Introduction to

Metallurgy
An Interactive Video Teletraining

Course

Developed and Presented by

Terry Khaled
National Resource Specialist
Metallurgy

Federal Aviation Administration
April 30, 1998

Table of Contents

GETTING STARTED
How Do I Use This IVT Guide? . ... ... .... .. ... .. ... ... .. ..... .. ....

1

I.

AIRFRAME

ENGINEERING

CURRICULUM
What Does the Curriculum Cover? ... ... ... ...*................*...
Two-Week Job Function Course .,.,......*........*.........
Overviews of Technical Subjects . ... .. ... ... ... ... .... .. ....
Core Technical Subjects Courses ,.........................**

II.

IVT COURSE ORIENTATION
6
About This IVT Course ... .. ....*.............*..........................
What Is IVT? . .... ... ... .... ... ... ... .... .. .... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... .... .. 6
Who Is the Target Audience? .... .. ...._...........--.................. 7
Who Is the Instructor?
. .... ... .... ..*...................................
7
8
What Will You Learn? .**.......*..............*..*......................
How Will This Course Help You On the Job? .. ... ... .... .. 8
What Topics Does the Course Cover? .... ... .. ... ... ... .... ... .. 8
What Are Some Good References? .. ... .... .. ... ... ... ... ... .... .. 10

III.

SELF-ASSESSMENT
& EXERCISES
Pre- & Post-Course Self-Assessment Questions .. .... ... ... 11

APPENDICES
A.
Metallurgy IVT Presentation Visuals
B.
Aircraft Alloys
B-l. Aluminum Alloys
,
B-2. Titanium Alloys
B-3. Carbon, Low Alloy, and Alloy Steels
B-4. Corrosion Resistant (CRES) Steels
B-5. Superallbys
C.
Self-Study Video Course Evaluation Form

Instructional Video Teletraining Course
Federal Aviation Administration

April, 1998

Introduction to Metallurgy
i

Getting Started

How Do I Use
This IVT
Guide?

This IVT guide provides you with the position of this course in
the Airframe Engineering Curriculum, an orientation to the IVT
course, support materials for use during the broadcast, selfassessment and practice exercises, and the course evaluation.
Follow these steps to complete your study.
1. Read Section I, Airframe Engineering Curriculum, to
familiarize yourself with the the overall scope and format of
the curriculum.
2. Review Section II, IVT Course Orientation, before the
broadcast, if possible, to get an overview of the purpose of
the course, the target audience, the instructor, what you will
learn, how this course will help you on the job, the topics
covered in the course, and some good references on the topic.
3. Answer the pre-course self-assessment questions in Section
III, Self-Assessment .
4. Turn to Appendix A, Metallurgy IVT Presentation Visuals,
and refer to it during the broadcast. Appendix A contains the
visual support material used by the instructor during the
broadcast. You can use these visuals to take notes and follow
along with the broadcast presentation.
5. Refer to Appendix B, Aircraft Alloys, for additional
information, including designation systems and chemical
composition listings.
6. Complete the post-course self-assessment in Section III, Self
Assessment.
7. Complete the IVT Course Evaluation Form in Appendix C
and send it to your Directorate/Division Training Manager
(ATM).

Instructional Video Teletraining Course
Federal Aviation Administration

April, 1998

Introduction to Metallurgy
I

1998 Introduction to Metallurgy 2 . Instructional Video Teletraining Course Federal Aviation Administration April. Airframe What Does the Curriculum Cover? Engineering Curriculum .OAT I 1 Flight Test Job Funcdon First Year with Aircraft -.Airframe Engineering Curriculum I.The Airframe Engineering Curriculum fits into the broader AIR Training Program that is summarized in the following figure. the Airframe Engineering Curriculum is designed to effectively meet the critical safety mission of the FAA by addressing the following Service goals: Standardization l Promote standardization throughout the organization in task accomplishment and application of airworthiness regulations in order to achieve uniform compliance. An Overview ASE Job Airframe Function o Z-week I o Technical / 0 Follow-an Course Topics-IVTNideo Co”r~n / : j 1 I I ASI JabFunction ASE Systems Job Function ME Propulsion Job Function : ) / i DACT.-------- *- Certi~c~n--~z_--- I I Continuing Development Within the context of the AIR Training Program.

