of a convex ture in his shutter. which was thus transformed into a faithful mirror Soon. Porta lost no to all time in recommending the use of the dark room . but in their natural positions. of and excusably. seems to have foreseen describes it it. over all which he .) It is easy to reproduce this pheno- menon by orifice. fixed in the aper- by the aid of a glass mirror which reversed the image. 2. Porta. on which a re- versed imiage of the flame will be seen.' goes into his discovery. in his treatise on raptures. (Fig. the future importance he with irrepressible admiration.

when alchemy It seemed in the to have attained its utmost development. To find another of the original principles of photo- graphy we must quit Naples and transport ourselves France. and shortly afterwards Canaletto profited by his advice and employed the invention for taking his ad mirable views of Venice. only to be compared for ? exactness to the reflection of a mirror was. indeed. unknown but work was not result. What would the Neapolitan philosopher and the this Venetian painter have said had they been told that image of the dark room would one day draw merely fugitively. 5 painters desirous of obtaining exact and minute delineation. not but that it would print it itself on a glass moistened with chemical agents. The few up isolated observations which had been made little to this time were very incomplete and known. and to a little to earlier epoch. to be accomplished his This wonder to Porta . itself. that itself into would transform a durable picture.THE ORIGIN OF PHOTOGRAPHY. was middle of the sixteenth century that the action of light on the nitrates of silver was accidentally dis- covered by an alchemist. The Greeks knew that the opal and amethyst lost their . in itself sufficient to conduct science to also to such a numerous labourers had add their stone to the edifice.

exposed to the lengthened action of the solar 'Vitruvius had noticed that the sun altered and in painting. which swarmed in the middle ages. the formula of that panacea which was to prolong cure all ills. research. brilliance if rays. was one of these laborious chloride workers who first' produced of silver. and transmute the metals. for life. he threw some sea salt into a solution of nitrate of silver and obtained . after having conjured up the devil and after imps of darkness. must not be forgotten that a large number of the philosophers of the middle ages.THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. changed certain colours used always placed his pictures aspect. buried One the probably in the confusion of his laboall ratory. and this recognised the important property possessed by substance of becoming black under the action of light. This disciple of Hermes was named Fabricius. fine day. having in vain ransacked the books of magic. and therefore a northern in rooms with But such observations as these can hardly be considered as the results of scientific study. The calumny. men of indefatigable were possessed with a if real love of their art which they cultivated not with method at least with It invincible perseverance. in the ^ alchemists have often it been the subject of Though is true that amongst the adepts Black Art' there were numerous charlatans and it quacks.

like the dog in the fable. as white as milk. to Basile Valentin his crucibles. to Brandt if if What did it signify he discovered phosphorus. they abandoned the substance to grasp the shadow. and what w^as his astonishment when he perceived on that this substance. according as the parts were completely illuminated. trained to look they let the fact escape and pursued the fancy .' name of ' Luna cornea. The science of those times. a precipitate (chloride of silver) to which the alchemists of those times gave the silver. so full of significance. as soon as a ray of sunlight fell became suddenly black its surface ! Fabricius continued to study this remarkable property. But here the alcheremained mist stopped . powerless through want of method. this fact. ignored the art of inferring from observation.'* Great this. was not the philoso- . and in his ' Book of the Metals.THE ORIGIN OF PHOTOGRAPHY. to in his antimony issued from if Albert the retort. he relates that the image projected by a glass lens on to a surface of ' Luna cornea imprinted ' itself in black and grey. or touched only by diffused light. this The chemists of epoch could not see because their eyes had not been .' or 'horn- He collected it. and of confirming by expe- riments the deductions thus obtained.' published in 1556. nitric acid was distilled all to these preoccupied minds. a dead letter in his hands.

mandy and astonishing. born two centuries balloons. while to stop at such inventions. and did not even lift gems which good fortune threw in their way ! Fabricius missed the principle of one of the most astonishing arts of struck with modern times. a fantastical divined writer. before If nevertheless photo- Cyrano de Bergerac. la Tiphaine de photographer.8 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. may be considered as an aeronaut. a great lover of eccentricities in he has left is us a whimsical book buried which there it is much that though In is in an indescribable this medley of nonsense. to wander life labyrinths without if they travelled through as impelled by fate towards a chimerical goal. They passed in and con- ^demned themselves issues.? was thus that. Roche may be equally regarded as a This Tiphaine was a native of Nor. pher's They did not deem it worth on. which they could never reach. though not a Fabricius. They groped along stoop to the regardless of the great opportunities with which chance strewed their path. stone. one of the chapters of . in 1760. graphy. Why was he not some sublime presentiment. } of which genius seems to have the secret why was he not suddenly seized with one of those fortuitous inspirations which seem to be the birthright of true genius It .

reflected that rays of light pictures. . on the retina of the eye. retains a facsimile of the image. 'You know. and spirits on. mirror represents images faithfully. but retains none . caught and frozen on the ice.* said one of them to Tiphaine. if it ever existed at all. reflects them no less faithfully. it is discovered a picture of the trees and shrubs on the banks of a stream It engraven on its frozen surface. The canvas * removed and deposited in a dark place. The our canvas all. curious old 9 in book he relates in how he was caught up secrets a hurricane and deposited the domain of the genii. Ed. This recalls a Chinese tradition which accords to the sun the power ice. but retains them is This impression of the image is instantaneous. but by means of is vis- cous nature the prepared canvas. glass.THE ORIGIN OF PHOTOGRAPHY. They it coat a piece front of the is of canvas with this matter. as not the case with the mirror. seemed as if the reflected image were But this early example of photography. of photographing a landscape on a sheet of said. The ^ . on water. An ancient sage. have sought to fix these fleeting images they have made a subtle matter by means of which a picture is formed in the twinkling of an eye. and place object to be taken. from different all bodies form paint the image reflected on polished surfaces — for example. in The first effect of this cloth its similar to that of the mirror. may have been produced by a powerful gleam of the hot sun of North China tracing the outlines of shadows thrown across a dark surface of ice thinly covered with snow. who initiated him in the of * Nature.

hour after the impression is An dry. By means of a strong solar ray. that the fleeting reflection had been fixed that for ever ? We cannot say. had Roche no knowledge of the book of F'abricius. or rather had he not himself experimented . the inventor of the hydrogen gas balloon. in supposing. About the year 1780. when the gloom of the past dispersed. the great Swedish chemist. to find really serious and scientific studies we must come down tury to the end of the eighteenth cenin the — to that period. when and In light appeared. Scheele.with Porta's dark room. disis covered that chloride of silver much more sensitive to blue and violet rays than to those of a green and red colour. made the first use of the dark room for attempting to produce rudi- mentary photographs. on natural science and that time even wonderful experiment. when the savant rubbed his eyes for the first time looked around him. 1777.10 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. and attentive He exhibited to the numerous course of lectures at audience at his a curious. as though in a dream. and you have a can imitate its picture the more precious in that no art truthfulness. But however may be. his pupils he projected a shadow of the head of one of . the most surprising perhaps history of progress. Professor Charles.' In writing these truly prophetic lines.

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Under the influence of the light in the parts exposed. and thus giving a faithful silhouette of the person's (Fig. 3. when the person retires. engraving that the experiment person is in black as white will is just commencing . some engravings which he placed on a sensitised paper. the silhouette of the moments later. and.THE ORIGIN OF PHOTOGRAPHV.^) head in white on a black ground. which properties. blackened disappeared little like the ground. . it is true. This sheet of paper. was passed from hand to hand the silhouette till but soon the light acting on it then white. roughly. made a similar experiment to Professor Charles' he projected the image is it J Our illustration of this curious experiment of the celebrated chemist based on the rather vague and incomplete accounts which were given of We suppose in our at the time of its exhibition by Professor Charles. II on to a sheet of white paper which had previously been soaked in a solution of chloride of it silver. a clever English scientist. documents relating Wedgwood. Professor Charles also reproduced. which appears in white because the light could not affect this part of the silvered paper. for the in the historical most part wanting to his works. the part of the paper represented become black. it is his shadow . The details of this experiment are. and the profile by little as though blotted out with ink. however. seemed as though endowed with magical . . was not long in becoming black remaining white on that portion of the sheet which had been shaded. a few seen in black.

' is a means of pre- venting the lights of the picture from being afterwards coloured by daylight process would . of the dark sitised.' said he. * have tried in figures. Up the present time necessary to keep the copy of the it picture in the dark. also studied this singular phenomenon . and then but for a short time. for It he does not refer to them at all in his writings. and obtained a rough in the dark.12 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. but the results he obtained were doubtless insignificant. the to become it is as useful as it is simple. Pictures produced time could not be — Ed. &c. which could only Sir be preserved In 1802 Wedgwood and Humphry Davy published a remarkable treatise on the light. . room on to a sheet of paper similarly senpicture. the great English left chemist. to be more susceptible to the influence of light at this than nitrate of fixed. and can only be examined in the I shade. the This method was also employed to delineate profiles. who has us a few lines on the subject of Wedgwood's experi- ment. if this result is arrived at. or shadows of woody fibres of leaves. was much the same with Humphry Davy. * All that is wanting.' reproduction of objects by James Watt. the celebrated inventor of the steam engine. and the his problem of fixing the image of the camera occupied great mind for some time . Chloride of silver state in a wet was found silver. wings of insects.

whose names ought to be reckoned amongst the glories of the national genius. It is that. Watt. nor himself could solve.' But all attempts have been The problem which Davy thus clearly describes.3 THE ORIGIN OF PHOTOGRAPHY. nevertheless. and which neither Charles. Wedgwood. As for the suffi- images of the dark room. was destined to be overcome by two French- men. . they were doubtless not ciently illuminated to enable me to obtain a visible picture with the nitrate of silver. which is the great point of interest in these experiments. fruitless. 1 vain every possible method of preventing the uncoloured parts from being affected by the light.

He taught numerous pupils who by their natural disposition were drawn more towards inde- pendence of colour and freedom of pencil than towards the school of the Academy. of paint- The name of this promising debutant was Daguerre. — — At was the commencement of the present century there of Degotti. Degotti soon signalised himself by his rare talents he attacked the canvas with the ardour of an effects artist thoroughly imbued with the grand ing. One of the followers of . At celebrated studio this master produced truly wonderful pictures. DEGOTTI THE TION OF CHEVALIER LETTER OF II. CHAPTERDAGUERRE. SCENE-PAINTER— EARLY LIFE OF DAGUERRE— INVENTHE DIORAMA — THE CAMERA OR DARK ROOM THE OPTICIAN THE HISTORY OF AN UNKNOWN— FIRST DAGUERRE TO NIEPCE. at Paris a scene-painter of the name who his painted the finest scenes of the Grand Opera. Daguerre was born in 1787 at Cormeilles near Paris. .14 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOrxRAPHY.

But not content with producing a masterly it he conceived the idea of giving a value until then unknown. ' behind the scenes. with fidelity the most spective. he had exhibited a wonder- ful facility with the pencil. 1 In the midst of the political paroxysms and cataclysms of the great Revolution his childhood lected.' such as fixing. He excelled in rendering of the boldest pereffect. by having recourse to the untried resources of powerful illumination. Not only was young Daguerre a genius at landscape scene-painting. his hold between his fingers. it artist. picture. his parents allowed him ful to make his own choice of a profession. His first attempts artist of met with unexpected The unknown yesterday had become the pet of the Parisian populace. but he could readily solve the mechanical problems relating to the mysteries ing. shift- He substituted for the movable frames of the side scenes large canvas backgrounds on which a whole vast landscape or an entire panorama could be repre^ sented. success. &c. the specialite of scene-painters. as soon.5 DAGUERRE. . indeed. was singularly neg- Arrived at a suitable age. he was not long in equalling and then excelling the talent of his master. difficult effects he studied especially scenic and he thus where soon found himself at home in Degotti's studio. The youthFrom as he could Daguerre gladly chose the career of an tenderest childhood.

It is even said . At the ' Opera. he excelled throwing summersaults and feats of strength.' as several very * gamin de well-authenticated facts in his biography sufficiently show.' new The Vampire. in * in * The Dream. carried pecially by the eclat so resounding in Paris. content with this his success far : . es- when it celebrates anything which affects the ' pleasures of the public. and in spite of the dissipations of Parisian he never forgot that work and perseverance are the two levers capable of raising great results. for his his spirits lively temperament was ardent and native.' in The Wonderful Lamp.' spoke the the scenes of the painter had an immense success every night. Unusually in agile. he ele- more lasting fame from vating served only to stimulate him he dreamt of new life. The papers and theatrical journals of nothing but the effects of the rising setting sun . and naturally gay and light-hearted. moon and and the name of Daguerre flew from mouth to mouth. he was at home in all manly sports . at the Ambigu Comique. But Daguerre did not aimed at a rest . triumphs. less to struggle He had doubt- with the enticements of pleasure. he was a Paris. and imagi- Educated in the midst of art studios and theatres.1 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. and he would some- times at social gatherings amuse his friends by walking on his hands with his legs in the air.

universal enthusiasm.DAGUERRE. it. His ingenious and mind. the subjects on which were thrown in relief by a powerful and well-arranged system of lighting. 1/ that he loved to appear incognito on the stage at the Opera. where his paintings excited universal admiration. interiors. July a I. once entered upon the road to celebrity. These Dioramic scenes represented views. his Diorama excited 1822. the costume of the ballet corps and figured in chorographical acts. would follow ing each of his steps with a tion of the markinven- new conquest . He donned public. and landscapes with wonderful surprising finish in execution. But somewhat from puerile amusements did and dreaming inventive not hinder of success Daguerre working. Daguerre had entered into partnership with the painter Bouton. saw crowds of people streaming towards the Boulevard. and with a truly But that which especially excited the admiration of the spectators was the gradual C . fidelity. amused at the applause of the which had not the least idea that under the dress of this these dancer was hidden an inventor of genius. and together they had conceived the idea of imitating nature by means of immense sheets of canvas. and fame. new establishment on first They were for the time going to see a spectacle which was to be for many years an object of general admiration.

a violent concussion shook the mountain. one following another without appreciable interruption. the avalanche descended. to dissolve into one another. at Holy- and of the Basilica of St. The effects pro- duced by the dioramic canvas were as beautiful from an art point of view as they were curious as changes of scene. of the rood. burying it in ruins . to the peaceful picture of but a moment before. and applauded the beautiful pictures of the Valley of Sarnen. however. impetuous. dark threatening clouds appeared. it rushed on the village. terrible. which. We may . had suc- ceeded a dreadful scene of falling and crashing rocks in indescribable confusion. for example. changing of the scenes. then suddenly the sky became gloomy. Peter.1 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. not permit us to describe fully portant part in the it but it played such an im- life of Daguerre that we cannot pass by entirely in silence. the Valley of Goldau. One where contemplated. The accompanying engraving shows the general aspect of the apparatus. our space . so to speak. fir-trees crowned as with a diadem of verdure the village sleeping on the borders of a cottages of a peaceful lake humble . which appeared. All Paris wentto see Daguerre's Diorama. Tomb of Charles X. We are at the present day acquainted with the will secrets of the Diorama.

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engrave for ever Thus Daguerre nourishes cessantly in his brain. he enpicture deavoured to reproduce faithfully which the lens traced light after passing through the crystal of a on the screen at the back of to his camera. brilliant more fortune was in store for this and ambitious mind. The dark room gave him life.' cried he. The success and a active still of the Diorama did not content Daguerre. to this fantastic dream in- He has not knowledge enough comprehend all the difficulties of such a problem.DAGUERRE. life . that his genius strove in vain against obstacles which no painter could overcome. 1 and that was thrown on the front or back —that is to say. 'cannot I Why. and colour which ' he daily contemplated on his screen. nature to the it was truth. In executing his pictures. Daguerre constantly em- ployed the camera obscura (or dark room) the lively . — the one or the other and thanks to this ingenious artifice the spectator admired the changes of scenes so rapid and surprising. but he felt that his art was powerless copy such a model. reflected or transmitted picture appeared. add that the canvas was painted on both as the light sides. retain these inimitable wonders which the cannot I sun's rays fix the draw at the focus of it my ? lens ' ? Why image. nor .

the form of ! or the purity of the pictures At this time Chevalier's shop was much frequented by amateurs and others who came to obtain from the optician similar information to that which Daguerre was ' Guide du Photographe. he ignorant enough to believe that its is solution is an impossibility. he has heard talk of the shadows which im- print themselves so clearly feels that the first step on the sensitised paper . it easily imagined. like Archimedes. and digressed a to the now and then it was only to return with fresh ardour lenses. that a supreme effort might enable a bold mind to bridge the abyss fact which separates the isolated tion. . the optician on the Quai de L'Horloge. He is acquainted with Professor Charles' experiment . As may be little. For the future he will have no rest until he can exclaim. ' I have found. arrangement of the dark room.20 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. Paris. order to procure all the apparatus he could pertaining to the dark room.^ ' that he did not come at least once in the week to our studio. ' It was very seldom. 1 854.' of in Daguerre used very often to go to the shop Chevalier.' says Charles Chevalier himself. from the grand solu- This effort it will be his aim to accomplish. the subject of if conversation did not vary much. he has been taken.

he approached Chevalier. optician's reply made his questioner turn yet The cost of the object in question was doubtless to the as far above his means as if it had been equal riches of Peru or California. One day miserable. 21 Chevalier mentions a circumstance which occurred at his shop in 1825.' replied the unknown. a young man. in quest of. poorly entered dressed.' continued ?' Chevalier. timid. as one of the stirring chapters in the history of the fixation of the image of the camera. He lowered his head sadly without speaking. by its aid I can obtain views from my window.DAGUERRE. 'what you intend doing with a camera I have succeeded. But I have only a rough apparatus. which seems to us so curious that we have felt bound to relate it. a deal box furnished with an objectglass I . 'May ' I enquire. You is are making a new camera in which the ordinary lens glass : replaced ' by a convergent meniscus what is the price ? The paler. the optician's shop . famished-looking. who was alone. in wished to procure your improved camera lens order to continue my experiments with a more powerful and certain apparatus.' . ' in fixing the image of the camera on paper. and * said to him.

was the shadow of the roof. * Here is another of these poor fools who want to fix the image of the camera obscura!' He well knew that the problem engaged the minds of such men it as Talbot and Daguerre. but none the less deemed a Utopian dream. and dome of the Pantheon. I * blackish You have and if here.22 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.' . you follow my instructions you will obtain like results. * I know. one might have said chimneys.' said he. this * several men but of science as yet who are engaged with question. Have you been more fortunate?' old . ' the liquid with which operate. At these words the young man pulled out an in pocket-book which was quite keeping with his dress he opened it and quietly drew out a paper which he placed on the counter. it ' is what I can obtain.' said he. Whilst listening to these words Chevalier said to himself. they have arrived at no result. man further.' said he. looked at and could not control astonishment he saw on this paper a view of Paris as sharp as the image It of the camera. was not a drawing nor a painting it . and the then drew from his pocket a vial containing a fluid. The his inventor had fixed the view of Paris as seen from Chevalier questioned the young latter window.' his Chevalier . * That.

feeling somewhat remorseful never saw him again. It is probable it that he did not operate under good conditions. it person for. It may be. but disappeared for ever. amined the remainder of the stranger's black liquid his mind was too preoccupied with researches of attach its own to much value to the work of another. lamenting his hard which would not permit him to possess that object of his dreams. but it was in vain that he made he obtained absolutely no result with the liquid of his unknown visitor. 23 The unknown explained should go to work fate . who paid little attention to it while he carelessly ex.DAGUERRE. at having been so reserved. to the optician how he then he retired. Chevalier related this curious episode to Daguerre. and is even possible that he omitted to prepare his sensitised in the dark. paper He waited long for another visit from the unknown. a new camera ! He promised to return. is worthy of fixing the attention it for a though was fruitless. Chevalier endeavoured to put in practice the instructions he had just received his experiments. is lost. . alas that an almshouse bed was his last refuge. He The name of this poor inventor It was never ! discovered what became of him. It will thus be se^n that the history of this unknown moment. it is but fair to mention as .

We He all . Besides the ' young man I spoke to you about. gave no proof whatever that he had done In De- cember 1825 he told everyone who would listen to ' him have have that the great problem seized the light.' communication with . I he cried with enthusiasm ' I arrested its flight! ! The sun himself in future shall draw my pictures A few days later. nevertheless. ever anxious to a result looked upon as chimerical by men of Ere long Daguerre declared that he had sucin ceeded fixing the fugitive image. .24 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. of light on certain chemical in Perhaps you would do well to put yourself him. has constructed a regular laboratory provided with the necessary appa- ratus and innumerable chemicals agents. but. I know a person in the country who flatters himself that he has obtained the same result as you. so. he called on * Chevalier to talk of his favourite subject.' was at last solved. in January 1826. whom poverty has fatally condemned to oblivion ! But to return to Daguerre. the work of a man. of genius perhaps. He has for a very long time occupied himself with reproducing engravings by the action agents. he studied the re- experimented unceasingly. find him pursuing his researches with fresh energy.' said the optician. he attain science.

later on to unite their labours to create. Niepce. threw into the as soon as he had read. Isidore Niepce. an come art which will be looked upon for centuries to as one of the prodigies of our epoch. ^ History of the Discovery improperly called 'Daguerreotype.^ preceded by a its Notice of real Inventor. the late Paris. . with provincial mis- trust.DAGUERRE. * On it was this address M. relations they were. as were in common. 1841. pres Chalons-sur- Saone.' '^ A few days afterwards Daguerre addressed a letter to this stranger. Joseph Nicephore Niepce. au Gras. which the fire latter. M. * 25 fortunate rival ? ' And what is the name of my de- manded Daguerre. by his Son. is There another of those Parisians It who would commenced like to pump me!'^ between was under these auspices that the the two inventors . content' ing himself with murmuring between his teeth. proprietaire. it however. Chevalier wrote a few words on a piece of paper which he handed to Daguerre.

Claude Niepce. a very clever man. . — — JOSEPH-NlCEPHORE NiEPCE was born Saone on March 7. like that of the shall see We them walk side by mutually sustaining and helping each other. to whom he was devotedly attached. THE TWO BROTHERS NIEPCE — THEIR YOUTH THEIR WORKS — THE PYRfiLOPHORE— HYDRAULIC MACHINE— NIC^PHORE'S RESEARCHES IN HELIOGRAPHY RESULTS OBTAINED. is a joint one. soli- by their Their tutor was the Abbe in Montangerand. Their father. Barault by name. side through life. that their history Brothers Montgolfier.' says one of their biographers. His life and works are so interwoven with those of his elder brother Claude. NICEPHORE NIEPCE. CHAPTER III. 'Joseph and his brother Claude. The brothers made rapid progress Ian- . Duke of Rohan-Chabot their mother was the daughter of a celebrated barrister. .26 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. citude ' were brought up with great care and father. was steward to the . * . at Chalons-sur- 1765.

1792. Victor Fouque. he changed the clerical which he had till then worn. and Works. and belles-lettres. has. i6th 1793). On May lo. fallen into totally erroneous ideas with regard to this Daguerre. rare fro7n his Correspondence and other unpublished Documents. in Sardinia. sciences. were content themselves. 1867. They intel- for the contests of the mind and their Nicephore and Claude employed play time in constructing wheels.NICEPHORE NIEPCE. dress. machines worked well. like all the men of had to submit to the influence of the great Revolution. Young Niepce was made Floreal of the year I. . guages. his time. Essays. to the great joy of their makers they imitated the raising crane. games and amusements usual seemed born lect. little machines of wood with cog only. unhappily. to whom he would deny any part in the creation of photography. Paris. of the Republic (May and took part * in the expedition to Cagliari.' ^ and lowering movements of the Nicephore Niepce. Nicephore Niepce^ his Life. for learning. not joining in the to children of their age. lieutenant on the 6. like Daguerre. which excited great attention on its first appearance. and entered as sub-lieutenant in the 42nd regi- ment of the line. with the aid of their knives These . for the military cos- tume. The author of pamphlet. We borrow these remarks on the life of Niepce from a remarkable and pamphlet by M. 2/ real love They had and being of gentle and in tinfid dispositions. entitled The Truth with respect to the Invention of Photography.

that was during their stay conceived the Saint of a Roch motive the brothers to idea power propel ships without the aid of sails or oars. care of the mistress of the house in which he Madame Romero. whilst regaining his health he But had been losing his heart. There. he retired to Saint Roch. illness But the constitution. and. lived with his wife where he It and at his brother Claude. he had undergone had affected obliged to give his and. near Nice. which obliged him to leave the regiment and seek in the an asylum town of Nice.*partaking in II. as soon as they returned to their native town of Chalons. The 8th Ventose. (1793) he figures in the ranks of the its The same year army 1 of Italy. in The machine motion by hot which the brothers invented was put air . they fitted up a boat with their new apparatus and ran . 1794). glorious exploits. year (March 9. up his military career. shortly after he ill- was suddenly attacked by a severe and dangerous ness. and the devotion of her daughter Mademoiselle Marie-Agnes. the 17th Thermidor of the year II. thanks to the lived. they gave it the name of the pyrdophore. and they were married (August 5. he regained his health. 1794) he was appointed assistant to adjutant-general Frottier. which he at last offered to Miss Marie-Agnes.28 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

Later on. Claude quitted the paternal roof at Chalons. and went to Paris. But against the invincible his efforts obstacles in his way all were in vain . and so useful in dyeing wools. as by the was ingenious. the juice of which might in some way be employed in the art of dyeing. launch the pyrelophore. He left Paris and France and settled definitely at . when the Government ofifered of the First Empire prizes for an improved hydraulic machine to take the place of Marly's. and helped to lay the foundation of a new culture.NICEPHORE NIEPCE. In answer to the appeal the brothers materially turned their attention to the subject. and the great town seemed to him to be the only place where his work might at length be crowned with success. the brothers Niepce sent in the model of a as simple as it pump which was new system. years preceding the fall In the ren- of the First Empire they dered the greatest services to France. by ivoad. he failed alike in his trials and in his applications. and for this also for their Institute. they were thanked During the Continental blockade. it 29 on the Saone. the Government called on men of science if possible to replace the indigo procured from abroad. pyrelophore. His purpose was to never to return. But the two brothers were soon obliged In 181 1 to separate.

affection letters a rare example of mutual and solicitude. After his numerous researches in the making of new machines. kept up an unbroken corre- spondence. which M. when litho- graphy made its appearance France. which were encouraged by the quiet country It life and sweet solitude of the paternal home. Foque has published in his beautiful book dedicated to the memory These -of one of the are inventors of photography. thus separated by exigency and distance. in which the are as ingenious conceptions of the laborious minds affection of tender numerous as the marks of hearts. Nicephore Niepce devoted himself assiduously to his researches. in the cultivation of woad. shaded by a few trees and situate on the bank of the Sa6ne. This great dis- covery of the German into Aloys Senefelder was brought France in 1802 by the Count de Lasteyrie-Dus- . Niepce devoted ten years of his to solving the problem of the fixing of the picture of the camera obscura. which gave freshness. this cradle of was a simple and modest building. Nicephore turned his attention into a new in direction.30 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. near London.. photography. Kew The two brothers. it a sweet and vivifying Under life this humble roof. and devoted Living alone in his country-house at des Gras near Chalons. &c.

sufficiently fine regular.NIC^PHORE NIEPCE. ten years after his first attempts. my father replaced them by polished tin plates he coated these plates with various varnishes. far from Paris. which prepared ' my father coated with a varnish he acid. he therefore determined to make them for himself. to be usefully in lithography. chose some of the largest of these stones. from the fineness of their grain. then placed on them the drawings which he .' writes his son Isidore Niepce. by lithography. founded in Paris. 3 I who. and taught himself how to use its but. and which attracted stones. an admirable Lithographic Institution This new of art met with general universal success. he could not procure proper appa- ratus and stones. 'my father made some attempts troduced ration. he then etched them by means of an But finding that the grain of these stones was not and . which came from the Quarries of Chagny. became lithography. Niepce partook enraptured with appliances the enthusiasm. his admi- Some broken intended for repairing the main road between Chalons and Lyons. saillant. had . at engraving and reproducing drawings. employed We father . and my had them polished by a marble-worker of Chalons I then made various drawings on them. which had recently been ininto France. 'In 1813. seemed to him to be suited.

make and We went to town last Monday I could only find at first. * that I I had had broken the object-glass of another which I my camera . He was centre. the diameter of the box.' he says to his brother.' if light. which we repro- duce entire ' : You have seen. 18 18. and exposed the whole to the action of the commencement. Scotti's a lens of longer focus than the I have . ingenuity and make for himself what he wanted he was his own cabinet-maker and optician. but that use of hoped . very imperfect graphy. to be able to this glass I make My use of attempt was a failure has a shorter focus than could not . dated May 5. in but he was alone a country far from any scientific his and he had to tax .— 32 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. as is opened his heart to his His progress in heliography was letter (a rapid. Once on the road to discovery. he manufactured his cameras and his aprest paratus. to render had previously varnished them transparent. This was of helio- you like. proved by the following for the his- remarkable document and precious tory of photography). and as a from his labours took the pen and dear Claude. not long in having recourse to the camera. and so it. Niepce continued his studies with that unwearying perseverance of which the inventor seems to have the sole monopoly.

I assure you. 33 had to lengthen the tube which holds adjusted. I no longer arti- being able to ficial make use of my camera. and by means of returned here which the exact focus is We Wednesday evening always been dull. it. . to. saw on the white paper the whole of the pigeon-house seen from. belonged of these . made an eye with Isidore's ring box.nic:6phore niepce. which. to live When my object-glass was broken. * visits to be able to give much I would prefer. but since then the weather has preventing I me from continuing my experiments moreover. our grandfather Barrault. luckily. my dear friend. One little lenses proved to be exactly of the focus wanted and threw a picture of objects in a very sharp and life-like field of thirteen lines diameter. made the experiment in the I way you are acquainted with. as you know. the lenses of the solar microscope. in a desert. of the solar rays in One could distinguish the effects the picture from the pigeon-house up D . and a faint impression of the window frame itself which was not ex- posed to the sunlight. the window. had. am too worried and fatigued with paying or receiving attention to them. . a I little thing from 16 to 18 lines square. ' manner on to a I placed this little apparatus in my workroom facing I the open window looking on and to the pigeon-house.

minute. you had foreseen has proved the picture is What of is true. shall On May 19. to reproduce the exact tones of nature] and lastly to fix them. but with work and patience one can accomplish much. he says to him. diffi- do not hide from myself that there are great culties. p)eriment. . most likely. To 2nd. The possibility by this means appears almost clear to me and it. if I am able to perfect my I process. I I shall hasten will to respond to the interest which know you take in by imparting it to you. especially as regards fixing the colours.' In the course of his correspondence with his brother. His writings. and the objects are white. which will not be easy. Nicephore used for sensitising his plates through pru- dence and from fear of some indiscretion he never mentions it in any of his letters. * and experiments. I occupy myself with three things 1st. however. understood. be . give more relief to the representation of the objects. researches. but the but a very imperfect ex- images of the objects were extremely of painting . show . This is to the window-sash. To 3rd the transpose the colours [by this must.34 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. it is impossible to know what substance . The ground black. 18 16. that to say lighter than the ground. Nicephore continually mentions his efforts. Un- fortunately.' On 28th of the same month he sent Claude four metallic plates which bore impressions produced by light.

which he very justly terms a dangerous combustible. to chloride of silver. as is resin). turns white and becomes in* essence of lavender. use of alcoholic solutions of chloride In 1817. and and then to organic matters such as guaiacum (a at last to phosphorus. well known. as he already calls them.NIC^PHORE NIEPCE. which. he declares that his efforts have not yet been completely successful. for he says later on. When placed at the focus of the camera a whitish delineation of the picture . and am by no means discouraged.' On July 2. ' I have not varied my experiments I sufficiently to consider myself as beaten. history of photography cease for a time no letter of is Niepce's for the next nine years (18 17-1826) certain that the illustrious to be found . in h\s Heliographic studies. but he adds. h£ was not satisfied with it . from white turns gradually to a red colour under the action of light. But he was not long in love ' with this new agent. US that whatever it 35 was. he had recourse. without losing hope. we find him stopping definitely at balm of Judcea.' interesting Here the documents relating to the early . a thinly resinous substance which. that he had been trying to make of iron. 1 8 17. in a letter to his brother. when spread out and exposed to soluble in the light. but it is and painsIn 1826 taking inventor never abandoned his researches.

in contact those which had not come with the ink. thus rendering it trans. covered with a thin coat of bitumen of i. Niepce was enabled to produce engravings by the action of light and transient re- fix in a manner the image of the camera. The picture thus obtained it. the light having no further action on But this reproduction of engravings could only be . then he placed it on a tin plate which had pre- viously been Judaea. A tolerably faithful copy of the engraving placed on plate. In possession of this fact. The transparent parts of the engraving. was permanent.36 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. As parent regards the Niepce varnished the back of the engraving to be reproduced.e. The light whitened the insoluble in wherever it fell on it. Niepce laid down the first plans for its solution. which he had so patiently conquered at the price of the most persevering researches. He resin placed at the focus of his camera a tin plate coated with bitumen of Judaea. first point. it was thus obtained on the metal which was then in plunged into a bath of essence of lavender dissolve those parts of the bitumen which order to had been pro- tected from the light. considered as a scientific curiosity the grand problem was the fixing of the image of the camera. and rendered it . allowed the light to pass through and whiten the bitumen of Judaea. it is thrown on to obtained.

had done Niepce's invention. sponded to the lights and the shadows to the shadows the resin. which dissolved only those parts of the bitumen not affected by the light . pale. the definition. picture was therefore wanting in sharpness and Niepce's chief aim was to apply his discovery to tho reproduction of engravings . exhausted part. a photograph was thus obtained in which the lights corre. may be supposed. Heliography made no further progress the inhis ventor. were dull. These metallic pictures.. is a substance which light. and Niepce endeavoured to strengthen the tones by exposing the plate to vapours of iodine or sulphuret of potassium but his attempts were in vain. former being produced by the whitened the latter by the metal laid bare by the solvent. and was Bitumen of Judaea is subject to some grave defects. 37 The exposed plate was plunged into a bath of the fixing liquid. by ten years of labour. the camera lights more than ten hours this the sun displaced the and shades during long space of time. not of any great value they were feeble. essence of lavender. as . important though it was. he succeeded in etching . was but the germ of photography. NICEPHORE NIEPCE. only acted upon very slowly and feebly by It was necessary for to expose the metal plate in . art of In his hands the new .

it is certain he had not the i. went no farther. Niepce. in spite toil. to work with his cameras were roughly and badly inferior to made. in writers have. with an acid those parts of his plates not protected by the soluble resinous coating which had been rendered in- by the action of the light. and was thus enabled to produce a plate for printing from as in the copperplate press. which has been mysteriously printed on the photographic plate. how- ever it may have been. as we shall the in- . and during artist named Lemaitre published some by this ingenious process. of his unceasing the boldness of his conceptions. gradually appear. this great working man ' of science could do no better with such poor tools.38 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. indeed. his lenses . Perhaps he did unwisely abandoning the salts of silver which his predecessor had employed. were greatly those of the present day in spite of his fertile imagination. slightest idea of the developing agents^ the substances used at the present time for the purpose of making the latent picture. and * his indomitable perseverance. unjustly endeavoured to deprive Daguerre of the glory which is rightly his. in we repeat. perhaps he occupied himself too ex- clusively with the reproduction of drawings.e. Some see. truly remarkable prints But the apparatus which Niepce had was imperfect . his lifetime He an thus invented Heliography. but.

The inventor of the Diorama would perhaps have done nothing without a predecessor. they were incapable of rightly understanding even the principles of photography. If Daguerre did not conquer his America until another had pointed out the way he should follow. Whilst recognising the latter as a great mind and according him due. We believe we are keeping within the bounds of strict impartiality in repeating that the names of Niepce and Daguerre should be placed . but they have certainly from the truth. in ascribing it 39 solely to Niepce. but he far surpassed the work of Niepce. he had at least the glory of following to the very end this road bristling with barriers and impediments. without sufficient scientific knowledge. let all the marks of admiration which are his his us not separate name from that of his future associate. vention of photography. together the work each of these great minds has had its part in we are studying.NICEPHORE NIEPCE. history of photography has been . The some handled by writers with regrettable prejudice far their sincerity we are from suspecting. allowed themselves to wander pro- bably because. To add to Niepce's fame they have tried entirely to suppress the name of Daguerre in the history of the art. Daguerre. .

Niepce. CHAPTER ' IV. but at the telling end of January 1827 he again wrote to Niepce. THE NIEPCE-DAGUERRE PARTNERSHIP. and after receiving a favourable reply from that celebrated : engraver. and that he had arrived portant though very imperfect results. at im- He solicited a mutual exchange of the secrets of which each was possession. wrote as follows to the Parisian painter . CORRESPONDENCE EXCHANGED BETWEEN THE TWO INVENTORS— DISTRUST AND RESERVE OF NIEPCE HIS JOURNEY TO PARIS HIS INTERVIEWS WITH DAGUERRE — HIS JOURNEY TO LONDON ACT OF PARTNERSHIP— DEATH OF NIEPCE. him explicitly that he was engaged in fixing the image of the camera. in On his receipt of this request. without abandoning prudent reserve. and after making en- quiries about Daguerre of Lemaitre (whom he had en- trusted with the working of his heliographic plates). The to Diorama allowed almost a whole year pass without giving further attention to the matter.— 40 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. — — — We have seen with what mistrust the first letter from Daguerre to Niepce was received by the inventor of the latter.

delicate irony under But Daguerre would not be repulsed. last four months have been unable to work ing me. strong in his work. ' I received yesterday your reply to my letter of the I 25th January. This fact is . This industrious difficulties and persevering genius knew the of the problem. Sir. 4i 'Monsieur Daguerre. I me with sufficiently correct am unable to comply with your wish.' It will me from wishing you all imaginable be seen that Niepce. however. this. but the results obtained not having as yet furnished proofs.the niepce-daguerre partnership. refuses as yet to disclose his secrets. Anxious to become acquainted with the processes of the experimenter of Chalons. The compliments which he little pays Daguerre evidently hide a their prudent laconicism. as your process very different. for This I regret is more myself than for you. does not hinder success. and promises you a degree of supe- riority of which engraving will not admit . and believed that no one was better able to solve them than himself. For the . 1826. he sent him a picture resembling a sepia drawing done by a process of his own. I the bad weather entirely preventin have perfected an important degree my process for engraving on metal.

Daguerre has written to me and sent me a picture finished very elegantly framed. done d la sepia^ and by his process.42 . as Niepce himself . as one have sent him a tin plate lightly etched by my process.' cannot in any way compromise my case Shortly afterwards Daguerre received a little from Chalons containing a tin plate engraved by Niepce's heliographic process.' writes Niepce 3. the engraver. to Lemaitre. This engraving was. little that M. which the inventor calls at smoked pictureSy and which are for sale Alphonse Giroux's. Perhaps you. confirmed by a letter which M. This communication discovery. * I forgot to tell you in my last letter. is very is effective. difficult to determine exactly what the result of the process as the pencil Sir. * Whatever may have been Monsr. I inten- tion. with this are already acquainted kind of drawing. THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. choosing as the subject one of the engravings which you sent me. But the prudent Nicephore had taken care to wash the proof so thoroughly that not the slightest trace of the bitumen of Judaea was to be found on it. This drawing which represents but it is an interior. Daguerre's good turn deserves another. has intervened. Foque reproduces in his interesting historical work. under date of April * 1827. however.

says. my part I be as desirous of knowing the result as I shall be flattered to offer you such of my researches of a similar nature as It will I am occupied with. Nicephore received which would bring In the month was of August intelligence that his brother his life in Claude was seriously ill. for successful as In that case. and being unexpectedly his some days. THE NIEPCE-DAGUERRE PARTNERSHIP. Here is Niepce making an give latter offer to Daguerre . . to occur But an event was about these two geniuses together. he consents to which the him his secrets in exchange for those may have to impart. started for England he had to pass through detained there Paris. very defective. and that danger. Nicephore. he took advantage of stay in the capital to see Lemaitre and Daguerre. hear with much to pleasure that the new experiment which you were and make with your improved camera has been you expected.' be seen that the two inventors are being gradually drawn together by a bond of union. accompanied by his wife. 1827. if it is a fair offer.' 43 expect. Sir. ! We areoccupied with the same in we should find an equal interest I shall our mutual efforts to attain the same end.. The . and much too feeble. * * I adds the inventor of hehography. shall Sir. that you have followed up your former attempts you were succeeding too well not to go on object.

on September 4.44 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.r« JOSEPH NIEPCE. t'j. and stayed leave. 5. He came we to see us yesterday. Isidore. which we do not hesitate to reproduce Fig. entire.y.o. are to visit him again before we . 'I have son had. details of his curious interview with the inventor of the Diorama are preserved to us in a very interesting letter. Daguerre. to his 'several long interviews with M.' writes Niepce. three hours . 1827.

enough to say on the interesting subject of our interviews. Daguerre the fire . with the enchantment which lent it from the charms of colour and the magic of light and shade. M. and I 45 will don't know how long we may and we cannot find stay. by M. The either were or appeared to be of their natural size. that all one seems to see wild and is savage nature. than the two scenes painted by M. * I can only repeat to you. my I dear Isidore. The view of the is interior of St. These representations are so even in the most insignificant details.THE NIEPCE-DAGUERRE PARTNERSHIP. snows. Peter's. de Champmartin. at Rome. certainly admirable finer and perfect But none are . assure objects you is not the least exaggeration on my part. They are painted on a canvas or taffeta covered with a . have seen nothing here which has given me more pleasure than the Diorama. there. as it be for the last time. one of Edinburgh by the other of a Swiss moonlight at the time of a village taken from the entrance of the main road and covered with eternal faithful opposite a prodigious mountain. what I said to M. Daguerre himself conducted us and we were able to contemplate at our ease the most magnificent views. The to illusion is even so complete that one is tempted leave one's seat and cross the plain to This I clamber to the summit of the mountain. Bouton in its illusion.

is difficult in unrolling to avoid tearing. Daguerre has succeeded on his chemical substance some of the colours of the solar spectrum . primary colours the results obtained the fugitive tints are invisible in broad daylight they can . which necessitates care rolled when these species of decorations have to be as it for transport. What are is at least plain now is that his process and mine totally different. I told you. produces a clearer tint than the part exposed to the direct action of light. Then again in this fixing of the are so feeble that . that he persists in thinking I am farther ad- vanced than he in the researches in which we are engaged.46 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. and one is which foils him completely. Thus a blue glass. it. and thus to have the complete spectrum. * But to return to M. M. my dear Isidore. be able to retain several colours at the same time a great hindrance. His has something marvellous about and a celerity of action comparable to the in fixing electric fluid. that totally opposite effects are produced by these combinations. But the difficulties he encounters increase which the substance in proportion to the modifications itself must undergo in order to . he has already united four and hopes to obtain the other three. Daguerre. varnish having the drawback of sticking. which produces a deeper shade on the said substance.

