This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Technology’s Influence on Naval Formations Treynor Wolfe University of Nebraska
Comment [R1]: Good start with apa 6th edition formatting of the title page. No 100% perfect, but close. Check the pub for running header requirements.
TECHNOLOGY’S INFLUENCE ON NAVAL FORMATIONS 2 Abstract Throughout the research for this paper. with the change in technology. The battles listed in the body of this paper are only the greatest example of each formation being used. The reader should pay attention to the change in tactics and formations. and how leaders of various nations capitalized on the success of a piece of technology. as it is the most easily accessible and the largest source of information. Almost all of my studies and research stemmed from the use of the internet. . The reader should attempt to picture the formation described in the text to know the advantages described in this essay. These formations were used in many different naval battles. with the major battles described as the most effective use of said formation. I began to draw conclusions from the leadership and the innovation used to design these formations that I studied.
and to maximize firepower against an enemy. Formations traditionally were called “Lines of Battle” during the age of sail. new formations to maximize potential of said ships and modifications of old formations are developed as well. Throughout history. Galleys have been used to protect ancient Greek and Roman shipping. not relying on the wind to propel them forward. Galleys have been the premier fighting ship for over 8 centuries by nations within the Mediterranean. Galleys are propelled by rowers. The fact that manpower itself propels the galleys limited their maneuverability and their range. The British Permanent Fighting Instructions is one such manual that addressed formations. Galley’s have very primitive ship tactics. often resorting to ramming each other. being taught to many officers when officers received schooling. use each ship in the formation to suit its role. Naval formations have been developed both professionally in textbooks and from bold commanders on the waves. Got it Good. 3 Comment [R2]: Per apa 6th ed Formatted: Centered Formations have been used for ships to communicate effectively. Comment [R5]: Facts…. Comment [R3]: Thesis. From the 8th century to the 16th century.please cite Comment [R4]: Cite all of these facts in text please per apa 6th ed. organize themselves better. The use of said term came from land battles where infantry would also form lines to maximize the number of muskets that could bear on target. . Naval formations have changed throughout time due to technologies being developed. Galleys very rarely have destroyed each other at long range. As new ways to propel ships are being developed. Formations for galley warfare usually capitalized on the rams that were developed for the galley during the 8 th century. Naval formations have been formally addressed many times in history. technology has influenced the development and employment of naval formations. They have been used also by the Byzantines and the Egyptians.TECHNOLOGY’S INFLUENCE ON NAVAL FORMATIONS Insert Title again Here Naval formations have been in use ever since man has put vessels in the water.
yet very effective at destroying enemy ships. Other formations of the galley were usually not formally written and employed en masse. The death of galley warfare came from the development and the introduction of the cannon. The Defensive Circle. After Lepanto. The British’s wedge formation . using a Crescent Envelope formation. The cross formation that was used led to the cannon being able to avoid friendly fire. The Spanish armada itself. and not very much is known 4 Comment [R6]: Reference battles where this specifically happened…. not long after Lepanto. The crew would attempt to ram or board enemy galleys and take them as a prize. Developed in the late 16th century. be specific. the destruction of the Spanish armada came about in 1588. captains would have to keep their galleys close together to support each other in case of an enemy boarding action.prior to gun powder…. with the enemy fleet sailing into the middle of the CThe British however capitalized on the weakness of the formation. capitalized on keeping galleys close together. The formation forms a C shape.romans…Greeks…. The lead galley would be in the middle of the circle and would be able to best signal and lead the outer galleys.TECHNOLOGY’S INFLUENCE ON NAVAL FORMATIONS The bows from the crew onboard rarely were able to cause damage to enemy galleys. cannons were inaccurate. This development would reshape naval history and would be used effectively until the early 20th century. about said formations. Galleys were employed with very primitive formations. This type of fighting resulted in galley formations being very close together. allowed for the more numerous ships of the Spanish Armada to surround and envelope the British fleet. that the ships in the middle of the formation would not be able to fire their side mounted cannons on their targets.etc. As galleys closed with the enemy. One such formation. The first instance of the cannon being used with a proper formation to maximize its effectiveness is during the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. The galleys would literally form a circle around the lead galleys.