1998 to Metallurgy 3 . Generally they are subparts C and D of FAR Parts 23. and individual and group activities. later.Job Performance Curriculum Proficienw Reduce significantly the time required for newly-hired engineers to attain full job performance proficiency. the Airframe Engineering Curriculum is designed to provide ASEs with job function training in three domains: Tasks and procedures governing the work of engineers in design approval. certificate management. overhead transparencies.25. job aids. Overviews of Technical Subjects 3. and teamwork with both internal and external customers. Lnstructional Video Teletraining Federal Aviation Administration Course Introduction April. l In addition to the Service goals. Supporting materials used in the course include print. Two-Week Job Function Course 2. and designee management. discussion. and documents and sample reports. Follow-on Core Technical Subjects Courses Two-Week Function Course Job The Two-Week Job Function Course uses an instructor-led. videotapes. Technical subjects essential for all new engineers to meet both introductory requirements and. minimum technical proficiency level requirements. collaboration. l l Customer Service Establish and maintain appropriate. The resulting Airframe Engineering Curriculum structure consists of three main types of training opportunities 1. effective.Airframe Engineering .27. leadership. technical project management. and responsive communication. classroom-based format with lecture. l l l FAR airworthiness requirements that are the purview of airframe engineers. and 29.

Basic concepts and FAA-specific applications and examples are provided for each of the following ten technical subjects: l Aircraft Loads l Fatigue/Fracture Mechanics/Damage l Tolerance Composite Materials (Design/Certification in Composite Aircraft Structure) Instructional Video Teletraining Course Federal Aviation Administration April.27. technical complexity of a design.includes design approval.includes training in the subparts of the FAR that apply to airframe engineers (subparts C and D) at two levels: an overview of those subparts across FARs 23. l Overviews of Technical Subjects High-level overviews of ten technical subjects are presented by NRSs or other senior engineers. “high visibility” projects. and in-depth discussion of significant sections of the FAR that are important to the Service. technical pr6ject management. l Week 2 FAR Requirements and Key FAR Sections . and 29.25. certification management. These overviews are available in two modes: l l An initial live three to four hour IVT satellite broadcast with accompanying course material is received at each Directorate and other downlink sites. A Video/Self-Study Training Package adapted from the initial IVT presentation and accompanying course material is available through the Directorate Training Manager.Airframe Engineering Curriculum The course is divided into the following two major sections: Week I Certification Tasks . and DER management. The importance of these sections may stem from problems in interpretation and application of requirements. 1998 Considerations Introduction to Metallurgy 4 . or safety considerations that are paramount.

Core Technical Subjects Courses As a follow-on to the Overviews of Technical Subjects. the more advanced the technical training required.Airframe Engineering Curriculum Crashworthiness/Occupant l Protection Material Properties/Manufacturing (Introduction to Metallurgy) l l Stress Analysis l FluttexYAeroelastic Stability l Structural Test Methods l Design and Construction l Repairs and Modifications Processes of Metal Each technical subject overview is designed to not only provide ASEs with the FAA perspective on the topic. Instructional Video Teletraining Course Federal Aviation Administration April. products certified. and the number of staff requiring more specialized training. the more individualized it becomes. emerging technology. the curriculum will provide more in-depth training on the following three subject areas: l Basic Loads l Stress Analysis and Structural Test Methods. 1998 Introduction to Metallurgy 5 . Training in each of the core subjects will be designed to bring airframe engineers to a minimum level of technical proficiency and to help promote proficiency in the application of the technical knowledge in an office work environment. Additional technical training for engineers beyond these core subjects will depend largely on AC0 organizational needs stemming from customer requirements. In short. l Repairs and Modifications These core technical subjects are essential to the technical work of the airframe engineer in a regulatory environment regardless of product or technology. but also serve as an indicator of what further training may be needed.