Daguerre himself does not pretend to objects the coloured representations of by this process. for who has already made them M.THE NIEPCE-DAGUERRE PARTNERSHIP. even if he succeeds in surmount- ing all the obstacles in the way. only be seen in 47 an obscure is light. stone (sulphate of barytes) and pyrophorus readily acted it is very upon by light. a very essential condition first and which must be the object of my researches. and for this reason : the substance in question of the nature of Bolognese . easy. little From hope of what he has said to me. sensible He is how interesting it would be to obtain pictures by and expeditious. he will only be able to use of it make as a sort of intermediary means. and much more satisfactory as regards the results which I have obtained. but cannot retain the effect. to My process appears to him be certainly preferable. He wishes that I should make some experiments with if coloured glass in order to see the impression proI duced on shall my substance is the same as that on his. latter insists principally on rapidity of action in the fixation of the pictures . he seems to have succeeding. Daguerre. The indeed. and his researches will hardly have any object but pure curiosity. procure five of these from Chevalier. because a somewhat prolonged exposure to the action of the sun ends by decomposition. aid of a process equally simple. fix M. As regards .

Daguerre is The chemical composition employed by spread. of glass and hydrofluoric acid would be much He is convinced that lithographic ink. He thinks that for this sort of engraving the employment preferable. or Bolognese stone. light This powder on the least contact with is becomes so luminous that the camera This substance. method of engraving on metal.' — our best love to Jenny.48 the THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. and the . carefully applied to the surface bitten by the acid. he thinks that would succeed only very imperfectly for views. many people in 'Adieu youngster. * Our places are taken for Calais. would produce on a white paper the effect of a good proof. very analogous to sulphate of baryta (cawk). We were unable to secure the places the King's journey to Paris having attracted that direction. and our departure is definitely fixed for next Saturday at eight in the mornearlier. which also has the property of retaining certain . ing. is far from de- preciating but as it would be necessary to retouch this process and to deepen the impressions. and a very fine powder which does not adhere to it is the surface on which must therefore be kept horizontal. can remember. . yourself. prismatic rays. he it . and would moreover have a certain originality about it which would be still more attractive. . as far as I quite is lit up by it.

But Niepce would not reveal and the learned English Society accepts no his processes communication from an inventor who keeps secret. discoveries. the inventor of the Diorama Niepce at Chalons. at He remained some weeks Kew. enfeebled by work. and his mind affected through over-study. 49 Nicdphore. . The company thus formed was Niepce-Daguerre . Nicephore soon returned to Chalons and kept up a lively correspondence with Daguerre. and together their labours. and the proceeds of working the new discovery were to be divided between the two partners. on arriving in England. and there they signed an agreement.. the fixation of the image of the tamera. who undertook to lay the results of his heliographic researches before the Royal his Society of London. Sir Francis Baur. ending by a proAfter posal to enter into a partnership with him. and made the acquaintance of a distinguished Englishman. In accordance with this agreement Niepce and Daguerre were mutually to acquaint each other with their processes..THE NIEPCE-DAGUERRE PARTNERSHIP. found his brother Claude dangerously ill. viz. hesitation at length much and many visited delays. to go by the name of the its place of business was at Paris . They were to work out and improve these attain the object of processes in common.

But the inventor of the the little Diorama had even less to give for he received. assay crucibles. . I have caught a glimpse of this I mysterious laboratory. but neither ever allowed to enter it. he set to work with fresh ardour. retorts. He returned to Paris after seeing Niepce's apparatus in action. Sebon. studied chemistry. Chevalier. where he resided. Carpentier. * Daguerre be- came had Shut up in in a laboratory which he had constructed the Diorama building. and melting pots. Daguerre was at last favoured with one of those accidents which often happen to the persevering worker. and for nearly two years lived almost con- tinuously in the midst of books. result. truth of these recollections. Madame etc. Suddenly. nor anyone else was Daguerre. Messrs. as Feeble indeed was the we have already seen.' can bear witness to the In the midst of his researches and experiments.' says Charles invisible. After signing this agreement Niepce acquainted in pre- Daguerre with the processes which he employed paring his heh'ographic plates. resolved to work without ceasing until success crowned ' his efforts. left He had a silver spoon on a metal plate which had been * Guide du Photographe {^Souvenirs Historiques).' 50 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. Bonton.

wonderful rapidity under the action of To make his preparation.plate. and oil at last substituted petroleum the vapours of mercury. and substituted for iodide of silver. but for agent. This discovery his was a great step towards success . and he thus obtained a surface which impressed itself with the picture thrown on it by the lens of the camera. in a latent state stances after trying numberless chemical sub- and agents of every description. treated with iodine. He not rest con- went on unceasingly. which darkens with light. he exposed a silvered plate to the influence of vapours of iodine. Daguerre had put did hand on a developing tent here. to appear as by magic and with mar- vellous distinctness. observation was a precious revelation to He abandoned it the bitumen of Judaea. Daguerre at petroleum oil last discovered that possessed the property of developing the image on his plate. faint But the plate only presented a picture which existed still shadowy image of the .1 THE NIEPCE-DAGUERRE PARTNERSHIP. fact. causing the inlight if visible image which the had printed on the iodised silver . : Photography was henceforth a not failed to write to his Daguerre had partner he told him of his . what 5 was his surprise to find on lift- ing the spoon that its image was clearly and sharply ! imprinted on the iodised surface This Daguerre.

. having made use of iodide of but Niepce did not Before learning believe in the efficacy of this substance. silver. 1833. the almost definite results which Daguerre had obtained.52 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. he was seized with congestion of the brain and died July 5.

he was no longer guide working in the dark. But the days and months passed in continual labours.a 53 CHAPTER DAGUERRE'S researches and studies V. AUGUST ID. 1839. of promise he has seen that the image. The in- ventor held in his hand the thread which would conduct him in the labyrinth of his enquiries . and it was only at the price of two years entirely devoted to . gradually reveals that is to say becomes visible and manifest. in spite of determined to accomplish. he had The ingenious artist has . HE CEDES HIS INVENTION TO THE STATE— ARAGO AND THE DAWN OF PHOTOGRAPHY— A BILL LAID BEFORE THE HOUSE— REASONS FOR ITS BEING PASSED MEETING OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. traced so to speak in a latent state by the light on a plate coated with iodised itself. for he was in possession of the which would lead him to the light. THE DAGUERREOTYPE. when exposed to the action of vapour of mercury. — — Daguerre is thus left alone to solve the problem its — task which. discovered a fact full many difficulties. silver.

we give almost entire an article which appeared in the Moniteiir [/niversel of ]anvia.54 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. . Daguerre. that Daguerre at last perfected the beautiful art his toil which was to immortalise name.' says the writer of the article. Figure to yourself a glass which after receiving your image presents you your portrait. 1839. and much more ' faithful. son of Nicephore. On March the subscription was opened . Two more At were passed in constant and study. with the improvements which he had effected. but the incredulous public did not respond to the call funds were not forthcoming . Daguerre has succeeded in fixing the natural light on a solid surface. capitalists seemed to run away from the new ^ art of photography. An toil additional clause was added years to the before-mentioned agreement. the results obtained by Daguerre were already known. in a mirror. 15.ry 14.^ To give a true idea of the impression which the appearance of the Daguerreotype produced. 'has been some time past a subject of some wonderful accounts After fourteen years of research M. ? What is the inventor's secret What is the substance endowed with light. 1838. length in 1837. 'The discovery of M. Daguerre was a position to acquaint Isidore Niepce. Daguerre and Isidore Niepce signed a regular act of partnership and endeavoured to start a company to work the new discovery. in the for apparatus of the camera obscura. It was time to publish the dis- covery of heliography. in giving a body to the impalpable and fugitive image of objects reflected in the retina of the eye. and were the universal theme in all the papers. as indelible as painting. in In 1835. at this time. such astonishing sensibility as not only to become penetrated with but .

In a view of Paris we can count the paving stones we see the dampness produced by rain . like the material instrument of the sensation and like the sensation itself? Indeed we cannot say. Arago and M. It is presumable that an Afi-ican sun would give him instantaneous autographs of nature in action and in The author concludes with more sensible remarks: 'The discovery. in a stuff. first and was boundless in his ex- pressions of admiration. Biot. — : ' always taken so much time as only to enable him to obtain complete results rest. men at of science and knocked The illustrious astronomer sight of and man of science was thunderstruck the Daguerreotype plate.. What fineness of touch what harmony of light and shade what delicacy With a magnifying glass we can see the slightest fold what finish \ . and these experiments. All the threads of the luminous tissue have passed from the object into the image. we have which Nature herself is drawn. the lines of a landscape invisible to the naked eye.' A little further on the writer indulges in a singular supposition * M.. The inventor had found his also to retain the impression. to do. * Each picture placed before us called forth some admiring exclamation. of nature inanimate or at movement escapes him or only life. Daguerre. thus operating at the same time like the eye and like the optical nerve.— — THE DAGUERREOTYPE.' he says. even under the most favourable circumstances. . M. We seems to us that it can only prove prejudicial to have never heard that the invention of moulding on nature It has put the genius of the sculptor in the shade. to judge from the results which seen. promises to be of great importance to art and science. as far as at present developed. have the courtesy of the inventor By been able to examine his chefs-d^ auvre^ in ! ! ! . The discovery of printing did serious injury to the scribes.' .' leaves vague and indefinite traces. the copyist. has as yet only made experiments at Paris.. 55 his invention to the He addressed himself to several at Arago's door. Daguerre then decided to cede State. we have Some persons seem even to be afraid that it will leave nothing for draughtsmen. who have read reports on the effects of M. we can read the name on a shop. and perhaps for painters. . have declined to define their causes. . but not to the writers. Daguerre' s discovery.

— $6 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. Home who offered Daguerre and Isidore Niepce Hfe ! pensions (modest enough ) in exchange for their secrets. facilities it be understood what new . must offer for the study of the sciences it and as to the arts. the then advocate. this process offers them a ready and easy means of forming studies which. Daguerre has suc- ceeded in fixing the image of the camera. Minister. even to the slightest detail. drawings in which the objects preserve their forms. the services incalculable. Duchatel laid before the House a fol- relating to the new its discovery. in which linear perspective and the degradation of tone produced by aerial perspective are reproduced with a delicacy hitherto unknown. ' It is not necessary to dwell upon the utility of such It will easily an invention. M. in four or five minutes by the aid of light. even the most talented . that of persevering and costly research. ' can render to them are These reproductions so true to nature would be a constant object of study to artists and painters. Arago sent him to Duchatel. and of thus creating. and on the other hand. On bill June 15. 1839. they could only . preceded : by the lowing reasons for ' acceptance You all know. and some among you have already after fifteen years been able to prove for yourselves. if collections of they made themselves.

* Their invention patent. Every author would become his own illustrator . anyone can make The most awkward person will be able to It make pictures as exact as a practised artist. and obtain on the spot an exact facsimile of * it. when employed to reproduce and multiply these pictures drawn by Nature herself ' Finally. they find it. is not one which can be protected by a use of As soon as it is known. he would halt a few seconds before the most extensive view. expressed by all And what just regrets would not be if the lovers of art and science such a . Unfortunately for the inventors of this beautiful discover}'-. the apparatus of M. The art of the engraver would take a new degree of interest and importance. Daguerre would necessity. thus follows that this process must belong to all the world or remain unknown. to the traveller.THE DAGUERREOTYPE. as well as the naturalist. It will become a continual and indispensable enable them to fix their impressions without having re- course to the hand of a stranger. obtain at the cost of less perfect ' 57 much time and labour and in a much manner. it impossible to make a matter of for the sacri- business of fices and to indemnify themselves which were necessitated by such numerous attempts so long fruitless. it. to the archaeologist.

it will * be necessary to give a few more details. It is for it it behoved the Government it to put society in possession of the discovery which demands to enjoy in the general interest by giving to its authors the price. but promised no useful results the substance on which the solar rays pictured the image had not the property of retaining it. The possibility of transiently fixing the image of . . if it secret remains impenetrable to the public. Before acquainting you with the bases of this treaty. objects. * These are the motives which have led us to conclude with Messrs.58 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. ing these pictures permanent. He could obtain only the outline of at. the dark room has been this discovery known for the last century . ' M. Daguerre bill a provisional agreement and the Niepce. Nicephore Niepce invented a means of renderBut. for which the object of the we have honour to lay before you * is to ask your sanction. his invention remained very imperfect. lost ' must be and die with the inventors ! In such an exceptional circumstance to intervene. or rather the recompense. although he had still solved this difficult problem. of their invention. and became completely black as soon as exposed to the light of day. least twelve hours to obtain and he required the slightest drawing.

been able to arrive at the Fig. namely. have witnessed. Daguerre has admirable results which we 6.THE DAGUERREOTYPE. the reproduction of aerial perspective. and distinguished from . that M. it belongs to him alone. M. DAGUERKE. ' 59 It was by totally different means. and all is the his play of light and shade. Niepce. and by putting aside the traditions of M. Daguerre's method is own . the extreme rapidity of the operation.

Niepce's is invention. by which they engaged to share mutually all the advantages they might receive from their discoveries.6o THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. moreover. Niepce an agreement was made between him and M. believing impartiality cannot be too strictly adhered to in history. and to Isidore . Gentlemen. It must not be forgotten.000 francs a year to M.' agreement which you will find annexed to the After reading this document. Daguerre and made parties in the bill. it that M. ' These explanations will show you. for what reason and by what Isidore Niepce are title Messrs. even respecting the process which he has not only perfected but invented. perhaps susceptible of being improved and of certain circumstances . and as this stipulation it is has been extended to M. Daguerre. impossible to treat alone with M. Isidore Niepce. although is still im- perfect. the bill Home Minister read the which assigned a life pension of 6. much in its cause as in its that of his predecessor as effects. as before the death of M. which. N. Daguerre. Daguerre. being employed usefully under is it it therefore of importance to history and science that should be published at the same time as that of M. we have thought it our duty to reproduce entire. Daguerre. 'At the same time.

^ The bill was passed with acclamation by the House Peers. the nation at lavish in bestowing on Daguerre the marks of great enthusiasm and admiration. whose ignorance in the matter of chemical reagents has drawn him aside from the truth. has accused us of partiality in saying that Nicephore Niepce was the real discoverer of the art in question.1 THE DAGUERREOTYPE. It is would to the true something was added value of these pensions by ornamenting them with But if the name was of National Reward. due to him in the invention of photography. Is it necessary to add that in our work the researches of the illustrious inventor of the Daguerreotype have been estimated by the light of historical documents. A distinguished who has done us the honour to notice our work in the press. Daguerre has been violently attacked by a son of Nicephore. the Government was least its thus careful of the public money. the half of reversionary to the pension being widows of Daguerre and Niepce. and we make bold to say that we have retraced the facts in the light in which they ought to be studied. the importance of which was well understood. ally the old disputes We have endeavoured to judge impartiwhich have been brought forward. but titles by M. results and from which there was no doubt great be obtained. was charged to to In is oui- historical account we have rendered Daguerre the glory which writer. Victor Fouque. and also by the House of secretary of the ' Arago. as perpetual Academy of Sciences. that is to say without any preconceived ideas ? . dispossessed of his evidently sincere. One is astounded at the smallness of the sums ac- corded in exchange for one of the grandest of modern inventions. Niepce a each life 6 pension of 4. a critic.000 francs a year.

the On The this exceptional occasion Academy of of the Fine Arts had assembled at the Sciences.62 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. August 10. they burst forth on the quays. and seemed to wish to divest himself of a triumph which the great Arago had taken under It his special care. Arago had spoken .' * No. public. and crowds of people curious to hear the secret thronged the ap- proaches to the Institut. his words were repeated by a hundred mouths. they circulated in the corridors. who. to that learned society the description of communicate the Daguerreotype process. * less It is the iodide of silver and mercury. This was the name by which the marvellous discovery was to be henceforth known. in his modesty. seats Academy reserved for the public were filled with those whom Paris counted her most eminent men. Every eye was fixed upon Dashunned the public gaze. would not be necessary to know the Parisian and easily excited.' . so eminently impressionable to ask if the approaches to the Institut were crowded with people. All that Paris contained in the shape of students. of young and inquisitive persons were to be found at the doors of the Mazarin Palace.' cried one person. where comments flew about more or explicit. artists. was the day fixed. guerre.' said another. 1839. ' it is the bitumen of Judaea.

had understood anything about Daguerre's Meanwhile the time containing passed. art of Raphael and Michael Angelo was not it on the contrary. obtained it a Daguerreotype plate from ' him and showed dead from this everywhere. and all by everybody who had caught the Paris Daguerreotype fever. the papers appeared sitting accounts of the solemn of the Academy . these were at once pounced upon and disputed could afford to buy them. It is nitrate of silver.! — 63 THE DAGUERREOTYPE. they explained more clearly the Daguerreo- type process. but none secret. exclaiming !' Painting is day The killed . was to find new resources in the inspirations of a great inventor. * Such exclamations as these were bandied about. and Science was about to give her hand to Art .' replied a third. The opticians made experiments and ex- posed cameras and the necessary apparatus for taking Daguerreotypes in their shop-windows for . I tell you. The : artists were seized with astonishment and admiration out Paul Delaroche sought Daguerre.

before the monuments. — Soon after the memorable sitting of August all lo. precise. perched on the balconies of houses. . cameras were generally and showing perhaps but a few secondary objects of the coveted view. The method was simple and theless. for so rapid was the new the to the entire civilised world.64 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. the all processes of Daguerre were known to Paris. everywhere. neverits a certain amount of it practice in delicate manipulations. But these newly- improvised photographers obtained for the most part but poor results . on the boulevards. France. THE DAGUERREOTYPE PROCESS ACCELERATING SUBSTANCES— IMPROVED LENSES— PORTRAITS— FIXING AGENTS —DISCOVERY OF PHOTOGRAPHY ON PAPER BY TALBOT M. even say. and required some time even for a good operator to make it profitable. the pictures they sought to fix in their indistinct. CHAPTER VL — ^ THE PROGRESS OF A NEW ART. and one success of the may art. BLANQUART-EVRARD. All over capital cameras were to be seen. but it required.

7- DAGl'ERREOTYPE POLISHER. The plate thus sensitised it is then exposed in the camera. The photographic images obtained by illustrious inventor of the 65 the henceforth Diorama were formed on the surface of a plate of silvered copper. had be rubbed with a pad. combine with and form a yellow coating of iodide of silver. 7). and to surface remove from its the slightest trace of any foreign it. particles which might have got attached to Fiff. The silvered plate thus prepared it was placed in the iodising box. The silvered plate it had to to be perfectly polished and clean. of iodine act on the silver. where receives the image projected on to the lens. prepared surface at the focus of the light The rays of which form the image decompose the iodide of F . or buff polisher to give it in order the utmost possible brilliancy. tion The first opera- was to iodise the silver. was supported by a frame over The fumes it.THE PROGRESS OF A NEW ART. in which crystals of iodine. First of all (fig.

8. curious feature in this MERCURIAL DEVELOPING BOX. while in the shadows the iodised surface remains unaltered. that the plate when removed from the camera presents no chemical change. In order to render this image visible neces- . preliminary stage of the process is. although there in the is visible signs of a latent image caught most delicate beauty of light and shadow upon it is its surface.66 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. The most Fig. the parts ex- posed to the high Hghts of the picture undergoing the greatest change. silver just in proportion to their intensity.

appears brilliant in the lights. 8.— THE PROGRESS OF A NEW ART. it it. by placing it in a box above a bath of mercury gently heated to a temperature of about 50° Reaumur. is The Daguerreotype image as thus fixed and is formed. ascertained by a thermometer. spread over the silvered surface. the mysterious plate reproduces every detail of the scene before which the camera has been placed. (See fig. we have seen of a delicate coating of mercury this metal. have a liking for and condense upon the parts while the shadows protected by decomposed by the light. 6") sary to submit the plate to the operation of develop- ment. it becomes as. whilst in the shadows it has not taken hold . paper by Sir John Herschel.^ which clears the shadows and leaves the lights and half-tones of the image intact. coming in contact with the prepared surface. F 2 . unaltered iodide of silver are shielded from the attack of this subtle developing agent. silver it is immersed in a solution of hyposulphite of soda. After the picture has been developed necessary to fix light. still susceptible to the influence of would soon be blotted from the surface of the In order then to remove the unaltered iodide of plate. Thus gradually. . published soon after the Ed.) The mercury emits fumes which. as if by magic. ' The use of hyposulphite of soda as a photographic developing agent in a was made known invention of the Daguerreotype process.

the Daguerreotype would not it resist the slightest touch . Its mirror-like nature was one of the worst it : in order to see the picture as fixed on the plate.— Ed. often appeared to have more of the properties of a mirror or stained tin plate than of an artistic drawing. where the developer has bare. did not long it remain time sufficed to deprive of its sharpness. however.6S THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.^ Besides these inconveniences. whilst a landscape was attempted. . consequently to dream if of taking portraits Avas out of the question. This process consists imparting a hardness to the coated surface by means • The process was subsequently accelerated and rendered available for portraiture by Goddard's discovery of the rapid action of bromine. a finger passed over it destroyed the whole picture intact. But the picture thus obtained offered several grave drawbacks. a short moreover. A method of protecting the Daguerreotype picture by a process called gilding in was discovered. overcome. the masses of verdure were represented by white silhouettes or monoto- nous blots. In Daguerre's time the exposure in the camera had to be prolonged for at least fifteen minutes . . to hold it was necessary and it at a certain angle to the light. by the polished laid the latter are represented surface of the it metal plate. These difficulties were.

ART.and fig. displace another less easily oxidable for this reason. the mercury is dissolved and replaced by the gold on the silvered surface.THE PROGRESS OF A NEW of a liquid containing gold in solution. It is a fact in chemistry that one oxidable metal will . then spirit lamp. after this substi- . as shown in GILDING THE DAGUEKKEOTVPE PLATE. of gold and soda give excellent results. the is Daguerreotype plate gently heated over a immersed in this solution. 9. As may be supposed. 69 Hyposulphite This salt is dissolved in a large quantity of water.

70

THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.
assumed a

tution of gold for mercury, the picture has
different

aspect, but
it

it

has gained notably by the ex-

change

;

has acquired vigour, and become more pleasall, is

ing in appearance, and, most important of

capable
is

of resisting moderate rubbing.

When

the gilding

completed, the plate, after being well washed to remove
the excess of salt
is

then dried, and finished.

As soon
number of

as Daguerre's invention

was known, a great

artists

and men of science applied themselves
it.

to the practice

and improvement of

It will

be readily

understood that an essential improvement consisted in
diminishing the time of exposure in the camera.
arrive at this result,
it

To

was above
the

all

necessary to alter

the

lens

which
rules

produced

pictures.

Daguerre

had given
according
used.
talist

which fixed the dimensions of the lens
the
different
sizes

to

of silvered

plates

But these observations of the clever experimenreferred specially to the reproduction of general

views of landscapes or objects at a distance.
parts

From

all

came anxious

enquiries as to whether the Daguerreo;

type would not produce portraits

and whether, as a

writer of the time says, the prodigy accomplished in a

story of

Hoffmann was not soon

to be realised, and, to
'

quote the words of the author of the

Contes fantas-

1 ^

THE PROGRESS OF A NEW ART.
tiques,'

7

'

the lover would present his mistress with a mirror
his image.'
it

in

which she would see

To

solve this problem

was indispensable that the

focus of the lens should be shortened, and a greater quantity of light

condensed on the plate

in

order to illumi-

nate more vigorously, and thus more rapidly impress
the sensitised surface.

Charles

Chevalier constructed

a camera with two achromatised object-glasses, which

gave a very sharp

and

brilliantly

lighted

image.

With

this

improvement the time of exposure was reduced

to a few minutes.
'

However,' says M. L. Figuier in his excellent essay
*

on photography,

this

most important problem of lessen-

ing the exposure to the light was not completely solved
till
1

84 1, and then, thanks to a discovery of great value.
artist,

Claudet, a French

who had bought

of Daguerre

the exclusive right to introduce the photographic processes in England, discovered the properties of accelerat-

ing substances.*

In photography the
certain

name

accelerator

is

given to
a
plate

substances which,

when applied

to

previously iodised, increase in an extraordinary degree
lens was invented by Prof. and brought to a high degree of perfection by M. Voglander, whose lenses, some twenty years ago, were eagerly sought after, and are prized by photographers at the present day. Ed.
'

The double combination achromatic portrait

Petzral of Vienna,

72

THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.
sensitiveness to light.
is

its

Alone, these substances are

non-photogenicJ that

to say they are not in themselves

capable of producing a
chemically influenced by
already iodised they give

combination which would be
light,
it

but

if

applied to a plate

the property of receiving the

impress of an object in a few seconds.

The
Claudet,

substances

capable

of thus

stimulating the

iodised silver are numerous.
is

The
;

first,

introduced by

chloride of iodine

but

it

yields considerably
dis-

in sensibility to substances

which were afterwards

covered.

The fumes
of
acid,

of bromine, bromide of iodine,
of
sulphur,
Resier's

bromide
chloric

lime,

chloride

bromoform,
liquid,

Hungarian

liquid,

and

Thierry's

liquid,

are the quickest-acting

accelerators:
in

with chloric acid perfect pictures have been obtained
half a second.

By

the discovery of these accelerating substances

Daguerreotypes could now be taken of animate objects,

and thus the long-desired
able.

portraits

were at length attain-

Already

in

1840, attempts

had been made
;

to

obtain portraits with the Daguerreotype

but the long

exposure

necessarily rendered

them

fruitless.

These

attempts were

made with

the long-focus lens, which only
;

admitted a light of feeble intensity into the camera

it

was

also necessary to place the person in full sun-light.


THE PROGRESS OF A NEW ART.
and prolong the exposure
it is

73

for a quarter of

an hour

As

impossible to keep the eyes open so long a time to

the effect of the solar rays, the sitter was obliged to
close them.

Many

bold

amateurs

made martyrs

of

themselves in this way, but the result was not what their

courage merited.

In 1840 at Lusset's shop in the Place
a
'

de

la

Bourse, might have been seen
'

row of sad
^
!

Belisaires, labelled

photographic portraits

The
in the

invention of short -focus object-glasses allowed

execution of portraits

— the torment of the patient
reduced to
sit in

condemned

to absolute immobility to be

four or five minutes.
full sun-light.

But

it

was

still

necessary to

The model took

a graceful attitude, rest-

ing one hand on the back of a chair, and looking as

amiable as possible.

But the sun

fell

full

in his

eyes

!

The
still
!

operator gives the final warning to keep perfectly

The seconds

pass, succeed each other,
;

and seem

to

expand
is

into centuries

the

sitter, in

spite of all his

efforts,

overpowered by the solar
close,

rays, the eyelids

open and
which he
is

his

face contracts, the immobility to

constrained becomes a torture.

His features

shrivel up, tears fall

from his eyes, perspiration beads on

his forehead, he pants for breath, his entire
like that of

body shakes
still,

an epileptic
L. FiguUr^
les

who wants

to

keep

and the

Merveilles de la Science.

74

THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

Daguerreotype plate represents the image of a poor
wretch undergoing
all

the tortures of the ordeal by

fire.

Shortly afterwards the discovery of the accelerating substances permitted Daguerreotype portraits to be taken

with something of
It is

artistic feeling.
dif-

not our purpose to describe minutely the

ferent Daguerreotype operations,

and the various im-

provements effected
noticing only

;

we

shall

content ourselves with

the discoveries

made by M.
picture

Fizeau, a

French experimentalist.
the

This clever operator discovered

means of fixing the Daguerreotype
it

by

cover-

ing

with a slight coating of gold.

He

arrived at this

result, as

we have

seen,

by pouring a

solution of chloride

of gold and hyposulphite of soda on to the plate and then

gently heating

it.

With

this discovery the

complement
;

of the processes used in photography was completed

the

image of the camera fixed
tive

in a latent state

on a sensideveloping

substance was

made

to

appear

by

agents, the time of

exposure was lessened, and the
agents, be fixed,

picture could,

by the action of chemical

that

is

to say, rendered indelible.
in

Soon, other new discoveries were to transform, every way, the art of Daguerre
;

but the illustrious in-

ventor had not the consolation of knowing them.
died on July
lo,

He
new

1851, foreseeing in his thoughts the

THE PROGRESS OF A NEW ART.

75

horizons to the conquest of which the wondrous art he

had created was rapidly marching.
Whilst Daguerre was carrying on his researches
in

France, in 1834 Mr. Talbot in England was also en-

deavouring to

fix

the image of the camera

;

but his aim

was to

fix

it

on paper.'

This modest and almost unknown inventor subjected
a sheet of paper, which had been soaked in iodised silver,
to the action of light in the

camera

;

and he developed

the picture, formed as in the Daguerreotype, in a latent
state,

with gallic acid.

The employment

of this sub-

stance was another great help to photography.

Talbot was

in the

midst of his researches when he

heard of the publication of Daguerre's invention.

He

'

The English have

claimed, but wrongfully, the merit of the invention

If Talbot kept Daguerre had published his discovery, it was because he was aware of the imperfections in his method. Before offering it to the public he desired to give it the certainty and facility of working which it arrived The publication of the results at in the hands of Blanquart-Evrard. obtained by Niepce and Daguerre established their titles as inventors of

of photography.
silence before

Talbot's method was not practicable.

photography.

(While

I

am

at

credit of the beautiful invention

one with the author in according to Daguerre the full which bears his name, yet the claims of

the famous French inventor.

Talbot can hardly with justice be relegated to a position inferior to that of Talbot in 1834, about five years before Daguerre's method was made known to the world, had solved for himself

•the

problem of

fixing the photographic

image on paper.

See Abridgment

of Specifications, printed by order of the Commissioners of Patents in

England, 1854.— Ed.)

76

THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.


,

sent the results of his experiments to France, to Biot,

who brought them before

the

Academy of

Sciences.

But

the Daguerreotype seemed to have

the sole right to

occupy the attention of Paris
numberless announced,
*

;

people got tired of the

improvements

'

which

were

continually

for the

most part merely the empty dreams
Talbot's discovery

of excited and inexperienced minds.

had not the good fortune
learned world.
It

to attract the attention of the
its

was, however, estimated at
spirit,

true

value by a laborious
profited

Blanquart-Evrard, who cleverly
experimentalist

by the

facts

made known by the
and who soon

across the Channel,
interesting
result

brought

out

an

memoir

of photography on paper.
for;
it

Such a
ac-

was anxiously waited
that

was generally
character

knowledged

the

mirror-like

of

the

Daguerreotype plate was incompatible
artistic picture
;

with a really

it

was thought with reason that a proof
softer

on paper would be
drawing.

and would resemble a sepia

Thus, as soon as Blanquart-Evrard of Lille

published his method, his communications were received

with expressions of joy by

all

photographic amateurs.
in a sensitising
it

Blanquart-Evrard plunged his paper
solution
;

when

it

was dry he fastened
it

between two

pieces of glass

and so exposed
it

in

the camera.

These

tiQw manipulations,

must be admitted, were almost

THE PROGRESS OF A NEW

ART.

77

exactly similar to those employed by Talbot.

The

latter

made

use of iodised silver as a sensitising agent for pro;

curing a positive proof on paper

he employed chloride

of silver on the negative paper, and fixed the picture

by

means of gallic
a

acid.^

He
to

had the
be
used

first

idea of

making

negative

picture
;

in

the

production

of positive proofs

he must be considered as the inventor

of proofs on paper, and his
in

name ought

to be inscribed
after

the

annals

of

photography

directly

those

of Niepce

and Daguerre.

Blanquart-lEvrard, profiting

by the

interesting studies

of Talbot, contributed to the improvement of the photo-

graphic art
of view
;

;

he studied

it

wholly from an

artistic point

he asked himself what were the rules which

should be observed in order to obtain pictures possessing
true

harmony and worthy

of being considered

by

a

painter.

He

found out ingenious methods of gfving force

to the shadows,

and of colouring the positive

proof,

and

that

by mixing

certain chemical substances with the re-

agents already

in use.

Blanquart at length was able to produce thirty or
Amongst those who from its origin have contributed to popularise photography must be mentioned Bazard, who after patient researches succeeded in producing some, for his time, remarkable photographic proofs. They were exhibited to the students of the Sorbonne University of Paris
'

by M. Despretz

in 1846.

Paris.. . producing instantaneous views. a detailed description Talbot gave is & unnecessary. Talbot. A paper process proposed by Sir John Herschel. whilst before. Cyanotype Energiatype . Hunt. and superseded by processes subsequently discovered.. . by Blanquart-Evrard (of Lille). invented and perfected by Mr.78 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. A list of some of Daguerre of the processes which the publication of the discoveries Being quite out of date rise to is here given. 1851. A?7iphitype. would be ungrateful to omit his name photographic art.. forty positives from a negative. In another process plied. discovered by Sir John Herschel.^ in the history of the ' See for further details on this subject the Treatise on Photography on Paper. two or It three were the utmost that had been obtained. . for Mr. galvanism was ap- the sensitised plate being under the influence of the fluid when exposed. in Anthotype Calotype Chromatype Chrysotype which chromatic acid was used.

79 CHAPTER VII. rude and primitive this first effort his enough : with mind seemed faculties to have exhausted itself one might say that his ducing . PHOTOGRAPHY. for instance. ! Many examples might be quoted in proof of Fulton. the inventor seems to exhaust himself. How often it not been the case that after supplying some new materials to the edifice of science.. creates only slowly and painfully. SIR JOHN HERSCHEL VICTOR'S negative on glass — HYPOSULPHITE OF SODA — NIEPCE DE SAINT— GUN COTTON AND COLLODION. started to the conquest of the seas on a steamboat. and has had to give up his task to other hands this. they were in- . The mind of the inventor. however ingenious he may has be. It is a remarkable fact in the history of great discoveries is that the inventor himself finishing touches rarely able to give those results of his and improvements to the genius which time and practice are sure to develop in them. had not the gift of pro- they had invented this novelty.

a remarkable example of Fizeau. Blanquart. the first rudiment of photography further. is The history of photography this. Talbot. taking photographic proofs the attention of such a mind could not be directed to the Daguerreotype without it. ment which was founded by Niepce and Daguerre work of building other great workers arrived from time to time to contribute their valuable aid to the . all thQ attention of the whole world was drawn to is Here the great Herschel. 8o THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. whilst capable of improving. after fifteen years of toil. type plate. have added their stones to the monu. gave the world the Daguerreo. By the side of the inventor appear a crowd of those who. . whose labours ensure the fruits of harvest. as the years The new discovery had excited the admiration of it.. Chevalier. but here he stops. are often incapable of inventing. its capable of promoting others to give it growth . his genius can carry him no But the seed sown on the field of discoveries is culti- vated by other eminent minds. Daguerre. the illustrious English astronomer. it was reserved for the development of ripe age. the idea occurred to him of substituting . the monu- ment grows more magnificent and grand pass on. exerting a salutary influence on He fixed the image on paper by the method of which he had read the description .

silvered plate aban- This last. with extreme fineness of execution . But with paper. no more mirror- like reflection. no more of those metallic gleams which it only permitted the picture to be seen after inclining every direction towards the light. and the employment of paper. 8 hyposulphite of soda for the agents until then employed. certainly offered the advantage of being practical and of producing very clear.1 PHOTOGRAPHY. it must be owned. and from that day the hyposulphite of soda has been counted amongst the the most laboratory. moreover. valuable substances of photographic As cess of soon as Blanquart-Evrard had published his pro- photography on paper. and the use of the doned. He succeeded beyond all expectation. sharp pictures. in the details it gave proofs of great delicacy of feature and matchless softness. must not be disguised. The paper which was. it was immediately tried by everybody. expanded and did not always uniformly absorb the liquids in it was plunged . too porous. : was acthe texfibrous companied with more than one inconvenience ture of the paper itself was not very smooth. the photographic proof G . its in But everything has its it good and bad side . its nature produced traces and unevennesses which prevented it from being impressed to an equal extent all over its it .surface.

who has played a con- siderable part in the history of photography. which formed a homogeneous. This problem solved was carefully studied and cleverly by an experimentalist. photography as a support for a curious coincidence that Niepce de Saint- Victor. nephew of the inventor of the heliograph. to get rid of the grain and irregularities of to its surface. Niepce de Saint-Victor.— 82 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. to purify pulp. the use of glass plates pictures. To alter this it was necessary its to improve the photographic paper. Niepce de Saint-Victor coated a sheet of glass thinly with albumen (white of surface. To obtain his negative. glass. obtained was no longer characterised by the same absolute sharpness of line. some years discovered. and as clean as that of the Daguerreotype plate. independently.^ He conceived the happy idea of having recourse to is it the surface of which metal. as supports for his albumen Ed. the Sir John Herschel used It is later. ' the fixing of in- To sensitise this coat of glass plates in albumen. and make it homogeneous. by the same harmonious degrada- tion of light and shade. egg). sensitive films in 1839. smooth extremely well in adapted under good conditions to be used the image. . which possessed the property of solidifying and in which the impressionable substances could be dissolved. smooth. and of covering as smooth and level as that of with a slight coating of a vis- cous liquid.

Abel Niepce de Saint- Victor's taste for scientific studies received a fresh impulse. gave paper positives.PHOTOGRAPHY. This discovery of Saint. potassium. and. He commenced by studying physics and chemistry. help the photographic art But it was not the only his was to receive from him. His relative's discovery had given an imperish- able glory to the name. his stay at Paris. and . when fixed. was at this time that he began to devote himself especially to the study of physics. he seemed to be drawn into the pursuit of science. ventor impregnated ing 8^ it with iodide of it silver. by a sort of family feeling. he was destined for the military career in . in the follow- manner : he first plunged into a bath of iodide of . The negative. and then into a solution of nitrate of silver when dry the sensitised glass was ready to use for ob- taining a negative picture at the focus of the camera. he was made a lieutenant of the It Dragoons in 1842. various improvements indeed were of such real impor- tance that we think it our duty to give a few details of Nicephore Niepce: respecting the clever nephew Like the discoverer of heliography. which had always attracted During his eminently scientific mind.Victor's was of immense importance to photography. by means of the processes we have already described. leaving the military school at 1st Saumur 1827.

more at their ease . this laboratory in the It was a curious midst of the barracks. Our men of science are. turned his attention particularly to the investigation of the Daguerreotype phenomena. everything which their disposal . which was always empty. was a room belonging to the It under in officer of police.84 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. He was 1845.. which applauds their discoveries. and the material necessary for his work. he applied to enter the Municipal Guard of Paris. the . spectacle. this officer perseveringly prosecuting his scientific studies in spite of the continual calls of his profession. money can their obtain to aid them is at they have vast well-stored laboratories calculated to facilitate work . the reagents. they have pupils to whom they impart their learning. Convinced that the capital would afford him greater lities faci- to carry on his researches. But a provincial town offered slender resources to a person in Niepce's position. usually. When success crowns their efforts they have the public. was this strangest of laboratories he his installed himself The camp bed formed work table. after having had masters to teach them. and the shelves all round the room held the apparatus. they can pursue their studies under the most favourable conditions. admitted with the grade of lieutenant in At the quarters of the Paris Municipal Guard in the Saint-Martin suburb.

for laboratory. 85 Academy which as he rewards them. But a few years later.. with helmet on head and sword at side. . in albumen was to be replaced by a new it substance. In 1847. Chevreul laid before the Academy the new process of Niepce de Saint. and other highest interest in photography were yet to be discovered by the relative of the illustrious Nicephore Niepce. but afterwards M. Niepce de continue his Saint-Victor was enabled to interesting facts of the studies under excellent conditions. M. he watched in silence over the tranquillity of the city streets. which offered such advantages that was not all long in coming into general use to the exclusion of others : we refer to collodion. without was without a master so he was .Victor. a police room served him all During the day surrounded with the paraphernalia of the savant. 1850. in Gun-cotton was discovered 1846 by Schoenbein. he gave himself up to his which were constantly being interrupted by the calls of his office at night. endeavouring to chase from his mind the thought of the work which was dearest to his heart. pupils his budget consisted of his lieutenant's pay only. Niepce de Saint-Victor was alone. down on February 1848. The laboratory of this clever officer was burnt 24. PHOTOGRAPHY. and finally Fame which also smiles upon them. scientific studies.

' made known. also attempted to substitute for albumen. As not often happens on the invention of new products. Legray proposed 1850. and his Manual of the Collodion Photographic Process. Schoenbein's method was mixture to submit carded cotton to the action of a of these acids. Legray a pamphlet published by this clever pho- tographer near the end of 1856. [See also Mr. which in was to change the whole it art of war. versal astonishment. while Mr. but of to the latter we are indebted for the first practical details a collodion process piiblished in i8'5i. apparently different like no way from ordinary cotton. caused a veritable stupe- it is obtained by submitting cellular substances such as cotton and paper to the action of a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acid. Archer's letters to the Athencrnin^ in January 1852. M. makes mention of this substance. published March 1852. Shortly after these experiments were Archer. Ed. which exploded fire. in England. did reality bring many new re- sources.] . in The new explosive caused uni- This cotton. The to introduction of collodion in photography ^ . which Messrs. gun-cotton. Scott made collodion the basis of a negathe use of collodioh in researches in It is well known that M. it who published to the world of science principally as a fulminating substance. gunpowder on contact with faction . Bingham and Cundell.— 86 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. Archer was prosecuting his independent it is England. is due M. but it was to prove of immense importance to photography. some months later.

for improved and perfected from time to time. thus : Its principle is gun-cotton is dissolved in a mixture of alcohol and ether. and transform the latent image into a visible and negative picture. is poured on a glass plate. silver in order to it is plunged it bath of nitrate of impregnate with iodide and bromide of silver. basis of which more than twenty years has been the nearly every photographic operation. remarkable for its clearness and finish. From a negative thus obtained any number of positive pictures on paper may be taken by . Charged with these insoluble compositions. with free nitrate of silver. Sulphate of iron and pyrogallic acid are chiefly to produce this effect. employed After development the that is picture or image and is Jixed. tive process is this S". deprived of the unaffected still sensi- tive salts by means of hyposulphite of soda or cyanide of potassium.PHOTOGRAPHY. the plate is for a few seconds to the action of light in the It is then removed to a dark room and sub- mitted to the action of reducing agents to complete the decomposition which the light has commenced. simple. to say. still and covered exposed camera. It process. with the addition of iodides. and sometimes of soluble bromides. As soon in a as it has set through evaporation. and the collodion obtained.

silver exposing paper sensitised with in contact with the negative — to the action of — placed under and light. We .88 THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. On the appearance of collodion the art of photothere- graphy may be said to have been completed. fore close its history at that epoch.