Many nations would adopt the use of the Line Astern. The British would realize this and would relax their enforcement of the Permanent Fighting Instructions. firing their side mounted cannons on the edges of the crescent and putting more firepower on the Spanish ships on the edges of the crescent. individual British ship captains would break off from the British line and sail right in front of other French ships. from the bow of one ship to the stern of another. and would cause Britain to never once win an engagement where both sides had an equal number of ships. allowing them to close at a much faster pace toward the Spanish formation. which could fire upon any closing ships or another line that is running parallel to it. and use it as it formed the simplest line of battle. An hour after the ships closed however. parallel to the French line. The British also seized the weather gage. This formation allowed a much smaller force of ships to capitalize on a part of the enemy fleet. The French would often take the leeward side of the battle so they could retreat downwind while still firing chain shot to take out the masts of their enemies. The British were notorious for being very bold and breaking their line formations when the opportunity presented itself.TECHNOLOGY’S INFLUENCE ON NAVAL FORMATIONS 5 sailed right into the middle of the crescent. and destroy it piece by piece. In the Battle of the Saintes of 1782. the British started the battle with a Line Astern formation. This formation would prove to be the most effective in battles such as the Battle of Trafalgar. The British’s rigid Permanent Fighting Instructions led their formations to be very predictable. This led to the British causing a massive French rout and securing the British a decisive naval victory. Line Astern was formed a wall of ships and cannons. . delivering devastating broadsides. The most popular formation that would be used for many decades is the Line Astern. with their port side facing the French bows. Ships in this formation would literally form a line.
Nelson also knew the inexperienced French and Spanish gunners at Trafalgar would have a hard time hitting the front of his ships. and the wooden ships of the time were starting to become obsolete with the formation of ironclads. yet had great rewards. used mainly to close on an enemy formation and evenly distribute the enemy fire amongst all the ships in the column. The Italians were in a very loose line formation. The Austrians closed the distance with very little damage with their ironclads. and one column would cross right through another. At the Battle of Lissa.TECHNOLOGY’S INFLUENCE ON NAVAL FORMATIONS 6 No British admiral would show more boldness than Admiral Nelson in the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. like how the galley would be able to easily repel enemy arrows. Crossing the enemy T would be a common tactic used by bold commanders throughout history. Ironclads were nearly immune to enemy cannonball fire. the ships are formed parallel to each other. Nelson at Trafalgar formed 2 lines of battle. Nelson’s formation would cut the French fleet in pieces. In the mid-19th century. with a large gap in the middle. in Line Astern would meet in a T shape. was crossing the enemy “T”. Nelson’s formation was able to beat the disadvantages of crossing an enemy T by using the weather gage and close rapidly with the enemy. in two separate formations. This led to a period of naval history where ramming would be popular and effective. steam power was replacing sails. the Austrians adopted a crescent formation to maximize effectiveness of ramming. In Line Abreast. and rammed Italian . A common tactic throughout history that was very risky. allowing the side mounted cannons to rake the enemy ships with fire in the stern. as the front end of the ship provided a much smaller target than the port or starboard sides. one in a rough Line Abreast and Nelson’s in Line Astern. This is formed when two columns of ships. side by side. allowing for his formation to destroy the northernmost piece of the French line.
and brought the end of the reign of the battleship. The formation maximized protection of the carriers. and capitalized on the carriers being the offensive part of the formation. broke their formation. 7 Rotating turrets developed in the late 19th century caused crossing an enemy T to become a lot more risky. During the late 20th century. Smaller ships.TECHNOLOGY’S INFLUENCE ON NAVAL FORMATIONS ironclads causing many Italian ironclads to capsize and sink. such as using two formations. the Japanese used many of the tactics and lessons learned from Trafalgar. Regardless. One hundred years after Trafalgar. as enemy turrets could rotate to face the closing enemy ships. Formations at this time were designed to protect a high value target. as the aircraft carrier and submarine became more common on the oceans. only their aircraft. even cannons would start to become obsolete. and to maximize effectiveness of the roles of each ship to protect said target. by the modern US Navy and the navies of many other developed countries. who would lose 8 battleships from this battle. . This caused the Japanese to have very few ship casualties in comparison to the Russians. This time period did away with the traditional lines of battle. with their 2nd formation crossing the Russian sterns. Aircraft carriers extended the range of naval battles to where crews on ships couldn’t see the enemy ships. sailed alongside the carriers and were used to combat enemy aircraft and submarines from reaching the carriers. The Carrier Strike Group traced its roots to the formation of the carrier in 1920. Carrier Strike Groups are used to this day. maneuverability and a shorter distance allowed the Japanese to use this strategy to great effect at the Battle of Tsushima in 1905. The Japanese were able to cross in front of the Russian formation multiple times during the battle. such as destroyers and cruisers. causing the Italians to route. The Austrians moved straight into the Italian gap.
