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SKEU2033

Dr. Uche A.K. Chude-Okonkwo

Outline

In this lecture we take on:

Superposition Theorem Thevenins Theorem Nortons Theorem Maximum Power Transfer Delta-to-Wye and Wye-to-Delta Transformation

Superposition Theorem

All along, our treatment of the circuit is with respect to only one voltage source. Some circuits require more that one voltage source. Example: certain types amplifiers require both positive and negative voltage sources for proper operation. We need extra tool than Ohms and Kirchhoffs laws. Apart from the Ohms law, we do need more analytical tools.

Superposition theorem

The current in any given branch of a multiple-source circuit can be found by determining the current in that particular branch produced by each source acting alone, with all other sources replaced by their internal resistances. The total current in the branch is the algebraic sum of the individual source currents in the branch.

Step I

Take one voltage (or current) source at a time and replace each of the other voltage (or current) with either a short (for a voltage source) or an open (for a current source).

R1 R3 R1 R3

Short

VS1

R2

VS2

VS1

R2

Step II

Determine the particular current or voltage that you want just as if there were only one source in the circuit

IT1 R1 I2(1) VS1 R2 R3

Step III Repeat Step I and II with respect the other source (VS1)

R1 I2(2)

Short

R3

IT2

R2

VS2

Step IV

To find the actual current or voltage, add or subtract the currents or voltages due to each individual sources

R1 I2(2)

Short

R3

IT2

R2

VS2

I2 = I2(1) + I2(2)

Example I

Find the actual current through R2 if R1 =200 , R2 =300 , R3= 400 , VS1 =12V and VS2 = 8V

R1 R3

Solution

Get RT(1) and I2(1) with VS2 short circuited Get RT(2) and I2(2) with VS1 short circuited Then I2 = I2(1) + I2(2) VS1

R2

VS2

Example II

Find the actual current through R2 if R1 =200 , R2 =300 , R3= 400 , VS =12V and IS = 100 mA

R1 R3

Solution

Get RT(1) and I2(1) with IS open circuited VS Get RT(2) and I2(2) with VS1 short circuited Then I2 = I2(1) + I2(2)

R2

IS

Example III

Find the actual current through R1 and R2 if R1 =200 , R2 =300 , R3= 400 , IS1 =200 mA and IS2 = 100 mA

R2 R3

Solution

Get I1(1) and I2(1) with IS2 open circuited R1 Get I1(2) and I2(2) with IS1 open circuited Then I2 = I2(1) + I2(2) I1 = I1(1) + I1(2)

IS1

IS2

At times in circuit analysis, we want to concentrate on what happens at a specific pair of terminals. For example, when we plug a toaster into an outlet, we are interested primarily in the voltage and current at the terminals of the toaster. We have little or no interest in the effect that connecting the toaster has on voltages or currents elsewhere in the circuit supplying the outlet. What analytical tool(s) can we employ to do such analysis? We need tools that focus on the terminal behavior.

This states that any combination of voltage sources, current sources, and resistors with two terminals is electrically equivalent to a single voltage source Vth and a single series resistor Rth.

Simply put, a circuit of voltage sources and resistors can be converted into a Thevenin equivalent. This is a simplification technique used in circuit analysis. Tells you how a particular element or portion of the complex circuit sees the rest of the circuit. The Thevenin equivalent can be used as a good model for a power supply or battery (with the resistor representing the internal resistance and the source representing the electromotive force) Thevenin equivalence depends on the viewpoint (particular terminal under consideration)

R1 R3 A Vs Rth A

R2 B

Vth B

Step 1:

Calculate the output voltage, VAB, when in open circuit condition.This is Vth. When calculating a Thevenin-equivalent voltage, the voltage divider principle is often useful, by declaring one terminal to be Vout and the other terminal to be at the ground point

R1 R3 A Rth A

R2 B

Vth B

Step 2:

(i). Replace voltage sources with short circuits, and current sources with open circuits. (ii). Calculate the resistance between terminals A and B. This is Rth.

Example I

Find the Thevenin equivalent between the terminals A and B, if R1=100 , R2=200 , R3=300 and Vs=12V

R1 R3 A Vs R1 R3 A

R2 B

R2 B

Example II

Find the Thevenin equivalent between the terminals A and B, if R1=100 , R2=200 , R3=300 , R4=400 and Vs=12V

R1 R4 A R2 Vs R3 R3 B B R2 R1 R4 A

Example III

Find the Thevenin equivalent between the terminals A and B, if R1=100 , R2=200 , R3=300 , R4=400 , R5=500 , R6=600 and Vs=12V R R R R

1 2 5 6

R2 Vs R4

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