The beginner it most economical to prepare all the mixtures himself.— PART II. in contradistinction to the 'Dry Plate Pro- which are to be obtained. — — — The photographic studio should consist of a room in which the camera and photographic accessories freely used. THE OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. with the Before purchasing the more expensive photnateriel. it is a is referred to farther on. THE STUDIO AND APPARATUS. will find qua non that the chemicals used are of the best quality. sine By the Dry Process excellent results work the Wet Process is greatly to be But whichever process is employed. ARRANGEMENT OF A GOOD STUDIO— THE DARK ROOM TERRACESITTING ROOM THE INFLUENCE OF LIGHT ARRANGEMENTS FOR LIGHTING THE OBJECT TO BE PHOTOGRAPHED— THE APPARATUS LENSES AND CAMERAS.] . and of a dark room. he would do well to get the advice of some friend acquainted with the subject.' is Wet called. CHAPTER I. to get good results. [In the may be It is necessary that in general use for ' Appendix the reader it will find some formulae obtaining negatives and printing positives on paper by the ordinary Plate Process' as cess. but for general preferred. exception of the collodion. tographic such as cameras or lenses.

allowing only the non- yellow decomposes actinic or non-sensitive rays to pass through). A narrow table is fixed to the wall for supporting the sen- sitising baths. That part of the studio quiring set apart for work not re- protection from daylight needs no special deIt scription. {Fig. and the various delicate processes which have to be guarded from daylight are performed. There should be a row of shelves holding the bottles of collodion and other chemicals. the greatest in it the sensitive plates are prepared. so that the operator has ready at hand all the things he requires when manipulating. We have said that every ray It of white light must be carefully excluded.) which he has to do as quickly as possible. the latter should not be absolutely dark. which have to be placed in a somewhat for It it inclined position. should have shelves arranged around . The dark room should be arranged with care .io. a work-table and a pair of scales are the prin- cipal necessaries.90 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. is well to have a sink near the table with a tap above .. manipulations have to be conducted in lightened by it may be means of a window with yellow glass or a yellow blind. or even by a lamp with a yellow shade (the the light. its walls for holding bottles of chemicals. for cleaning glasses on. should be conveniently arranged. &c. as various it .

.Fig. io [Page 90 the dark room.

.

the and lighted in a special manner. first The house condition in a good posing . A for terrace well exposed to daylight is also necessary exposing the printing frames containing the negabe reproduced on paper. or if receives light from all sides at once. The mode of distributing the light in the posing to give the pictures produced that room contributes harmony which cha- racterises really artistic photographs. there tives to should be a second dark room placed near this terrace for the preparation of the photographic positives. for QI washing the proofs . If the sitting room is only lightened by horizontal winit dows placed on one side. paper for taking The room in which the sitter is placed is the most important part of a good photographic establishment it should be constructed in a position very accessible to light. If possible.: THE STUDIO AND APPARATUS. room is that it should face the north it if it is placed at the top of a should be glazed on one side and on the roof like . this tap may be advantageously fitted with a piece of indiarubber tubing having a rose at the end so that the water may be quickly and easily applied over a large surface. the effect of the too strong or too feeble light thus obtained is equally prejudicial to obtaining good pictures.

Liebert. —glass of a clear blue. but the pure homogeneous blue which admits only the most actenic rays of the solar spectrum is so difficult to obtain that its use has been for the most part abandoned in England. walls should be painted blue or light grey green. should be chosen in preference to light.' says this clever experi- mentalist. rays to pass. which are particularly recommended by Mr. other sorts it has the property of sifting the allowing the chemical effect. may manipulate the light so as to produce any effect he may desire. 2 La Photographie en Amerique. . The windows should be cleaned as often as necessary. In order to soften and modify the interior effect of the intense glare on the eyes.— 92 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. with the aid of a well-devised set of blinds and white glass. ' Cleanness of the ^ glass. Ed. light will be found useful employment of Blue glass used to be greatly in vogue. yellow or red colours should be excluded from the room as giving unfavourable reflections. A skilful photographer. 1864.^ is likewise of great importance in regard to the rapidity of operations. Paris. so that the light may pro- duce its maximum of rapidity. Liebert. To these preliminary precautions should be added others. an expert photographer. and producing a soft and harmonious The side window and glass roof should be provided with large blue blinds capable of being easily drawn across any part where it may be necessary to intercept the light. the .^ coloured all with co.' We which ' subjoin some further hints in the from M. a conservatory balt.

THE STUDIO AND APPARATUS. clear day it is more rapid than in order in dull. The colours of the object to be photographed must therefore be taken into exposure. because the shadows are then least considerable. considerably. and daylight darken All colours are not reproduced with equal rapidity . has hardly any effect on the nitrate of light. Gas-light. when the sun. * silver The it. is which produces such beautiful in Nature. The light of sunrise effects and sunset. red. and green take much and longer to rose. thus black. by reason of the feeble photogenic colours which are reflected over the whole landscape. electric magnesium light. Nevertheless. yellow. should be white. * The chemical action of light varies . in red or yellow. to act on the chemical substances employed to form the photographic picture. impress themselves than white. lilac. projects the light from above. not so well adapted for photography. according to the state of the atmosphere on a bright. approaching the zenith. for 93 photography. gloomy weather. certain pictorial . blue. candle-light. even the light of the sun passed through a yellow glass.' account in regulating the duration of For out-of-door views the most favourable conditions are those which place the different points of the land- scape to be reproduced in a light of a nearly even intensity throughout. The light.

' for taking panoramic views. . in order that the objects in the PHOTOGRAPHIC BELLOWS CAMERA. • In the Appendix will be found an illustrated description of a 'rotating camera. effects may art. called the The apparatus with which photographs and which takes the place of the dark room. is in the greatest possible harmony with the sky.94 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. the effect of solarisation is thus avoided. are taken. being at its highest lustre. view should produce an almost equal impression in the camera . The time should therefore be chosen by the amateur when the sun. camera ^ . be obtained by a photographer who is master of his when. at the is back of which a movable frame of ground glass. &c. or just before sunset. is it consists of a plain or bellows box. soon after sunrise. long transparent shadows veil the landscape.

second is chiefly employed for the execution of portraits its the greater convexity of glasses throws a very luminous image on the centre of the plate.THE STUDIO AND APPARATUS. and exactitude. ' Everybody knows is that the lens as it is used in the ordinary camera a convergent glass. to say hardly necessary de- that the size of the size of the lens picture thus formed pends on the object. though becoming less so as its edges are approached. and an inverted image of exterior is This image is projected on to the ground focussing glass. thus enabling the operator to obtain a picture almost instantaneously. The single lens consists of two glasses. ii)% con- taining the lens. The front is 95 furnished with a brass tube (fig. sharpness. The prin- cipally used for landscapes it is constructed in such a manner as to give to all parts of the picture the same character of fineness. The . the one con- . The lens is the soul of photography. giving a reduced objects. and the distance from the There are two sorts of lenses used in photography first is : the simple lens and the compound : lens. It should be constructed in the best manner possible by means of glasses thoroughly achromatised. which It is placed at the back of the camera.

THE LENS. for is therefore employed. day. WITH ITS RACKWORK AND CAP.96 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PPIOTOGRAPHY. admitted into the camera is regu- . can be used either for portrait or landscape work every case the lens-tube ' in is furnished with a diaphragm. the object of which is to destroy the coloured fringe which appears round the edges of non-achromatised glasses. said. the first convergent. The double or compound consists of the single achromatic lens with the addition of two other glasses. 12. and the second Fig. and to render the foci of the different coloured lens rays of light coincident. Lenses are also made which . fits into the convexity of the other. which This cave. light between the glasses the amount of lated by the size of its aperture. as we have already taking portraits.^ In Fig. concavo-convex. system of two glasses thus forms a single achromatic lens. 1 7 the diaphragm slit is in the centre in the of the lens tube the piece of metal with circular opening when pushed down into its place . it is With the compound lens on a bright possible to obtain a photograph in one or it two seconds.

by means of which the focus nicety. the milled head and rackwork are seen on the top H . . 13. SIMPLE PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS. of 97 the object which is to confer sharpness indistinct sizes. 12 represents the brass tube containing the lens . may be adjusted wi^h the greatest Fig. The camera is also provided with a small Fig. on the is image which would otherwise be ble it movacir- and can be used of various according to cumstances. pinion which works tube in a line of teeth on the inner movable brass containing the lenses.THE STUDIO AND APPARATUS.

In the majority of cases. Fig. by glass means of which the focussing can be placed in all and the dark slide the positions necessary in the various conditions of taking a photographic picture. this fig. distinct parts. A and B ing are the tubes containlenses the movable by means of the pinion V which '^' ^^' turns the rackwork. 13. is 1 1 represents a bellows camera with hinge which into a light and very portable. is the cap for ex- cluding light. The frame . very good results can be obtained with a camera formed as shown in out bellows. The body sliding of the camera is formed of two such a one into another in way that the operator can at will vary the distance which separates the lens from the focussing glass. on the bellows principle. This mobility of the focussing glass has been realised in a very simple practical manner. with- The two parts of camera are made of wood. combined with a hinge. and the remaining piece of the tube . and can be shut up very small space. and represented by M and N. The lens tube fixes on to the camera by means of a screw which works in a metal worm fixed to the camera. The cap con- is shown a little above the lens tube.98 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

Fig. 14). and the dark into its slide containing the sensitised plate slipped place.THE STUDIO AND APPARATUS. 15- When the focus has THE CAMERA STAND. into which also fits the dark slide (see fig. been obtained on the ground glass the latter is drawn out. con- taining the plate to be exposed. so that when it is exposed to the light . taining the focussing ground glass 99 a marked G works in groove.

16. This screen consists to examine the picture. is The object of the lens. to 'ig. THE DARK SLIDE. B the sliding tube which enclosed by the former. as we have explained. thrown upon as on the exactly the same picture is it ground this glass. purpose places a dark cloth but this is over his head and shoulders well a manoeuvre too known to need description. which reversed. and which allows the two systems of glasses at E and D to be moved. much light as possible from and for this . camera fig. is A section shown in is of the lens arrangement used in 14. . of a sheet of ground glass is . project a picture of exterior objects on to a screen placed at the back of the camera. the operator has to exclude as it. A is the fixed tube .lOO OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

fits into the camera in the same plane as the focussing glass. which. The dark slide is shown in fig. To expose the sensitised plate in the camera. At the back of the frame door which opens and shuts. Fig. fixed in a frame called the dark slide. SHOWING DARK SLIDE AND DIAPHRAGMS. it is made up is of a a frame forming a box. i6 . it is TWIN-LENS CAMERA.THE STUDIO AND APPARATUS. 5 lOI 1 represents a camera stand. by means of which the camera can be raised or lowered or fixed at any inclination desired. being removed from the bath The in the sensitised plate on dark room is placed . as before mentioned. This is done by the aid of a comph- cated arrangement of screws as shown in our illustration.

by at the optical focus point. and after removing the ground . presses it against the uncoated surface of the glass. He can carries glass. in fact. it keep the plate and thus permit the operator to carry from the dark room to the camera and vice versa. and when it lifted up in the camera. and the door being in in the slide. now it He in its dark slide. On is the front of the dark slide another door. and holds firmly is in its place. the It shows at lens same time the general appearance of a good twin camera. dark inwards. The photographer has examined . when it and the other door are both shut they in perfect darkness. focussed the picture. Figure 17 represents the different positions of the dark slide before commencing operations. the light of course falls on the sensitised surface of the is plate as soon as the lens cap removed. on the ground glass the picture to be reproduced obtained the he has necessary distinctness or sharpness lens by moving the brass tube containing the the pinion . also made of wood. by means of he has. the only point which the picture presents perfect sharpness.102 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. which slides in a groove. that is to say 'found. trial. as shown the illustration. until it can be turned over on hinges as shown in the drawing. place the sensitised plate at this focus. On the other hand. film side shut. a spring.

itself sitter im- on the is sensitive The cap door replaced. He now door. the sliding again pushed in its down. however. and instantly the picture of the prints film. with a close this chapter of "^^ THE HEAD-REST. carefully slides it 103 into its place. as be explained farther on. slide and the plate removed to the dark room if to be developed. He the re- gives a last caution to still. will and lastly fixed. short description . 18. shall We describe have occasion to great variety a of in other apparatus employed photography our account in the course of different of the processes and methods which require their use. We shall.' sitter to 'keep quite moves the cap.THE STUDIO AND APPARATUS. pulls out the is movable and the plate then only protected from the light by the brass cap on the lens tube. Fig. intensified necessary.

104 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. otherwise it will very often happen that a most objectionable stiffness is im- parted to the patient. . few seconds. perfectly There even who can keep still. an instrument which no portrait studio are very few persons for a should be without. after taking graceful pose be supported half-circle of the head-rest. therefore. the head-rest represented in fig. Their heads move without their being aware of They should. by resting the head in the In adjusting the latter care should be taken that the position of the sitter is not altered. i8. it. and a caricature rather than a portrait is the result.

A plate-cleaning paste . and the most neces- sary apparatus. or stains. MANIPULATION OF THE PHOTOGRAPH CLEANING THE PLATE— COATING THE PLATE WITH COLLODION— PLACING IT IN THE SILVER BATH EXPOSURE IN THE CAMERA DEVELOPMENT. perfect adhesion of the collodion. but plate is much more minute ^nd (fig. — — Having thus got ready our studio. — After carefully selecting a number of scratches. a wooden frame provided with a screw vice by means of which the glass can be held firmly without its being necessary to touch it with the fingers. THE NEGATIVE. is and perfectly flat. Cleaning the Plate. AND VARNISHING. the next process consist. The placed in a plate-holder 19).FIXING. is simply rubbing them delicate. glass plates of the required size. with a cloth. we shall proceed to describe the delicate manipulations required to obtain a good photograph. little The is slightest contact with the sufficient to prevent the hand. always a greasy. This operation does not in might be supposed.I05 CHAPTER — II. free from air-bubbles. as to clean them.

We cannot insist too strongly on the extreme importance of . Collodion. which possesses the property of solidifying when exposed to the air. Tripoli is now made by mixing powder and alcohol little in a bottle. It is next dried with filtering paper. — Collodion made by is a thick trans- parent liquid. is well to heat the plates slightly. and the plate it. better still. Although it . It is dissolving gun- cotton in a mixture of alcohol and ether. ni PLATE-HOLDER. cipitation of moisture from the warmer atmosphere. perfectly clean plates if sufficient care is is not taken in at once this respect. to get rid of the humidity caused by the preFig. with a paper of great In winter it delicacy called Japanese paper. After shaking the bottle well.I06 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. well rubbed with or. 19. its preparation. the success of the operation com- promised. a is of the mixture poured on to a piece of flannel.

sp. It is then gently warmed to a heat of 60° centesiviaux. is and moved about with a glass spoon. very fine and well all stiiTed and clean. and the To test the quality of the gun-cotton a little of it is ignited . . Sulphuric Ether. so as It depending which should be of good now immersed in the mixture to soak it well through. form a solution sensitive to light. The next introduced. added.. quality. is it 10/ easy to procure good collodion ready made. It is left in contact with the sulphuric acid for the space of only remains to diy it gun-cotton two hours. • Mix one first. the nitrate of potash being put in and the sulphuric acid slowly added little by little. 5 . 725 gr. it should burn very rapidly. without leaving any black residue.— THE NEGATIVE. is made. 2\ -805 . in be sensitised. part of dry pulverised nitrate of potash with three parts of concentrated sulphuric acid in a porcelain capsule. well carded. which and then decanted into a clean dry bottle. it should be allowed to stand for forty-eight hours. we will proceed to describe the process of taking a pho- tographic negative. The alcohol is first poured into a large-necked glass gun-cotton is bottle with ground-glass stopper. ascertained by the mercurial thennometer. A viscous syrupy liquid is thus obtained . The gun-cotton thus prepared is now dissolved in a mixture of alcohol and ether in the following proportions for plain negative collodion : Alcohol. This may be done by adding water specific gravity of the acid.. .^ may be useful if we give the method of making Coating the plate with Collodion. the quantity on the The cotton. to the mixture. and is then well washed. To sensitise the collodion it is necessary to add certain chemical agents which. it can be kept until required to . we think it. fluid ounces. combined with the nitrate of silver. and the whole well shaken again until the cotton is dissolved. The mixture must be constantly stirred with a glass rod. sp. Sixty grains of gun-cotton can be dissolved in the above quantity of alcohol and ether. . and Lastly the sulphuric all the bottle well shaken in order to thoroughly soak ether is it. gr. —The collodion being thus obtained and ready to our hand in the dark room.

ns. By Various substances are employed for this purpose. which has been cleaned with the greatest to be covered with a slight coating of sen- now a collodion. Liebert for sensitising collodion : Iodide of Potassium . A. has sitised plate. The care. when spread out to cover the 20). The plate is held by one of the corners in a horizontal position between the forefinger . thumb and taking the collodion bottle in the other hand a small quantity. The following alcoholic solution is recommended by Mr.) . collodion skill somewhat and requires a little and practice. sufficient plate (fig. but the iodides and bromides are chiefly used. is poured gently on to the middle.— I08 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. is This operation of pouring on the delicate one. (Eng.

21 SecOKD POSITION OF THE HAND.'?. avoiding contact with the Fig. Fig. FIRST POSITION OF THE HANDS. inclining the plate the liquid 09 is made to flow first to the corner where the glass is held. thumb. then to the top left-hand corner. then to the right .THE NEGATIVE. 20. COATING THE PLATE.

. OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. and lastly the surplus is poured back into the (fig. 10 fluid ounces. 21). . in the silver bath. it and clear it is allowed a few seconds to set by evaporation.' collo- dion bottle from the remaining corner Care must be taken that the collodion does not flow twice over the same spot. free from streaks. trans- points parent. 350 i i Glacial Water Acetic Acid Dissolve and filter. Iodide of Potassium The bath for positives should be of 40 grains silver to the ounce of water. Immersion in the sensitising bath. the surface will present unevennesses which will prove injurious to the development of the image. the beginner should get his hand in a little by practising with gum-water of a similar consistency. the plate must be moved backrt'ards and forwards. Whilst the surplus liquid is running off into the bottle. plate is When and the coated or blurs and found to be of any sort. or ridges will form on the film. instead of being level. is then ready for immersion sensitising : The silver bath for negatives may grains. In order not to waste un- necessarily so expensive a substance as collodion. drop. grain.— no one. silver — The operation of plunging the plate into the ^ bath must be performed sets. or. and until it which will be almost directly. be made as follows Recrystallised neutral Nitrate of Silver Distilled .

so that the liquid collects at one end .THE NEGATIVE. its SENSITISING TRAY. The plate is allowed to HOOK FOR AND LOWERING THE PLATE. is The Fig. by this means SILVER the silver is made to flow evenly over the whole surface. Ill rapidly without stopping. and silver by means of a hook lowered into the liquid. 22. in order that the collodion film may be brought into contact with the liquid over Fig. whole surface at the same moment. 23. against the other end. RAISI. the dish being brought back to the horizontal position at the same time .NG . dish containing the bath tilted a little. the 22) edge of the plate is then placed (see fig.

Gently raising the in and out of the liquid accelerates the action of the silver.112 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. Fig. usually made of glass . clear surface of an opaline tint should this not be the case. by raising one end with the hook it should present a . 24. it must be allowed to remain a plate little longer in the bath. and the plate have a greasy appearance. GLASS BATH IN CASE WITH GLASS DIPPER. 24 represents another and very convenient form of bath. in the remain for a few seconds bath and then examined . smooth. Fig. its interior sides are .

the seconds mentally. and camera. in use by means The and kept exposure plate thus prepared in is placed in the dark slide is a perpendicular position. have to be taken into consideration. &c. instead of always having to rely on a As soon as the plate has been sufficiently ex- posed to the light. camera . the sliding door I is shut down and the . the power of the lens. only edges come with the sides of the bath.. For landscapes the plate should be exposed in accordance with the nature of the collodion. the now ready for in the Exposure in camera. The amateur should accustom himself to count watch. the film being thus protected from scratches. Practice can alone guide the photographer. Though this form of bath requires a larger it quantity of the silver solution. colours of the object to be all reproduced. has nevertheless the advantage of being much more slowly exhausted. the developer used.THE NEGATIVE. concave. &c. so that II3 when the plate its is slid in by means of a in contact glass or other dipper. — It is impossible to give any definite rule as to the time the plate should in the be ex- posed light. and can be protected from dust even when of a cap fitting on to the top. amount of quality of the collodion. In the studio the time of exposure varies from three to thirty seconds.

ing all — After carefully excludis white light from the room the plate the dark slide and held now re- moved from the by a corner between . Development of the image. where the plate in its picture has next to be developed. 25.* After the liquid has been made to The developer for collodion negatives is formed of a solution of proto- . thumb and forefinger in a horizontal position is the sur- developing solution face in such a then rapidly poured over is its way that the entire film covered at once. WASHING THE DEVELOPED IMAGE. longer in one place than another. removed frame to the dark room. it will certainly produce an indelible stain. as if it is arrested and allowed to remain for a second Fig.114 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

for use. that in to say the whites of the model appear It is black on the glass and vice versa. is but almost the instant the developa change takes place . the exposure has been too long. This solution can be made just before it is wanted The strength and proportions of the ingredients in this solution may be greatly modified. then the shadows. on the other hand. agent applied first the lights appear. Distilled Water Protosulphate of Iron Acetic Acid Alcohol . 25 minims... the whole surface becomes covered with a greyish cloudiness on contact with the developer. but the alcohol should be added flows freely and evenly over the plate. flow in all II5 directions it is returned to the glass and the is operation repeated until the image veloped. and not the slightest trace of any picture ing is visible. . during this operation that one if may easily de- termine lated. is without A little acetic acid is usually added : with a few dops of alcohol. . 20 minims. The . sufficiently de- Before the application of the developer the plate presents an exactly similar appearance to what it did prior to exposure.. is But it is a negative.— THE NEGATIVE. the time of exposure has been correctly calcuit If has been too short. then the half-tones.. I 2 little by little until the developer ... . whilst in the shades and If. the whites appear in- stantly almost like ink blots.... .. blacks the collodion remains opaline and unaltered. • '5 grains.. and the picture sulphate of iron in distilled water. following makes a good developer i ounce.

. grains. and is then subjected to the action of the developing solution.. In either case necessary to recommence sharpness. When sharp free .' An intensifying solution may also be in formed of water to which pyrogallic acid dissolved alcohol and acetic acid has been added. admirably distinct the lights are from and the blacks are represented by distinct tones varying according to the depths of the shadows.... is Intensifying. In this case the vigour necessary to obtain a positive proof may be imparted to it by the process of intensifying. the picif ture appears gradually as by enchantment. contain a small quantity of the silver solution (one or two drops of the bath will do very well). . . i Water ounce. clear. however.2 . 3 grains. . bisulphate of iron and ammonia. which must. but wanting in intensity. A great number of substances are known at the present time which are capable of developing the picture. pyrogallic and formic acid. the details are stains.. the exposure has been nicely timed. pure. —The developed plate well washed. have been recommended by some operators..— Il6 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. It often happens that a negative picture is is perfect as regards sharpness. . it is the operation. • Re-developing solution Pyrogallic Acid Citric : Acid .

until (8 oz. not having been affected by the would darken when exposed to it. which. to 40 oz. Fixing the negative. to re- move used. Hyposulphite of soda dissolves the unaltered iodide of silver. bath if the slightest trace of the silver it When to get perfectly clear rid of the must be well washed as before its hyposulphite adhering to (a surface. is Cyanide of potassium used for fixing purposes . 11/ After the operation of intensifying.THE NEGATIVE. care being taken that does not get under the collodion film. the plate must be well washed. The plate should be raised out of the bath with a hook and carefully examined and returned to the is visible. sary to —To fix the negative silver. it is neces- deprive it of the iodide of light. in water of hypo. of for a and allowed to remain there minute or two is the yellow coating of iodide of silver entirely dissolved. as also after that of development. all traces of the iron and reagents which have been water should be poured on it At least a quart of to the plate. The negative being developed and washed is now plunged into a solution of hyposulphite of soda contained in a porcelain dish water). most deadly poison) also it is employed is in the same way as the developing solution. and cleaner and gives per- .

26. negative is now finished is and may be exposed to But the collodion film liable to be scratched on the least contact with a hard surface or with the finger nails . of water). soon dries. it is therefore necessary to protect it by covering it R\'ith a coat of varnish. special varnish is A sold for this purpose. The light. transparent. finer detail haps a more vigorous. with than the hypo.Il8 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. RACK FOR DRYING PLATES. The plate should be gently heated over a spirit lamp or . which is Fig. (8 or lo grains of cyanide of potassium to I oz. sharp picture. and becomes very hard.

A less perfect temporary protection solution of water). which are held in grooves.THE NEGATIVE. the plate is then again when the picture will be protected from the effect of any accidental abrasion. and kept free from contact with each other. . excess returned to the bottle gently heated until quite dry. 27. is afforded by a gum arable (10 parts of gum to about 100 of Fig. box for containing PLATE BOX. 2^ represents a useful form of Fig. the varnish then poured on exactly as if coating a plate with collodion. before a fire 119 (the safer plan). and the . until it can be just borne on is the back of the hand. glass negatives.

120 OPERATIONS ANP PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY The image of the camera which has thus been de- veloped. if stains or streaks are apparent. fixed. by trans- mitted the blacks are the whites of the model. which a skilful its operator would perceive faults which yielding a good positive. in for the cause of imperfections in taking . but it presents a negative picture of which. now we see how it the positive proof on paper is obtained but think would be well first to point out a few characteristics by which a good negative may . The im- perfections of the negative are exaggerated in the print. viewed light. would prevent negative draperies. We shall . be known. In a good viewed by transmitted light the shadows. and stuffs should be highly transparent. If during this examination pin-holes. in vain It often happens that the operator searches a negative. another photograph should be taken. It should also present a marked shading between the of half-tones and in general a well-defined gradation light and shade. and all one's toil and trouble thrown away. or details the most minute and smallest objects are not clearly and sharply defined. to in It is not always an easy matter to determine an unpractised eye a plate might appear excellent. and varnished. The whites and high lights on the contrary should appear almost perfectly black or opaque. adheres to the glass.

. from discouraging. endowed with tenacity difficulties. The photographer.THE NEGATIVE. experience. like persevering. which he will frequently meet with in his labours. and the chemist. should serve to stimulate him should not be disheartened at repeated to lean failure. should be patient. he but learn more and more on that great teacher. im- down fixed rules to meet every failure. far . which he seems to have used every precaution possible to lay it is 121 . . But the beginner should bear in mind that unforeseen accidents are rocks ahead.

— Photographic paper . the is proof will be slightly red will . can be bought partially prepared grained glossy. . it be of an orange-red colour. as will be seen. 122 CHAPTER III. It is neces- sary that the sizing of the paper should be very carefully done. its A paper of good quality is chosen. It is it is formed of close- pulp and presents a surface smooth and easily prepared.— OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. — Preparation of the sensitised paper. PRINTING ON PAPER— OF THE NATURE AND QUALITIES OF PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPERS VIGNETTES— EXPOSURE TO THE LIGHT— TONING. THE POSITIVE ON PAPER. The different processes of sizing give diffeIf rent colours in the positive. depends greatly on the subsequent toning with gold. PRESSING THE PROOFS. the it albumenised being is next plunged into a solution The colour. FIXING. whilst gelatine used. albumen if is used. surface must be free from stains.^ The paper being most generally used. Ed. • chosen.

but it ought not to be sensitised long before it intended for use. in which it is allowed to remain for a few minutes. added from time to time to strengthen The solution will become it. as in the dark. be used over and over again. and never used for any other purpose.THE POSITIVE ON PAPER. soon turns yellow even when kept It may be well to mention here that the silver bath for the collodion plate must be kept separate. dis- coloured after a few sheets have been floated on this but colouring matter can be readily precipitated a little by means of Kaolin powder. The albumenised paper chloride of sodium or of commerce contains it it is ammonium. of the liquid may be . air. it is allowed to dry in the dark. should be filtered when necessary. and it to sensitise only necessary to float on the silver it is bath . when the cleared portion gently decanted into another bottle. The bath for sensitising the paper can nitrate of silver being it. to 2 pints of water). and is then dried in the it is To sensitise the paper thus prepared. 1 23 of salt or chloride of sodium (450 grs. When the surface well saturated. The at slightest admixture of it any foreign substance would It once render useless. only necessary to float the sized surface silver (60 grains of silver to i on a bath of nitrate of ounce of distilled water) is contained in a porcelain dish.

28. Printing from the negative. The printing frame. the now ready for exposure to sun-light. wooden back. oblong in form. The printing frame provided with a sheet of plate . and held close contact is by means of the felt. but the back provided with a double door hinged across the centre.124 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. — Special is frames called printing frames of various sizes are used in this operation. 28). in the same way is as an ordinary picture frame. which must be perfectly clean on both sides is the negative then laid down with its uncoated side next is the plate glass. hold the glass plate. which can be fastened down by means of transverse bars of is wood (see fig. . made of wood to Fig. The in sensitised surface of the paper now placed on the collodion film and the whole securely fastened. THE PRINTING FRAME. which lined with black in This operation having been conducted plate is the dark room. glass.

A vignette glass in the may be made by pasting layers of paper over a such a way that whilst the desired space ' glass plate in middle in a sheet The simplest method of vignetting is to cut an oval aperture of opaque cardboard. Ed.^ pictures is are required. care being taken to place the aperture directly above the part to be vignetted. the colour gradually increasing in depth. The aperture must then be covered by a thin sheet is This vignetting screen fixed outside the plate-glass of the frame. . of course in the by removing one of the transverse bars and . When glass is vignette used. but towards the sides tinted yellow. turn- ing back the top half of the hinged back the part of the paper thus set free can then be seen without fear of shifting.— THE POSITIVE ON PAPER. During the process of printing. This may be done. 29 represents the print- ing frame exposed to the sun). if it may be exposed to the direct rays of the sun. the again fastened down. is If not sufficiently printed. which would of course paper spoil the picture. is attained. a vignette in This a glass colourless the centre. sufficiently intense. and the exposure continued (fig. When the card is in position the frame must then be placed so that the direct rays of the sun passing through the tissue paper will become diffused. picture. necessary to examine the proof from time to time until the requisite depth of colour shade. If the negative 125 is vigorous and intense. about a third smaller than the space to be taken up by the finished of tissue paper. and print a delicately shaded vignette of the required dimensions. it weak and not in should be placed it is the shade.

farthest from the transparent centre. The action of the It is vignette glass will be easily understood. 30. 29. and thus the action of the light is confined to the transparency of the centre. acting only . the thickest layer of paper being Fis:. placed SIMPLE PRINTING FRAME. over the negative. Fig. it towards the edges. PRINTING FRAMES EXIOSED TO THE LIGHT.126 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. gradually becomes opaque of the glass is left open.

a white background thus obtained. it will lose much of its intensity when fixed . As soon light). An in the albumenised print on being taken from the frame should be of a very dark brown tone.* or about 100 grains or half a tea-spoonful of carbonate of soda being added . or fainter yellow of the vignette glass .THE POSITIVE ON PAPER. 12/ slightly through the thinner paper. the rest of the proof being perfectly is protected.. it is re- moved from the frame in the dark room. the operator therefore always prints his pictures a deeper colour than he desires the finished proof. — If the excess of silver is at once removed from the print by means of hyposulphite of soda. or slightly bronzed shadows . Water 20 ounces. a few grains of acetate of soda.. the mixture must be allowed to rest • Acetate of Soda Chloride of Gold * .. . i drachm. after is being allowed to soak first in a basin of cold water. as the printing has been sufficiently pro- longed (the time varies according to the intensity of the and shows the desired depth of colour. the result is a picture deficient in depth.. and of a disagreeable pale red colour. therefore 5 plunged in a toning solution formed of or 6 grains of chloride of gold to 2 pints of water. The print. and subjected to the operation of toning and fixing. 3 grains. Toning.

—The print being properly toned is and sub- sequently well washed then ready for fixing.^ Fixing. allowed to remain in which is usually from lo to 15 minutes.128 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. of hypo. and dried. is The process of fixing the positive the negative. a small quantity of bichloride of in solution is mercury (corrosive sublimate) then added. be remove the unaltered and after being again well soaked in water three or four times changed. very similar to that of Hyposulphite of soda neutralised by the addition of one per cent. the proof is finished. until indeed they present the deep sepia colour which constitutes the true beauty of the photograph. The carbonate of soda solution can be used almost as soon as made. but will not keep long. but that is we have given is perhaps one of the If acetate of soda used the solution must stand for ten or twelve hours before any prints are toned in it . An will im- mersion of sufficient to fifteen minutes in this solution silver. . a few grains of gold being added from time to time to keep up its strength. but it will keep good for months. of chalk gives very good results (6 oz. is To from ascertain if the print it is sufficiently in are washed. minutes before for about fifteen it is used. for toning. ' There are various solutions used best. a few drops of the last bath it soaked allowed to drip into a glass. Whilst in this solution the prints will gradually violet or become of a vigorous are black tone according to the time they it . to 2 pints of water).

and when dry its placed in a press or under a heavy weight to prevent creasing. — The proof after being thus Fig. if on the contrary there a precipitate. mount the proof on cardboard and to roll K . thoroughly washed is hung up to dry by one of its corners to a cord stretched across the studio. Motmting and Rolling. When cut to the right size it only remains to it. 129 been sufficiently washed there is will be no precipitate.THE rOSITIVE ON If the print has PAPER. then the washing must be continued until such reaction does not manifest itself. 31- THE ROLLING PRESS.

in a roller by means of a toothed The mounted proofs after being dried warm room are placed on the plate (as shown in the illustration). it we have difficult . patient. to great pressure by being passed under the beautiful gloss This gives them a and finish. however minute the is descriptions. Such are the different operations which have to be performed to obtain a positive photographic proof by the most generally practised method from a collodion negative. minute feeling of the way required on the part of the inventors of the wonderful ! art What an abyss of labour and research separate . He should endeavour to master the theory of the different processes. special press (see fig. and that patience and unwearying applica- tion are indispensable qualities in the photographer. To anyone ever so little acquainted with chemical manipulations the different operations which just described are not very efforts. best effected with a starch paste The mounting means of a is prepared with boihng water. practice the operator's best guide. but is must not forget that a long apprenticeship necessary. and then subjected roller.I30 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. but what protracted what a delicate. The rolling is done by 31) formed of a smooth metal plate which can be moved horizontally backwards and forwards under a wheel and pinion. We will only add that.

each adding some new ele- ments to the results obtained before it is them May we not say that the character of the works of modern science to be in a great measure the result of multiplied efforts.! ! THE POSITIVE ON the actual PAPER. what numbers of in- genious and laborious minds have long worked at the problems of photography. discoveries of our century are a striking proof of this and photography is certainly one of those which has de- manded and often the greatest concourse of intelligent workers. • 131 methods of which we have the first just given an outHne. K 2 . difficult pursuing with perseverance researches always unprofitable. isolated from each other. from experiments of Niepce and Daguerre After these grand inventors. but simul- taneous and all tending to the same end ? Most of the .

production of a photographic proof necessitates not think it we do is necessary to expatiate on the theory of is the reactions on which based the series of photo- graphic manipulations.* Light acts on the nitrates of ' Why ? No Light. THEORY AND PRACTICE. CHAPTER IV. brings them under control and profits by their application. Here is a curious experiment which plainly shows its action.132 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. help to better fix the reader's ideas. a few new details may. EXPLANATION OF PHOTOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS NECESSITY OF LONG PRACTICE MODIFICATIONS IN PROCESSES REQUIRED BY DIFFERENT SORTS OF PHOTOGRAPHY— PHOTOGRAPHY AND TRAVEL— LANDSCAPES SKIES —PORTRAITS— INSTANTANEOUS PHOTOGRAPHY. In the historical part w^e have already referred to the scientific groundwork of photo- graphy . discovers effects. and published in the Bulletin of the French . It is not known by what wonderful chemical agents it . It was made by Messrs. Gamier and Salmon. influence light affects certain science is almost always it powerless to explain causes. as we have seen. however. acts also on a great number of other substances. silver. — — — We have described the different operations which the .

turning them a brown-yellow colour. which poured over the plate. strengthening the picture and Sulphur undergoes a singular alteration when subIf. The sub-chloride of silver formed by the action of light being completely reduced. it is intensified by the addition of a to nitrate of is silver solution the redeveloper. and this action is the fundamental basis of photography. On being taken from the camera the picture is developed by means of a solution of proto-sulphate of iron to which acetic acid has been added. The col- lodion contains iodide of potassium plate is . but the manifest. a viscous substance which solidifies on contact with air. it is brought into contact with fumes of mercury. Photographic Society. light acts on the iodide of silver in the light parts of the picture. the metallic silver is deposited and soon becomes a very pronounced and If not sufficiently vigorous at first little vigorous dark shade. and is well adapted as a base for the silver solution. of potassium transformed into iodide of is The The plate thus sensitised exposed in the camera. one knows and perhaps no one ever fact is 1 33 will know. and a fresh quantity of metal deposits on the parts already reduced. the iodide silver. mitted to the action of light.THEORY AND PRACTICE. the fumes only attack those parts which have been acted upon by the light. leaving the shadows intact. The glass plate is covered with collodion. after being thus exposed. . when the coated plunged into the nitrate of is silver bath.

It is more difficult to it be taught in a work such as the present. giving it greater intensity. we have passed in silence the accidental causes which alter a negative — in one word the minutiae which it is practice alone can teach. so is it hope to become a photographer except with the col- lodion bottle in the hand and the camera before the eyes.134 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. It will be seen that these theoretical outlines are ver>^ simple . The fixing is done by means . inasmuch as the result desired. in a studio where the light can all be controlled at and where a dark room and the necessary apparatus are at hand. The latter is only to be acquired by long and patient manipulations. into the particular details of the But we have not entered precautions which are necessary in taking portraits from nature. But the theory of an it art and the being able to practise are very different things. by numerous and the often-repeated experi- ments. it is not necessary to be versed in the study of chemistry to understand them. Just as impossible to become folly to a chemist without studying in a laboratory. varies according to All that we have so far said on photographic opera- tions refers principally to experiments made will. of hyposulphite of soda or cyanide of potassium salts these dissolve the iodide of silver which has not been affected by the light. .

with short focus. learning must have recourse to the advice which books at present offer him. including a tent to serve as a dark room. 1 35 the inexperienced beginner. consists of but ' This lens simple. so that is may be it carried separate. or slide in grooves. such as those of Ross and Dallmeyer. travelling it apparatus lighter from that of the studio portable. Nevertheless. and as we have not sufficiently re- ferred to the different applications of photography. that is to say one achromatic lens.) it of the tourist. The whole can be easily adapted to the shoulders thus carry his complete fig. shall give we some information respecting the various modes necessary for photography in of operation which are travel. all It is furnished with straps which secure almost the apparatus. Many lenses. so that he may material without fatigue. is much and is more The camera is much smaller and furnished with a bellows which can be extended and contracted at the will of the operator. . —The . 32.— THEORY AND PRACTICE. Ed. as for himself. are deservedly famed all over the world. the feet of which fold up. instantaneous art. (See The lens^ screws on to the camera. and some special branches of the Outdoor differs PhotograpJiy. photography. double and single wide angled. and others with a more contracted field and longer focus. sufficient for photo- In England view lenses are manufactured in great variety. It is supported on a tripod stand.