cannon. and mass their forces against a specific part of the enemy formation. From Lepanto. Throughout history.TECHNOLOGY’S INFLUENCE ON NAVAL FORMATIONS The Battle of Coral Sea was the first major engagement involving enemy Carrier Strike Groups. Japan and the United States realized that carriers were vulnerable to surface and submarine attacks if left unescorted. Ships used formations to best destroy enemy fleets by pieces. to Coral Sea. and aircraft carrier caused naval formations to change dramatically over time. with each formation capitalizing on the effectiveness of each weapon. submarine. formed Task Forces which would evolve into the modern day Carrier Strike Groups. technology. As long as there are wars to be fought on the waves. making enemy attacks against carriers very costly. The Carrier Strike Group would prove to be very effective. more than anything influenced the change in naval formations. formations will always be a large factor on the end of the battle. the formation of the ram. 8 .
I recommend a follow up sentence detailing how you plan to prove your argument or thesis. Retrieved from http://militaryhistory. Retrieved from http://unitedcats. However. Also. (n. You provide examples from battles all over the place in the meat of your paper’s paras. When Ironclads Ruled the Seas…. Grade 82/ B- . www. August 13). [Online forum comment]. First.com/od/navalbattles1900today/p/tsushima. Bbc.about.enotes.htm Hickman. Retrieved from website: http://www.com/dragon/ships4t/RG4T.com/waterloo/battle-trafalgar. Good effort.britishbattles.com/2007/08/13/the-battle-of-lissa-july-20-1866when-ironclads-ruled-the-seas/ Trueman.com/forum/thread341397/pg1 Roman Galleys (n.htm The Battle of Trafalgar. Retrieved from http://www. Retrieved from http://www.com/questions/819/about-navalformations Crossing the t one of history’s greatest naval warfare tactics (2008. The paper lacks apa formatting consistency.uk/battle_of_coral_sea. (2010).shtml Beta history Retrieved from http://history. July 20 1866. (2000). Retrieved from http://militaryhistory. but not a paper.mil/navydata/ships/carriers/powerhouse/cvbg. There are no in text citations.bbc. Comment [R8]: Overall Feedback: This paper has strengths and weakness.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/launch_ani_trafalgar. K. (2011).co.TECHNOLOGY’S INFLUENCE ON NAVAL FORMATIONS 9 References The Battle of Lissa. Simply referencing a battle in 1571 or Lissa later on is not enough. This is problematic and distracting. K.d.wordpress.com/od/navalbattles14011600/p/lepanto. but room for improvement. It is good for a conversation. History learning site. the references are nearly all from the internet.historylearningsite. This paper is not perfect.navy. alphabetic order. the opening paragraph has a solid these. Did you visit the library? How about academic search premier for professional journal sources? These would have given you the specific examples vice random internet factoids. no hyperlinks.). Retrieved from http://www.). However. [Web]. Retrieved from http://www. (nd).d. etc.htm Hickman.htm 2011).). Retrieved from http://www. but it is not bad either.html Carrier Strike Groups (n. most are merely anecdotal….asp Comment [R7]: Review apa 6th edition for correct listing of references…formatting each ref. C. (2007.co.reference specific instances where decisions were made due to formations or battle results dictated new tactical formations driving by person X for reason Y.d.abovetopsecret.com. when to use italics.stackexchange.angelfire. March 13). it does not really lead me down a specific path for direction.about.