What Is IVT? Interactive Video Teletraining. [For more information oy2the Airframe Curriculum. For the overview courses. and media formats to support the instruction. IVT Course Orientation About This IVT Course Introduction to Metallurgy is one in a series of ten “Overviews of Technical Topics” in the Airframe Engineering Curriculum designed to prepare you to effectively meet the critical safety mission of the FAA. objects. or IVT. including knowing when to call in a metal specialist. will provide you with the basic concepts of metallurgy. During the live presentation. when a participant has a question or the instructor asks for specific participant responses to questions. the participant(s) can signal to the instructor using their keypad. interactive television. is instruction delivered using some form of live. the FAA’s National Resource Specialist for Metallurgy. including information on solidification and solidification structures and fabrication methods and their effects. Through the IVT broadcast facility instructors are able to use a variety of visuals. the instructor delivers the course from the television studio at the FAA Academy in Oklahoma City. 1998 Introduction to Metallurgy 6 .IVT Course Orientation II. Participants are located at various receive sites around the country and can see the instructor and his/her materials on television sets in their classrooms. The participants can communicate with the instructor either through a microphone and/or the simple-to-use Viewer Response System keypads. and. woven throughout the course. J Through a five-hour Interactive Video Teletraining (IVT) format. rejer back to Section I of this guide. key points to look for or be aware of in a certification project. The collective participant responses or the name Instructional Video Teletraining Course Federal Aviation Administration April. Terry Khaled.

Instructional Video Teletraining Federal Aviation Administration Course Introduction April. has more than 25 years of experience in metallurgical engineering. participants at each of the other sites can simultaneously hear the participant who is speaking. Tarek (Terry) Khaled.18. and strategy. He has worked at five aircraft manufacturing companies. tactics.571. and the F-l 11. When the instructor calls on a specific participant to speak from a site. hardware.IVT Course Orientation of a specific participant signalling a question are immediately visible to the instructor on the console at the broadcast site. Who Is the Target Audience? This course is designed for: l l Who Is the Instructor? Terry Khaled New and experienced FAA airframe engineers who are not proficient or expert in metallurgy but who require enough knowledge of the subject to be able to review data submitted by manufacturers. Terry enjoys reading about military history. Dr. and project management. The instructor can then respond as needed. the F. manufacturing. 1998 to Metallurgy 7 . Dr. which was gained by working on fighter engines and aircraft power systems. Khaled also has experience with the heat resistant alloys that are used in turbine engines. mechanical design. Inspectors who enforce inspection procedures resulting from the engineering evaluation required to satisfy FAR 25. Space Systems Division. He also loves middle eastern foods. His latest experience in airframe materials was gained through work on the space shuttle. coming to the FAA from Rockwell International.

Describe how metals and alloys solidify and list the factors that control ingot structure. Recognize when.IVT Course Orientation What Wili You Learn? How Will This Course Help You On the Job? After completing this course you will have a basic understanding of the concepts and principles of metallurgy. l Solidification l Deformation and mechanical working. for certification purposes. In addition to this outline. Understand how fabrication and finishing operations affect the properties of metals and alloys. Introduction II. I. Atomic and crystal structures 2. The nature of metals 1. Polymorphism Instructional Video Teletraining Course Federal Aviation Administration April. l Strengthening mechanisms. 1998 Introduction to Metallurgy 8 . The following topic outline is intended to give you an overview of the course content. Appendix A contains the visual presentation material and supporting text for each figure used by the instructor during the broadcast. After completing this course. and be able to distinguish cold from hot working. l Effects of fabrication and finishing operations on properties. Understand how mill products are produced from ingots by hot and cold working. a metallurgist needs to be part of the FAA team. Describe how metallic materials are hardened by heat treatment and by other means. including: l The nature of metals. you should be able to: l l l l l What Topics Does the Course Cover? and ingot structures.

Strain hardening C. Polycrystalline C. Dispersion hardening b. Deformation 3.overview 1. IV. Solidification structures 1.IVT Course Orientation III. Alloys 3. Cold and hot working e. Hardening heat treatments Effects of fabrication operations VI. Effects of temperature d. Grain size d. 1998 Introduction to Metallurgy 9 . Mill products and mechanical working 2. Pure metals 2. Cast/ingot microstructure control Fabrication methods . Effects of finishing operations instructional Video Teletraining Course Federal Aviation Administration April. Primary and secondary working metals Strengthening in metals a. Single crystal b. V. Second phase hardening f. Solid solution strengthening e. Phase diagrams 4. and solidification a.