Fig. sists of a double combination of achromatic glasses. graphs of views and monuments. the position of the diaphragms at the back of the lens tube . We specially recomIt mend the orthoscopic lens invented at Vienna. 32.136 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. con- PORTABLE PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS.

the photographic tourist must tent. is the production of light. buildings in general but if he attacks nature. A. if he at- tempts studies of skies. various bottles. a sink for getting rid of waste . and contains the silver bath. or tries to fix on his collodion the effects of the shadows which adorn the landscape. permitting the utilisation of almost all I 37 the light entering it through the glasses. unless ambition. clouds. It can be readily a rack for the up. ' his perseverance One of the greatest difficulties of artist. As before mentioned. he will encounter difficulties which will is prove insurequal to his mountable. whom we skies with have already natural referred. is Another great advantage offers that it gives more nearly the true perspective and straighter lines in monuments than other lenses.THEORY AND PRACTICE.' says the talented M. destroys the cloud shadows by solarisa- . all because the from its great strength. and a reservoir on the top to hold a supply of water for washing the plates. be able to produce views of monuments and . is The photographic will readily he a good operator. in fact everything which the tourist. be provided with a dark which can be procured very compact and which need only be large enough to take set in the upper part of the body. if artist requires. * the landscape Liebert. to photographer.

so that the clouds and the picture may be alike as regards the light. the result is tion . until the clouds is are developed . The then first consists in operating instantaneously and natural sky. skies whose uniform whiteness proits duces a monotony which deprives the landscape of aerial or natural perspective . * Various methods may be employed for obtaining clouds in the sky of a landscape. The best way to manage the clouds during the development of a picture consists in covering the which has been shortly exposed glass with a very weak neutral reagent. reflections of the clouds disits artistic appear the image thus loses a great part of value. In such a case it is necessary to bear in mind the effects of light. care being taken to confine the solution itself as much as possible to the landscape 'When a picture is to be printed with the sky of another negative care must be taken to select a sky appropriate to the subject in order to secure harmony.138 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY.• reproducing the is thus in keeping with the rest of the little but with a practice in development of the image clouds may be obtained. the rest of the picture then subjected to the ordinary development. The horizon lines should keep their . all the delicate tints pro- duced by distance and the . which picture .

it To give the true artistic effect of a landscape. and with good art for a picture obtained under good conditions. is Unfortunately for the beautiful art effects in it often enough disgraced by distorted little black and white. objects in their true significance and in and when the effects of light and shade are keeping with form and distance. These delicate operations require great care above all. character. and. it is important to discover that view of greatest which presents the harmony in its tout-ensemble.' By repeated improvements in the lens and the various solutions employed.' and taste. artistic feeling. so that it is possible to obtain photographs of a horse in full gallop. ' Thus it will be seen that great taste and judgment are required to produce a picture really worthy the name of a photograph. the sky which is less 1 39 distinct in the distance gradually becomes more definite in the higher parts of the picture.THEORY AND PRACTICE. which have as right to the title of pho- tographs as their producers to that of photographers. and to choose light for the time of day when its this view is in the best reproducing character. and this applies equally to portrait as to landscape work. the time of exposure has been re- duced to the fraction of a second. The same work of * artist gives excellent advice to the landright claims the title of scape photographer. a pass- .

and the coated plate five allowed to remain in this bath for minutes. ing regiment. collodion for instantaneous pictures should be very- This collodion is sensitised with iodide of lithium and bromide of silver to lithium. is By this means the maximum of solution is sensibility obtained. a wave just breaking.^ • It is impossible in a work like this to give a detailed account of the various instantaneous photographic processes. and nitric ether have been added. They all present difficulties of manipulation which can only be overcome by the experienced operator. . The fluid. or a flying cloud. The developing made of sulphate of iron to which acetate of lead.I40 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. —Ed. is The silver bath of 8 parts of silver. formic acid. lOO of water saturated with iodide of a few drops of is nitric acid are added.

grains of Tripoli If there happen to be a few powder or a few dust spots on the plate. are often imperfect. Unforeseen and often inexplicable accidents frequently mar work which has cost much time and trouble. — — — In spite of every precaution on the part of the operator. the development pushed a little too far. A few seconds' over-exposure. the slightest impurity finding light its way into with a it any of the reagents employed. RETOUCHING. Pin-holes and small spots on the negative often arise from badly cleaned glasses. the collodion coating will make them apparent however . ACCIDENTS WITH NEGATIVES AND PROOFS — METHOD OF REMEDYING THE SAME RETOUCHING THE NEGATIVE IMPERFECTIONS IN THE POSITIVE— RETOUCHING PHOTOGRAPHIC PROOFS WITH INDIAN INK COLOURING PHOTOGRAPHS— PHOTOGRAPHIC CARICATURES. or mark with lines which destroy the purity of the drawing.141 CHAPTER V. puncture with pin-holes. as well as the positive proof. a ray of these is — any one of it sufficient to spoil the it picture. cover cloudy fogginess. the photographic negative.

in the Third Part of this work we shall consider the system of retouching from the artistic it point of view . which prevents their appearing sharp in the photograph . we shall only regard in a purely practical The we retouching a positive proof with Indian ink . it is very repeat. It is often necessary to retouch the whites of a picture . should be done before the operation of rolling rare. for the present light. that this retouching is not necessary. especially in portraits. minute . Transparent pin-holes in a negative can be touched out with Indian ink slightly gummed. Imperfections in the positive proof can be corrected by careful touching with Indian ink to which a little gum and carmine have been added. the artist as The photographic proof can be used by and a sketch on which he can work with his pencil or brush. and will form very visible marks in the proof. they will prevent the developer acting on the spot they cover. The sitter often moves his eyes. is thus transformed into a miniature or crayon. sufficiently distinct and the draperies do not always present enough vigour in shade. Protests against the use of pencil or brush on the pho- tographic proof have not been wanting . A few delicate touches with a brush easily repair these and similar imperfections.142 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

and thus produces a lamentable picture which midst of a may be otherwise perfect. is We shall. see that the photographic art capable of rendering great service to painters of the greatest talent. and oil-painting positive also gives but a poor result. coloiirers rather and because they are destined for slender purses demanding six portraits for six shillings. But. A touch of Indian ink or sepia with a fine brush will soon remedy such defects.^RETOUCHING. To represent a large head on a is first small body a picture of the head alone taken and . however. These coloured proofs rarely look well on the . it seems to us. \{ painted photographs are held in but little esteem it is because than to they mostly owe their origin to real artists. It might very well serve as the sketch is to be regretted that it. 143 like pure blots without shade or A man's shirt nearly always prints like a white triangle. in a great many good cases that the photograph for the painter. which appear too much half-tones. artists do not oftener make use of F^g. In the latter is case the proof printed on canvas.33 represents a photographic caricature which is obtained as follows. without folds and without trace of result in the studs. Photographs intended to be coloured with crayon or water colours should be printed on plain salted paper.

tives. then a picture of the entire body on a scale. to the shoulders of the figure on the smaller scale. much smaller Proofs are taken on paper from the two nega- and then the large head Fig. A photograph is .33- is cut out and pasted on PHOTOGRAPHIC CARICATLRE. If the large head does not the neck is fit very well on to the small body touched up with a brush.144 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

Photography sions mine of pleasant shall diver- for the observer art but we not go into this branch of the point of view. a new photograph of done. Some enterprising photographer seats a number of friends round a large table covered with a green cloth on a background a handsome marble mantelpiece and a splendid chandelier are painted to represent the ministerial room. After being touched where necessary with the brush. Similar processes to that just described are often made use of for the production of political photographs. 1 45 then taken of the picture thus obtained. * this composition is taken and the thing is The interview between Bismarck and Thiers was ' photographed in this offers. ? How his . which we are studying from a practical L . a . A new ministry comes and in a day or two photoin council.RETOUCHING. its graphs are on sale everywhere of It is certain * its members the august body has not devoted one of sittings is ' for the purpose of being photographed. then the picture obtained Nothing more simple. cuts out the heads of the models. He takes a photograph of this scene. indeed. obtains a positive proof on paper. way. and the negative produced will furnish any number of caricature proofs. in. and inserts in their places the heads of the new ministers cut from their carte-portraits.

that careful artistic retouching helps to improve the photograph the * by giving the portrait the true aspect of human face J Stael. No. watch the crowd which presses round. We can only add. them come the she cried in a feverish voice ! " I thirst for human face " This profound and almost terrible saying expresses one of the most ardent passions of our time . Ed. to keep within the limits of this chapter. the human The because we thirst for the human desire thus referred to by M.. therefore face. and note attention. .* we say to the retouchers * Give us human This would almost seem to be a left-handed compliment to photography in the results if the author had not already convinced us of his profound admiration of the For my own part I think that photography art and its capabilities. we have all a thirst for the human face. its inquisitive .' Madame de . Stop before an exhibition of photographs or prints.* is real. ' died talking for several days her relatives seeing the in fatal end approaching endeavoured : vain to keep in. We thirst for mind. Legouve its and certainly no one would question tography the • bearing on pho: . . ? Is this pure curiosity ? > Simple love of . hands of a skilled and artistic operator is capable of producing which can never be improved by retouching. says our witty writer M. diversion Frivolous idleness face..— 146 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. let visitors from her bed of agony in." " Let them come . . Legouv^e.

PROOFS. by the ordinary process is next to an impossibility. But to obtain a large negative. coated with collodion. How how could a plate of such a size be properly cleaned. — — It often occurs that photographs of the natural size of objects are required. ? ^ how could the developing liquid be applied it By the usual processes may be said that such manipulations would be completely impossible even to the most expert operator.— 147 CHAPTER ENLARGEMENT OF VI. say a yard square for example. ' Plates a yard square and even larger are manipulated by the Auto- type Company and other photographic firms in London. — Ed. APPARATUS EMPLOYED FOR ENLARGING NEGATIVE PROOFS WOODWARD'S SYSTEM MONCKHOVEN'S APPARATUS UNIVERSAL SOLAR CAMERA. L 2 .

Mr. Woodward's apparatus consists of a negative. The negative is is held in a frame the enlarging lens is contained in a metal tube. The Image. The best means of obtaining a picture approaching the natural size of the object seems to consist in the enlargement. fixed. On . and the enlarged image thrown on a screen at some yards' distance from the apparatus.148 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. in The ordinary method of enlarging consists pro- jecting the image of a negative plate by means of the where it is lens of a megascope on to sensitised paper. 34) shows the general appearthe right of the drawing will ance of the apparatus. 34). enlarged is like that of the magic lantern slide. the large wooden case containing the is image of which powerfully illuminated and projected with the required degree of amplification on to the photographic paper. (fig. paper. of a small negative which has been obtained as perfect as possible. M. faithfully reproduced on the photographic Though its the theory of this operation is is simple enough. by optical apparatus. practice somewhat difficult and requires a \^xy per- fect instrument. Monckhoven has improved this system by adapt- ing a second lens to the megascope which corrects the spherical aberration. The illustration (fig.

ENLARGEMENT OF be seen a thin partition PROOFS. through light which a powerful is thrown by means of a reflector which follows outside. The enlarging camera is fixed to an opening in the partition. from This room should be ex- posed to the south. and thrown in the required size upon . carrying with it the image to be repro- duced. 149 which separates the operating the outer room air.. the sun and rays lens transmits the through a large which condenses them on tive to the glass negato be enlarged after passing through negative it the next traverses the enlarging lens.

some the screen fixed at yards' distance. —Ed. M. much special more economical and ' does not require any The size object-glass.^ This distance should be about three yards to obtain a photograph one yard in diameter. Liebert has invented an enlarging apparatus It is which has advantages over the preceding.150 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. of the enlarged image also depends on the focal length of . Fig.35- LI^BERT'S enlarging APPARATl'S.

therefore should not be too vigorous or intense. The art of enlarging photographs has been brought to great perfection during the last four years. which re- quires a special method. The method followed in their . To arrive at this result such substances are avoided in the preparation of the developer as tend to intensify.' * Some The enlargements obtained in London by the Autotype process appear to me to leave almost nothing to be desired. The illus- tration 35) gives such a clear idea of Liebert's appais ratus that any description in unnecessary. Success the enlargement of photographs can only be obtained when the greatest attention has been paid to the preparation of the small glass negative. to ensure to be enlarged. Liquid collodion must be used. 151 can be used from sunrise to sunset.ENLARGEMENT OF fixed position. which we have just described. A thin. sufficient transparency to the image The it negative must be very transparent. which is not the case with the apparatus illuminated by reflection (fig. The negative having to be exposed to the sun's rays should not be coated with any varnish which melts under the action of heat. It PROOFS. iron solution in alcoholised water is The sulphate of alone sufficient. quite transparent glass plate should be chosen with a perfectly smooth surface.

they are exaggerated and seem as though It seen under a magnifying glass. . and are used plates by the wet collodion process. in spite of these defects. Ed. Enlargements. production author.— 152 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. to underrate the im- portance of the results obtained. be unjust. offer certain inconveniences. operators have arrived at results worthy of the highest praise. however. it is true. is totally different The most beautiful carbon transparencies are in" the from any of the processes described by the first taken from production of large negatives on glass small negatives. the details of the enlarged proof have often a disagreeable effect . would.

gives excellent proofs. . allowed to dry. are greatly to may happen to be exploring a new have found the old wet collodion process in the tropics always so ready and always so capable of responding to my every wish. SWAN. which we have described at length. AND TANNIN — WAXED-PAPER PROCESS— PERMANENT PHOTOGRAPHY BY THE CARBON PROCESS— METHODS OF POITEVIN. it is no longer so impressionable.^ ' My own experience when travelling in the tropics does not bear out the author's views on this point. a wet plate may be freely exposed for be desired by the photographer who country.153 CHAPTER VII. The some wet-collodion process. if not quite equal to wet plates in their sensitiveness. it is As the collodion dries very rapidly very difficult to in make use of it in landscape work. Dry plates as we find them now-a-days. THE DRY-COLLODION PROCESS— EMPLOYMENT OF ALBUMEN. but it As soon as the glass plate at coated with collodion If it is it must be once exposed in the camera. or in any way warm climates. that I esteem it above all others. such as adding alcohol to the collodion. — Ed. . PROCESSES. By certain simple modifications. Yet I half-an-hour in a climate where the temperature is 90° in the shade. nearly. very sharp. and often has one is of an astonishing degree of perfection great drawback. ETC. HONEY.

and the concluding in the of washing and drying are effected ordinary way. be made to retain solved The problem has been by the addition to the collodion of gummy or resinous it matters. remain porous. had long been the endeavour of photographers It to discover a means by which plates coated with collostill dion and allowed to dry could their sensibility to light. so that instead of the film being impervious. ' and gives very good TJie albumen with pi'ocess. so as to absorb the sensitising liquid when required for use. photography until the discovery It \^ still made use of by some operesults. —The reader in will remember that albu- men was employed of collodion. on the contrary. a few mo- ments before its exposure in the camera. plate is coated ordinary iodised after being sensitised and washed to remove is free nitrate of silver the collodion iodide of again coated with albumen containing ammonium.154 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. dried and then placed in a The plate thus covered with a liquid which preserves it the collodion beneath is grooved box which plate in is is perfectly air-tight. and sugar candy. — A well cleaned glass collodion . should. is The time of exposure in this process somewhat . only remains to sensitise the silver bath. it When operations the it required for use. Dry collodion. rators in certain cases. ammonia.

and fixed with hy- posulphite of soda. neutral nitrate of silver bath.PROCESSES. and may be used very advan- tageously five or six hours after being prepared. its is . to obtain good results the directions of its inventor. posure in the camera until the plate has the development is not produced been under the action of the developIt ing fluid for about half an hour. They with gallic acid. sensitised in a is The plate drained and then recoated with the preparation of albumen or white of egg. cannot be employed . and required for use they are sensitised in a nitrate of bath to which a are developed little acetic acid has been added. away from light and dust. 155 long . to beat up the mixture of sugar candy allows of collodion. M. The albumen process necessitates a considerable ex. A when silver number of plates are prepared in this way. The addition it keeps the albumen fluid. it is spreading the collodion on the plate. must be scrupulously followed. it is sufficient to pour some whites of eggs drops of and after adding a few ammonia and useful a little iodide and bromide of well. ammonium. as* and with being easily spread over the plate The plate once albumenised is dried. Taupenot. The cleaning of the glass requires to be even more After carefully done than in the wet-collodion process. To prepare the latter into a glass.

and.^ * The tannin process is here singled out as a type of a host of other endless variety of substances successfully. or tannic acid. have employed a solution of lime-juice. as the albumen gives a very sharp negative full of harmony process. has undergone con. As this work does I not profess to furnish exhaustive descriptions of the various processes. manipulation. dry-plate processes which are interesting as forming links in the chain of photographic progress. siderable modifications since that time it we shall describe with the improvements which have been successively made. and engravings. Thanks to the persevering and ingenious experiments of this sav^ant. Major Russell's discovery consists in combining tannin. The original pro- which was published in 1 861. orange-juice. is for reproducing drawings. place of tannin An less may be when used in I more or Thus I myself. TJie tannin process. Their sensibility is certainly much more con- siderable than that of plates coated in the ordinary way. could obtain nothing better. with the coating of iodide of silver. which do away with the use of the nitrate of silver bath — El). it is now possible to preserve the prepared plates for a very long time without their losing any of their properties. — This which has been much spoken of. need do no more than give an outline of one or two of the newest methods of preparing dry plates. with varying success. in tone. cess. ordinary bottled beer with a slight admixture of sugar. is due to Major C.156 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. pictures. although they demand delicate yet in their rapidity of action and beautiful results are nearly on a par with our best wet-collodion processes. Russell. destined to be impressed with the light. but well adapted for portraiture. But the most modern processes. .

and the emulsion carries only the quantity with which it has formed an intimate union in the production The sensitised gelatine may now be dissolved by of bromide of silver. indeed. When the gelatine has absorbed the water to its fullest extent. 157 The plate is first coated with a special collodion containing small quantities of iodide of Gelatino-bromide process : cadmium and ounce pure gelatine add 16 ounces of water. latent when the image may be brought out by what is kno^vn as 'alkaline develop- ment. When dry. Water Lpint. stirring To I the mixture until the salt is thoroughly taken up.. This may be done by allowing the gelatine to set. and exposure and development. dissolve by gentle heat. Carbonate of Soda 40 grains. which would otherwise interfere with the picture. I Alcohol ounce. gentle heat. 2. which must then be next added to the bromadised gelatine. plate film This sensitive emulsion which alone forms the drymust be subjected to a process of washing so as to remove the free salts of the metals. 96 grains. Pyrogallic Acid . and if carefully preserved from daylight weeks may elapse between the time of preparation and exposure. and while the solution is yet hot add i\ ounce bromide of potassium.' discovered by the inventor of the tannin process. I have seen plates taken by this method almost instantaneously. Developer. placed on a level stand on a dark shelf free from dust. This and the subsequent operations must therefore be conducted in the yellow non active light of the operating room. No. cutting it up in small pieces and washing it in water kept running for some time. After exposure the plate must be soaked for some time in water. until. and poured in quantum siifficit on the centre of a glass plate over which it is evenly distributed. . all traces of the free salts have been removed.— PROCESSES. No i. The addition of the nitrate of silver renders the solution highly sensitive to light. the plate thus prepared is ready for exposure in the camera. where it is allowed to set and dry".... of silver in water... but the nice timing of the exposure has hitherto proved a drawback to the wide application of the process. sufficient to make Dissolve | ounce nitrate a saturated solution.

•Bromide of Potassium 5 grams. not so sensitive as that just described in which gelatine takes the place of : collodion. 2 and operator. 3. the alkaline solution which 3. — ^^- . iodide and bromide of ammonium. I Water No.— 158 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. I is ounce. in is used with the addition of a few drops of Nos. This soluis poured over the plate several times. ihe materials used mode of manipulating the plates are almost identical with those and the employed in the gelatino-bromide process. It is sensitised in a bath of nitrate of silver strongly acid is with acetic arid. from about 35 seconds to the image. The time of exposure of these tannin plates varies 2 minutes. quantity sufficient to flood the plate. when the plate is dry it is slightly warmed. The time of exposure and development must be determined by the experience of the is Collodion Emulsion process This process. and can then be kept for a very considerable time. then coated with a solution of tannin (lO parts of alcohol and 2^ tion is to 3 of tannin to the lOO of water). It is then washed and dried hardly neces- sary to say that these operations take place in the dark room . while it offers more uniformity and certainty in its results. With the exception of collodion. impregnated. which in the plate rack. the plate nitrate of silver till Before developing is dipped in a weak is solution of the tannin coating No. The reader who is anxious to study the collodion emulsion process will find detailed descriptions in the British yournal Photographic Almanac for 1875. The plate as soon as sensitised well washed.

M. and a If the little alcohol intensi- and glacial acetic acid. thin. then a third.PROCESSES. Legray cess is the inventor of the waxed -paper pro- — an interesting is and useful process. all As its soon as the surface. a weak solution of citric acid mixed with a small quantity of nitrate of silver added to the developer will give excellent results. sheets with is unwaxed and then the whole packet . are interleaved These twelve twelve waxed sheets. of which the following a succinct description. is to be coated with wax must be well-sized. and so on twelve have been done. a first well impregis nated over it. maintained at 100° by placing The leaf of paper is protected from consheets of blotting tact with the metal by intermediate paper as . is The paper which and must be mitted light. formed of a uniform and homogeneous pulp. a fourth. with boilit The paper on a spread out on a metal box is filled ing water. as the proof has to be seen by transis The operation of waxing very delicate. image requires fying. 159 It is then drained and the picture developed with a solu- tion of pyrogallic acid and water. it is then rubbed with white wax which leaf is sinks in it is spread. The plate is then well washed and fixed as usual with hyposulphite of soda. which fire. second sheet of paper in the placed on and rubbed with wax till same way.

does not exhibit white or or excess of indicating a wax. .. Bromide of Potassium. it must be preserved from contact with it damp or air. . .^ To ' 35 oz. when want time. one by one. Sugar of Milk. thus giving twenty-four sheets saturated with wax. a well-rubbed leaf is smooth. of Water. When it is required in a to sensitise the paper before silver to use. The iodised waxed paper has a violet tint . with a silk rubber. Each leaf is now and rubbed separately. . and brilliant spots.^ When removed from the bath and dried. .ooo grains of Rice. Nitrate of Silver Glacial Acetic Acid 30 grains.. 750 225 75 2 .l60 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. they are placed be- tween two sheets of blotting paper. i Distilled Water ounce. The excess of wax the twelve sheets prepared passes into the other twelve sheets.. transparent.. then in in another. is plunged bath of nitrate of which acetic acid has been added.. and rubbed warm with a hot iron. 40 minims. it can be kept for an indefinite The waxed papers thus obtained are plunged into a solution of iodide of potassium in rice and water.. i. . Iodide of Potassium. rubbed energetically first in one direction.

in the camera by being fixed usually between two glass The time of exposure is . to proof is destined after a certain M . more or Whatever the it cares is and precautions of the operator. the positive time to tarnish. and as formulae for obtaining negatives on waxed paper abound. Vigier. Baldus. dried the paper is When washed and rendered again after being transparent by rubbing with a hot iron. however well washed. Messrs. —The processes we less have hitherto described furnish prints liable to fade. to which nitrate of silver and is acetic The leaf of paper until comhas immersed in the developing bath it acquired the desired intensity.THE CARBON The paper is PROCESS. Legray. l6l exposed plates. sometimes more it can only be de- termined by experience. we refer the reader who may be curious in this regard to the published works of these inventors. Besides M. is The development of the picture acid are subsequently added. pletely accomplished by the aid of gallic acid. and others have prepared albumenised and gelatinised papers which give equally good results. covered with a piece of tissue paper. about one hour. It is fixed as usual with hyposulphite of soda. The permanent carbon process.

and to assure typographical proofs and the same perin manency as impressions general which are obtained with an ink made with some permanent basis. discovered that the action of light on gummy or mucilaginous matters mixed : with alkaline or earthy bichromates renders them insoluble. when it is formed by the reducto a certain extent of tion of metallic salts. become could it How. rise This serious drawback gave to the desire for some means of imparting durait bility to the photograph. carbon or other permanent mineral substances. This learned experimentalist. to add some insoluble colouring matters. The various processes for producing positive carbon prints are based on the principle indicated by Alphonse Poitevin in 1855.1 62 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY yellow. be otherwise. for the purpose of producing permanent photographs. and to whom the photographic art is indebted for a great num- ber of most important improvements. and even to disappear. is The term carbon print applied to photographic im- pressions obtained by the aid of some fixed or unalterable matter. &c. such as carbon. made up fugitive chemical agents. indeed. such as carbon or pow- . of whom we shall have to speak further in our chapter on Heliography. even in warm water it then occurred to him.

and the picture ^appears. starch. Marion popularised the new process by some truly remarkable productions. published more as a curiosity than a practical method.^ 163 gum arable. this first indication of the process by M.CARBON PRINTING. sugar. &c. and Salmon others. whilst those parts which have been rendered insoluble by the action of light re- main adhering to the surface. the insolation. dered enamels. Mr. all of them more or less perfect.e. the parts of the picture unaffected by the light those parts which have been protected by the denser portion of the negative) are dissolved. new start to the art of permanent carbon photography and shortly afterwards. Since formed by the insoluble parts of the mucilage. at Paris. the paper is washed in tepid water {i. to gelatine. In 1864. Swan gave a vigorous . par L. Mr. in- Pouncy at London. M 2 . Laborde. After . epreuves positives formees de substances inalterables. as Poitevin. spread over a leaf of paper and exposed to the impression of the light through a negative. Vidal. 1869. a great number of operators study the new phenomena brought to set themselves to light. Gamier. ' Photographic au charbon. and were not long conceiving similar processes to that of M. A fine coating is of bichromatised gelatine. albumen. Recueil pratique de divers procedes des Paris. mixed with carbon. A. Poitevin.

which soon sets . easy to determine of a proper colour.1 64 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. allow 1. allowed to dry perfectly. black in colour. By this means the albumen is clarified and becomes is brilliant and limpid.800 grains of hours. with water. and flexible.500 grains of gelatine. colouring matter is Indian ink as after being is now mixed with it. The amount lost by evaporation made up and 900 grains of white sugar added. in water. kept in well To sensitise a solution of bichrowater). The following extract from the Moniteur de la Pho: tographie describes Mr. well and heat till it boils.350 of pared and added to the coloured gelatine tion of pre- in the propor- 450 grains is to 3. this film can be detached by passing a penknife along the edges. and employed within . is mate of ammonia (450 grains to 1. The gelatine it. Swan's curious process — ' In 500 cubic centimetres of cold gelatine to swell for water. when quite dry. it is It is nevertheless translucent.000 or 4. being evenly spread over. A is glass plate next coated with non-iodised collodion of a : proper consistency this. The plate is now warmed and coated very evenly with the sensitised gelatine solution. and presents the appearance of a piece of varnished leather. This film must be kept in the dark. and if it is by exami- nation. pow- dered or dissolved stoppered bottles. then dissolve with a stir some gentle heat Add a white of ^^^ beaten up. and then filter.

print is then mounted on paper with starch or india-rubber. dry it When dis- is plunged into water. in consequence of the collodion film cracking. 1864). Low & Co. the collodion side next the by exposure to the light the impression is formed on the inner face of the sensitised gelatine. The time of exposure any naturally varies according to the intensity of the light. February 29. The is ^ print when finished possesses great delicacy. to Carbon prints taken by the above process are as fine in gradation. in case. and sharpness as the best silver prints. and the density of the negative . for When the print has soaked about two hours it can be fastened to another sheet it. Tht Dictionary of Photography. To print on it. The range is much The larger than with the ordinary processes. 165 one or two days.swan's process. however. to straighten and when dry the first sheet may be readily removed. be some risk of their destruction. heated to 40° Centigelatine unaltered grade. The by the light soon solves. Some specimens submitted to the public by the patentee are not inferior to the very finest photographs upon paper that have ever been seen. There seems. and of course glazed with the film of collodion in front' ' vigour. . it will not exceed the third or the fourth of that required with the nitrates of silver. but. so that with the negative. it is placed in contact film. leaving the picture with all its gradations of tone adhering to the collodion. 1867. The process is patented (No. 503. and prolonged exposure does not materially affect the picture. of paper.

the glazed tissue can be toned black like an engraving. The gelatine films are sensitised by immersion in an aqueous solution of bichromate of potassium (of 5 p. colouring matter. or sepia colour. ground to an impalpable powder. strides. The mixture is then stirred per- A sheet of paper of good quality in is next damped that and placed on a glass plate such a way by the means of four small rules the four edges of the paper can be turned up to the extent of not more than three or four millimetres. and admirable results have been arrived According to the nature of the substance which is permanent and solid incorporated with the gelatine. a very shallow dish being thus is formed. of whatever nature it The is first may be.000 grains of gelatine to the of water fectly = 176 pint). purple. in dissolved in warm water and well filtered. To take an impression. homogeneous. Since Mr. Swan's innprovements the so-called carbon processes have made great at. one of them is is applied to the back of a photographic plate. and the gelatine.1 66 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. is added litre till small doses (3. into which the gelatine solution to flow perfectly horizontally. fies : poured so as The lifted solution soon solidi- the gelatine film is then from the glass and allowed to dry spontaneously. 100). and then .

In common with all the other permanent photographic printing processes. certainty. however. which can be easily taken from the positive picture when desired. of employing collodion as the support for the the Autotype Company at Ealing Dean simplified the method of producing tissue by using paper as the support and by introducing machinery into its manufacture. Paris. whether the proofs are obtained by exposure to sunlight or mechanically. But it is only within the past month or two that the carbon process has proved capable of producing small prints equal in every way to the best silver prints. In place. exposed to the light. Masson. the carbon process starts from the basis supplied in the insolubility resulting from the exposure to solar light of a mixture of gelatine and bichromate of potash. tissue. This company held various patents which have been transferred to Messrs. us in Swan's process.^ only allowing ourselves to give here the principle of a ing. Bird & Co. all We refer the reader who may wish to master the details of this process to Mr. B.. has attained to that facility of manipulation which renders silver printing. But in order to render this chemical action available for the purposes of the carbon printer. which comprehends the numerous chapters of the book of modern photography.IMPROVEMENTS IN CARBON PRINTING. and is for this reason that a provisory support should be employed. D. "^ The carbon process. Sawyer. the gelatine and bichromate of potash must be charged with some permanent colour in a fine state of division. the picture will be reversed. 1 6/ When a negative is used to print it from.^ ' Published by G. new branch of the art which we are studyfar The practical details would take us too all from our plan. in its degree of perfection. to whom we are mainly indebted for rendering the carbon process of practical . 1873. Monck- hoven's work. and it a most formidable rival to most recent fonns. Photographers have not been slow to acknowledge its superiority over all other processes in the production of the most delicately beautiful enlargements from small negatives. Spencer.

— . yields up part of the colouring matter. This peculiar adaptability of the carbon transparency for copying or enlarging negatives has rendered it of the greatest value. a double transfer must be effected by placing the tissue for development on a temporary support of glass or zinc. when treated with warm water. and it readily. When the light has only partially affected the tissue the union is weak. and where the light has strongest. from this exposure : the image is nevertheless imprinted in the or rather. which. and leaves a bright and beautiful In the case of negatives which are impression on a permanent support. The when the tissue and its new support are original support will float off and the picture gradually reveal itself. mounted and developed on a glass plate. They now manufacture tissue of all shades of colour. but so exceedingly minute in its details as to enable the operator to take from it a perfect negative. the light has imparted to the surface various degrees of insolubility. I must refer the reader for detailed information to the manual of practical instruction published by the above firm.1 68 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. not exercised its subtle influence in the faintest degree. ready for the simple operation of sensitising ty floating on a solution of bichromate of potash. leaving the paper white. original as to permit him to print his proofs by single transfer. I enlarged to three or four times the diameter of the it know of no other transparency to be compared with in the making of large negatives from small ones. The printing of the picture must be timed by the use of a simple In order to develop the print it is actinometer made for the purpose. commercial value. the sensitive film elects to . Specially prepared tissue. While confining my observations to one or two topics relating to carbon printing. it in intimate then laid in a bath of tepid water. not only produces a transparency full of the most beautiful gradations of light and shade. A carbon No visible print may be taken from an ordinaiy negative by exposing the sensitised tissue beneath the negative as in ordinary silver printing. correspond exactly with the shadows and half-tones of the picture. image will result tissue. the action of the light is In other words. not reversed. as it enables the carbon printer to make a reversed negative so absolutely identical with the Ed. in their intensity. necessary to immerse the tissue in a bath of water and to place contact with a sheet of transfer paper. the colouring matter may be dissolved out. This simple operation of washing with water removes all the free unaltered carbon. original. where form a close and indissoluble union with the carbon.

the picture which it the image of the mirror. — — We have seen how and by what processes th(? photo- graphic art arrived at fixing the image of the camera on paper : the results obtained.169 CHAPTER — VIII. it does the aspect and form of natural criterion of photographic would seem to be the on the face of it. To find a photographic process susceptible of giving coloured proofs. We think it will be interesting it if we glance some of the improvements which is possible to hope for in a near future. THE FIXING OF COLOURS A MYSTIFICATION EDMOND BECQUEREL'S EXPERIMENTS ATTEMPTS OF NIEPCE DE SAINT-VICTOR AND POITEVIN— PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTING. though marvellous as they are. but the image with- out colour. power It is : the problem appears insoluble. not necessary to be versed in the study of physics . PROBLEMS TO BE SOLVED. Photography reproduces nature furnishes is . are susceptible of being improved. and capable of reproducing the colours as objects. like all human at work.

to understand the difficulties in the way. which made a great stir at all the time. interesting men. and each which reproduce the proper colour of luminous ray the search for such a chemical as this would seem pher's stone. It is necessary to find a substance which should be influenced in different ways by the could . The American papers affirmed that a Mr. Hill. the of this hidden in the bosom of ? the unknown. grapher. In 185 1. to be comparable to that in the for the philoso- However. before studying the real experiments scientific made by some of our most eminent rate one or two facts. had discovered the a photo- means of reproducing the .170 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. presence of certain facts it already obtained by some savants of note. would be . imprudent to deny solution is the possibility of such a in problem its perhaps nearer than we are the habit of in supposing. different rays of the spectrum. the photographers of Europe were thrown into a state of excitement by an extraordinary announcement which came from the other side of the Atlantic. open up a Until Will they be useful or fruitless Will they } new road or remain isolated and sterile in we have passed review the results already obtained we cannot reply. It may be well. direction A few lights are already shining goal. to nar- from an historical point of view.

to ferment well. Alexander Ken. Hill was a reverend pastor to puffing : who was no enemy news of had nothing to he had launched the his invention in all the American papers. circular he issued a promising shortly to publish divulge a work discovery. and for the moment his name became as renowned as that of Daguerre. The But volume appeared it consisted of about one hundred pages. and cost the author about twopence a copy. 171 images of the camera with their natural colours. This Mr. Hill.PHOTOGRAPHS IN COLOUR. and all would be forwarded to five those who sent him address with dollars. The ' cute pastor allowed public curiosity When who he saw things were relates the story. Mr. A testimonial. if it was dear. it contained nothing but a few of the common- place descriptions well-known daguerreotype . Hill ecclesiastic ' was a respectable worthy of all confidence. signed by several persons. fifteen The circular produced : thousand dollars. For the time nothing was spoken of but this illustrious inventor. set forth that Mr.' says Mr. all at once. * ripe. which should the secrets of his The that their author added that this work would only be circulated to the extent subscribed for it by photographers. and complain of in the enthusiastic epithets which were applied to his discovery. soared like a rocket to the topmost steps of the ladder of fame.

must be preserved ' M. Unfortunately. 1864. of a characteristic came coated with rose colour. Ken. Niepce de Saint. A. Under the influence of the electric current the silver besub-chloride of silver.172 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. but the public had had enough of Mr. and said not a word about the reproduction of ! ' process.Victor also attempted to solve problem of the fixation of colours. . but a too that they would not take them. but he-was ' this great Dissertation on PJwtography. little Hill and late. M. plate of silver in hydrochloric acid diluted with water he attached the metal to the wire of an electric battery. Edmond Becquerel was the the image of coloured rays. His works when made known were appreciated at their real value by men of science. with their corresponding gradations. The subscribers swore. Becquerel plunged a . dried. colours * Mr. it On being taken from the bath. first M. up to the present no means have been discovered for fixing these colours : they disappear when exposed to daylight. and in the dark. who reproduced in printing He succeeded the seven colours of the solar spectrum on a silver plate. his works. washed and was : sufficient to expose it to the rays of the solar spectrum the seven colours were then delineated. Hill afterwards published a second and a third brochure.

These coloured photographs have a very pretty Although somewhat more stable than formerly. Niepce obtained at the commence- ment of his researches could not stand the slightest exIt it posure to daylight. he prepared the paper with a solution of azotate of uranium of 20 to the 100 of water: this paper is dried in the dark. and exposed for a time. a of azotate of cobalt.: PHOTOGRAPHS IN COLOUR. and green colour. 'To obtain a red-coloured proof. The in red print thus obtained becomes green solution dipped . varying in length accord- ing to the intensity of the light in . foiled in 1 73 his attempts. effect. salts of is due to the employment of uranium that has been possible to solve this interesting question. in obtaining photographic proofs of blue. for example. still they are affected by prolonged exposure to light for the processes are. however. however. and subsequently dipped into a solution of cyanoferride of potassium of 2 to 100. washed it the green colour appears by drying at a is fixed by immersion for a few seconds in a solution of sulphate of . He succeeded. red. the proof which M. beautiful blood-red colour it only remains to wash it well in water several times changed and dry if it. and not fire . already much improved. the proof is then washed water of 50° or 60° Centigrade. After a few minutes the print assumes a .

Poitevin made a series of curious experi- ments relating * to the grand problem of fixing colours. after exposure under the nega- is washed for ten seconds with a solution of . is saturated cold a solution is of oxalic acid at 60° well next applied. On a paper covered previously with a coating of violet chloride of silver.P. The bichromate may be replaced by chromic acid.' 174 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. or by azotate of uranium. and by developing with chloride of gold of ^ to is the 100 of water. . To obtain blue prints the paper prepared with a solution of cyanoferride of potassium of 20 to the 100 of water tive it .P.' In 1866 M. ' Annuaire scientifique de M. light. the paper thus prepared allowed to dry. a volume of satu- rated solution of sulphate of copper. which he had obtained by exposing in white chloride to the salt. 1862. and a volume of solution of 5 to the 100 of chloride of potassium is . Deherain. and presence of a reducing a liquid is applied formed of a volume of saturated solution of bichromate of potassium. Paris. and the print then washed and dried. and sulphuric . and must be kept of potassium away from light. it each in proportion of 4 to dried the 100 of water at the in fire. iron acid. is then well washed and A violet colour may be obtained by washing warm water as soon as taken from the printing frame. bichloride of mercury.

' These photochromos may be preserved if in an album. in a variety of ways. not sufficiently impressionable to allow of employ- ment in the camera . it takes through paintings on and one can very well follow This paper its is the appearance of the image in colour. then in water containing bichloride of mercur>^ again in water charged with nitrate of lead. unfortunately. In this state. supersensitised. yellow preserved the paper white. it gives coloured ' - reproductions in a special enlarging apparatus. Monochrome photographs may be obtained colours. Some eight or ten years ago these aspirants to fame used far being solved. As far subjected colours. .Ed. proudly refusing to confide in the public until they had taken such steps as would enable them to engross to themselves the entire credit of their discoveries. Vidal's prints were probably similar to some I have seen in produced by an ingenious mechanical trick which the photographer was in no way careful to conceal. when to the rays of the spectrum. such as it is. but such prints. light. The problem of obtaining polychromatic photographs More enthusiasts than one have imagined that they to write to the photographic journals. partook slightly of the different Violet produced brown. back as 1810 Seebeck discovered that chloride of silver. is still they will remain unaltered ' kept from the from have discovered a clue to the mystery in the beautiful prismatic colours produced by a thin film of air imprisoned beneath the collodion of an imperfectly cleaned plate. .PHOTOGRAPHS IN COLOUR. blue a shade of blue. I 75 which is. and finally in if pure water. and red imparted a red tint to the chloride of silver. the is exposure to the direct action of the light than not more place from five to ten minutes when glass. so to speak. bring us no nearer to photography in natural M. Paris. With this paper. water the precaution is taken of washing them first in acidulated with chromic acid. but.

these new photogenic pictures are hardly more stable under the action of light than those obtained previously by Messrs. at hope that it will be. and are almost invisible in the details. Niepce de least. a number of polychromic prints were the advantage of affect exhibited by M. Vidal. But the colours principally the shadows.' ' Louis Figuier. which have being permanent. .^ In the photographic exhibition in the Palais de I'lndustrie in 1874. Vidal employs papers which he superposes to give birth to each colour indefinite. but the tints and half-tones are very The most solve.Victor says. one may. M.176 OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OF PHOTOGRAPHY.Victor.* If the problem of is the fixation of colours not yet solved. Unfortunately. . As M. Les Mcrveilles de la Scietue. Becquerel and Niepce de Saint. would be wrong regard the final to despise what has been done or to solution as an altogether Utopian or chimerical problem. Saint. result of these curious experiments shows plainly is that the fixation of colours difficult by photography one of the problems which modern science has to a very short portion of the road still it Though but towards the great end has been opened up.

PHOTOGRAPHS IN COLOUR. Daguerre has to There is another of high import. namely. the transformation of the negative into an engraving plate pages of our third . This art of 1 77 is evidently one of the greatest questions the solve. we shall refer to this in the first part. N .

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— — 179 PART III. ' At the present Foi a description of the modem N 2 fully worked by the Heliotype Company of London. Hdiotype Process^ which is successsee Appendix. even it in Daguerre's time. — From the origin of photography. ETC. produced by Hght camera was conit demned to remain as an unique type was asked if the art would not eventually be able to produce from the 'negative an engraved plate capable of t)eing used for printing on paper in the ordinary way. THE DAGUERREOTYPE PLATE TRANSFORMED INTO AN ENGRAVING DONN6 FIZEAU — THE PHOTOGRAPHIC ENGRAVING OF PLATE NIEPCE DE SAINT VICTOR —PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHY AND HELIOGRAPHY' — — INVENTED BY A. THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. THE AI. GARNIER. . I. OBERNETTER'S PROCESS— MODERN HELIOGRAPHY.BERTYPE POITEVIN PROCESSES OF BALDUS. had been a matter of regret that the beautiful picture at the focus of the . CHAPTER HELTOGRAPHY.

allows but a limited number of impressions being taken. so as to 'bite' the negative in the light parts. and very imperfect. so that the acid are so extremely shallow as . and it is only of an extraordinary thinness. Donne who first enter- tained the idea of acting on a daguerreotype plate with hydrochloric acid. half-tones and thus to produce a on paper in the plate capable of giving prints com- mon in printing-press. It was the noted savant M. but he so complicated the operations as to make his method prac- . parts etched by the to give but very insufficient relief to the rest besides silver.l8o THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. But the is mercury employed the daguerreotype process silvered not always equally distributed often over the copper-plate. which. the parts left in relief being formed of a very soft metal. it characteristic of heliography in a near has yet been found possible to change the negative into a metallic plate similar to that used by the engraver on steel or wood. in part realised if it day these hopes have been . The early heliotype plates were worn out and these still useless before fifty prints on paper. has not yet arrived at the degree of perfection which will most probably be future. in different and to leave the shadow and degrees of relief. Fizeau improved this rudimentary process. had been taken from them.

depth the grooves and cavities opened by the acid must be deepened. and by aid of the latter could salient now be made the plate as deep as desired. photography on paper was discovered. in the way of this which requires sunlight in the and careful attention to minute detail printing-press proofs ! unknown besides. before this problem of photographic engraving was recognised as worthy in all respects of fixing the attention of enquirers. but how slow is the what numerous obstacles there are process. tically useless. in relief is by the mercury But in its the chief essential in a good engraving reliefs . production of and photography on paper . and heliography seemed to lose its interest. way : he filled the grooves and hollows with a greasy which did not adhere to the parts of the plate in relief latter oil The he gilded with a battery. and then removed the nitric acid contained in the groov^es. however. After these ingenious labours of Fizeau. likely It was not long. Fizeau effected this in the following oil.HELIOGRAPH Y. l8l He succeeded in attacking the shadows whilst and darker parts of the daguerreotype leaving the whites formed plate. the parts of being protected by their covering of gold. It is true that by the process of photographic printing will on paper one has at once a negative on glass which produce any quantity of proofs printing ! .

is not durable . transferring a photographic negative on to first based on the process of his relative. it sometimes turns effaced. That done. yellow. 1853 M.^ in the This coating is dried dark room. Nicephore Niepce. and often even becomes completely Photographic engraving was again studied with activity. applied to the metal plate thus is and the whole exposed to the light. it should dissolve in the proportion of 5 to the 100 in alcohol. and in chloroform. His method was as follows cleaned and polished of Judea. They employed bichromate . best for these operations should be completely insoluble and entirely in essence of turpentine. the bitumen of Judea or asphaltum m water . which acts on the bitumen through the transparent parts of the positive. a glass positive sensitised.1 82 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. which is is : —A steel plate well covered with a coating of bitumen spread on the metal by being previously . fades with time. . of potassium as their sensitising agent but their results were coarse and devoid of In all artistic value. of 70 to the 100 in ether. The exposure must be continued The glass plate is for about fifteen minutes. dissolved in essence of lavender. in pure benzine. ' then taken off the According to Mr. so as not to be affected by is light. Monckhoven. Talbot and Niepce de Saint Victor succeeded in engraving transparent objects on steel by the aid of photography. Niepce de Saint Victor published a method of steel.

particularly. and after years of persevering research he was unable entirely to overcome the difficulties in his way. little more than a coarse out- It was in vain that . in the opened up new and unexpected horizons photographic engraving. Whilst M. The parts of the steel plate laid bare in by the solvent can be bitten left in relief. and produces an exact copy of the photograph. with nitric acid. but all to no purpose. the shadows. de Saint Victor endeavoured he shortened the exposure and to improve his process took impressions direct on to the steel plate by means of the camera. Poitevin. on the other hand. but. Poitevin.HELIOGRAPHY. These engravings of Niepce de Saint Victor were not without a certain merit. Niepce de Saint Victor was thus attempting the solution of his difficult problem. and the in latter with its coating of bitumen oil. they possessed grave defects . M. an engineer of note. 1 83 steel. M. and the rest being thus the plate may be used for printing with ink on paper. struck . of whom we have already spoken. being mere uniform blots which converted the engraving into line. domain of Since 1839. present no gradation or detail. is washed a mixture of benzine and naphtha which dissolves only those parts of the coating which were pro- tected from the action of the light by the opaque parts of the photographic positive.

re- blacks by the iodide of silver unaltered by the ceived a deposit of copper on the white parts only. 'whilst experimenting with elec- trotypy for reproducing the images formed on the silver plates. and bearing on its surface the representation or image of which the whites were formed by the amalgam of silver.1 84 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. and the light. my observations on engraving with acids to the transferring on metal of the ioduretted designs of M. but his work as an engineer prevented him from immediately occupying himself with the study of the interest- ing problems which he hoped ultimately to solve. I had observed that the daguerreotype plate. and soon after to the transformation of daguerreotypes into negatives capable of being . with- out the blacks or shadows being affected. forced to suspend these distractions (for at that period they were nothing more to me). on being taken from the mercury fuming box. had been an ardent disciple of Daguerre . which was my first discovery. and devote self to I I my- my career of engineer. with the report read by Arago on the fixation of the image of the camera. to take it was not until 1847 that was enabled applied them up again as serious studies. I made repeated trials.' says * In Poitevin. of this. Niepce de Saint Victor. then to daguerreotype images on double silvered plates. all of which succeeded . but. 1842. in the electrotyping when plunged bath .

nor a book . entitled ' in a brochure. without removing the unaltered iodide of the plate is attached to the negative pole of an electric .' The which method.' as This not a all his biographers truly says. and of which from the commencement he understood the true destiny. fumes. which now very one of Treatise on Silver. During twenty years Poitevin laid the first founda- tions of several distinct methods. for twenty years applied knowledge to the realisation of a single object — the progress of an art which he loved passionately. nor a this : treatise. first method worked out by the clever operator. the inventor at the end of his career decided to publish all the is methods which he employed rare. the picture has been developed with the mercury silver. happily for science. knowing his many things. is A photograph When taken by the daguerreotype process. all of originalities which have their for and applications. it is more than it is the resume of the persevering studies of a man all who.' ' Photo* graphic Impression Without Nitrate of brochure.HELIOGRAPHY. but. little These processes were a long time very known. 1 85 used for printing in the ordinary way on papers sensi- tised with nitrate of silver. is manual. may is be called the galvanoplastic or electrotype as follows.

unprotected by the gold By this means the shades of the parts. it This partial gilding of the plate being accomplished. represented relief. is This operation finished. are left in picture. and quicksilver spread over it. only remains to subject the plate to tis . The liquid metal amalgamates only with the silver. by the gold-coated is and thus a plate produced capable of being used for typographic printing. and plunged in the electrotype bath. nitric acid or aquaforit is the acid attacks the plate wherever coating. After the first attempts Poitevin directed his ex- . the shades are formed silver of the plate. which removes the iodide of silver. and the same phenomenon reproduced the gold adheres only to the amalgamated parts. Next the plate is covered . battery. The lights still remain indicated by the oxide of copper. and lays bare the metallic silver beneath. represent the shades of the picture. which. In the electro thus obtained the lights of the picture are covered with copper. leavis ing the oxide of copper bare.1 86 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. with gold leaf. it must be remembered. by the The plate is then gently heated to is oxidise the copper. the plate solution of hyposulphite next washed in a of soda. The de- posit of copper takes place only on those parts of the plate which are not protected by the non-conducting coating of iodide of silver.

placed on this surface a photographic glass negative. will ' Photographic Impression Without Nitrate of description with the following passage. that light is. its surface which have original been acted upon by the The photograph thus becomes a lithographic ' stone. Poitevin spread a mixture of albumen and bichromate of potassium. as we have already explained. the stone ink. the roller is surface moistened with water. periments in quite 1 8/ a new direction . the albumen. only acts through the transparent parts of the negative. made capable of retaining printing is As is soon as the glass negative removed. See Poitevin's work. and then exposed the whole to the light. by the mysterious influence ex- erted by the on the gelatinous or gummy bichromate is coating. Paris 1862. Silver. If is not in its solubility. an inking passed over the stone. Photo-lithography.— ^ HELIOGRAPH Y. By this means. — On He a stone of good grain and quahty. and if this liquid is allowed to dry spontaneously.' \Ve complete this summary extracted from the report of the photographic commission charged to exa- mine the photo-lithographic process ' : an ordinary lithographic stone is covered with an albuminous solution mixed with bichromate of potash. and a simple washing in ^^•arm water is sufficient to . and method was invented under the name of photo-lithography. he transferred the photographic proofs not his ingenious now to metal but to stone. however much it may be altered in its nature. The light. and the ink only adheres to those parts of the coating on light.

by being submitted to the ordinary lithographic operations. But if the surface thus prepared is exposed to the action of light through the unequally transparent parts of a negative. The impressioned while with water. had been made in the ordinary lithographic manner. it state readily absorbs an ordinary greasy ink. by rendering the albumen insoluble. is an ink containing soap. which has been entirely made by Such is the light. Thus changed. but this clever experimentalist did not rest content at this point. and the latter is thus coated with a greasy ink distri- buted in varying proportions of an ordinary drawing. and causing larger the it to remain on the stone in quantities the more intense the exposure to the light has been. treated action of light. which the light has not acted on it remains unaltered in those parts where the light has acted. the portions of the stone where the light has not acted. a change takes place which is certainly not an ordinary coagulation.1 88 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. which does not adhere to if a roller charged witji printing ink. The excess of ink is The drawing is made M. so that. He soon discovered its that his gelatinous bichromate of potash coating loses properties of swelling when it has been submitted to the film. the removing of the colour with essence of volatile oil and the re-inking with the roller and nothing further remains but to cover the stone thus prepared with a coating of gum which only adheres where there is no ink. level removed by acidulation and damping with a sponge. Here then was a remove from the stone the greater part of the unaltered matter which has been unable to penetrate it. which lithographers call transfer or reparsed over the stone the ink adheres only to the albumenised parts of the surface.' . and to which the oxidation of the chromic acid doubtless contributes. that is to say. The discovery of this singular is fact. Poitevin's method. and to submit it to ordinary inking and to acidulation. under special conditions swells slightly in the parts . which established photo-lithography. to be enabled to obtain from it as many copies as if the drawing. able certainly one of the most remark- made by Poitevin. . In this the albumen resists water as if it were a greasy or fatty substance.

M. among which we may menphotographed in tion an album of forty-five terracottas. the his work being the germ of almost all mechanical printing processes now known. to say that It is hardly necessary we give here only the principle of Poite- vin's process. a photographic . Lemercier. the reHefs and depressions of which corresponded to the shades of the photograph . for its inventor the celebrated le gained grand prize founded by M. satisfactory. 1 89 substance which offered an unequal surface. the galleries of the Viscount de Janze. It the actual results of which are so remarkable. This principle was essentially ingenious. Due de Luynes. an artist and savaiit oi great merit. to hinder an electrotype being cast in copper from and the result would be an engraved plate capable of being printed from in the usual way. which. and Poitevin himself has also produced some beautiful collections. Since 1857. Poitevin's processes with excellent results . requires extreme care. we shall see that it was the basis of photoglypty. in practice. if not perfect. Photo-lithography has long been used with advantage . were at least Poitevin must be regarded as the founder of modern heliography. and capable of giving results which. has utilised M.HELIOGRAPHY. h'ghts and there was therefore nothing it.

Egyptian containing reproduction of the engraved stones of the museum in the of the Louvre . and leaves a negative picture formed by the parts of the bitumen rendered soluble ' by the solar rays. Gamier and Salmon. sionable On resin the plate thus prepared with the impresis placed a photographic proof of the object to be engraved is on transparent paper. This proof a positive. Louis Figuier thus de- scribes this process ' A coating of bitumen of Judea is spread on a cop- per plate. The Processes of Baldiis.— 1 90 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. It is developed by washing the plate with a solvent which clears away the parts unaffected by the light. : M. own time we find became more In 1854 M. and must in consequence produce. may be seen a beautiful photo-lithographic stone. is But this picture it formed of a film so delicate and fine that soon begins to partly disappear from the effects of . About quarter of an hour's exposure suffices to imprint the object on the resin. a negative on the metal.. Baldus pro- duced proofs of photographic engraving which justly excited public admiration. by the a action of the light. and in the galleries the most remarkable products of our national industry Museum of Art and Industry. In measure as progress we get nearer to our rapid. though it is not visible.

be attacked and hollowed. On is a plate thus sensitised is placed the negative or positive which to be reproduced. and on the parts of the metal unprotected by the bitumen . M. and now comes the most wonderful part of this process. Baldus the copper glass plate. Attach the plate all to the negative pole of the battery. salt is by means of a chromic without using sensitises is the bitumen of Judea. that M. 191 To it give it the necessary soli- dity and resisting power.' ^ used Since this time. the metal plate plunged into an electro- typing bath of sulphate of copper. Baldus has quite dispensed with electrotypy. action of diffused light. immersion in the liquid. Thus can one obtain at will from the negative pole an like engraved plate. plates It fit A few minutes suffice him to make the for the copper-plate engraving process. bitten out. which can be used for printing from a wood in engraving.HELIOGRAPH Y. . attach and the parts which are unprotected or. and from the positive pole a plate as copper-plate printing. a it coating to the will of copper in relief will be deposited positive pole. technically speaking. light. is left for two days to the After the picture has been thus is consolidated. and the whole ' exposed to the action of the this process is It will be seen that very similar to the electrotypin'g method of Poitevin.

and rubbed with a cotton polisher soaked in mercury. then submitted to the action of light behind a negative. and adheres the free parts. where the salt has not been acted upon by the light a first relief is thus obtained. it is augmented by replacing the plate in the perchloride of iron solution. is produced positive. having passed over it a printing-ink roller. A little later on. to vapours of iodine. if a then the lines formed are and the plate can be used for typographic printing. The and ink attaches itself to the parts of the plate in protects them from the action of the mordant. An is inking roller being repelled now passed over this plate the ink by the parts where the mercury has in acted.— 192 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. in the dark. peating this treatment the lines of the picture By remay be deepened to the required extent. As after this first relief is not sufficient. The latter there- . relief. which in all the parts . is After exposure the plate chloride placed in a solution of perattacks it of iron. Garnier and : Salmon. in 1855. a plate . which only attacks the parts unaltered by the light. If a photographic negative is employed. for use as in the copper-plate process in relief. a new and extremely in- genious process was brought out by MM. of which the following ' is a description A brass plate is exposed.

1 93 fore. and the parts unprotected by the latter are bitten with an acid to the required depth. We shall glance at methods as by some celebrated is — M. Garnier obtained helio- graphic engravings made from &c. form the shadows. O . typographic plate is required. the iodised Mercury is again applied iron. sixi^me edition. the first corrosion with the iron a coat iron acted. par Monckhoven. But if the ink not removed. 1875. G. of negatives of views of monuments.' ^ By an analogous process M. gold used to form the deposit. very remarkable quality. and when treated with nitrate of is of silver give a plate capable plate after use as in copper- printing. nitrate of silver. instead of iron. Albert a photographer of Munich. This operator received the grand prize for photography at the Exhibition.. actually used Albertype. and. landscapes. Masson. In the last few years the processes which we have important been describing have undergone improvements. • Traite general de Photographic. and does not adhere to the Passed under If a is the inking roller the ink only adheres to the iron.HELIOGRAPH Y. the parts adheres only to the where the mercury- and the ink being now removed leaves bare brass. to the plate. of galvanised deposited on the plate. many most the operators.

is the . and 200 engrav- ings can be easily furnished from a plate in 12 hours. known from his well remarkable works . ' who has seen the clever experimentalist at work. which the lithographic press . is coating of gelatine isinglass. and a tolu) in alcohol. A side thick glass well polished is covered on its polished when placed in a horizontal position with a solution of gelatine and bichromate of ammonium and albumen coating is previously heated. When the dry. the first great delicacy and is care. which requires finished. Albert's studios at Munich. This it first slight exposed this to the light to render insoluble in water. Monckhoven. when dried and rubbed with an oiled flannel. is parts where the light has acted.194 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. is ready for inking. This operation the plate. the plate plunged into tepid water. Heliographic endaily- gravings for the production of portrait-cartes are made in M. "When operation. the plate thus prepared is placed in a print- ing frame under the negative to be reproduced. When is exposure has been sufficiently long. which dissolves the soluble parts unaltered by the light. mixture of resinous matters (benzoin. covered with another of gelatine bichromate of potash. done with an inking * roller in and this.' says M. and leaves slightly in relief the finished. his name has with justice been given to some photo-lithographic processes based on Poitevin's method.

' Obernetter's Process. which gives very good results. metallic. leave nothing to be desired. and tone. and then well washed The parts of the gelatine less covered with the metallic powder can be more or damped and therefore refuse it. but the greater part of them have processes based on o 2 secret .HFXIOGRAPHY. and those obtained by M. to a sheet of The plate must be placed with care on india-rubber or a coating of plaster. whilst those free from the zinc receive Modern Heliography. exposed behind a negative. At Paris operators have arrived at very satisfactory results. is The heated to a temperature of 200° to the action of a very centigrade. the greasy ink. Albert. and is very successful in Germany. with papers super- posed. The greasy ink with which the rollers are coated should be of superior quality. point of exactitude. after this operation. and reto workman do it well. — In this process. ber of methods of —There is a considerable numsome photo-engraving. Purple is often as in added to it to give the proof the same appearance photographic proof. covered plate. delicacy. &c. zinc powder. 1 95 most delicate and quires a clever sticky or pasty difficult part of the process. the is gelatine coating. with an impalpable. If the ink is it is removed with turpentine and a sponge. It is submitted weak solution of hydrochloric acid.

Amongst the most noted French operators we may mention M. which must be printed without text in a special press. in which the lines forming the picture. and minutiae. which we shall describe in the next chapter. plates in which the forming the picture are hollow and must therefore be printed as by the copperplate process. the plate in relief. photographed and engraved by cesses similar to those which are here described in this chapter. Rousselon and Messrs. . . 38. We take it for granted the reader can distinguish the is copper-plate engraving. To show what may be done by these is processes the reader referred to the opposite engraving which has been is printed With the text. and secondly. which formed by grooves in the metal. as that has fig. and a reproduction of a sketch pro- by Gustave Dore. though it as yet only produces plates. stand out from the metal. operations.ig6 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. and cannot be used for printing with type cut. Dujardin Brothers. analogous to Poitevin's methods. Heliography thus furnishes. similar to a wood- and very for our easily printed with type. admirable is. lines first. been done is This last process of heliography especially useful for illustrating scientific and other books. Photoglypty (Woodbury process). instead of being sunk in relief in. from the typographic plate.

) Fig. . (After a Drawing by Gustave Dore. 36 SPF.CIMEN OF A HELIOGRAPHIC ENGRAVING.

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fier coureur. A. CQKTOTs. ayant atteint son revt Mourir. agitant un laurier. 37 [Page 197 the soldier of mauathon.Ce n'etait qu'un guand on eut la n porter la soldat obscur entre dix mille. Epuise par sa course effrayaate et sans treve. Et partit. Heureux qui pent de meme. il voulut. des qu'il fut au terme du chemin. Fig. A PAQUieifon. victoire. II mourut. . nouvelle a sa lointaine ville. la flamme au coeur et la palme a la main. R. le premier.

and has succeeded not only in in reproducing Nature. themselves principally to phical. both from the num- ber of copies they will furnish and the . and even portraits are now made by heliographic processes. 38. Landscapes. steel plates. Goupil and Co. Dujardin apply THE SOLDIER OF MARATHON. 197 The former gentleman manages copying old engravings. They produce by heliography cheapness of which have great merit. but Messrs. monuments. engineering. scientific.'s heliographic establishment. Messrs. and the repro- duction of old manuscripts. (Heliographic reduction of the opposite wood-engraving. geogra- and cartographical reproductions.HELIOGRAPHY. Fig.

and which impossible for the eye to read. their These heliographic processes have already found numerous applications. production. . They are used by VEcole des C//artes for the reproduction of manuscripts.) The photographic . are made again legible. 37 and ^8. nor will they be wanting in the future. To give an idea of the utility of the new methods for reducing or enlarging. reproduction of manuscripts becomes daily of more importance it is by its aid. (See figs. for the by the Bank of Belgium and the Bank of France manufacture of notes. texts which have become almost effaced. and facing wood it representing the Soldier a reduction of it is which has been ' made by heliography.^ by engineers and architects for reducing or enlarging their designs. we have reproduced on the preceding page an engraving on of Marathon.I93 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

II. What process is excites admiration in it this new that the proofs obtained by are almost exactly similar to those produced by ordinary photo- graphic processes . LEMERCIER. and the same fineness of quality.199 CHAPTER PHOTOGLYPTY. Another offers almost inestimable advantage which this process is that the proofs maybe multiplied indefinitely and very rapidly. the same appearance. an art born but yesterday and hardly that known to the public. (THE WOODBURY PROCESS. has seemed so great to us it we have thought principally well to reserve for a special description. GOUPIL'S ESTABLISHMENT— M. . just The im- portance of photoglypty. they have the same colour. the wonderful operations which we have been describing have been greatly perfected. — — Thanks to the improvements of the English scientist Woodbury.) WOODBURY— IMPRESSION OF A GELATINISED PLATE INTO A BLOCK OF METAL WORKING OF PHOTOGLYPTIC METHODS IN PARIS DESCRIPTION OF MESSRS.

Goupil. a like delusion. and perhaps bought some of them. or other suitable colouring matter.^200 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. assuredly destined to a M. the publisher. and treated as in the printing and developing of an ordinary carbon proof. by thus describing an invention which great future. well known to the Parisian public. . The first part of the method is based on the properties of bichromatised gelatine. has acquired the right to work the Woodbury processes. in con- tact with the negative exposed to light. and sensitised with an aqueous solution of bichromate of potash. thinking that he was getting ordinary photographs. How shall try is this prodigy performed ? This is what we advance pic- and teach the reader. it We were that for a long time under Now we are undeceived we think useful and interesting to undeceive is others. He has organised a fine establishment at Asnieres under the intelligent direction of M. presuming has already in that he seen these photoglyptic tures at the printsellers' and booksellers'. Rousselon. We shall describe faithfully what we have seen and admired. gelatine is This leaf of placed in an ordinary printing frame. who willingly initiated us into the mysteries of the new operations. is A sheet of gelatine prepared with a slight admixture of Indian ink.

The leaf is carefully removed from the printing frame in a dark room. just as in the carbon print.PHOTOGLYPTY. 20I The the latent image is registered in the gelatine in degrees of solubility or insolubility. we have spoken in But the miracle now commences. the photograph repro- in relief. placed on a glass plate covered is with india-rubber varnish. In this position equal to is submitted to great hydraulic pressure. the other of lead it much softer. and held up to the picture light. and thus render the leaf very thinner. and the whole for twenty-four hours in a receptacle then placed containing tepid water constantly renewed tions of in order to dissolve those por- the gelatine which were protected from the action of the light. a faithful copy of the negative out and is seen . and a sheet of lead mixed with antimony. much On is being removed from its glass support. In one word. of which the previous chapter. dried. its The of gelatine film with lies design in relief and engraving thus the between serve as two metal surfaces. is The gelatine leaf next placed between a plate of perfectly level steel bound with iron. . degrees corresponding with every detail of the picture. the lights are hollowed the shadows duced in relief. one steel to support. It will be seen that up to this point the process is very similar to Poitevin's.

39- hard and unyielding. Not at all . while the gelatine relief leaves the press quite uninjured and may be used again.202 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. more than 700. harder than the lead into which it penetrates. received the exact impression of the gelatine and the astonished spectator sees every detail of the photo- graph reproduced in the metal. PHOTOGLYPTIC PRESS. . although friable Fig. it acts like the die it is when striking out a coin or medal .. on being taken from the press the lead found to have leaf. you will say.000 and the leaf of gelatine. will be crushed to powder beneath such pressure. lbs. is In fact.

000 facsimile in a be obtained week. to anyone who has not seen the details of this astonishing process. prints can The press once set going 10. the paper seems to have been converted into an ordinaryphotograph. and supplied with a semi-transparent ink formed . 40. . 203 a special press (see The fig. lead plate is next placed in 39). of gelatine and Indian ink coloured with sepia of paper is a sheet placed over this. and on being raised a few moments after.PHOTOGLYPTY. Fig. the lever is pressed down . TURN-TABLE REQUIRED FOR TAKING PHOTOGLYPTIC PROOFS.

It is possible to use glass instead of paper for printing on. Goupil processs. for sale. as gives the appearance of the photograph. presses are placed on a rotatory that the The photoglyptic table in such a way workman can keep them (Fig.204 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. 40. trimmed.) The ink can be coloured to it any shade. Photoglyptic proofs on being taken from the press are washed in an alum bath. the lights and shades should be distinctly defined. which makes the print fixes it . without being able to enter into the detail of the delicate manipulations which require great will skill on the part of the operator. insoluble and so they are then dried. is not the only one who makes use of this M. and are now ready It is hardly necessar}^ to say that in this description we have had to confine ourselves to giving our readers the principles of the photoglyptic process. M. It be patent to everyone that the photographic negafrom which the photoglyptic proofs are to be formed tive must be made under the best conditions of sharpness and clearness . so that the gelatine film receives the action of the light freely. Lemercier has also organised a fine pho- . and mounted on cardboard. but sepia the most generally used. is constantly supplied with the thick jelly-like ink.

toglyptic studio. and its proofs. and the whole pressed between the upon a perfectly flat parallel jaws of the hydraulic engine. worked by the Woodbury Co. is caused by the gelatine which has impressed into the lead a complete intaglio picture in which the deepest shadows recede farthest from the level. which none but an expert could distinguish from an ordinary silver print. &c. The new invention has already placed an innumerable quantity of prints in the ' In order to understand the principle of this beautiful process. and the only divergence from this perfectly level surface relief. upon the true level of the steel plate will therefore The superfluous material thus pressed out. while the high lights rise to the true level of the plate. Ed. but it in the reprois duction of portraits from especially suitable for reproducing pictures. the level cover of the press is then brought down and locked. in the deep shadows.^ Photoglyphy completely successful nature. presents a flat surface . a warm solution of semi-transparent ink. and therefore is its greatest it But when the proof thoroughly dry. engravings. which are rendered with great delicacy. attaining opacity. The Woodbury process. that is. and the resulting proof is a pictorial relief in permanent ink . It be readily understood that in pulling the impressions the second press must also be supplied with a perfectly level plate of glass or The intaglio slightly greased is placed in position and charged with steel. worked by the Woodbury Co. of London.500 by is this clever artist. is largely used for book illustration on account of the delicacy and beauty of It has. that the proofs require to be cut and mounted. leaving the white paper exposed.. of London. however. one great defect in the eyes of publishers. The direct result of the pressure is that the soft leaden plate has taken the tnie level surface of the steel. and the semi-transparent ink rises in beautiful gradations through the delicate shades and half-tones. the gelatinous ink sets in an instant. its highest relief.— PHOTOGLYPTV. the leaden then placed upon the relief. the reader must bear in mind that the gelatine relief is first when subjected to pressure laid plate is and true plate of hard steel. The success of the process depends entirely employed in the press. the high lights have been pressed out. the paper placed in contact with the ink . and copies 205 have been printed to the extent of 5.

Ed. travel. ' There are several photo-illustrated periodicals in London. Thus these photographic processes will henceforth rank theatrical journal has recently for among made the industries. for not easy to see . by furnishing proofs which its offer all the advantages of photography without drawbacks. amongst which a great number having of reproductions of pictures some of the latter been produced to the extent of 30. would have been powerless to furnish so large a number.. &c. we may mention . years ago. It is hardly necessary to insist further it on the impor- tance of the that it new invention . Photography. how time gelatine and Indian ink can alter nevertheless. alone can solve the question with certainty. The only is objection which can be raised to photoglypty this : Are the gelatine prints permanent ? Will they be as prints ? little affected it by time is as typographic It is probable. will be plain to everyone must be considered as the solution of a great in the history of in- problem destined to be an epoch vention. A use of photography reproducing each week the portraits of four most artists.^ on This curious art must unillus- doubtedly prove of most valuable assistance for trating books of fine art.000 copies and more. market.— 206 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. noted dramatic The prints are pulled in the itself Lemercier presses and mounted on the journal a space reserved for each. .

Another but 207 less important objection might perhaps be taken to the somewhat uncouth name of the new discovery cess. but this name is very appropriate to the prophotos. to engrave soon get accustomed. . Hght. — to the union of which one .— PHOTOGLYPTY. will being derived from two Greek words and gluptem.

PHOTOSCULPTURE. were placed in the midst of M. to the aid of the sculptor. Willeme's (such was the name of the ingenious inventor) studio. AN UNEXPECTED DISCOVERY — PHOTOGRAPHY APPLIED TO SCULPTURE WILLfeME'S PROCESS IN 1861 — DESCRIPTION OF PHOTOSCULPTURE. by the hand of the but it comes work. . but to If make similes of them. living whether marble statue or man or woman. which would hav^e diminutive fac- nothing wonderful. a few days after a . and relieves him in his In the course of the year 1861. We have just seen that photography has furnished the engraver with appliances as valuable as they were un- expected more. an object. animate or inanimate. CHAPTER III.— 208 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. but the art created by Daguerre can do yet Not only does it engrave the copper plate as done artist. the Parisian press announced that a well-known inventor had discovered the means of reproducing statues by photography. not merely to represent them been in picture.

PHOTOSCULPTURE. by which several photographs of the objec from different points of view are to be obtained. accustomed to being hoaxed by the with great distrust. was seen that there was nothing process. the P . suppose these photographs be restricted to four — first. looked on . press. it But facts must be believed it and as soon as the mystery was explained. 209 little It would be done by photography. A of the face. not to transform a photograph on paper into a sculptural relief. perseverance. and the statuary image would be the exact representation of the living model. statue of clay would be modelled. for we quote 1861. but by the aid of photographs to imitate in a certain way a statue or living person. Such a result appeared incredible. The new discovery was at once christened with the name of photosculptiire. This curious art is designed. and ingenuity alone composed the miracle. To explain the processes of photosculpture. the 2nd B of the back. in is a passage from the Aitnuaire Scientifique which Willeme's invention is described: *A model placed in the centre of a circular platform the circumference of which can be included in the field of a single camera. and the public. fantastic or incomprehensible in Willeme's it and was soon proved that work. To simplify matters.

In the same way. These and are tablets are for the made to from the purpose of holding two of the photographs which must be those of views front A. the second points of the two other . the placing in true position. D it of the is left profile — of the them these obtained. 3rd C of the right profile. such as the and the profile C. case. * The two points of a pantograph. the circumference of placed on a level which is divided into as many in this equal parts as there are photographs to be taken. is To effect this the plaster or clay to be sculptured plate. Two upright tablets are fastened vertically and at right angles to each other to the plate is on which the plaster slide to or placed. the other to the it or hard mass on which traces a silhouette. therefore. Another pantograph at right angles to the first acts in a similar manner in reproducing the silhouette of the profile C. both they and the tablets horizontal marked with a double system of which greatly facilitate and vertical lines. an exact copy of the silhouette of the photograph.210 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. of which soft it follows all the outline. and 4th object . at right angles to each other. an instrument for . four. counter-drawing. are applied the one to the photograph A. plate. In order that the photo- graphs are may be exactly even. necessary to use for reproducing the model in relief.

The photographs on which from each other.PHOTOSCULPTURE. the first points of which are guided in the same way over the photographs B and D... three and nine. eight. the two pantographs act simultaneously are those taken at an angle of 90 degrees viz. in fact. 211 pantographs. the number suflficient for obtaining the requisite continuity of the exterior outlines so that there would be but an edge or two to correct by hand. numbered in order from one the turning plate holding the clay to be modelled is also divided into twenty-four equal parts. twelve. In any case the number of the pictures must be one divisible by four four is . are 'The photographs to twenty-four . up to twenty-four fresh and six.. . and each time the is tablets division. ears. tured would be but very imperfectly manipulated but nothing prevents that instead of twenty-four views should four. one and seven. two and eight. and the statue will be incom-> plete until such indentations as the nostrils. &c.. ' receive photos. twenty- a very convenient and sufficient number. Simply with four operations the mass to be sculp. or be taken . reproduce on the block the silhouettes of the back and of the profile D. the plate turned one But this series of twenty-four operations will only give the exterior outlines.

la Rochefoucauld and Madame Galiffet may be but exact as are the copies of these personages. sculpture after . Praxiteles. common and mediocre in How can a gentleman a double-breasted coat. He has suc- ceeded in reproducing some statues. M. and. Giroux have exhibited some of these curious productions . Will^me obtains by following with the pantograph not only the profiles. they present nothing more than statues.' In 1861. boldly attempted to produce the statue of a as his portrait is living person just taken in a photo- graphic studio. out.212 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. or a lady fortified with crinolines. have been brought These M. Willeme constructed a photosculpture studio at the top of the Champs-Elysees. For some time past Messrs. Willeme but he has none the less created in all a new application of photography worthy respects to be noted and taken up by some bold spirit Though. from an art point of view. amongst others diminutive figures of the Duke de seen . not content with this. but also the lines of light in depression and shade which represent parts and relief. from an art point of view. In M. compete with the ? Apollo Belvidere. or the Venus de Medicis imperiously exacted spite of his attempts nudity is by the art of failed.

with precision and exactitude. by photography seems first 213 nature to impossible. the works of old and modern masters.PHOTOSCULPTURE. there is reason hope that the attempts of M. and that ployed in may then be em- reproducing. Willeme will be his process one day perfected. .

— 214 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. We have seen that into porcelain the image of the camera can be fixed glass. affording the engraver an exact and delicate guide for his gi'aving tool. on metals. CHAPTER IV. and on can also be so burnt it is by a certain process that once annealed as indelible as ceramic painting. ^ It on paper. . PHOTOGRAPHIC ENAMELS. It occurred to him that it be possible to transfer to porcelain a positive image ' Transferred direct to the surface of a block. first M. Lafon de Camarsac was the who conceived might the idea of employing photography in this curious and unexpected manner. Many manufacturers have . employed photography for decorating porcelain vases and some of these productions are really works of art and good taste. and resists time and all other deteriorating agents. VITRIFICATION OF A PHOTOGRAPH— CAMARSAC'S PROCESS —^JEWELLERY ENAMEL — METHOD OF MAKING POITEVIN'S METHOD— PERMANENT GLAZE PHOTOGRAPHS. it dispenses with the Avork of the artist on wood.

PHOTOGRAPHIC ENAMELS.^ should be destroyed by the action of heat. and thus to obtain an enamel which reproduced the original photographic design. and the vigour and delicacy of which they faithfully render. and in 1854 photographic enamels were invented. 21 5 formed of substances vitrifiable by fire. After cooling. is formed clear and The inventor now substituted ceramic colours for the parts which. by imparting a rapid movement portion as the powder is In pro- spread over the coating. follow most delicately all The enamel powders the features of the drawing. which they partly penetrate. piece is The which is now ready for the buniing-in process done in the same way as usual in ceramic-paste . By means coating of a fine sieve the inventor deposited the metallic oxide colours delicately on the surface of the . to submit this to a high temperature. he spread these powders either with a brush or to the plate. the proof particles of colour must be dusted to remove any which may adhere to the whites of the picture. the heat should be gradually increased. With this object in view the inventor set patiently to work. sensitive coating capable of receiving Camarsac made a the impression from a glass photograph without adhering to the latter. After exposure to light the picture distinct. To transform the heliograph into an indelible painting.

as (fig. 1874.. The fire destroys the organic substances.' * says Camarsac. There is no colour which cannot be applied to the . the details of which briefly describe. a pin.. wishing doubtless t<9 keep it secret. a Lafon de Camarsac's Patents. we will To produce a portrait on enamel for mounting. which in degradations of thickness inappreciable formed to the eye . they are often done. a more or less colouring. &c. .2l6 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. But we are now acquainted with Poitevin's method. is must be seen that this appearance due to the remarkis able delicacy of the photographic deposit. heliographic surface as blue or purple.. hot fire being employed according to the nature of the colours to be produced. and a which no other of painting could cir- furnish with like degree that delicacy. and fixes the picture formed by the indestructible colours as soon as they are vitrified. in a brooch * 41). This cumstance proves taken exactly the fully pl^ace the powder enamel has and it of the organic matter. ' One of the remarkable properties of these pictures..' It will ^ gold and silver are as easily used be seen that the inventor of photographic enamels describes his process with great reserve. is the appearance of fine enamel which they present.

PHOTOGRAPHIC ENAMELS. is The photographic proof thus developed. as the exposure to the light is finished. positive on glass 217 is first made of the object to be repre- sented. a portrait faithful. This positive sensitised surface is applied to a glass coated with a formed of a mixture of gum and bichromate of potash. it by means of a sieve 42). modifies in such a way as to give only to those parts the curious property of retaining the charcoal dust or powder. Thus this shower brings to view. the charcoal only ad- heres to the parts where the light has acted else. as both delicate and light by enchantment. totally if though unaltered appearing to the eye. and acts on the bichromate of potash in a manner which. the is bichroma- tised plate removed. The light traverses the trans- parent parts of the positive. As soon Fig. a fine charcoal dust issprinkled over (fig. a coating . and nowhere fine charcoal if PHOTO-ENAMEL BROOCH. in which the distinctions of and shade are well preserved. 41. and. though it invisible to the naked eye.

formed of white enamelled copper to that used a fixing paste similar by ceramic painters is spread over the enamel with a brush. which soon dries. is permanent. and the fixing agent becomes incorporated . The film of collodion then placed on the convex plate . 42. separated by the aid of pointed instruments from the glass plate. but this coating not of charcoal showing the design .2l8 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. and brings away with is nt the charcoal proof. {fiormal) is By means spread over operation of a brush a coat of collodion it. The fine coating of collodion Fig. The next is one requiring very great dexhas to be terity of hand. DUSTING SIEVE.

without some slight damage to the beauty of outline and tone of the photograph. and the vitrified carbon alone fixed in an indelible manner. Messrs. of course. the design in black is traced over by an artist with colouring pastes used for decorating ceramics. Forest. are justly celebrated for their photographic enamels. and all the organic matters are is destroyed . and we have seen portraits made by this last artist which have the quality of ancient miniatures. Gongenheim. with the resemblance which photography alone can assure.PHOTOGRAPHIC ENAMELS. not always.and others. with the carbonised parts of the proof. of which the image or design. Berthand. Desroche. it 219 retains When subjected to a red heat in an enameUing fur- nace the fixing paste adheres to the charcoal powder. vitrification takes place. . Similar processes have been used to obtain the vitreous or glazed lifelike by some operators photographs of which at the Exhibi- some remarkable specimens were exhibited tion of 1867. Henderson. If a coloured proof is required. which are much used in jewellery. Lochard.

the Palace of dustry thousands giving of objects were TOY MICROSCOPE OF THE EXHIBiTioN OK X867. There were small microscopes 43) containing size photographs the surface of which did not exceed the of the head of a pin. CHAPTER V. PHOTOMICROGRAPHY. . — The reader who may have visited the International Exhibitions in Paris in the years 1859 ^^^ ^^^7 cannot have forgotten the wonderful productions of microscopic photography which appeared In- ^1 ''- there. At sold. where were to be seen through a magni- fying glass the portraits of the 450 deputies of the Empire.220 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. (fig. THE TOY MICROSCOPES OF THE PARIS INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS— 450 DEPUTIES IN THE SPACE OF A PIN'S HEAD— ARRANGETHE NATURAL MENTS OF PHOTOMICROGRAPHIC APPARATUS SCIENCES AND PHOTOMICROGRAPHY — RESOURCES BORROWED FROM THE HELIOGRAPH. some idea of the minuteness to which pho- tographic prints could attain.

of a photomicrographic apparatus The arrangement . Photomicrography has rendered and still renders every day the greatest services to the Natural Sciences. Photography succeeds diminished image. the naturalist can have hands prints representing under a considerable enlargement the infusoria. Microscopic study for long is fatiguing. Jules Girard. Thanks in his to photo- micrography. tracts who has kindly authorised us to make ex- from his interesting works. must already be considered as a valuable assistant to scientific investigation. as a photographer as he is skilful a good microscopist. We examine the results of the process called photomicrography. grains of pollen. We do so by the aid of a distinguished amateur. Before studying Lilliputian photographs review those which able we shall pass in operators now obtain shall from images enlarged by the microscope.PHOTOMICROGRAPHY. but it 221 in is taking the impression of a also capable of rendering permanent the images magnified by the microscope. birth of On this account this art. We shall shall chiefly examine microscopic photography in relation to its application to the natural sciences. M. the yesterday. and the eye cannot observe this an object through the magnifying glasses of instrument without feeling wearied. and the most delicate organs of vegetables or animals.

of whatever kind duction of a picture. which fitting the slide fit one within the other. and there will be also . The thus more cleanly and regularly covered. Girard. and of such dimensions . and also used in which is ordinary photography.222 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. suitable for the pro- Let be a bellows camera which draw out to about a yard. will it may it be. there particular arrangement. always inscribed is in a square. which more rational to avoid in photomicrography of its by simplifying and reducing the number as every photographer possesses. because parts. The glass plates must also be specially cut in squares of sensitive surface is two or three sizes.' in In order not to change anything the arrangement of the camera there must be a plate-holder or series of plate-holders. which are longer than they are broad. In adapting a microscope to the end of a camera such is no need of any instru- any one of these is ments. * requires peculiar care. when is the whole field of also projection teristic of made use of: the circle more charac- microscopic impressions. as will take in a glass plate of 8 x lO inches will this size be more than sufficient. not very suitable to receive an is image which. indispensable that in numerous conditions it is ordinary photography. The shape of the glass plates is usually sold. being circular. However 'it is well arranged a it camera should may be/ satisfy says M.

With certain it glass plates. The microscope is the inevitable shakes given to the camera the focus. is slide giving same The front of the camera usually made moveable. A mere opening the flange allowing the tube of the microscope to be inserted into the rigid.PHOTOMICROGRAPHY. or in withdrawing. a truncated cone of india-rubber. preserve to each a perfectly independent motion 44). from the so that lenses of various sizes can be used. or other perfectly opaque flexible material. such as those used for the stereoscope. The ordinary lens-holder being removed front of the camera. for camera would make the combination too the two instruments must be so united as to (fig. in be fixed over the aper- such a manner as to prevent any light being ad- mitted at the junction. would be advantageous two impressions at the to employ a double time. of the other. there should ture. It is absolutely necessary that the junction should in be made by a simple contrivance bility to order to give flexiin every movement. so that that of the one may not interfere with that thus withdrawn from . more economy in 223 the use of the chemicals. the tube of the microscope being irtserted into the narrow end of the cone. even with in regulating all possible pre- caution. the dark slide containing the sensitised glass . strong black cloth.

the slightest the position of the image. 44 MICROSCOPE FITTED TO THE CAMERA.^ As an ordinary camera cannot generally be sufficiently Fig. the stage of the microscope which carries the object to be photographed and the prepared plate ought to be perfectly Ed. operator. as light But the amateur would probably be safer in using the microscope. This independent action of the camera and microscope containing confers a decided advantage in the hands of a skilled cone. to the other end of which fastened the india-rubber or black cloth junction. . shake would cause a disturbance of 224 plate. ^ the object-glass. it is of great importance to obtain a direct thrown from the mirror of the microscope through the axis of the and.— THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. parallel to each other. moreover. there may be fixed to the flange a metallic or is wooden cone. and camera rigidly united. instruments . drawn out.

The height of the support should be such that the optical axis of the microscope is exactly in a line with the centre of the ground-glass back of the camera. and want of sufficient height a cause of constraint and fatigue. mounted on solid legs having an outward inclination to give (fig. it more firmness 45). 225 In place of the ordinary camera a simple oblong box provided with a focal distance slide may be used. or to avoid still The interior should be coated with a dull better with very fine black velvet. of the breadth of the camera and about a yard and a half long. The microscope should be stand so as to attached to a heavy metal make it as steady as possible.PHOTOMICROGRAPHY. in our opinion. In order to compensate for the Q . to place one's ease is it in a position suitable to work at to let it rest on a bench. Though be found an ordinary microscope better to have the tube will may be used. then be put on an ordinary table very firmly placed the height of ordinary tables is but not adapted to the conis venience of the operator. The apparatus could . black. it will made as short as the mechanism would pre- admit of. The best manner. but then the would be invariably the same. in order reflections any from a polished surface. as a tube of the usual length vent the expansion of the pencil of light thrown upon the sensitive plate.

— 226 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. 45- ARRANGEMENT OF THE PHOTOMICROGRAPHIC APPARATUS ON A BENCH. the eyes. it would be well to furnish with levelling screws. should there be no other table at hand. which are often found it inequalities in flooring. one gains considerably in ease and quickness of ' movement* In when The bench ought to be made iong enough to expanded. support the camera fully Ed. To stand upright is perhaps a little more fatiguing than to make the trials of focussing seated on the edge of a lower table. so that when standing. legs another board Near the bottom of the fixed. The height would be regulated. . by standing. might be which would increase their firmness and also be very convenient for placing any small articles upon while working. but. the centre of the ground glass would be on a level with Fig.

and the hand free to hold the A system of screws and . tions given.PHOTOMICROGRAPHY. 22/ when expanded. or in some other way support the extreme end of the camera to prevent any rocking motion when the movable back this is inserted or taken out. By not having the camera too much expanded the awk- wardness of stretching the arm to reach the focussing screw. Wishing to avoid M. head under the focussing screw. should be much longer it. is avoided. assistant In case of need recourse might be had to an who would made The turn the screw according to directhis inconvenience. de Brebisson has of the camera. and for that reason are often defective. the upon a table of cloth. connecting rods has also little is been devised to but a position even a inconvenient preferable to which one soon gets accustomed having recourse to pieces of mechanism which act at a distance. The sen- sitiveness of a micrographic screw does not suit such ar- Q2 . case the camera. a bench like the one described — which may be readily moved to suit the light— will prove of great service. ratus placed use of a mirror placed at the bottom operator then leans over the appasuitable height. As apparatus does not admit of the focussing of the image so readily as in the ordinary photographic camera. it than the bench which supports to would be necessary add metal brackets. when the head is under the focussing cloth.

placed above the object-glass A. O represents the slide carries the object to be magnified. as re- by fig.228 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. however correct rangements it well. can never equal the free and direct motion of the hand. for. 46. their action may be. V which is the focussing screw. The microscope may presented also be placed vertically. VERTICAL MICROSCOPE ADAPTED TO THE CAMERA FOR PHOTOMICROGRAVHY. . viously described is But the arrangement we have preto be preferred.

the results due to this branch of the photographic The tissues of plants. it is properly necessary to give every possible attention to lighting the object effectually. the marvels of the invisible world. we shall confine ourselves to speaking of art. electro-magnetic light. or oxy-hydrogen light as in Fig. Under certain conditions artificial the light of the sun light may be replaced by an produced by the combustion of magnesium or the fig. insects. are fixed on the collodion with a precision unknown to the most scrupulous draughtsman. PHOTOMICROGRAPHIC APPARATUS FOR ARTIFICIAL LIGHT. 229 The photomicrographic apparatus being placed. We of this shall not enter into matters of practical detail in the analogous to those we have described Second Part work . This is of very great im- portance in such operations. .PHOTOMICROGRAPHY. 47- 47. which fatigue the eye when examining them through the microscope.

SECTION OF THE WOOD OF A Fig. At a is seen the transverse section o( the stem. Fig. Fig. it Beside we place the section of a piece of (fig. 48 gives the portrait of a flea photographed after being enlarged by a miscroscopic object-glass. and at b the longitudinal section. which was taken by the pro- cesses described in this chapter. 50). the photograph obtained directly from the . 49 is the reproduction of a photograph of thin sections of a cane. 49.230 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. FACSIMILE OF THE PHOTOGRArH OF SECTIONS OF THE STEM OF A CANE. fir represented in the same manner By uniting the processes of heliography and photo- micrography. 50. The en- graving has been done in such a manner as to reproduce faithfully the photograph. Fig.

.

.

was taken from a photograph of diatomaceae representing these infinitely small objects magnified 450 diameters.51 CROUP OF DIATOMS. Fig. This engraving is the mathematically exact copy of the .PHOTOMICROGRAPHY. 231 magnified object has been converted into a heliographic plate. 51 is printed from a heliographic plate which Fig.

are by the here figured by the heliograph just as Nature has created them. organisms. their it images magnified by the has then formed the en- . in SECTION OF THE FIN OF A WHALE. which are met with in incalculable numbers on the surface of sea-weeds or pebbles which have been exposed to the action of mineral water.232 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. Photography has fixed microscope on collodion . and which Fig. reality are smaller than the smallest prick given finest needle. 52. These astonishing image given by the microscope.

PHOTOMICROGRAPHY.
graved

233

plate,

and enabled us to

insert

it

in this book.

This plate was produced by heliography from a very fine
photomicroscopic negative by M. Jules Girard.
other two designs
(figs.

The

52 and 53) were produced in the

same manner.
Fig. 53-

El'IDERMIS OF A CATKRPILLAR.

The
whale.

first (fig.

52) represents the section of the fin of a

And
pillar.

the second

(fig.

53) the epidermis of a cater-

We think

these examples are sufficient to prove the

234

THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY.
find

immense resources which the Natural Sciences may
in the processes
is

of photomicrography.

But if the operator

now

able to fix the image of an almost imperceptible

object magnified
shall see,

by the microscope, he can
;

also, as
is

we

perform the inverse operation

that

to say,

he can photograph the image of an object reduced to
Lilliputian dimensions.

The toy
an
art

microscopes, which
trifling

we

have already mentioned, afforded a
this last application of

specimen of

which subsequently proParis.

duced the photographic despatches of the siege of

235

CHAPTER
PARIS.

VI.

MICROSCOPIC DESPATCHES DURING THE SIEGE OF

APPLICATION OF MICROSCOPIC PHOTOGRAPHY TO THE ART OF WAR THREE MILLION PRINTED LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET ON THE TAIL OF A PIGEON ENLARGEMENT OF THE DESPATCHES THEIR CONVEYANCE BY CARRIER-PIGEONS.

During

the war of 1870-71,

when

Paris
in

was invested
reducing the

by the enemy, photography succeeded
size of the

messages sent by carrier-pigeons, so as to
invisible to the

render them almost

naked eye.

No

philosopher could have imagined this use of photography,
called forth

by the

dire necessities of war.

No

one can have forgotten the service rendered by

balloons during the siege of Paris, nor the wonderful part

played by carrier-pigeons, which brought to the besieged
city

news from the outer world.

But these

birds,

how-

ever strong they might be, could only carry with

them

very light burdens through the

air.

A
all

thin

sheet of

paper two or three inches square was

the load that

could be entrusted to these winged messengers.

But

2^6

THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY.
write orders, send despatches, give precise instruc-

how

tions in such a

minute
it

letter

?

the most able caligrapher

could hardly

make

contain the letters in a single

page of a printed volume.
Microscopic photography came to the assistance of
Fig- 54-

CARRIER-PIGEON WITH PHOTOGRAPHIC DESPATCHES.

the besieged

;

it

solved the difficulty as no other art could

have done
less

;

it

reproduced on a film of collodion weighing

than a grain, more than three thousand despatches,
is

that

to

say,

the

amount of sixteen pages of

folio

printed matter.

We

shall recall briefly these

memorials of microaid of carrier-pigeons.

scopic photography utilised

by the

MICROSCOPIC DESPATCHES.

237

At

Tours,

all

public

or private

despatches were

printed on a large sheet of paper, which could contain

about 300,000
balloon,

letters.

M. Dagron, who

left

Paris in a

reduced this big poster to a small negative

scarcely one quarter the size of a playing card.

These were

at first printed

on a thin sheet of paper.

Fig. 55-

QflLL CONTAINING MICROSCOPIC DESPATCHES FASTENED TO A TAlLFEATHER OF CARRIER-PIGEON.

but afterwards on a film of collodion, which, though

weighing

less

than one grain, contained the matter of

several newspapers.

Several of these films representing a considerable

number of despatches were
quill

rolled

up and enclosed

in a

about the

size

of a tooth-pick.
tail

This light and
of the pigeon as

novel letter-box was attached to the
represented in
figs.

54 and

55.

The bird-messenger only
his arrival his

carried this light burden.

Care was taken on

and

at his departure to put a

stamp on

wing

to prove

238

THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPPIY.

the date of the receipt, or despatch of the messages
(fig. 56).

A very considerable
assistant,
letters,

number of

printed pages were

reproduced by the processes of

M. Dagron and

his

M. Fernique. Each page contained about 5,000

say about 300 despatches. Sixteen of these pages
Fig, 56.

STAMPS, SHOWING

WHEN DESPATCHES WERE FORWARDED OR
ON THE WING.

RECEIVED, PRINTED
*

were contained on a film about two inches long and one
inch broad, and weighing less than one grain.

We have
to

endeavoured to give the exact appearance of one of these
despatches in our figure 57.

The reduction was made

the eight-hundredth part of the size of the original.

Each

pigeon could carry twenty

of these films in a quill, the
fifteen grains.

whole not weighing more than

These de-

spatches united could easily form a total of two to three

MICROSCOPIC DESPATCHES.

239

millions of letters

— that

is

to say, the matter of ten

such volumes as

this.

To produce
before the

these very minute specimens of photo-

graphy, recourse was had to the process already utilised

war

in the construc-

tion of the

little

photographic
627-

Fig. 57-

toy microscopes, and of which
the following
is

"6V2

a description..

The albumen
which gives
sible

process was used,
the greatest
to

pos-

delicacy

the negative small

image.
further
lenses,

This

image,

reduced by the aid of
is

reproduced

in the focus

cf a

camera, and fixed on

a

plate of collodionised glass, on

which several microscopic photographs are received at the same
time.

FACSIMILK

OF A MICROSCOPIC DESPATCH DURING THE SIEGE OF PARI*.

This plate
it

will

be a positive

;

the

plate
It is

from
then

which
cut

was produced being a negative.
small

into

fragments each containing a picture.
his little microscopic
articles,

M. Dagron fixed
1867 into various
already spoken
of,

photographs

in

such as the toy microscopes

into rings, penholders, &c.

One

of the practical difficulties at this time was the

240

THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY.
little

magnifying the
succeeded
lens.^

glass plates sufficiently.

M. Dagron

in

doing so

by employing the Stanhope

It is a

miniature microscope with considerable magni-

fying powers.

The image

seen through

it is

magnified

about three hundred times.^
'

The

lens used for toy micropliotographs resembles the Stanhope lens,

but

is

not cut

down

in the centre to

form a diaphragm.
is

It consists

simply of
is its

a cylinder of
2

flint glass,

or long plano-convex lens whose focus

ovm.

plain surface, to

which the photograph

attached with Canada balsam.

resting

the author has given a full description of one of the most inteand important applications of microphotography, I venture to append a brief supplementary account of my personal experience in the production of minute photographs.
It is

As

now

nearly seventeen years since

which extended over twelve months
finest results
set

— after

a series of experiments

I

found out a method by which the

The instrument used was a long an inclined position, in a dark room, with its upper end projecting through an aperture in the window so as to command a clear The negative to be copied was placed in a frame at the northern light. end of the camera. While the lower extremity of the camera supported the object-glass of a microscope fixed in a sliding tube supplied with a coarse and fine adjustment, a glass stage with spring clamp was also added Above the stage there was for the support of the collodionised plate.
could *be readily obtained.
in

camera

up

placed an ordinary microscope set so as to correspond with the optical axis
of the instrument.

The

first

great difficulty to be overcome

was

focussing.

To

use any

ordinary semi-opaque focussing screen would have been labour thrown away,
as the image to be formed was not larger than a pin's head ; I therefore adapted a microscopic glass slip, and first brought the specks of dust on the-inner side of the glass into the focus of the microscope ; it was then

necessary to focus the image cast by the object-glass on the same dusty
plane.

This method, however, turned out to be

useless.

As

I

was

very young and inexperienced at the time, I was completely puzzled until I discovered that the refraction of the glass slip prevented me

.

.

It consists in the photographing of finders on a square Each space of one inch divided into squares of one hundredth of an inch. first rendered and then slightly acid with glacial acetic acid. from finding the actual focus. greatly. more- when the focus had been once determined. and great delicacy the various manipulations. the great secrets of success lay in the time which the sensitised plate was The nitrate of silver neutral. 1 could use almost any of the commercial But one of samples. would be more than a patch of gravelly soil. and I determined to focus the tiny image in air without a screen. It was then necessary to focus the microscope to the silken thread. These ' finders ' are all R .1 MICROSCOPIC DESPATCHES. and. glass supports One object in using a glass stage alteration of focus caused was to do away with the and by the expansion and contraction of brass or other metal. I need hardly say. provided they gave a tenacious parchment-like film. so coarse in texture as to appear nothing when placed under the microscope. As to the collodion. There is another application of micro-photography of great value to the microscopist. the resulting picture. I which nor can ' ' running in opposite directions across the surface. with one or two modifications very simple in themselves. but at first By using an ordinary collodion and an iron extremely difficult to find out. The duration of dipping was suited to the collodion I have not space in this note to discuss. square contains two sets of numbers from the unit up to one hundred for certain chemical reasons. The focussing slip was at length thrown aside. developer. The ultimate success of micro-photography (with collodion) depends. 24 The ability production of microscopic prints requires great in on the part of the operator. proved absolutely satisfactory. it remained unaltered an indefinite length of time. kept in the silver bath. do more than give this simple outline of the micro-photogiaphic instrument and its manipulation. for the instrument out of adjustment. bath was of the common strength. The developer was a weak aqueous solution of pyrogallic acid with glacial acetic acid. and afterwards to bring the tiny image to the corresponding plane. and on the same plane as that to be occupied by the sensitive plate. This. but with the silken hair from a spiders web stretched across the field on the glass rim of the stage. on the accuracy of focussing. as the 1.000th part of an inch of variation in the position of the object-glass throws over. The mode of operating which I followed in taking the photograph was nearly identical with that of taking an ordinary wet collodion positive. but no alcohol.

to hit position of the diatom at once. and thus places it in on. or group of diatomacese. the longitude and all. by using his finder. by the aid of a cut into twenty pieces. Let us suppose that some new diatom occupies the field of his microscope. requires the employment of a micro- scope when the image is thrown on the surface of the size. each shall diamond this glass plate is containing a picture. and most difficult to find among the countless groups of tion. the power of any savant to whom the slip may be sent. But this is not Should the microscopist make a discovery. Each slip fits into its it allotted position in the on the stage of well-formed microscopes. or any minute object that field may come within the of his instalment. taken in a mathematically accurate uniform position on glass slips of perfectly all" uniform size. which is easily effected with impressions of the ordinary size. when he This number he registers. so to speak. power of the microscopist latitude of a single diatom. It is a minute object quite invisible to the naked eye. . at But the student. and carries besides twenty little object-glasses intended to produce as many microscopic reductions of the negative.ce reads its number.— 242 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. upon the number Ed. is ground glass of such a very small The usual dark slide of the camera replaced by a support which keeps in a horizontal position a plate of collodionised glass. in order to fix its posiits fellows. The focussing. We confine ourselves to full mentioning these technical details. especially magnifying the photographs for the purpose of being read in the besieged capital. Afterwards. the finder enables him to verify it. and puts to determine. difficulties without entering into During the war the processes were in different. removes the slip from the stage and replaces it by the finder. bringing the into the field and replacing the finder by the microscopic slip.

is. The image on which in fact. Cornu & Mercadier proceeded to open films it with in a knife. The photographic in were carefully placed a small basin of water which were put a few drops of am- monia. they could be divided and read at the same time by the use of several microscopes. The almost invisible letters are sufficiently magnified to enable the copyists to reproduce them on paper.MICROSCOPIC DESPATCHES. When the despatches were numerous the reading of process. The preceding engraving 58) represents one of these interesting meetings for the purpose of transcribing the microscopic despatches. More than one hundred thousand of them were thus sent to Paris during the siege. a very powerful magic lantern. them was a somewhat slow but as each film little contained a great number of pages or squares. It dried and placed between two plates of only then remained to lay them on the stage plate of a photo-electric microscope. In this liquid the despatches unrolled themselves. the small tube was received at the telegraph MM. Messieurs Cornu and Mercadier carried the process of R 2 . (fig. 243 Thirty or forty copies of the microscopic despatches were usually printed and sent by as many pigeons. the film of collodion is there thrown upon a screen by means of a photo-electric apparatus. They were then glass. As soon as office.

The severity of the season is not the sole obstacle which prevents the duties of the messenger birds from . Each part of the of the microscope. lie Though think for details is concerning these birds beyond our subject. we can omit making a few remarks about having described the letters. but did not succeed in their first attempts. sufficiently magnified be read and The arrangement and process of reading the despatches lasted about four hours . despatch passed slowly over the field The characters displayed themselves to upon the screen copied.244 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. it is only right to say a few words about the postmen. which essentially photographic. It is certain that doing so improvements in the process would have progressed rapidly had not the severe cold of the winter caused the arrival of the pigeons to become more and more rare during the siege. it required besides several hours to copy them. The film of collodion pressed between two glass plates was placed upon the stage of the microscope to which a mechanical arrangement gave both a horizontal and a vertical movement. reading the despatches by means of the microscope to great perfection. Messieurs Cornu and Mercadier tried to enlarged in photograph the characters directly as and thrown upon the screen. we do not them .

' who often show considerable ingenuity ^ When in Pekin I was for some time puzzled by the musical tones which came from a number of birds whirling in circles over the city. 245 being properly performed . have been the victims of those aerial pirates. in The Chinese. . the hawks. The mystic sounds were at length explained to me by a Chinaman who owned pigeons and who armed them with the bamboo pipes used to scare awny birds of prey. Doubtless among the . there are a certain number which Fig 59.return to their many carrier-pigeons which never home. Ed. they are exposed to other dangers on their passages.— MICROSCOPIC DESPATCHES. CHINESE WHISTLES ATTACHED TO CARRIER-PIGEONS. birds of prey being their most formidable enemies.

lived for People who have some time in China. We hope that this organisation may soon be ready to work. Everything should be done to perfect the organisation of the aerial post. which are much employed of prey. the air rushes into these little produces vibrations. from the birds root of the tail They attach to the of the messenger birds a set of very light bamboo whistles. the pigeon this flies. When tubes . which at present occupies the attention of many. in the Celestial Empire. and especially at Pekin. 59. plans which they adopt. as represented by fig. If causing a sharp and continued sound. without at first being able to account for the unexpected sound skies.246 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. report that in the country they have often heard the whistling and of booming produced by these little tubes bamboo belonging to the carrier-pigeons. which seemed to descend from the It seems to us that this process deserves attention. the birds travel in companies. have invented a very in- the genious system to protect the carrier-pigeons. We should not forget that in the fatal hour when France was invaded by her enemies. and that the history of the pigeons of the siege may be an encouragement to future breeders of these interesting and useful birds. photography com- . the sets of whistles with which they are provided produce a noisy concert.

.

PARIS. . 60 I I'a^'c 247 DEPARTURE OF CARRIER PIGEONS FROM THE CHAMPS-ELVS^ES.KiG.

During the year 1873. was of great advantage imprisoned during five to thousands of the besieged. and that if fruitful in France is again engaged in one of these bloody conflicts. Breeding and training pigeons is the necessary com- plement to microscopic photography.MICROSCOPIC DESPATCHES. the carrier- pigeons will play their modest part and give new assistance. months by the German armies. 60). will Let be us hope that the teachings of the past the future. Carrier-pigeons are the safest bearers of these microscopic despatches. the people of Paris have shown their approval of these en- couragements by attending the departures of the pigeons which take place before the Palace of Industry from time to time (fig. Such experiments cannot be too much encouraged. This time we would fain believe they will only be the messengers of victory and good news. as employed in making up and forwarding despatches during time of war. 24/ pleting the wonderful services rendered by the pigeons. and quite recently an attempt has been to encourage the breeding of made prizes them by valuable offered for competition. which convey to the besieged detailed news and explicit orders. At present these useful winged messengers are not neglected. In certain cases very remarkable results were attained .

' says this talented operator. bringing to the aerial post by balloons and pigeons the indispensable complement of light messages. on January balloon. : by means of tioned by M. the aerial post.248 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. Dagron — Here is an example men- * When nothing interfered with * the flight of the pigeons. which unites different branches of modern and which enables them result. is a fine the example of the close correlation science. Wanting I some chemicals. from Messrs. rapidity of the photographic correspondence the was truly marvellous. I can myself give an example. especially I gun cotton. to begging them to forward them by articles first On in January 24th the were delivered me Bordeaux. The pigeon had only taken twelve hours to pass from Poitiers to Paris. 1871.' The electric telegraph and railway could not have done This admirable use of better. microscopic photography. ordered them by pigeon despatch Paris. which could not procure at Bordeaux. of 18. at a given moment to co-operate towards the same . Poulenc and Wittmann.

249 CHAPTER — — VII. WARREN DE LA RUE. ETC. in the sequel. and of the magnetic needle.— THE LUNAR MOUNTAINS. in which he sees from is day to day the state of the works he employed in executing. Geology finds it a useful assistant in repro- ducing. infusoria. the variations of the barometer. GRUBB. . — Photography the sciences. The engineer employs it like a mirror. RUTHERFURD. of the thermometer. Meteorology. CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHY DIFFICULTIES OF ASTRONOMICAL PHOTO GRAPHIC OPERATIONS MESSRS. with a all constancy which nothing interrupts. and of forms of vegetable and animal life invisible to the naked eye. furnishes inestimable resources to it all We have seen that places under the eyes of the naturalist the enlarged images of the grains of the pollen of a flower. as we shall show use of it makes to register with mathematical precision. with an exactness which nothing can approach. the inclinations of the various strata it would study. ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY. IMPORTANCE OF PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTS FOR THE HISTORY OF THE HEAVENS. ETC.THE SPOTS ON THE SUN.

request. Though and recent. the operator may employ in one of the powerful telescopes which are to be found all the principal observatories of the civilised world. it it is true that these applications are new may be remembered that they were In his foreseen by Arago from the time of Daguerre. furnish a remarkable They assistance to those who devote themselves to the task of sounding the depths of the firmament. notice of the Daguerreotype. The telescope thus constructed should be mounted a equatorially. as astronomers say. had obtained an image of the moon on the sensitive silver plate. scope having a according to speculum formed of silvered is Foucault's process. It is indispensable to make use of a reflecting teleglass. its This instrument its achromatic. The applications of photography to astronomy in the study of the heavens are not less valuable. is. optical coincides with it chemical The focussing of therefore presents no difficulty.250 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPH^. the illustrious Perpetual Secretary of the Academy of Sciences reports with at his admiration that the inveiitor of the diorama. that focus. To reproduce at the present day the images of the celestial orbs by photography. i. supplied with moving power which during the operation follows exactly .e.

At . the motion of the celestial 251 body the image of which also. is being taken.ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY. This movement. but he did not succeed in getting an impression of any of the . Mr. Warrren de first la Rue is one of the astronomers who attained the most perfect results of photographic astronomy. When telescope. and will print an unlimited number of positive impressions on photographic paper. an astronomer wishes to obtain the photograph of celestial bodies by means of Foucault's reflecting he removes from the instrument the eye-piece it generally used and replaces central part of by a double ring. must be in the plane of the celestial equator— the same as that in which the star or planet moves. in the which is fixed the collodionised glass- plate intended to receive the luminous impression. receives directly the luminous rays v/hich reproduce faithfully the image of the celestial body millions of miles distant from our humble planet. moment the movable screen is is it quickly withdrawn the sensitive surface exposed . In is order to focus the instrument the collodionised glass replaced by a piece of ground glass and moved back- ward and forward this until the image is sharply defined. He managed to take an impression of the constellation of the Pleiades of remarkable sharpness. The negative is fixed by the ordinary means.

After having fixed on a photographic plate the trace of these stars. Warren de ingenious la Rue. Mr. only leave . true the heavens at enormous our observatories. good microscope less to perceive it to discover Our eye is as power- without the help of an instrument as we are to appreciate the greatness or the real distance of these suns lost in the depth of the heavens. thanks to has persevering labours and combinations. 2 52 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. These orbs. . endowed with a weak actinic power. When purity of the sky the vault is clear. In spite of the difficulties which the photography of the planets offers. the trace distances from the earth and from leave upon the coUodionised line. the heavens at such distances from our that the humble spheroid it human mind. when no cloud mars the of heaven. an uncertain trace on the negative luminous points placed in the fixed stars. feels itself almost powerless to comprehend these measures of immensity. staggered when would regard them. the photographic im- pressions of the planets give fairly satisfactory results but the image is never perfectly sharp and distinct. glass of an if excessively thin and sometimes is it is very irregular the atmosphere of the earth overcharged with vapour. it is necessary to assist the eye with a it.. These clouds of suns are scattered through nebulae.

Grubb. Grubb succeeded in photograph- . of his view of the telescope which moved along with efforts and were crowned with legitimate success. this talented Nor has it been beyond the powers of operator to fix upon the collodion the rough surface of the planet Mars and the mysterious ring of Saturn. its that of the moon. succeeded to a certain extent. by the aid of an equatorial mechanism ad- mirably regulated. which alters place in the heavens still much more Secchi. as in their knowledge We place before the eyes of our readers the facsimile of the photograph of a very interesting region of our satellite. Our engraving has astronomer the merit of reproducing exactly the appearance of the impression obtained by the English (fig. and some other skilled in distinguished astronomers. 253 This learned astronomer succeeded. able to take the photograph of Jupiter with He was his parallel zones.ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY. but great though they be. Rutherfurd. rapidly. If the photography of planets offers serious difficulties. star for several in keeping the image of the moving in minutes the centre of the field it. Some years ago Mr. 61). presents obstacles greater . as the manage- ment of photographic apparatus of the heavens. they have been surmounted by De la Rue.

Mechanically such a result is not easy to attain with rigorous correctness. move at exactly the LUNAR MOUNTAINS. AFTER A PHOTOGRAPH BY MR. same rate as the sitter. 6 1.254 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. . moon as correctly as if she ing the had been sitting for her portrait in his own studio. WARREN DE LA Rl E. Only as the Dublin astrono- mer could not utter the usual caution — Don't move — it which was necessary that the telescope at the focus of the image w^as to be fixed should Fig.

the brilliantlylighted part of the moon requiring a shorter exposure side. In the course of put in motion by an excellent clock. than the parts in the neighbourhood of the dark Up to this time. which takes is in the whole hemisphere. in a camera mounted at the end of the trellis-work tube. Grubb presented to the French Photothe graphic Society photographs of the aid of this moon taken by huge telescope. The time of exposure varied from half a second to two seconds. including all its mountings. notwithstanding it its enormous dimensions. the whole weighing about ten tons. chiefly composed of bars of steel firmly fixed to solid rings of iron.ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Mr. as we have in said. by an apis paratus to prevent to This telescope so easy manage. with length and tons. that two persons can turn round either vertically or hori- zontally in forty-five seconds. To the render the are movement supported as easy as possible. The for 255 great telescope constructed at by Mr. diameter. the year 1869 Mr. de la Rue in England and Secchi Rome had alone succeeded . is about two of The tube but it is is surrounded by a trellis-work flat iron. all bearings friction. in a marvel inches The speculum a focal about of 30 46 feet. its weight. Grubb Melbourne is is the Government observatory of mechanism. This instrument.

for that it is the light from its surface has winged its flight to our globe to print the picture of the rugged peaks.f these gigantic instru- Mr. the craters. who. and tracing upon the formed by its collodion It is the dark obscurities it valleys. by M. Some impres- sions were presented to the Academy in of Sciences in offering these November 1872. which we are happy to borrow from him : . in this Mr.! — 256 THE APrLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. The impressions obtained by ments r. Rutherfurd has lately obtained photo- graphs of the moon of the greatest merit. which takes the minute counterpart of the silvery and mysterious disc suspended so far from us in the dark azure of the firmament There has been rapid and important progress fertile field. Grubb in the serene atmosphere of Australia efforts of have greatly surpassed the highest art. remarkable specimens. the strange hollows which appear on the surface of the orb of night. in admiring the raised appearance of the mountains of our satellite. European It is impossible to avoid a certain emotion in con- templating the negative of a lunar photograph. quite certain that is mathematically correct. Faye. moon worthy of the in producing photographs of the attention of natural philosophers or of astronomers. Marvellous result of science. gave some details of the highest interest.

calculated pre- viously so as to correspond with the particular phase of the moon. lines. The negatives varied from one at the quarter of a second at first * moon to two seconds and last quarters. The photographic lens was m.ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY. a positive was taken of the same size. By the aid of an outline map on which are marked the lines of latitude and longitude.oved during the time of exposure at the same rate as the apparent motion of the moon. specially achromatised. by clockwork of great accuracy. have been lens obtained by means a of 13 inches' aperture. and drawn upon a sheet of transparent paper. like cracks forming parts ot a great it is intersect one another at angles which possible to measure with a certain amount of exact- ness. which was about four inches diameter. the geometrical elements of these arcs in relation to the S lunai^ . 'A glance at these magnificent to impressions is sufficient make the service they may render to lunar geology appreciated. and then applied to these beautiful maps. astronomical striking 257 * marks of the progress which photography has made in the of United States. ' The luminous circle. in From the negative. These impressions. and this was then magnified by a powerful exposure of the original full solar microscope.

which have covered up the previous inequalities of the surface. mountainous One direct struck by their aspect quite as vividly as by the inspection of the moon. those of the sun are not less rich in their teachings and the spots which sully the purity of the orb of day have been imprinted on the glass plate of the camera. and yet so different in sentatives. photographs of the moon are fruitful in informa. some respects from their terrestrial repre- Photography shows the heights of these mountains by showing the length of their shadows as well as their horizontal dimensions. leaving here and there on If its coasts some vestiges of primitive cycles. tion. light or rather the dull colour of trasts with the brightness of the is which strikingly conparts. Celestial photography has recently been applied at . equator can be obtained. One can there study at leisure the numerous varieties of these first different objects so similar at sight to our extinct volcanoes. and even the smallest circular hollows of the which the surface numbers. with the idea that there are before you vast discharges of fluid matter. The circles. Among the lunar formations are best represented by the want of photography are what called seas. are there moon exhibits in great represented on a large scale with a startling fidelity which no printed chart could equal. the craters.258 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

To prevent any chance of error. a peculiarity which distinguishes film. it has been found neces- sary to take special precautions with the sensitive plate. In the photographic reproduction of the stars recently undertaken by Mr. Mr. so as to distinguish these impressions from accidental markings on the film of collodion. . Harvard College in the United States to the double in order to 259 stars. Rutherfurd. determine by micrometric measurement their relative angle of position and distance.ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY. them from any spot formed accidentally on the this By means a very is correct though very delicate map of the heavens obtained. far that has been previously acfor Photographs preserve comparison with future researches the exact relative positions of the stars at the present time. so represented by two con- tiguous points on the negative. Rutherfurd takes a double image of each luminous body by stopping the motion of the telescope for about half a minute between the that each star is first and second ex- posure. behind it all justice this addition to astronomical research a step which leaves complished. and provide for future ages the present actual position of the stars. from which trustworthy Professor Peirce says with is measurements may be made. stitute The photographs once taken con- indisputable facts beyond the influence of any personal defect of observation.

has quite recently submitted in order to the photographic its method its to severe tests determine value in application to the observation of the transit of Venus. or of the disc. but he admits the case of an eclipse of the sun. who has taken part with Professor in Bond in measuring the photographic images as well as the calculations of these measurements. and that any error to which it may be liable is worthy of the most serious investigation. and when even less the contacts have not been caught. especially for the observation of the exterior or interior contacts of the planet with the sun's limb.26o THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPH V. Mr. irredeemably lost at that particular and all the long and expensive preparations are rendered useless. Asaph Hall. On the other hand. it only lasts an instant. it passage of a planet across the sun's possesses very great advantages. when the sky is clear a photo- graphic image can be obtained in an instant. results not valuable may be obtained if the data collected on . The observa- is uncertain in consequence of the for it. and can be repeated during the whole course of the transit. He to seems not to observations approve of photography as applied its of the stars from that in want of rapidity. and should the registration of the the observer fail is to notice phenomenon station. tion of the contact irradiation .

which preserved a faithful representation of the movement ances. in France.1 ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY. and in America. astronomers at Burlington and at Ottumwa. It was also in the same manner that the great pro- blem of the As solar origin of that part of the corona which • the reader is doubtless well aware. especially with the daguerreotype -process. for in England. the photographic plates can be correctly calculated. will be recol- lected that in i860 for the first time the solar origin of the protuberances was put beyond doubt solely by photo- graphy.. and those also of the American in 1869. that the transit of Venus will depicted by photography.' making preparations to obtain photographic Nothing can more solidly establish the right of photo- graphic observations to be considered one of the most important aids of of scientific research than the accounts It the last eclipses of the sun. have fully confirmed these conclusions. and of Aden in 1868. . We be may announce for certain Russia. the attempts to photograph the Transit were eminently successful. of the moon of in relation to these protuber- The photographs Vogel at Tennant at Guntoor. in much activity is displayed in pictures of it. this 26 Of we shall shortly show the perfect practicability. Iowa. under the superintendence of Professors Morton and Mayer.

The nebulae and the comets. and is their physical even in this also there great hope of The chief obstacle to success arises from atmospheric currents which continually change the position of the image on the is sensitive plate. many will years furnished matter for numerous If photography. and even in no limit to the sensitiveness of a photo- graphic plate. difficulties in At the same time. there still exist great it photographing the planets. but final success. though a photograph taken at Cranford some . now renders great services to astronomy.262 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY.' says Mr. there is In theory. la Rue. Warren de this art. after having for discussions. for is still * unable to depict all the celestial bodies. The structure of the sensitive film also a cause of trouble with very small objects. extends more than a million of miles beyond the body of the sun was definitively solved by the photographic observations of Colonel Tennant and Lord Lindsay in 1 87 1. which is necessary to overcome before photography can for any special purpose reproduce their phases characteristics. as be seen by these striking it facts. will in all proit bability render yet greater in the immediate future. 'have not fallen into the domain of though perhaps no branch of astronomy would have more to gain if we could succeed in extending this mode of observation to these bodies. practice.

they said. * may still remember that immediately after the discovery re- of photography we heard hopes expressed which sembled nothing so much as those of Descartes and his contemporaries after the discovery of the astronomical telescope. shows the ring of the planet in such a manner as to afford great hopes for the future. and much more face of the detailed than formerly. be done without trouble and in obtained would be much but the results much superior. would be better done seven seconds. tion in observing. in measuring. however. less time. * and in Not only would the same thing. What in has taken me seven years. They compassionated all their the unfortunate philolives sophers who had passed without interrupdrawing. much more exact. the determination of the extent of the sur- moon.ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHV. on ' the subject of photographic greater number of those who hear me. it and we believe may be useful to state the opinions ot the venerable Maedler.' said the great astronomer. are not of this opinion. 26^ time ago of the occultation of Saturn by the moon. . and photography applied to the whole will crown the edifice of modern astronomy. in a lecture given in 1868. formerly director of the Obser- astronomy — The : vatory of Dorpat. Some astronomers.' No heavens doubt science will succeed in triumphing over these obstacles.

engaged with the fixed stars . but the details are inferior to those which an able observer can determine. They have adapted powerful astronomical telescopes to photographic apparatus. it is true. ' Thus the moon has been photographed still in her different phases. in England. We could mention. but he was only able to obtain fifth ' weak and scarcely visible images of those of the magnitude. fulfilled ' how many la ? Warren de in Rue. and William Cranch Bond. but the phenomena con- nected with objects long light. thirty years Now have elapsed since the discovery of of these ambitious hopes have been Daguerre. America. of sponding to that of the which they propose to produce the image during the short time necessary for the production of the impression. known and giving a powerful . Bond has been he made use of an astro- nomical telescope which enabled him to perceive the stars of the fourteenth magnitude. very valuable pictures . have courageously put their hands to the work. which we owe to astronomical photography but it is not the details of the starry heavens which can be acquired and preserved in this manner.264 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. they have also succeeded in giving to their instruments a motion correcelestial bodies.

the ordinary duration of the phenomenon. everything has been prepared.ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY. there can be obtained not only three but twelve or fifteen images of a phenomenon which passes away * so rapidly. but a good . is no draughtsman. very useful in total eclipses of the sun. and which have been produced in this^case. planets. such as good observers. but there is obtained. accustomed to these phenomena. and these constellations may cer- tainly be recognised in the images obtained. details with great exactness. if an image per- of the sun at a specified moment. As for the little use. the representation of which only requires the smallest fraction of a second. These experiments will be. have already been. however expeditious could. even have not been obtained. during he might who two or three minutes. There be. to speak more cor- rectly. It will stars. we may be mitted to use an expression of Sir John Herschel. mention in the first place the spots 265 * I shall on the sun. what is very important in this case. be of use when applied to the fixed The groups of the Pleiades and of Orion have been photographed. But. do what Warren de la Rue if did in Spain at the last eclipse of the sun. and. photography that is is of and still will teach us less very little new. or. even the larger ones. because. we compel the sun to write * its own history. have been able to produce.

^ The will prodigies accomplished by modern opticians be continued by our descendants. that photography one of the great resources of modern astronomy. and the only of the highest promise of future achievements as known means by which may be preserved an absolutely trustworthy It register of many of the most important phenomena of the heavens. Warren de Rue. on the contrary. of certain elements which Without the aid of photography. is We think. because they are sometimes perpetuated for ages. the lines in the solar spectrum could not have been fully observed. says Mr. specimens of the infancy It infinitely inferior to the object as cannot be denied that a photographic impression of any object is we see it with the naked eye. photography has already done much. . the phenomena has furnished the astronomer with charts of the moon . will see heavens than is shown by photography.— 266 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. connected with solar eclipses at certain fixed dates . are we cannot doubt. the positions of the spots on the sun's disc the spectra of heavenly bodies. as the photograph reveals many lines which are invisible to the naked eye. * the constitution of our satellite as less distance than three hundred miles. Ed. which diminish the apparent distance of the moon to such an extent that if it we can now study were at a only as yet. . lines the presence. more in the eye. even without the aid of lenses. as false data. and the magnifi- cent telescopes of our observatories. Nevertheless. There is nothing so hurtful or so la fatal to progress.' it We have considered right to repeat these severe criticisms of Maedler without altogether admitting their correctness. in their are known to us. showing in unerring luminous envelopes. whether is full the object be celestial or terrestrial.

we shall comprehend.. ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY. of an art which reckons 26/ among its founders GaHleo and Newton When plished footsteps. photography. permit us to study the most minute details of the geology of the planetary bodies. If it be true. perhaps. what we have a right to expect may be attained by the astronomers of the future. as Leibnitz says. limit There is no to the sensitiveness of a photographic plate. by the importance of results already obtained. the science of astronomical optics has accom- still more.' we may say at present with an eminent astronomer in consequently the images of the orbs of heaven fixed the focus of the camera will. that the present is big with the fate of the future. . closely following its will produce marvels of which the boldest * imagination can hardly have a suspicion.

Chemistry has had of combustion. IMPORTANCE OF REGISTERING INSTRUMENTS PHOTOGRAPHIC BAROMETERS AND THERMOMETERS THE REGISTRATION OF THE VIBRATIONS OF THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE RONALD's PHOTO-ELECTROGRAPH PHOTOGRAPHIC PHOTOMETRY PHOTOGRAPHY OF COLUMNS OF WATER RAISED BY A TORPEDO OF THE PHENOMENA OF THE INTERFERENCE OF THE RAYS OF THE SPECTRUM. who. a substitute for the inspiration originating ac- cidentally in the brain of an inventive genius. to a certain extent. the progress so to say. where great events are rare. its Lavoisier. Physical science to it branch of human has had its Volta. — — — — — Among the physical sciences there are some. by the theory by the analysis of the atmosphere. there are others. which burst out into veritable revolutions which suddenly transform them.— 268 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. a new horizon by originating the electric But . CHAPTER VIII. where the long-continued patience of the observer is. who opened pile. of which is. intermittent. PHOTOGRAPHIC REGISTERING INSTRUMENTS. sudin this fertile denly marked a new era knowledge.

as quently as possible. . rigorously exact lists the hope which animates them is to see stations of observation multiplied over every continent. Meteorology. it was soon observed that there would be a very great advantage in substituting for the labour of man that of machines. domain which it acts is it not that of rapid conquests a science for- of observation. They will leave to their successors the patient investigations correlation made during their lives — happy if and comparison of their results lead to the discovery of some of the fundamental laws which preside over the movements of the atmosphere. when making con- The work of those who devote themselves to it sists essentially in gathering up each day and every hour of figures . the oscillations of the magnetic needle in the . meter. the humidity of the air . the various instruments the by which atmosphere is questioned. fre- In presence of the necessity of consulting. 269 there are other sciences where such progress cannot be suddenly manifested. which has for its object to study the laws of the mechanism of the atmosphere. note the variations of the baro. cannot expect anything from the tunate accidents which sometimes occur experiments. for example. ought to determine every day the temperature. and at an increased number of meteorological stations.PHOTOGRAPHIC REGISTERING INSTRUMENTS.

obtain this ingenious mechanism capable of leaving in on paper traces of the movement of the mercury the barometer and the thermometer at every hour of the day and of the ance which night. What man To cannot do is accomplished by a machine. It goes as far back as 1782. in is not new. the height of the barometer. to take a note of the movements of the magnetic needle and the rota? tions of the weathercock But it is of importance to the progress of meteorology that these daily observa- tions be executed with the precision which ought to characterise every truly scientific document. who.2/0 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. The art been applied to those their meteorological instruments which write down own variations at every moment. however con- scientious he may be. of indicating the slightest disturb- may occur in the most delicate instruments. How hour and can we conderrin an 5bser\*er. aid parts of the most exact to recourse has been had has the valuable of photography. The logical idea of employing for the study of meteoro- phenomena apparatus so arranged that they may themselves mark the traces of the influences to which they are subjected Magellan. had constructed thermometers . and which are called self-registering. to read off several times every for entire days together the degree of the thermometer.

lamp be placed — that of gas or of a petroleum example —before the barometer and a convex lens between on the upper part of of the barometer. an them to converge the rays of light the tube image of the lighted space immediately above the mercury would be thrown upon a piece of this sensitised paper placed behind it. only necessary lamp should be placed at some distance from it the apparatus in order that the heat emitted by may . and barometers which registered 27 all the changes caused by the variations of the state of the atmosphere.1 PHOTOGRAPHIC REGISTERING INSTRUMENTS. offers the advantage of doing away with the complicated mechanism which every other method required. whether mechanical or is by electro-magnetism. Registration by photography. and the oscillations of the magnetic needle. and image would vary at each instant with the varia- tions of the level of the mercury of the barometer. It is well known that at the upper surface of the in column of mercury the barometer there is an If a for empty space known light as the Torricellian Vacuum. such as is now accom- plished in a great number of observatories. This mode of registering chiefly utilised for the variations of the barometer and the thermometer. thermograph it is The that the registering thermometer or is arranged almost in the same manner.

In these instruments the sensitised paper is stretched on a drum which regularly revolves by means of clockwork. besides this the light does the mercury. An tically ordinary cistern barometer is suspended veris by an iron collar. empty space above air but through a small bubble of which has been pre- viously introduced into the thin mercurial column. and the traces of the variations of the height of the mercury in the barometer and the thermometer are found marked by a continuous line. light The on thus transmitted produces a mark like a point the paper. Before this instrument light of a convex lens which concentrates the an argand part lamp or a jet of gas on its upper part. not act upon the instrument not pass through the . of the mechanism varies according The arrangement to the mode of registering applied to different instru- ments.272 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. Salleron. Ronalds. The upper . and afterwards Mr. when the paper is withdrawn and submitted to the operations necessary to fix the image. have adopted the ingenious arrangements which we shall describe. In order to adapt photography to the registra- tion of the variations of the barometer. This self-registering barometer has been called the photographic barometrograph. Mr.

that the light thrown on the tube of the barometer arrested by the mercurial column forming a screen the image of which. projecting on to a sheet of sensitised paper the image of the graduated scale. falls upon the sensitised paper. fixed to a frame which a carrier in a plane at right angles to the Clockwork its is applied to the frame so that hours. and then through an achromatic object-glass. This sheet of paper fixed to the carrier T . is The photographic paper moves upon axis of the object-glass. says to M. are at the same time their thrown upon the sheet of paper which receives images through the opening admitting the rays of light from the lamp. passing through a lens. surface The representation of the convex or concave of the mercury. fiftieths of an The luminous ray passes through this scale and above the surface of the mercurial column. and also of the movable surface of the mercury. and the divisions of the scale as marked upon the tube of the barometer. of the 273 tube of the barometer is provided with a transparent scale of glass divided into inch.PHOTOGRAPHIC REGISTERING INSTRUMENTS. whom we owe is an excellent work on self- registering instruments. Pouriau. It results it moves own length in twenty-four from the whole of these arrangements.

the height of which printed is easily it measured by the divisions of the scale at the upon same time. and thus exposed to the influence . of the scale upon glass is The upper surface of the mercury and the divisions of at the scale are again photographed the same time. is then fixed by the ordinary photographic process the part affected by the line luminous rays forms an undulating drawn by the upper surface of the mercurial column. its it partakes of movement. cut a thermometer having the used. and if known at which the operation commenced. When a photographic registering thermometer is required.274 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. in place of the tube of the barometer of which we have been divisions speaking. the close of each day the sheet of paper . The thermometer wall is curved in such a manner as to allow the bulb being passed through an opening in the of the room. is easy to determine with the most perfect exactness the hour corresponding to all the points of the line. and from this it follows that each part of comes in succession before the opening and is impressed with the image. After the impression has been fixed on the paper a sheet of glass is applied to it divided the hour it by is lines into twenty-four equal parts. At is taken out of the frame the impression .

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o < a .

and remains temperature it is hollow and communicates by a tube is filled with one of the branches of a tube which with . after what we have stood. is The metallic reservoir of at a constant sunk into the . its at the middle of the I. for the Obser- vatory at Kew. M. The thermometrograph engraving. far behind it it all for not only does act as a barometrograph.PHOTOGRAPHIC REGISTERING INSTRUMENTS. a. H is the clock- work which moves the slide carrying the P. is 62. photographic paper by means of the rod This magnificent apparatus leaves previous arrangements . a description of will be easily under- The arrangements on the right and left of this apparatus are represented fig. earth. of the 275 external temperature which it is intended to measure. upper part being represented at O is the object-glass of the photographic camera. just said. It is is shown to the right of our upon a different plan to that of which we have just spoken. The mercurial barometer table. but it also registers the temperature and the hygrometrical variations. a very fine photographic self-registering apparatus for the variations both of the barometer and the thermometer at the same time it . of the engraving. air. Salleron has recently constructed.

2/6 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. The difference of is the tem- peratures of the two reservoirs of air shown by a movement of the mercury in the glass tube. kept moist. and consequently the temperature air. a! is sunk in the earth. in connection in the with a second reservoir of which remains surrounding atmosphere. Brooke has proved by the construction of an apparatus equally ingenious as . rises mercury. between the light and the objectis The other branch of the tube air. the other reservoir. remains exposed to the atmosphere both again communicate by means of a tube with two branches of a glass tube containing mercury. Dr.. b\ which . b. a' and b\ acts as a registering psychrometer or measurer of the am. O. the light passes over the surface of the fluid metal and impresses the photographic paper after passing through the objectglass O. it may also be made use of to register the declination of as the magnetic needle. Photography is not only applied to the registration of the variations of the barometer and thermometer. It traces upon the moving photographic paper an undulating line which represents the variations of the mercury of the in the tube. The reservoir of air.ount of watery vapour is in the atmosphere. and glass. Another similar arrangement. over the surface of which the luminous rays pass.

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. FOR REGISTERING THE STATE AND VARIATIONS OF THE EUKCTRICITV OF THE A'R.Fig. 63 [Page 277 PHOTO-ELECTROGRAPHIC IIjf.STRUMENT AT KEW OBSERVATORY.

The magnetic ray in needle carries at its extremity a very falls. which at the end of the day is developed and fixed by the or- dinary processes. The photo.PHOTOGRAPHIC REGISTERING INSTRUMENTS. Thus. is constantly in use at the Observatory at Greenwich. an analogous system is use of to register the variations of the electrical condition of the atmosphere.electrograph . the mark of the reflected ray changes place upon the screen needle. the mirror is At each moment the reflection of traced upon the photographic sheet. small mirror on which the light of a lamp flected is The re- thrown upon a piece of sensitised paper it placed less in a camera. and which shows its slightest motion during the course of the twenty-four hours. — it follows faithfully the motion of the fail and does not sensitive to note its least oscillation. there dicates the is obtained a continuous line which inreflected movements of the luminous ray by the mirror attached to the magnetic needle. magnetic needle makes the slightest moveits ment. and its there traces an arc greater or proportion to If the distance from the photographic paper. and which 277 correct. At made the Observatory at Kew. is The paper is not fixed. but attached to a its cylinder which performs one revolution upon axis in twenty-four hours.

64). in the electrical state of the atmosphere. the slightest i. the gold leaves of which. 64. It is to Francis Ronalds that the this ad- honour of having invented mirable system longs . said. are separated more or less less from one another according to the greater or electricity in the air. 63) consists of a lightning conductor in connection (fig. is used at night Kew. as we and have "oN^T^BCAR^rE'rorTHK ELECTROGRAPH. motion. .2/8 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. 1 • and ^ marks _ down year ^ and ^1 1 from changes to year. quantity of free The leaves of gold illuminated by a lamp as seen in our engraving intercept the light and Fig. and show with absolute correctness the electric state of the atmosphere at every moment (fig. with an ordinary electroscope. as is well known. produced are obtained by clocktwo un- Thus dulating separate lines at which . throw the shadows on the sensitive paper. which has a regular down- ward work. of registering be- this photo-electrograph.approach or eveiy hour of the day. day.

Photometry 279 is another branch of physical science in the operations which has found a powerful assistant of the photographer. made both of their to shine at the lights and the strength of the measured by the comparative depth shadows. a relative phrase which may refer indefinitely. power or to the photogenically actinic power Photography supplies an accurate test for the illuminating ' is . how relative oi is the student to act he would measure the power of the of the light of the } sun and that of the stars moon The* only means of solving a problem graphy.-* ' The traces of the ' Intensity of light either to the illuminating of rays of light. they are time. will by any source of not the amount of alteration produced on the sensitive surface serve to measure the intensity * of the light emitted .'* shine at the same Though burn at the the comparison is easy between the light of a candle and that of a lamp which may both be made if to same time.PHOTOGRAPHIC REGISTERING INSTRUMENTS. If a piece of sensitised so delicate is by photo- paper be exposed to the at the focus of a lens in- fluence of the image formed light. When same it is desired to measure the intensity of two sources of light. But if how can time such a measurement be accomplished the two lights cannot be got to .

thrown on the scale of the ordinary photo-meter durable and that produced time. The orb of day gives a light three hundred times greater than that of the orb of night. his observations will afford him no guide to the . Herschel and Edmund Becquerel have been able to study effectually the peculiarities of the solar rays at different hours of the day. Thus.— 28o THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. Thanks to to these processes physical science has been enabled trace out a new course in domains considered inac- cessible before the advent of photography. and can be compared with at a different by another light shining Photographic photometry has enabled science to compare the luminous intensity of the solar rays with that of the moon. and thanks to the employment of photographic paper. a luminous homoilluminating power of the light. it is permanent. . presence of blue or violet rays. whereas the naked plate. however feeble or imperceptible to the eye. for example. geneous yellow light will have no more effect on the sensitive plate than if he had attempted to photograph an object in pitchy darkness. like the luminous source are no longer fugitive shadows . the study of the chemical action of light to which these distinguished philosophers have power of white light but when a ray of white light is broken up and the photographer attempts to test any of the resulting primary or secondary colours of the spectrum. may at once be detected by their action on the photographic Ed.

or inter- have marked with its own seal the periodical . more complete and Besides these purposes. there nothing to prevent the rain-gauge being furnished with an arrangement which would show the variations of its level by means of a tube in connec- tion with the receiving vessel. The luminous ray will write in silence the . photographic registration may be applied to other instruments of observation. The future will prove that registration is the funda- mental base of meteorological science. and they will certainly be soon modified and give place to arrangements ingenious. movements and the variations of all the apparatus the observer will only have to sult the sensitised registers. it enables us to obtain exact and continuous observations are only the birth of yesterday but these instruments use is — their still not very extended. which can never establish its laws unless they are supported by continuous observation. devoted their attention has assumed a place 28 among the most interesting chapters of modern It science.1 PHOTOGRAPHIC REGISTERING INSTRUMENTS. to con- so to say. registration by means of photography since . is For example. come once each day where Nature will. may be seen by the brief description we have given of the admirable instruments which are employed at some of our observatories how valuable is.

in appliances. The the first consists in finding in the variations which the instruments experience. as its name based employment of dynamic electricity. has often recourse to two other methods one being based upon mechanical. and the other upon electro-magnetic arrangements. It un- must not be supposed. it is mittent changes to whose mysterious influences ceasingly subject. but it is applied culty in consequence of the small amount of force at is which implies. The employment of registration by photography . This system with diffi- the most ancient. that the photographic system the only one that can be em: ployed for the registration of atmospherical phenomena we have only spoken of it because it is in more imit mediate connection with our subject abounds. that in addition to the photographic system.282 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. in order to give the reader a more complete idea of meteorological registration. It . is command. as will have been seen. the power required to put registering pencils in motion in such a manner as to enable is them to leave their marks. on the The second. science . new and curious may be necessary to add. and besides. is after what we have said.

Petersburg' recently in- formed us that instantaneous photography has been utilised by Lieutenant Abnet it in some military experi- ments. tering the directors of the Kew and cause fre- who have and multiplied daily photographic regiswith success apparatus. in number of cases. very decided advan- tages tion . should our philosophers to have recourse to them more quently. and exploded by an current at high water. where force obtained was wished to calculate the projective from explosive substances of different fill natures which are used to the torpedo and submarine bombs. in the In these experiments the torpedo was buried electrical sand at low water. a great 283 offers. Photography is also capable of furnishing to science means of measurement quite new and unexpected. quite The 'Journal of St. of photography an observation was taken of the height of the column of water thrown into the and then at low water again they observed the extent of the crater formed by each . use advantage these valuable instruments. but in France there has been considerable opposito this system. By means air. which it shown is not represented in our country as deserves.PHOTOGRAPHIC REGISTERING INSTRUMENTS. The example given by Observatory.

The by subjects thus photographed and thrown upon the screen comprised the phenomena of interference produced Fresnel's prism. it The first professor expressed his conviction was the time photography had been taken advantage of for such public demonstrations. These photographs were obtained by receiving the rays of interference on prepared plates instead of the or- dinary screen. the rays of ternal interference in the shadow of a thin wire and of a needle in a small circular disc of light. the rays of diffraction straight by thin edges.284 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. In each experiment the photoits explosion in the sand. the shadows of a in- edge and of an angular aperture. room by means of the oxyhydrogen sensitive plate The impression produced on the was sometimes magnified 2. Even the delicate optical phenomena of the inter- ference and the diffraction of light have been depicted by photography. showed to at his Not long at ago Professor Clinton students the Clarendon laboratory Oxford a fine series of photographic impressions of the phenomena of interference and diffraction.500 diameters. . and the pheno- mena that presented by light when passing through a small circular hole. and then the image was thrown upon a screen in the lecture light. graphic camera did duty in a most satisfactory- manner.

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Draper. is alloy of gold and silver placed in a cavity made (fig.PHOTOGRAPHIC REGISTERING INSTRUMENTS. O. Photography also great 285 offers advantages to the chemist and to the natural philosopher in studying the rays of the spectrum. has recently applied the examination of the violet . It is then volatilised when the Voltaic current . Mr. But the has gone English farther scientist. is put in motion the luminous pencil of rays passes through an is opening. in the lower piece of charcoal of an electric lamp 65). as ingenious as is practical. now made The use of at the London Mint to examine the alloys of gold and silver. An American. photography to rays. and also to the able to reveal space beyond them until he has been some new rays now unknown. our en- The photographs obtained. compared with those previously produced by rays of light from alloys of . Mr. still he has made use of the photoof the graphy of the rays spectrum to create the it new method of analysis. He has besides shown that several rays which were consi- dered to be simple are in reality double or triple. which seen enlarged at silver o'. and the rays in a from the gold and thrown upon a plate in camera are photographed directly as indicated graving. . H. Norman Lockyer.

it being known in that the breadth to and length of the image varies proportion the number of substances entering into the composition of the alloy.286 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. serve to determine the proportion of in the alloy known gold and silver combined well examined. composition. .

they are not seen by us as if traced on a plane surface. The study is of the laws of vision shows that this effect produced by two images seen simultaneously. We consider it right. your eyes a book in a vertical position so that the back . Our its intention is not to describe the stereoscope here in . to give some short account of an instrument which enables us to see a design drawn upon a relief. one being perceived by each eye. THE STEREOSCOPE. they appear solid and raised.28/ CHAPTER IX. however. A FEW WORDS ON STEREOSCOPIC VISION MEANS OF MAKING PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTS APPEAR IN RELIEF— WHEATSTONE'S STEREOSCOPE MONOSTEREOSCOPE HOW STEREOSCOPIC PHOTOGRAPHS ARE — — — PRODUCED. relation to optics we shall merely refer to it as con- nected with photography. flat surface appear as if it were in Our eyes show us objects as they are in relief . easily Here is an experiment Place before made which will show this at once.

a sheet of white paper be stuck on one side of a book bound in red or any other colour. that flat is an instrument which gives to a picture on a relief.288 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. Shut the right eye and open the After left. left this. Both the right and are open. you shut the eye and open the right. This instrument is con- tained in a rectangular box. be made with a cube or a quadrangular pyramid 66). according as the right or left eye is opened . The experiment may. To make of being in use of a stereoscope. when both eyes are open. Our minds by and the combine the two pictures. One of the first stereoscopes given to the public was that invented by Wheatstone. then the back and the right side of the book only In order to will be seen. . left faces are seen when both eyes left and according as the right or the eye is shut the cube or the pyramid assumes the appearance of our figures on the right and force of habit left. this gives the impression of relief or of being raised or solid. both sides in will be seen. if make the experiment more striking. and you if will see the left side of the book. the same way. (fig. it is surface the appearance necessary to take two impressions of the picture so that each impression represents the object to each eye as the solid object itself would. the white or the coloured side will be seen alternately. Two views of the same object. is of it visible.

Ed. pictures at the sides reflected from them.* two small mirrors are fixed in one another the centre of the Fij?. on the other side of the U . that in It is not generally crystals. box the eyes of the ® : observer.— THE STEREOSCOPE. 289 represented according to the principles of stereoscopic vision. or of any microscopic preparation standing out in order to obtain a perfect stereoscopic photograph of the object. light and then taking a second picture with the object. relief The stereoscopic may be obtained by first taking a picture with the light on one side. known taking a photo-micrograph of minute invisible in relief. the box . one at each side of at right angles to . are placed in grooved slides. being situated a will see the little in front of the mirrors. 66. the two and when the eyes are ' at the proper distance. neither the camera nor the preparation need be moved.

At first it was used for the purpose of viewing pictures drawn by the hand. and viewed through lenses will ap- pictures as reflected pear as one. (fig. and in relief. considered to be improvements on Wheatstone's. 67). Brewster's stereoscope (fig. and that of Heimholtz and are 68). The stereoscope was invented at about the same time as the daguerreotype. Every BREWSTER S STEREOSCOPE. but on . management too simple and their use too com- mon to require us to spend any time in describing them.290 THE APPUCATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. are on somewhat different principles. one has looked their at photographs through such instruments is .

291 the discovery of photography the two other mutual support .TIIK STEREOSCOPE. u 2 . new arts lent each they became so intimately con- HEIMHOLTZS STEREOSCOPE. nected that now the stereoscope and the photograph appear to be almost two parts of the same instrument.

two images of the MONO-STEREOSCOPIC PRINT. This instrument con- of a dark screen the centre of which has been cut . In 1858 an able operator. 69. 69). as to give the impression of the picture being in without the necessity of viewing it through any optical instrument ' (fig. M.292 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. out and the space occupied by a piece of ground glass by means of two magic lanterns.^ This method of combining stereoscopic pictures is as to command extensive application. — Ed. not so successful . Fig. and are so combined relief. Claudet. same object are thrown upon this. invented a very curious kind of stereoscope which can be seen by several people at the sists same time.

The facility of 293 procuring by means of photography printed views so delicately by Nature herself has singularly contributed to the perfecting of the stereo- Fig. scope. is now manufactured with admirable cor- After Brewster's stereoscope. Fevrier. gives to photographs . FEVRIERS PILLAR STEREOSCOPE. 70.THE STEREOSCOPE. 70). invented by M. the Pillar Stereoscope (fig. which rectness.

that nothing can better represent natural objects. who can places. distant traveller. In this apparatus. and then a second view is taken after moving it a little to the left. without stirring from his chair. such an appearance of and so enlarges them. rotation of an around which the stereoscopic photographs are Switzerland. that is it is necessary to take two views of the same these two views ought to be identical in their little central parts. fastened a together by tripod. the Pyrenees. in even those most inaccessible to the We now come to the processes employed impressions suitable for producing photographic being viewed through the lenses of the stereoscope.294 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. but differ a this result a first at their sides. To tinct give greater correctness to the impressions two views are generally taken at the same time by two discameras. Japan. relief. by turning a small button causing the axis. having lenses of uniform focus. The photographic to say. come one under the view of the observer. admire. with the eyes fixed upon the lenses. picture should be double. If it movable slide fixed on the top of a be wished to take two stereoscopic pictures of . To attain view is taken of the object by placing the photographic camera towards the right. subject . after the other arranged. China.

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U'age 295 APPARATUS FOR OBTAINING THE TWO PROOFS OF THE STEREOSCOPE. .

and are separated from each other by about six inches. Care must be taken before introducing the collodionised glass into the cameras that the inclination of the two images in the foci of the cameras is such as will produce the desired effect. it For this purpose must be ascertained that the point of the object which in the centre of the is ground glass of the camera to the right be also exactly in the centre of the ground glass of that to the left. It is a good plan to print the positives for the stereo.THE STEREOSCOPE. figure 71. The apparatus ready for use is represented in Figure 73 gives the facsimile of a stereo- scopic slide formed of two photographic views placed Fig. PLATE FOR SUPPORTING THE CAMERA WHEN TAKING STEREOSCOPIC VIEW. the two cameras are placed at about the distance of ten feet from the model. the photographs are taken ordinary manner. beside one another under the conditions suitable tor stereoscopic vision. This fundamental observation being in the once made. such as a picture or a statue. 295 an object. 72. scope upon glass the transparency of the glass lights .

The position of the when printed and two pictures taken mounted on card. changed its position a second view is then taken. taken. seen in A first view of the subject is taken by placing the camera at the right side of the plate.296 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. though the lens has . it This camera upon a plate on which moves easily from right to guided by two squares which move in a groove as fig. 'J2. carefully observing the object which is in the centre of the ground glass of the camera. only one taken at a time with one camera. to give relief up the picture better and helps solidity. a distance which nearly corresponds with that of the pupils of the ' human eyes. — in this way must be reversed . buildings. The two positions occupied by the camera are separated by about three inches. the camera is This view having been moved to the left of the plate and carefully adjusted so that the same object is again in the centre of the ground glass. or of distant objects in general.* it and When view rests left is it is wished to take stereoscopic views of land- scapes. Ed.

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a . PHOTOGRAPHY AND ART.297 CHAPTER X. represents the ornaments of a dress better than can . composes -nothing gives a copy. indeed. IS PHOTOGRAPHY ART ?— ITS USES IN RELATION TO PAINTING REPRODUCTION OF ENGRAVINGS — VOYAGES OF DISCOVERY— PHOTOGRAPHY BY THE MAGNESIUM LIGHT— PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAITS CONSIDERED AS HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. they feel repugnance in placing collodion beside are very severe a palette of oil colours. it mere imitation. Many. brutal in its it truth. wants sentiment. Photography. are Painters not generally carried its away by their ad- miration of photography. it gives an equal value to important parts and to accidental details. no flame of genius gives It awkward. . physico-chemical processes seem incompatible with the sentiments which animate them . If it it takes a portrait it copies its model unskilfully it . they say. life. upon the art of Daguerre there are some who cannot hear a photographic print praised without feeling much only It is annoyed.

say the photographers. a Reynolds and Turner. the eye of the sitter . that the photographer shows himself to be an artist in the full acceptation of the word if . that he causes his mind and his genius. of the the work is only sketched out. he have genius. necessary to study the subject as effects well as to select and this first combine the of light . says a distinguished practitioner art.298 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. says an eminent scientific writer. appreciating its defects and merits. pass into the print . as well as those which impress and take hold of the mind in as lively a manner when admiring scapes as of Titian. then. should palliate the It is one and bring out the other more prominently. it is not art. is Light is uncertain instrument which trol. it is on the other hand. give the expression of a face . is not given better than the button of his sleeves is photography mere mechanism. a . to it that he gives colour and effects that admirable completeness. we meet by a turns a Van Dyk and a Delaroche. adds our apologist. and needs the intervention of artistic sentiment. To produce a good negative. certain in photographic portraits or land- when presence of a canvas of Ruysdael or In a series of photographs. a Titian and a Scheffer. The an negative obtained. its never under complete con- It is necessary that the photographer.

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ART. 299 and a Claude Lorraine a These views sides. and truth . Ruysdael and a Corot. . relief. But paratus. the process of developing the image not unfrequently reproduces the distances as distinctly as the foregrounds in . It often injures the linear as well as the aerial perspective . Certainly photography has serious disadvantages. at the it cannot be denied that the photographic ap- if managed by the hand skill of an operator having same time the of a proficient and the taste of the painter. marked with the seal of We graphs : see every day issue from the studios of the masters of the art a great number of admirable photo- they have colour. are evidently exaggerated on both Let us try and give a just and reasonable opinion. produces pictures art. avoiding the two rocks of systematic disparagement and of too enthusiastic admiration. flat all and heavy tones. while the shadows some photographs form dark which deprive the picture of Especially is blots. which is guided by the love of the beautiful and just impressions of the effects of nature. artis- The instrument which tic acts has not the powers of the hand. Marilhat. is this the case if the instrument guided by an inexperienced hand. grace and "harmony. delicacy.

At the same time deny to appears to us to be exceedingly unjust to photography the rank of one of the It fine arts. did not fear to say. We and to shall not enter further into this order of ideas It is discussions. to the sculptor.300 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY rival the some of them even can most beautiful sepia If. to wish establish a parallel between painting and in photo- graphy. but we shall quit this slippe^ry ground for the purpose of broaching a services much more interesting question. in pre- sence of the members of the Academy of Science. soon after the in- vention of the daguerreotype. that of the is which photography capable of rendering to all artists -to the painter. which differ essentially their processes it and mode of production. in our opinion. the daguerreotype carries to such perfection certain essential points of art that it must become an object of study painters. to the archi- tect The illustrious Paul Delaroche. A collection of photographs indeed an inexhaustible source of useful information for . it on the other hand. drawings. or the finest miniatures. and observation to the greatest Paul Delais roche spoke the truth. dangerous. a true and a great art . doubtless. constitutes. there are bad photographs. must be admitted that some shocking bad pictures exist.

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ART. the inimitable richness of the architecture of Egyptian portfolio. are the views of buildings in distant countries ! The marvels of Athens and of Rome. in The student will also find valuable examples those fine photographs which reproduce the magni- ficent cartoons of of the Louvre — unique of sketches. miracle of multiplying to infin'ty an etching of Correggio or of Titian. or the of Michael Angelo. Again. their imperfections. or an archaeologist. whatever trait may be his talent. but such as with their beauties. tion and the marks of destrucPhotographic which time has engraved upon them. can be kept his not modified and disfigured by an untrustthey are in reality worthy pencil. will attempt to paint a por- without having good photographic likenesses of his It is also sitter. the artist. . evident that a landscape painter cannot be too well acquainted with those admirable studies of nature which true artists have placed upon the collodionised glass. what resources in the hands of an architect. No one would be bold enough to attempt to reproduce the designs of these great masters by the burin of the engraver. the produce pencil the magic crayon Raphael. the bold in temples. or by the Photography performs the pen of the lithographer. 301 It is certain that no painter at this day. monuments of India.

a broken column. colour can never have such rigorous The artist is often tempted to omit some object which appears efi"ect to injure the of the whole. The photographer. the walls are covered with paintings and hieroglyphs which the savant cannot study with advantage during a short visit. in certain cases. or to add some orna- ment to his work. which it now constructed in such a manner that (fig. takes the exact transcript of these in- . Finally. In a great number of subterranean chambers. from which are reflected the banks of prints are mirrors the Nile and of the Indus —the buildings and the land- scapes of passed. a mark upon a stone. hollowed out under the ancient temples of Egypt.302 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. 74). all the countries through which the camera has The explorer furnished with his photographic is ap- paratus. can be used with ease in any part of the world his travels brings back with him from documents in- valuable. painting or a waterprecision. it is A has photograph represents an object just as scape as nature has formed it — the landit — the A building as been seen. photography is able to repro- duce by the aid of artificial light the representation of masterpieces of art or of natural beauties which buried in may be darkness. by means of the magnesium light. because no one can deny their accuracy. thing is No- deficient in the print.

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or of these figures 303 . by the aid of a magnifying glass. the most minute details. he puts in the hands of the archaeologist a faithful copy on which he can study. scriptions.PHOTOGRAPHY AND ART. The is mode of operating most frequently practised in Egypt Fie:. 7= ^2^^ .

have played their part in the cjianges of modern What incomparable value would now be attached to photographs of the great writers of the age of Louis XIV..! 304 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY The carbon process of photographic printing. that if the uses of photowill certainly graphy are now almost innumerable. it will thus perpetuate in history the appearance of the great men who society. which the most clear-sighted cannot foresee. they still go on increasing to an unknown extent. only will recently discovered. they will be improved so as to reach such a summit of perfection as our mental eye cannot perceive through the dense the future. mist which veils from efforts us the image of We have seen the made by Becquerel photographs with of coloured photo- and Niepce de Saint-Victor the colours of nature. ever marvellous the results already obtained Howmay be. unchangeable prints as durable as the impressions of typography . if it has not already succeeded in producing. All that we can affirm is. or of the philosophers of the eighteenth century! What profound emotion would have enlightened humanity not one feel in contem- plating the truthful images of the men of genius who Our descendants will assuredly enjoy such surprises and many more. soon produce. to obtain The problem .

In such cases it is necessary to rest upon to the imagination. It is often imprudent. and even undesirable. course wonderfully Then the art will march along a new fruitful in such results. and not give too much play We have studied the past of photography it we have . but in some cases it is possible to do so without exceeding too much the limits of reason. to attempt to look too closely into the future. facts.PHOTOGRAPHY AND ART. adthe mired the marvels we owe to reader pardon us into the future t in the present will if we now endeavour to dive a little . It will be solved one day. . graphy is 305 not insoluble.

306 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. If we would fathom sense. Auguste Chevalier. the depths of the future while re- straining ourselves at the same time within the carefully limits of common we must examine the ground view. LAND-SURVEYING — THE ART OF WAR— WORKS OF ART— CRIMINALS AND JUDICIAL PHOTOGRAPHY. fixing military surgeon. and then it we be able to perceive the resources will afford during war. it M. stand. over which we would extend our in the We shall first examine what has been done up photography shall art to this time in utilising of taking plans. CHAPTER XL THE FUTURE OF PHOTOGRAPHY. can be turned round in any By directing the lens of the camera to the different points of the horizon pictures of each part are obtained. A retired photography. has already considered possible to combine surveying with He it places a camera on a land-surveyor's it upon an axis so that direction. the whole forming a complete .THE MIRACLES OF INSTANTANEOUS PHOTOGRAPHY.

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science will again be distinguished by considerable progress. in the opinion of competent is on the eve of being completely application is realised. In 1859. will The picture of the country will be taken. When cannot new perfected. made The experiments they made allowed them to form some idea of the advantages of this new branch of photography. panorama which must be absolutely plan or correct 3O7 . We over-estimate the great services the camera ought to render in this kind of work. the it map be completed. some military engineer officers. the art.THE FUTURE OF PHOTOGRAPHY. thoroughly master No doubt in the future. no annoy- ance. this application of photography to taking military plans and panoramic views. the details of which are too technical for us to enter into. so to say. without. a kind of use forerunner of the employment of the camera. longer any want of correctness in producing the no minute calculation. camera will supply valuable assistance to the military The judges. during the war in Italy. a general have photographs of the . No plan. reflecting images by means of mirrors ^6). though they did not it. In time of war. no difficulty. of the photographic plate. no doubt thinking of the polemoscope (fig. from this a map of the country can be drawn by means of certain operations. giving will a thought.

was addressing some words of blame to the contractor who was employed building a bridge. what number of bars of . the camera thrown into the car of a balloon held captive by a cord. which suddenly objects. the images of distant Photography realises the con- ceptions of the imagination of the poet. will take a faithful impression of within its view. a military engineer. ' But I beg your pardon. it is true. construction.' 308 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. engaged in superintending some railway works. We remember being present at a singular scene. Narrators of fairy tales and other extravagant stories have often put into the hands of rors. in He complained of certain faults of and especially at the slow progress of the work. their heroes magic mirreflect wonderful talismans. is a mirror which sent to me and which tells me every week what quantity of stones you have collected. One of our friends. and should any point of the horizon be concealed from him.' replied the contractor. is } * Are you quite sure your information visited the correct.' replied is the engineer. of battle field — of the fortresses he would besiege. and thus rising above woods and all hills. for you have not personally ' works I have not stirred from home. 'but here regularly. which we shall en- deavour to describe.

ere long.— THE FUTURE OF PHOTOGRAPHY.' he continued. I I tell you. a most desirable consummation for the Metropolitan for the • and Illustrated London News ' and * Graphic' Ed. said to myself. be discovered of telegraphing a photograph from one end of the other . that the future would this work out more perfectly system already made use of The day may perhaps by some reader exclaims. which a fortnight ago was three yards from the five second pile and which advanced yards the preceding last eight days. to be more active. I can take him to task from my office and I here. week. has moved very slowly for the is It necessary.' He then took from his drawer some photographs. * I employ a photographer. . and one of them has been idling while the picture was I being taken. miracle. who sends ' me every morning a picture of your work taken on the spot. will the earth to nothing Utopian in the notion that. All that you do see here the photographs which are sent to me if give me even the appearance of your workmen. come when Impossible the negative will be taken at a distance electric wire I shall refer . The moving crane. means of the ! and if him to certain telegraphic systhis tems lately discovered.' listened to this singular conversation. . there. iron 309 you have got together. Here is the complete series.^ less which allow us to anticipate new Not ' wonderful is the arrest of criminals by I believe that there is means Police.

only cost 2. their photographs. of a nature to show us the resources of judicial photography.948/. done England. from the 3 ist it time that the Act of 1870 came into operation to the December 1873. might be ders desired. more easy. would be the same with dead bodies which had not been claimed by anyone. We do not doubt that means would thus be . Perhaps it make the services ren- more practical.$'. to would thus be possible make the arrest of malefactors. and at the same time we may mention all does not cost much. 375 arrests took place in England consequence of the identity of criminals having been portraits. to the 31st in December 1872. It appears from a report on photographing criminals that from the 20th in London November 1871. in means of Here are some accounts of what has been. proved by means of their photographic Dur- ing this time there had been received from county and borough prisons at the Habitual Criminals Office 30. in order to 18. since the portraits of 1 1 the pri- soners of the 5 prisons of England and Wales. This shows that the practice of taking the portraits of malefactors by means of photo- graphy it is useful. that the criminal It portrait gallery should be open to the public.3IO THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY.463 portraits of criminals. upon whom It the police are unable to lay their hands. 3</.

and this time from the still United States.THE FUTURE OF PHOTOGRAPHY. eye-witness from the other side of the Atlantic. assured that an American photo- grapher had succeeded taking an instantaneous picture air. If he had suc- ceeded. the group of listeners who were raising and waving their arms.000 copies of the photograph. others with signs of impatience and anger. of the uses to which the art of Daguerre may be put. An last who was present at some of the us in riotous scenes of the elections. an crowd. more singular perhaps. that we take some accounts. 311 found for the arrest of murderers. in an He failed. whose names. that very evening there might have been distri- buted 100. army . some showing marks of approbation and approval. This photo- graph was immediately taken to his studio. but others will accomplish this wonder of producing upon collodion in such animated scenes. again from the foreigner. depicting agitated in a permanent an form man in action. remain It is unknown. for the purpose of converting the negative into a plate to be printed from by the heliographic process. as well as those of their victims. of a public meeting in the open He had suddenly fixed in the focus of the camera the orator who was gesticulating from the top of a temporary husting's. printed ordinary printing press.

photography naturally coloured by the light itself. Also some which it of interest was difficult to give in the body of the work. . Instantaneous photography. history. human learning — will one day find in photography but the reader. We could still recount the resources which the art of the land-surveyor science as well as — geography. einployed in the Wet Plate and Dry Plate other matters Processes andfor obtaming paper proofs. every branch all of the conceptions of . but they already appear. the orator as in battle. will himself is the know how to look for the future applications which are logically derived from those actually practised. the heliograph. may ^*^ In the Appendix the reader will find some formulcB of the various solutions 6^^. will be the most fruitful branches of the tree planted scarcely by Niepce and Daguerre yet burst from — their buds have the stem. its the wave as it foams. and no one can say to what heights they reach. after having acquired the knowledge of the actual powers of the wonderful invention of modern times which subject of this volume.312 THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. he speaks. or the meteor which traces luminous track through the azure of heaven.

and can only be repaired by a skilhil mechanician. M. Schoenscheidt. double. Liesegang uses a stand nearly of prove the success of the invention. and Indian photographers. or triple lens. of Cologne. Johnson. but this instrument was only fitted with a single lens of short focus. For large apparatus of this kind the clockwork by means of which the horizontal motion is obtained cannot be made cheaply and accurately. . Schultz.313 APPENDIX. PANORAMIC Ph TO GRAPHY. but stronger and more stable. and called the times. that could be to adapted any single. as well as the a large polished table supplied with a pivot or axis on which the camera turns. rendered it desirable to introduce a simple instrument. Italian. of Dorpat. and capable of producing negatives equal to those taken with the best stationary cameras now in use. camera. This stand carries Exhibition. only limited by the length of the dark slide. suitable alike for groups and landscapes. so that the horizontal lines of the picture were always slightly curved. of Diisseldorf on the Rhine. the common tripod form. In reality the image remains stationary while the ground glass is in motion. If a photographic camera is turned round upon its optical centre the image of an object will appear to move to one side on the ground glass. Pantas5opic Camera . Rotating cameras based on this principle have been constructed at various One of the best was that invented by Mr. not easily deranged. has constructed a simple rotating camera which was employed by M. and at best it is easily deranged. in taking the beautiful groups awarded a prize medal at last year's Paris The bridges and views taken by M. work of many English. and such would certainly not be found in regions where the The large angle of view obtainable by the rotating finest scenery abounds. The pivot is so adjusted as to fall into the same plane as the optical centre of the lens. Liesegang. It appears that M.

PANORAMIC CAMERA. in order to secure a longer exposure for that portion of the The dark slit and thus impart greater uniformity to the tone of the negative. the left only being open. that of the frame containing the prepared plate. of the instrument. or a group of friends ranged in a semicircle round the instrument. . The two motions axis.314 APPENDIX. has only to turn a handle to take in the wide scope of the horizon. The camera is half as broad as it is high. from right to and the motion of the camera on its are managed by a simple arrangement of horizontal cords and pulleys. The operator. and has a slit through which the slit rays of light pass which form the image. after focussing. viz. The other operations are the same as in the ordinary camera. falls. left. a little wider only where the near ground picture. the opening of the being not more fore- than a quarter of an inch wide. slide when in the camera is closed around by a flexible band.

to render very hard and durable. Surprise has often been expressed at the possibility of an organic substance such as gelatine But being made to withstand the wear and tear of mechanical printing. and the plate. while the parts representing intermediate gradations of tone retain the ink in such degree as they have repelled the water. when dry. This solution is poured. on either plain or enamelled paper. prints are to — by the addition of chrome alum it is converted into a substance resembling horn. and are left . The greasy ink readily adheres to the deep shadows. 3 I 5 THE HRLIOTYPE PROCESS. is placed on an ordinary printing press. white . being hard. either be of a photographic tone. and thus the necessity of 'mounting' so objectionable when the * ' — be used as book illus'^rations is avoided. bearing the printed surface of gelatine. instead of clear water for damping the plate. or it may be of any colour or tint desired. and the proofs are pulled. as in the Woodburj'-type. The Heliotype process. insoluble. and a added to make it sensitive it to light. and has been adopted with success in many artistic with a small quantity of some dye for for some purposes inferior to the . which. the 'high lights.APPENDIX. and exposed to light under a reversed negative. together with a certain proportion of chrome alum. In the sufficient Heliotype process the gelatine dissolved in is quantity of bichromate of potash warm water. but is simply used as a printing is surface. the film is -made to adhere to a metal plate. the plate being damped with water after each impression. offers special advantages book-illustration. a development of the Albert- type process. wherein the gelatine itself forms no part of the picture. have repelled the water altogether. the superfluous chemicals are soaked out in water. is The effect of an India or other coloured tint obtained by using. as worked by the Licensees of the Heliotype Company at their works at Kilburn. Having thus received the photographic image. while hot. repel the ink. upon a glass plate previously waxed the film. Clean margins are obtained by the use of a mask of thin paper. inked with lithographic ink.' on the contrary. though Woodbury-type. to ensure a close resemblance to any work of art that is being copied. having freely absorbed the water. water in it. perfectly. is stripped off. in This graduated or discriminative power of absorption renders the mechanically- The ink used may which case the impressions when varnished bear a close resemblance to silver-prints . in the ordinary way. and as a matter of fact several thousand impressions have been obtained from a single film. is based upon another method of utilising the action of light upon gelatine rendered It is in effect sensitive by the admix- ture of bichromate of potash. printed image a perfect transcript of the negative. The Heliotype process. and non-absorbent.

free from to It false economy employ trifling glass of inferior quality. and used fresh in . and inevitable also in in the Heliotype. show scratches. B. the appearance of common silver prints on albumenised paper. except that any not returned to the bottle. Woodbury-type prints. and unless they are clean a prolonged development of the image will often bring up stains on them. and when dry may be used at any time for receiving the collodion in the ordinary way. is also in use at same works it as the above. or to cause breakage in the printing frame. The the collodion. the J.— 3l6 APPENDIX. The plates thus coated are dried in a drying rack away from dust. 'glaze. well : water containing a very small quantity of muriatic acid rinse in plain water now coat the plates (which after drying must be carefully brushed wtih a badgerhair brush to remove any particles of dust) with a quantity sufficient to cover the plate of a mixture made as follows. the following simple plan may be adopted First. Negatives should be taken either on polished specks and scratches. EPITOME OF THE WET COLLODION PROCESS AND USEFUL FORMULA. of one egg is used exactly as when coating the plate with collodion. as is what might at first appear only a imperfection in the plate glass plate ought to It apt to spoil the finest negative. . or on patent plate glass. and while adding to the rapidity and certainty with which the prints are pro- duced. This process. One to all and scientific is works of importance. recently perfected by Mr. flat crown is glass. and are said to Plates thus prepared do not readily develop stains or keep longer without drying in hot weather a great aid to . The frontispiece to this work is printed by the photo tint process. gives finer and more delicate results. being entirely absent THE PHOTO-TINT PROCESS. : wash the plates To 2 quarts of water add 7 drops of ammonia 7 drops of acetic acid The white Well shake and This mixture surplus is filter. the landscape photographer. . be chemically clean when prepared to receive must indeed be borne in mind as a sort of maxim that ' ' As it is often necessary to make use of old plates which it is a difficult matter to get perfectly clean. but thrown away. Edwards.' of the strong points of this is process the fidelity with which the character of the original preserved. It is more simple than the Heliotype.

Alcohol Water ounce.. DARK ROOM OPERATIONS.. . The plate is first coated with iodised collodion (see Suitable negabottles. 20 grains. When a collodionised plate has been immersed in the sensitising bath long enough to get quit of the greasy appearance on its surface. 20 minims 30 minims. . 109). Water . SENSITISnVG BATH. Nitrate of Silver Distilled . i ounce. . • ^5 ounces. .. it will vary from one to ten camera must be brought back to With a good portrait lens in a favourable light seconds.. placed in the dark slide in and exposed in the camera. . The operator must use his own judgment determining the duration of exposure. and allow to remain in the solution for four or five hours. After this plate has been withdrawn test the bath with a piece of blue litmus paper . so as to render the solution slightly acid before use. The plate. nitrate of silver bath is next used for immersing the collodionised : and may be prepared in the following proportions . Developing solution: Protosulphite of Iron Glacial Acetic Acid . . the solution may be filtered through blotting paper and used. it may be removed. 317 cleanliness of manipulation and methodical care are the chief p. it Before using the bath (ioat a' plate with iodised collodion. from any photographic dealer. i (or drops). add one or two drops of nitric acid to the bath. tive collodion and iodising solution may be procured in separate supplied with printed directions. should the paper slowly change its colour to red. attributes of the successful photographer.— — APPENDIX. But should' the test paper remain unaltered m colour. The plate after exposure in the the dark 1st room and developed.

. .. been washed off. after it has been cleared of the yellow iodide of must be thoroughly washed to remove all trace of the fixing agent.. 20 grains. . Ammonio-sulphite of Iron Glacial Acetic Acid Alcohol . almost every photographer to may be employed successfully by the may be varied to such an extent as to enable use his own favourite developer. To this must be added. then dried and varnished. ... When plate : the first solution has the re-developing or the intensifying mixture may be applied in quantity sufficient to flood Pyrogallic Acid Citric Acid Water .. 30 minims. of the yellow window FIXING. . The operator cannot go far wrong in following the printed directions on the bottle. . In any case the negative.... negative varnish. but the plate must be slightly heated. and arrested when the high lights of the picture have acquired the proper intensity. or pour over surface weak solution of cyanide of potassium (100 grains to 10 ounces of water). Or... first may be had from any photographic applied in the same way as collodion.. 20 minims. in the 30 grains.. 3 grains.. silver.— — 3l8 APPENDIX. . which is It is The chemist. but the proportions ounce. 1 ounce..... i ounce. 3 grains. The action of the re-developer must be carefully watched by the light dark room. ... two or three drops of a solution of nitrate of silver: Nitrate of Silver Water . Wash off the a intensifier and consign the plate either to a bath containing its a nearly saturated solution of hyposulphite of soda. . I Water Either of the above solutions beginner. just before using.

XXII. 60 i grains. Always have in stock the following articles : Absolute Ether Absolute Alcohol Alcohol 820 Hydrochloric Acid (Tlie latter is 1 i pint.. ounce. and allowed to soak for twelve hours. i 1 ounce. may be removed and 4 ounces. at least Gun Cotton Bromide of Cadmium Pyrogallic Acid Fused Nitrate of Silver The above constitute all powder .. ..) of suitable quality... needless to do more here than : to supply useful formulae ready reference. when and mounted.. cut. may be used two . toning solution or three minutes after has been Fixing solution: Hyposulphate of Soda Water .. it The made. . 1875. grains... As for the various operations connected with positive printing are described it is in these pages. 319 POSITIVE SILVER-PRINTING FORMULA.. . well boiled and strained through muslin.— — —— APPENDIX. . kind perjuissicn of Canon Beechy and the Editor we are able to print the following interesting and useful extract from The British * Journal of Photography... .' No. 4 6 ounces.. makes an excellent mounting paste. after they have remained from fifteen to twenty minutes in the fixing solution.. 1 1 „ „ of these plates.. .. I grain. Vol. . may be SIMPLE METHOD OF PREPARING By the DRY PLATES. .. dried. I i as useful in cleaning the plates for albumenising as for the emulsion. The toned prints. they thoroughly washed in repeated changes of water.. . 1. Sensitising bath for albumenised paper Nitrate of Silver Water Toning solution : Chloride of Gold Bicarbonate of Soda Water . i pint.. .. ..... ... the chemicals employed in the manufacture in .. October i. Sago... 804...

Coat another and put it into the vacant place in the water. It is well to shake it once or twice in the course of the twenty-four hours . smooth. sixteen grains of nitrate of silver. In : doing so he wi proceed thus 3 Settle how many plates you mean to make and take of the above accordingly. and whilst quite hot. This must be done through cottonwool into a perfectly clean collodion bottle. rapidly all the while with the glass rod.— 320 APPENDIX. at least) of your plates. the neck of the funnel being within half-an-inch of the bottom.greasiness is gone. and by a yellow light. Into the other put thirty ounces (a pint and a-half ) of clear. flowing easily and equally over the plates. 8 drops. Take your second plate out of the preservative into the drying-box and the second out of the w^er into the preservative. i . Let it stand at least twenty-four hours. and two drops of hydrochloric Put this into your stock emulsion bottle and keep it in a dark place at acid per ounce. creamy. ounce vial. filtered rain water to six (or four. see that all. Gun Absolute Ether Cotton 12 ^jt\^ Put these into a clean bottle. and again remove the first out of the water into the vacant place in the preservative. if good. pour out the above bromised collodion into a clean four-ounce measure. to avoid bubbles. and be sufficient to last the amateur two or three years. 4. ready for use at any moment (a). do not always do so. and the gim cotton. The pyro. until perfectly clear.• Alcohol I ounce. Give the emulsion a good shaking. forty grains of nitrate of silver in one ounce of alcohol 820. and place each as you coat it in the water." It is as well to add on the label the constituents. know a simpler or more satisfactory preservative than the above. stirring of glass. and so on until the first six are all in the preservative and six more in the water. containing. Remove your second plate from the water into th'e preservative. at least two dozen properly albumenised plates. When first put in it will be tuilky when taken out it will be least twenty-four hours. Proceed as follows Into one put sufficient clean. preservative stand whilst you filter your emu'sion. but . keep is With it at hand he now for ever. in which you have dissolved thirty grains of pyrogallic acid. You now take the first plate out of the preservative into your drying-box. I like to use bitter beer at one shilling per gallon. flat (not acid) nearly fill it. shake once or twice. I rea ly do not table beer. Coat another plate and put it in the water where the first came out. and in its place lay another freshly coated plate. with sufficient exactitude for all practical purposes. eight grains of bromide. on a retort stand at a safe distance from the lamp (which it will do in about five minutes). 2. The solution will be milky. dissolves in it at once. If the beer be at At all events. As soon as the silver is all dissolved. thirty-two grains of silver will be sufficient. For two dozen half-plates (6^ x 4J) {a) dissolve by heat over (but not too near) a spirit lamp. . : — ' If ordinary bromide be used. let your all brisk it will be difficult to avoid little bubbles on the plates. Take it out. The filtered emulsion will be found to be a soft. be ready to come out. this is dissolving in a little Florence flask. take of the— Whilst ijj) Bromised Solution \ ounce. or Decant it carefully into an eightIt will deposit a white powder. and when all bubbles have subsided pour it into the funnel and it will all go through in five minutes. and place it in the preservative. which will now be found to be nearly . and add to it one drachm of strong hydrochloric acid. having ready in it a clean slip Pour into it the hot solution of nitrate of silver in a continuous stream. At the end of twenty-four hours you can make your two dozen half-plates in little Have two porcelain dishes large enough to hold more than an hour. Label it 'bromide solution. Pour it through a filter into the dish. Have also in stoc'-. : — — — Bromide of Cadmium Hydrochloric Acid This solution will 1 32 grains. able in two days to prepare a batch of plates at any time. creamy fluid. and {i) a stock bottle— say eight ounces of the following bromide solution In eight ouncesof absolute alcohol dissolve five drachms of anhydrous bromide of cadmium. If allowed to let stand an hour any beer will be flat enough. will entirely dissolve. The result will be a perfectly smooth emulsion without lumps or deposit. Coat with it six plates in succession (if your dishes will hold By the time the sixth is in the first will six).'..

12 grains. fresh air between every two plates. 3. adding bromide if too rapid. has a sheet-iron bottom. or cyanide as you please. for the reason that I never then. and go to bed. To wash first is safest for amateurs. means use carbonate of ammonia. who also made my dr>'ing-box from my instructions.' You . and I doubt if they keep as well or are so certain. Unless you take with you the means of developing it is better to tiy a plate before j-ou start. confident that I have two dozen reliable dry plates. bring them up easily and at once. terous. since I have had In conclusion more letters enquiring for them than I could find time to answer. but and pour on the developer. and but the beer gives these plates a bottle-green tint. or pouring on the developer as it was if all right. simply wet the plate well under the tap. also. The picture will come out in a few seconds. if you are dexsufficiently in the water and in the preservative. and I am quite sure ninety-nine out of a hundred will pre'er them to the host of complications which from time to time 'go up like a rocket and come down like a stick. In spite of every precaution there will somehow be a difference in a batch of plates now and I may mention. preservative. and my process is essentially his applied to a humbler and more domestic class of plates. with his excellent rapid uranium plates. I claim nothing new You know I am a pupil of Colonel in the process but the beer and pyro. Clear with either hypo. or even three if the exposure be short. redeveloper will require to be intensified. 32 and so on box. and always gives a more inky picture. with air-tubes supplying hot. that I never back my plates. For developing I use Colonel Wortley's strong developer. Bromide of Potash 96 grains. of C two drachms. These plates seldom If they do the ordinary acid silver and pyro. : . . thereby washing off" the beer. any alcohol. more rapid if placed at once in the preservative without washing These p'ates are but they require to stay in till all greasiness has disappeared. By all You can then judge as to exposure will be surprised to see how it 7£////come out. be de trap — I recommend all to be got from some eminent photographic cheI obtained my pyroxyline in every large town at least one. these plates do not profess to be zvry rapid. As to exposure ciently so for every ordinary purpose. In the morning I may pack up my plates and set out on my expedition. I have tried to simplify their preparation for amateurs. I generally make my plates at night. and when they are all in the rack and locked up I light a spirit lamp containing one ounce of methylated spirit. or with an extra thirty drops of C if under-exposed. On its first appearance pour back the developer into the measure and let the picture come out of itself. I never use of B sixty drops. sufficient time for two dozen plates. mist. and proceed according'y. They will not blur with any light that will not also blur backed find they require it. As to materials : : : : plates. I am glad you have asked me for the above formulae. Ammonia Hot Water 64 grains. which I copy : I mean the one published A. of Norfolk-street. There are many such from Mr. than which nothing can work better. From thirty to sixty seconds according to light will be enough. after clearing if you intensify do it which is more impervious to actinic light than from its transparency you wou'd suppose. Ronch. negative. The liquid ammonia often destroys a good For a half-plate take of A thirtj' drops. I ounce. Wort ley. the development being stopped sooner. but they are sufli2. Pyrogallic Acid Alcohol B.: — APPENDIX. but they will do with less and bear strong ammonia development without fogging or they will do with more. i ounce. and yet each plate soaks You will find an hour. under the drying-box. It holds twenty-four half-plates. i Water C. till all By proceeding your plates are through the process and locked up safely in the dryingas above not a moment of time is lost. wish to render this process so practical and simple that amateurs may As it is make their own plates. and development my will not 1. the following particulars as to material. Carbonate of ounce. exposure.

f 5. Fluid Drachm. Pound Troy. Ounce. (The French gramme = 15*4325 English grains. = = Oz. 10 decalitre millilitre. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.) The I Kilolitre is a cubic decimetre. i 3.. congius.000. = i i Scruple. Minim (or drop) Minim. I Parisian foot = i *o658 English foot. 4^ drachpis Avoirdu the weight of a cubic decimetre of distilled water at the temperature maximum density. 480*0 Grains Troy 437*5 yooo'O . Troy. =1 I 5760*0 I =1 = = = = =• I I i i Pound . 20 Fluid Ounces Pint. kilolitre (^ 10 hectolitre @. i.) The Metre.000 decigrammes = 100.. Troy 20 Grains 3 Scruples Weight. One kilogramme = 10 hectogrammes = 100 decagi-ammes = 1.000 millimetres. The French Kilogramme (= pois) is to about 2 lbs. or the 0*000040 of the whole globe measured over the poles..322 APPENDIX. ENGLISH. 8 = Drachms = Drachm. 60 Minims 8 Fluid 8 Pints Drachms Fluid Oz. . I metre (= 3*2808 feet or about 39 inches) = 10 decimetres = 100 centimetres I = 1.000 of milligrammes.. the unit of the entire system of weights and measures known as the metrical system. . = 0*1 decametre = O'Oi hectometre = I metre kilometre = 1093*633 yards.000 grammes = 10. litre 10 centilitre @ 10 @ 10 litre @.. about 35 oz.e. 39° '2 Fahrenheit.. . Oz. Avoirdupois. 10 decilitre @ (The French = 1*76 Imperial pint. 3 oz. 0*001 kilometre. f 5. 12 Ounces = . FRENCH.. Pound. I Gallon. 9. . . octarms.000 centigrammes = 1. is assumed to be the 0*000010 part of the quadrant. i i % lb.

17 r^AMARSAC'S Camera process. — 100 — 137 tent. loi Alchemists (the).. 20 Autotype Co. 10 Chevalier. the. i38 Barometrograph. 193 Albumenised paper. 6 Cleaning the plate. the.7 INDEX. 105 Clouds. 64 Dagiierreotype. obscura. 53 Bouton. M. 249 Charles (Professor). methods of obtaining. 14 Blanquart-Evrard. 169 Beechey's (Canon) dry plate process. -^ A CCIDENTS 141 with Camera Albertype. 116 pjAGUERRE. 184 Archer (Scott). 2. 86 Arrangements for lighting. 303 Celestial photography. Arago. 55. 98 Bichloride of mercury. 109 Collodion. 1 1 Bisulphate of iron. Dark room. 123 — — stand. 147 '-' t) ALDUS. 162 Carrier-pigeon post. 97 (twin-lens). 9 Chloride of silver.. 161. 272 Becquerel. 89 Carbon print. 143 Cyanide of potassium. 128 Coloured proofs. 2 — operations. 86 319 Bellows camera. 249 Catacombs. 99 (simple). t^e. Coating the plate. 235 Applications of photography. 190 Balm of Judaea. 89 Astronomical photography. 79. ACC DAR negatives. 6 79 Cameras and lenses. 214 slide. 89 317 Y 2 . E. 35 Chinese tradition.

pARLY heliotypes. 171 ' Development of image. 320 Epitome of wet Collodion process. 112 Donne.. Land surveying. 105 Enamelled Photographs. 253 Megascope. 105 intensifying of. Fizeau. the.' 7 Hyposulphite of soda. 17 Dipping bath. 63 Dc la Rue. 150 Formic acid. 214 English weights and measures. MIC "LTALL Flead (Mr. 105 1 1 Hill. 5 — of the picture... 5 Grubb. M. the. 180 Lenses and cameras. 302 Manipulation. 78. 14 Harvard College. — development of. 157 Goupil. 114. the. 38. 117. 260 Degotti. 105 Instantaneous photography. 269 Microscopic despatches. 161 TV/TADAME Magnesium Gamier and Salmon. the. 105 Greeks. 98 Liebert's enlarging apparatus. 85 .US. 89 Lithography. 79. Delaroche (Paul). 133 Is photography art? 297 T pABRICI. 192 Gelatino-bromide process. 253 Developer for negatives. 169 — of the picture.. 161 Lemercier. the. 283 Intensifying. 306 Lasteyrie-Dussaillant (Count de).»i46 Magnetic needle. 235 Gun cotton. 116 French weights and measures. 319 TMAGE. 113 of. 320 Future of photography. 30 ' Luna cornea. 318 Intensity of light. 318 — the 128. 116.. 93. 80 rest. 79. 277 — 105 — varnishing fixing of. 179 Heliotype process. Asaph). 318 1 17. photo-. 12 INDEX. 147 Exposure in camera.1 3 234 DAV Davy (Sir H. 6 ^ ANDSCAPE 113 photography. 105 — the negative. 315 Herschel (Sir John). the. 180 Electrograph. 89 Focussing glass. 316 Enlarging. Mr. 1 5 7. Fixing of colours. 318 Dry process. 154. 180 Horn-silver. 306 Light. 140. 279 Iodide of potassium. M. 189 print. 259 103 Heliography. 200 de Stael. M.). M. 276 light. the influence of. 317 Developing agent. 67. 30 Legray. 148 Meteorology. Diorama (the).' 7 /^ALLIC acid.

287 Mounting the 129 TSJATIONAL Negative reward.Victor. 187 Photometry. landscape. 268 — operations. 149 — printing. 1 20 spots. Pyrelophore. 126 124 be solved. 277 Photoglypty (or the Woodbury pro- — from the negative. 220 Photo-sculpture. 310 Photography and art. 208 Photo-tint process. 174 photographs. 28 16 — — despatches. 35 Photocromos. 136 — and Panoramic photography. 143 235 &c. 89 "DACK for dr)'ing plates. 169 — registering instruments.. 119 Oil-coloured proofs. 306 — and crime. 183 Polemoscope. 105 — exposure of camera. 136 Out-door photography. 141 — silver printing formulae. 105 — discovery Photography. 307. 93. effect of. i 1 — in war. 61 (the). 94 — on paper. 307 Political Photographs. 279 Photomicrography. 182 /^BERNETTER'S Niepce (Isidore). 249 cess). 54 Monostereoscope. 313 Pantascopic camera. 175 Photo-electrograph. 26 process. Problems to Pouncy. — characteristics of a good. 89 Moniteur Universel print. 145 Porta. 163 Practice of photography. 195 Monckhoven's enlarging camera. 79 Photolithography. 313 Paper proof. 105 — Heliotype researches. 2 Portable apparatus. caricatures. — de Saint. pAINTED 313' Poitevin. 153 Properly timed exposure. B. J. 122 Permanent carbon process. 105 in sensitising in — cleaning of the. 124. 105 — bath. . ' (the). 135 Over-exposure. 132 Printing frame. — 199 Photographic astronomy. M. 297 20 — — Joseph Nicephore. Mr.. 122. 195 Plate box. REG Microscopic photography. 143 Orthoscopic lens. 115 — coating with collodion. 167 Pin holes in negative. Positive proof on paper. 118 in- enamels. 318 31 Phosphorus. 316 25.. 64 of.. 214 Registering photographic struments. 143 Panoramic photographs. 169 1 Processes.8 INDEX. 220 325 Modern * heliography. the. 31 on glass. 2C9 Photographic processes.

Simple dry-plate process. 163 Wedgwood. 287 V\7AR Waxed and Photography. loi Schoenbein.. 133 paper process. M. 137 Vitrified photographs. 105 Varnishing negative. 12 Swan. 85 Secchi. 125 Vignetting. 75. Vitruvius.. 42 Stains and streaks in negative. 319 Tourist Photographer. 287 process. 309 Terrace for printing. 175 Senefelder (Aloys). 12 Rue. 137 Studio and apparatus. 105. 260 C AINT-VICTOR Salted paper. 192 Twin-lens camera. 71 Stereoscopic vision. M.. 129 press.. 271 Thermometer. 251 Sub-chloride of silver. 127. 125 Solarisation. 152 — Rutherford. 313 Russell. 199 3POTTISVVOODE LONDON I'KINTED BY AND CO. 6 Starch paste. 3 1 WAPOURS of. 275 Toning the print. registering. 253 Thermograph. 306 la Studies of skies. 182 Willeme. Mr. Major C. 115 Seebeck. 120 Vignette glass. 161 Sitting or posing room. of mercury. 51 122 Varnishing of the picture. 30 Sensitised paper. 129 Rotating Camera. 135 Sensitising the plate.7 326 RET Retouching. 318 Vigier.. effect of. 319 89 Smoked pictures.. woo Telegraphic photography. 10 (Niepce de) 7 Salmon. 156 Woodbury. simple method 214 of. 118 View lenses. 123 Scheele. 208 Wheatstone's stereoscope. Mr. 163. 287 Voglander. 159 11. 125 — pictures. NEW-STUEET AND PARLIAMENT STREET : SQUAIiE .. 135 Transit of Venus. 156 INDEX. Mr. n^ALBOT. 89 Theory of photography. 253 T JNDER exposure. 271 Thermometrograph. preparation Sensitising bath. Tannin 64. 141 Rolling the print. M. the. 89 Warren de Watt (James). 130 Stereoscope.

. ACADEMY BOARDS. (Factories.. and Brushes for Pottery TILES. MODELING WAX AND CUY. Tools. W. DEVOE. Zinc White. OILS. Drawing Papers. Horatio and Jane Streets. Folding and Studio Easels. — FRED'K W. Illustrated Books on Art. Cor. WATER COLOR LIQUIDS.. FRED'K SAUNDERS. Etc. Colors and Varnishes. Pencils. JAMES F. Manikins and Lay Figures. JR. Tube Colors. Out-of-Door Sketching Boxes. Drawing Boards. CAPAS. Etc. York. SCULPTORS' TOOLS. DRUMMONP. Mathematical Instruments. Studies. . New York. WINSOR & NEWTON'S CAKE AND MOIST WATER COLORS. Charcoal and Crayon Drawing Materials. Moulds and Brushes. DEVOE & & William Sts. French and German Goods. Importers of ARTISTS' MATERIALS. of Fulton New Manufacturers A.) Manufacturers of Artists' Oil FINE Colors. Wax Flower Supplies Colors. PUSTER ANTIQUE POTTERY AND PORCELAIN With Materiils Fresco Designs and Colors. AND OIL-SKETCHING PAPERS. and China Decoration. BEAVER PAGE. VARNISHES. for Fresco and Scenic Painting. also.. CO. Manufacturers of White Lead. BRUSHES FOR OIL AND WATER COLOR PAINTING. in Tutes.Advertisements. Canvas. J. Sketching Books and Blocks. MILLBOARDS. CASTS FOR MODELS. F.

THOS. Philadelphia. Photographic Chemist. And Licenses for Carbon iFork in the States of Pennsylvania. McCOLLIN. SOLE MANUFACTURER OF McCollin's Delicate Half-Tone Collodion. SEND FOR CATALOGUE. <f c. New Jersey and Delaware. American Collodion Pellicle Emulsion. H. IMPORTER AND DEALER IN - Foreign Photographic Spocialties. . SOLE AGENT FOR . MOKaiM'S AILBIUMEIIZE© PAPEKS AND LAMBERTYPE MATERIALS. 634 Arcli Street. <0c.A dvertisements. McCOLLIN'S SILICATED CASTOR yARNISH.. Refiner of PliotOErapMc Golfl & Silver Wastes.

GIHON'S CUT-OUTS AND OPAQUE. $5 per year.Advertisements. "TO MY PATRONS. Of the latter AAre have the Largest Stock in A. 116 lortli Seventh St. HERMAGIS' FRENCH LENSES." WILSON'S "LANTERN JOURNEYS. ROBINSON'S TRIMMERS AND GUIDES. 12.merica. $1 per year. BENERMAN & WILSON. WAYMOUTH'S VIGNETTE PAPERS. Centennial Views and Lantern Slides. THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. . "SOMETHING NEW." MAGIC LANTERNS AND SLIDES. PHOTOGRAPHIC BOOKS. PMladelpMa.." THE MAGIC LANTERN.

J 1005 imm (Late with A.) Wheeling. &c.) MAIN STREET (Opposite Grant House. APPARATUS. . ALL GOODS USED IN THE Art of Photography. Mats. &c.Advertise^nenis.. Glass. P. Hall. Picture Cord. FRAMES AND MOULDINGS. CHEMICALS. West Va. PERSONAL ATTENTION GIVEN TO ALL OEDEfiS. A FULL ASSORTMENT OF Papers.

— . Albany . Household of Art Decoration or Ceramics. Chicago 30 W. no matter how inexperienced. has a proud reputation.00. Advertisements. Bosat. It is the only journal that gives expression to the mind of the artist and art critic. Agenciep: 22 Hawley st. As a periodical connected with Fine Arts it is unparalled on this Continent. St.. Appleton & Co. : APPLETON & of Neiv York City say CO. One recently produced cost no less than S700 in gold. Sculpture.. APPLETON A 549 CO. containing upward of Thirty Steel-plate These alone would please the eye forever. These engravings are prepared regardless of expense. In typography.00/ Half Morocco. . December 14. from the rarest and most beautiful pictures in the world.. for instance. ART JOURN AL. Pittsbarg. 20 St. ^rS.oo. ton.. 22 Post Office Avenue. The most skilled printers are engaged in its illustrations and letter-pres^* The Art Features of the Centennial Exhibition are well represented. Architecture.\l. 922 Chestnut Subscriptions received by the publishers or their Agents. & 551 New Yobk. $13. is sure to get the worth of his money. The best artists and authors are employed in its production. Orleans. Rochester . gilt edges.. indispensable to every one who desires to keep pace with the world whether in Painting. is LESS. in its artistic construction. Now. of course.. gilt edges. not only in America. a perpetual feast for the mind. 42 State sn. In every respect it is an art journal. In the multitudinous productions of this house it is wonderful to see how few there are not of value and worth. 53 9th st. As a book to place on a drawing-room table it is unequaled for its variety. D. *' Among the few publishers of works of unquestioned merit in this city. volume of exquisite beauty. Charles st. NOW A Engravings. Publishers. 1876.." From Commercial Advertiser. In this country a more complete or finished book was never sent forth. because is associated with the beautiful Price... 4th st. New D. Philadelphia.. $15. it is more perfect than anything American ever seen before. It COMPLETE. but in England. Louia. In speaking thus we refer. 100 State St. in Cloth. and no family of taste in the country should be without it. Baltimore. . Full Morocco. gill edges. to the exclusive publications of the house. TO SUBSCRIBERS ONE DOLLAR What the press " D.. San Francisco. 103 State st. It is — No It is refined home ought to be without the Art it Journ. Bboadwat. The buyer there. Furniture. Cincinnati 805 Locust St. there is Appletons' Art yournal. 230 Sutter st. Each number of this admirable periodical contains three steel engravings on heavy plate paper.

New York. including one copy Photographic Mosaics for 1876 as a premium. The advantages to advertisers are therefore apparent. postage paid. besides making in its has a long list of independent subscribers. contains twenty-four pages of useful matter. one time Quarter page. We will : accept a limited number of advertisements at the follow- ing rates One page. SOOVILL MANUFAOTUEING 4:10 CO. Publishers..Advertisements. A It Monthly Journal devoted to Practical and Commercial Photography. Subscription price. one time Special terms for advertisements for a longer period. ^ 421 Broome Street. t:h:e FIOfOIBlFIIG flMlS. with We give which. $1 per annum. . thus circulation much larger than that of any photographic journal the country. Photographer. it to all readers of the Philadelphia is which journal the Photographtc Times it bound each month. one time $20 00 12 00 7 00 ^ ^'f page.

SOLE AGEN TS Ross AND Steinheil Lenses Orders solicited. 822 ARCH STREET. TRADE AGENTS FOR THE PUBLICATIONS OF THE CENTENNIAL PHOTOGRAPHIC COMPANY. Wm. HOOD & COMP^j^ Fo. . 3 John a. Wilson. D. STEREOSCOPES. H. AND VIEWS. ^ ^VSO^. MANUFACTURKRS AND IMPORTERS OF AND DEALERS Photographic Materials FRAMES. all Price Lists gratis to applicants. Hood.Advertisements. S IN PHILADELPHIA.

addressed to Orders may be the manufac- At retoAl by every live and reliable Stoch House in the United States. SASS. wants of the Photo- graphic trade. C. S@8ir©H. GRAVES & SONS 35 HAVS^KINS STREET. hold just what we bill them. to hnow drawn from a sealed measure. casks to may be interested. that all Stoch dealers is our Alcohol and we warrant Barrel turers. The above brand of Alcohol is distilled and is pecjdiarly adapted^ to the with great care. H.A dvertisements. tttwod's pniic Jtlti'lial. .

OFFICE: ItsT. "GILT OR NICKEL.Xj I s h: 3Nwd:^a?s. MANUFACTURERS OF FINE VELVET FRAM ES. . AND ALL KINDS OF FANCY BRASS WORK." FOR TRANSPARENT PICTURES. N. passe paifteittst E isT C3.Adveriisemenis. Y. Lewis Pattberg & Bros. FACTORY: Jersey City Heights. J. WAREROOM AND IN'o. 709 Broadway.

184=3 1877 "THE OLD HELIABLE' x)e:fot.Advertisements. -Photographic Stock. . SMITH & CO. OHIO. CINCINNATI. P.. Chemicals TUBES AND APPARATUS. 121 West Fifth Street. FOR THE SALE OF ES TA BUSHED THIR T Y-FO UR YEARS. No.

419 & 421 Broome Street. Grapho-Stereoscopes.'. WERE AWARDED THE MEDAL OF MERIT FOR THEIR Union Picture Nails and Knobs. Agents. AT THE ileal Oiitiulil lip©iitl@i$ 1876. NEW YORK. NEGATIVE BOXES. zkmwL FECI I so. SCOVILL MANUFAOTUEING CO. UNION FRAMES..' A dvertise merits. . FbotograpMc FriiatiEg Frames^ &c.

Advertisements. and also received the only Medal and Diploma at Philadelphia. all and that this paper is superior to others. NO. That this great success is well deserved. TRAPP & MUNCH'S THE PAPER OF THE Introduced paper. New Yorlc . this country since 1868. WILLY WALLACH. it has become the leading other now better known and more appreciated than any brand. may be judged from Exhibition. at the Centennial Exhibition granted to any foreign exhibitors of albumenized paper. the fact that of all of the competitors of the Vienna alone received the Messrs. Trapp & Munch for Albumenized Paper. 4 BEEKMAN STEEET AND 36 PARK ROW. and in is DAY. General Agent for the United States.

Plates. ESTABLISHED 1S60. My Stock includes Apparatus. and over twenty-five years^ . Mats. VELVET PASSE PARTOUTS. assortment of Frames. Stereoscopes.Advertisements. Lowest Prices. DEALER MARKS. Card Stock. Chemicals. 12 State Street. I make a specialty of SILK anywhere. the best variety of these goods to be and can show found Headquarters for everything pertaining Best Goods. experience. Glass. to Photography. HENRY D. Over No. and a large and desirable and Passe Partouts. Paper. IN PHOTOGRAPHIC GOODS.

$34. P. 38 00 . REMINGTON & Box 283 SONS. . 34 inch barrel. vernier peep and windgauge sights 62 00 3— 4— and globe 56 60 64 00 • ^< w Pi SPORTING-38." (as used by tie Rile Teams. 38 Rim-fire 38 Rim-fire. vernier and Wind-gauge sights. 10 lbs.." No. Guard Carbine illustrated catalc^rue. improved peep and No. O. Ilion. improved peep and globe sights 42 No 2— Sporting P G pattern stock. special $34 and 32 00 20 00 $j6 50 $18 50 with bayonet " 13 00 15 00 17 00 20 50 with sabre.32. ordinary peep 44-77.) —Pistol-grip-stock. 40-50.. 38. New York. vernier i)eep 75 00 '• and wind-guage sights 77 00 O No. GALLERV— 22. . — MID-RANGE. 2—' i)oriing—P—G— pattern— 8tock. 45 and 50 Cen 26 inch. ordinary peep and globe Ho o w w No 1— Sporting stock. and globe and globe '-^ '"• =*» '"• sights No." •^«i°'-^'p- C F 46. ish S. 28 in. 6— Sporting pistol-grip fine stock. vernier and wind-guage _j^«e sights. 4— Sportmg P G pattern stock. Armory. improv'd peep O z Q 2— P G pattern stock.$100 00 No. disc 125 to Superior— Hame as extra. vernier and -wind-gauge sights. REMINGTON'S Breech-Loading LONG-RANGE. weight . . 32 in. O— SHORT-RANGE. Send for Address. v?eight. Y. N. rubber butt and tip. improved I)eep sights $87 00 $39 00 50 44 60 52 00 sights 50 00 Pistol-grip stock. F. including spirit level and 2 ex. 75 00 No. 34 inch barrel. 1. vernier peep and wind-gauge sights 60 No..Advertisements. O— Sporting stock. 44. 8— Sporting P G pattern stock. 10 lbs. No. except rubber butt and tip. and checked for. 10 lbs. except selected curley polished stock 150 00 3— — . " " Civil model Egyptian model. 3994. 44. 44. model and Span- MILITARY— Springfield model. Pistol-grip stock. 17 00 20 60 16 00 MILITARY-U. 44 50 00 46 50 52 00 53 50 50 50 62 50 00 66 00 checked tor-end. BROADWAY. vemifer i)eep and wind-gauge sights 64 No. weight 55 00 Extra 8ame as No. $36. 1— Sporting sights No.. 1 Rifles. globe sights 54 00 No. 46 Rim-fire ter-fire 40. E.o-70. Siwrting stock. Militaiy Stock. " Creedioor. S— Sporting pistol-grip stock. Si)orting I)eep $39 00 $41 00 stock.end. 34 inch barrel.. $32. 40-70 . "Wimbledon. Dollymount. R. improved and globe sights 50 No. 45-70 and :. improved peep and wind-guage sights 51 No. 30 in.

cloth tions.Advertisements. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. VAN NOSTEAND. A. Examination of Stains. New York. revised. Outlines of Proximate Organic Anal}^sis for the Identification. Cornwall and John H. Storer. i2mo.C. Butter and Cheese by J. Manual of the Constituents of the Distilled Spirits and Fermented Liquors Quantitative Determinaof Commerce. especially of Minerals and Furnace Products. S. Th. 2d Edition. A. By Dr. By Wni.. Translated from the Third German Edition by I. cloth . Translated by Prof. Compiled and arranged by Prof. including Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis. cloth i 00 Fresenius. B. 2 25 : Milk and its Derivatives Cream.M. etc. Guide to a Course of Quantitative Chemical Analysis. By Dr. Legal Chemistry. Coffee'and Cocoa A Practical Treatise on the Analysis of Tea. From the last German "edition. PUBLISHED BY D. A Guide in the Practical Study of Chemistry. 600 Fresenius. etc. 1874 Water Analysis. P.. Caswell. cl. 4th Edition. J. Ripley Nichols. i2mo. Coffee and Chocolate. cloth Prescott. Svo. London. cloth. Wanklyn. Plympton. Svo. 8vo. with Additions from the French of A. Charles W. i. cloth 6 00 \ Naquet. 625 ^Douglass &. and in the Work of Analysis. A Compendious Manual of Qualitative and Quantitative Chemical Analysis. Beilstein. Translated by I.M. Crown. Douglass and A. By Prof. revised and enlarged. A System W i 50 I A 75 I 50 Rammelsburg. Fresenius. A Guide to the Detection of Poisons. Vacher. Revised. The Chemist's Manual. B. F. H. cloth 2 00 Plattner. Eliot and Prof. Mott. Wanklyn. 8th English from the 13th German Edition.S. C. By Dr. London. 7th English Edition.' Milk Analysis A Practical Treatise on the Examination of Plympton. Chemical Examinations of Alcoholic Liquors. with co-operation of the authors. Prescott. C. i2mo. Separation and Quantitative Determination of the more commonly occurring Organic Compounds. Svo. i2mo. 11 STANDARD WORKS ON CHEMICAL ANALYSIS. I. by Wm. 1874 : — — 100 2 50 2 50 . Svo. A Practical Treatise on Chemjstry. R. cloth.Fowler. Buttershall. and all those engaged in the Examination of Salts and Minerals. Select Methods in Chemical Analysis (chiefly Inorganic).' . F. Fourth Revised Edition. and their Qualitative and i2mo. cloth $o 75 Crookes. & . Svo. Naquet. i2mo. i2mo. George Prescott. and a Preface by Dr. A. etc. An 23 Murray and 27 Warren Streets. Fresenius. Introduction to Qualitative Chemical Analysis.R.D. Illustrated by Examples. of the University of Michigan.Rammelsburg. by Dr. By Prof. cloth. Translated. Osbun. R. Richter. 1876 Tea. Crookes. Vol. . Jr. By F. Being a Graduated Course of Analysis for the Use of Students.. Frank H. B. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. cloth.F. H. Henry A. i2mo. Chandler. 5 00 Heilstein. by Prof. Svo. C. i2mo. of Instruction in the Practical Use ol the Blow Pipe. Prescott. By Dr. cloth 3 50 Eliot Storer. by A. Quantitative Chemical Analysis. Prescott. limp cl. By Prof. cloth. cloth 750 Mott. Manual of Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis with the Blow-Pipe. as applied to Chemical Jurisprudence.

lliSlS. STRICTLY PURE AND OF FULL WEIGHT. 'SOLID GLASS BATHS. ETC We are the largest and most reliable house for Refining Photographic Residues. . CHARLES COOPER & OFFER AT WHOLESALE: CO. CHARLES COOPER & CO. NEW YORK. CROSS SWORDS DRESDEN eilUIll lT4Ftl. CHEMICALS.. PHOTO. MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS AND IMPORTERS. 191 "Worth Street.12 Advertisements.

ST. Backing.XjOXJIS. DEALER IN No. Oval and Square Solid Walnut Frames. Albums. Screw Eyes. . Tilford's Silver Bath Solution. &c. Iodides and Bromides. PICTURE CORD. Tilford's Negative Collodion. SOMERVILLE. AND EVERY WANT FOR THE TRADE. Oval and Square Imitation Frames. 13 J. Voightlander & Sons' Lenses. MATS. 8 South Fifth Street. FRAMES. Gold. Tilford's Iodized ISJSiO. Oval and Solid Oval (jOld Frames. American Optical Co. Collodion.Advertisements. Photographic Materials OF EVERY DESCRIPTION.'s Celebrated Camera Boxes and Apparatus. Powers & VVeightman's Silver. Glass. Glass and Ferro Plates. C.

14

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THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE
Price, Twenty-five Cents.
This
bly, the

BOOK,

is a most useful little bound book of 150 pages, comprising, probamost extensive variety of standard, practical, condensed information

ever furnished to the public for so small a price.
1.

Contents

:

The Last Census

of the United States (1870), by States, Territories and Counties, in full, showing also the area in square miles of each State and Territory.

2.

Table 6f Occupations. Showing the occupations United States, and the number of persons engaged Compiled from the last census.
Table of Cities having over
Census.
10,000 inhabitants.

of the people of the
in

each occupation.
the last

3.

Compiled from

4.
5.

Map
for

of the United States.

Minature outline.

The United States Patent Laws
; ;

(full text).— Principal Official Rules Procedure Directions How to obtain Patents Costs, etc. Forms for Patents and Caveats How to Introduce and Sell Inventions Forms for Assignments Licenses; State, Town, County, and Shop Rights General Principles applicable to Infringements; Synopsis of the Patent Laws of Foreign Countries Rights of Employers and Employees in respect to In;

;

;

;

;

;

ventions.
6.

The Ornamental Design Patent Law
for securing Design Patents for for Textile Fabrics, Patterns for Configurations of any article of

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14.

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18.

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The

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16

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MAMMOTH

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Manufacturers
AND

WHOLESALE DEALERS
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American Optical Company
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THE AMERICAN OPTICAL
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CENTENiriAL
PHOTOaRAPHIC
COMPAIIY,
International Exhibition G-ronnds.

BELMONT AVENUE,

View^

of

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EXTERIORS AND INTERIORS,
FOR THE

Graphoseope,

Stereoscope,

PORTFOLIO,
Magic Lantern and Card Holder,
PROPRIETORS.
ALSO

A

COMPLETE ASSORTMENT OF

JStEREOSCOPES,

pRAPHOSCOPES,

txC.

KILBUEN'S WHITE MOUNTAIN STEEEO-PIOTUEES,

AND OTHER AMERICAN

VIEWS.

Advertisements.

21

MANUFACTURER OF

JVo.

182 cjsjvtSI:e st^ejet,
(UP STAIRS,)

Corner Hester Street,

NEW YORK.

"V7".

F.

j^SHE,

And manufacturer of

Photographic Backgrounds,
INTERIOR, LANDSCAPE, PLAIN, REMBRANDT,

AND SHADED.

SLIPS

AND ACCESSORIES OF ALL KINDS
etc.

Blue FrostiMg tor SkyligMs,
SertcL

for Samples
OFFICE AND

cltxcL

^rtce Ltst.

SHOW

ROOMS:

No. 106 Bleecker Street, corner of Greene,

NEW

YORK.

. New Haven. MANUFACTURERS OF AND DEALERS PHOTOGRAPHIC GOODS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. . WAREHOUSE: 419 and 431 Broome Street. PHOTOGEAPHERS AND SUPPLIED. S O O ^IL L IN Manufacturing Company. ESTABLISHED 1S03. Ct. Ct. New York. Waterbury. . MANUFACTORIES. STOCK DEALERS.22 V Advertisements.

and are absolutely rectilinear. 23 THE "PEERLESS" IS THE BEST AND THE CHEAPEST PORTRAIT LENS Il:T XJSE. ^c. Highest Testimonials from the best Photographers in the Country. These JJenses work with full aperture for Groups. EVERY LENS WARRANTED-SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. MORRISON^S Wide Angle View (PATENTED Lenses. . 1872. MORRISON'S NEW RAPID COPYING FOR LENS. MAY 21st.) Thdj ernhrace an angle of fully 100 degrees. Engravings. §-c. COPYINa OUTDOOR GROUPS AND INSTANTANEOUS VIEWS. and will copy with absolute correctness Architectural Drawings^ Charts. FOE SALE BY ALL DEALEES. work more rapidly than any other Wide Angle Lens made.Advertisements..

SCOVILL MANUFACTURING.— No. The picture rest is of exquisite open work design. New York. 1 and 2 are made of Black "Walnut and finished in Oil. 9. 5 is made partly of solid Rosewood and is partly veneered in Rosewood. capped with ivory.— No. elegantly made of solid Rosewood. and the whole polished. 0. 0. and are handsomely polished. 7 is made like No.COMPANT.. and is exquisitely finished in French polish. and are snperior in pality and Material to tliose dl any otlier make in tie market. 8 is made ot solid Walnut. Black Walnut. 5. finished and trimmed like No. Tnese Instruments are fnrnisnedwitn tie finest Imporied Lenses.Advertisements. are heavier than Nos.— No. The box is lined with Curled Maple. The Grapho. Pictorial Portraits. 3 and 4 are made of Black Walnut. 2i.— No. except that it has a four inch lens. 1 and 2. . and otler of Art. 9. Nos. and is supplied with ground-glass for transparent stereoscopic pictures. polished. lens slides vertically on polished nickel rods. 0«^p Afe|I For ExMDiting Plotograpiic Landscapes. 6. superbly finished in French polish and richly trimmed in burnished nickel.— Nos. 419 & 421 Broome St.— No. Works eitner Single or Stereo- scopic Views. eleg:intly trimmed and finished.

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