S. H. 1998 Introduction to Metallurgy 10 . 1974. IOth Ed. The Making. Physical A4etallurgy for Engineers. M. Guy.G. too numerous to mention here. 1956.. Co. Avner. Engineering Materials and Their Applications. Applied Metallurgy for Engineers. PK. Prentice-Hall.. Houghton Mifflin Co.. A.. Co. the following references contain many other references on these subjects and will. Manufacturing Processes and Materials for Engineers. Materials Science and Engineering. AddisonWesley Pub. The Metals Handbook Series. Smith. Introduction McGraw-Hill. Brothers Pub. 1975. 1964. 1956. 1963. M. American Society for Materials (20 volumes). Instructional Video Teletraining Course Federal Aviation Administration April. Doyle.IVT Course Orientation What Are Some Good References? There are many references related to metallurgy. C. & Trojan. help to guide you in the right direction. 1985. LE.A. to Physical Metallurgy. United States Steel. McGrawHill. 2nd Ed. Keyser. R. Charles E. Inc. and Treating of Steel. 1985. However.A. Sydney.C. Flinn. Merrill Pub.. Principles of Physical Metallurgy. Harper & Burton. Shaping.

& PostCourse SelfAssessment Questions The instructor will ask you at the begining and end of the presentation to respond to the following four questions about metallurgy as it impacts the certification process. Rate your confidence level for each of the following before and after completing the course. Very Confident BEFORE AFTER THE COURSE: THE COURSE: Moderately Confident Not Confident 0 0 III cl cl cl 2. I998 Introductionto Metallurgy 11 . Rate your level of understanding about the facotrs that control ingot structure and properties. statements 1. Very Confident BEFORE AFTER THE COURSE: THE COURSE: Moderately Confident Not Confident Cl cl III q I7 cl 3.Self-Assessment IV. Self-Assessment Pre. Rate your understanding of how hardening by heat treatment impacts microstructure and properties. Rate your level of understanding of the effects of mechanical working on microstructure and properties. Very Confident BEFORE AFTER THE COURSE: THE COURSE: InstructionalVideo TeletrainingCourse FederalAviation Administration Moderately Confident Not Confident 0 cl El 0 q Cl April.

Rate your understanding of how fabrication and finishing operations can affect the microstructure and properties. 1998 introductionto Metallurgy I2 . Moderately Not Very Confident BEFORE AFTER THE COURSE: THE COURSE: InstructionalVideo TeletrainingCourse FederalAviation Administration Confident Confident El 0 cl 0 cl cl April.Self-Assessment 4.

Appendix A Appendix A Introduction to Metallurgy IVT Presentation Visuals Instructional Video Teletraining Course Federal Aviation Administration April. 1998 Introduction to Metallurgy A .

Material type and condition/heat treatment . shot peening) .D.Inspection and test I. and function 4 Materials and processes . NRS-Metallurgy l l Certification efforts require knowledge of type design Type design + Form.INTRODUCTION TO METALLURGY By: Terry Khaled. fit. Materials design and processes integral to type 2 IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority Introduction April.Surface finishing (coatings.. Ph. 1998 to Metallurgy A.I .

Recognize when. 3 . for certification purposes. CaO) r Metal-Ceramic Composite Note: Elemental Compound IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority semiconductors semiconductors Organic-Ceramic +-I . . Understand how fabrication and finishing operations affect the properties of metals and alloys. graphite. B. Describe how metallic materials are hardened by heat treatment and by other means. fall under inorganic materials. water. a metallurgist needs to be part of the FAA team. SiO. 1998 to Metallurgy A.03. . Non-metals Materials r Ceramic (Al. l . Understand how mill products are produced from ingots by hot and cold working. and be able to distinguish cold from hot working. you should be able to: Describe how metals and alloys solidify and list the factors that control ingot structure.cc After completing this course.) I - wood) c Inorganic Non-ceramic (C.2 . 4 Introduction April. Ge) fall under metals. . LOther (Carbon-Carbon) (Si. Metals Organic (polymers/plastics.

l Science. autos. i Branches . .converting rocks into metals and alloys such as those used on aircraft.Powder. 6 IVT Course Federal Aviation introduction Authority April. & other prqducts. 1998 to Metallurgy A. .Extractive .of.3 .Physical .Ingot .

Ni) .Leaching - (Ti.Refining: Remove undesirable . .Heat (Fe.Crushing l - Grinding - Concentration Extraction. 1998 to Metallurgy A. scrap. Co. Extraction of metals from ores + Mining + Ore dressing .. or both . Production of metal and alloy ingots + From extracted metals. Cu) (Al) Electrochemical 7 .Alloying: Obtain desired elements alloys 8 IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority Introduction April.4 .

extrudi %I9 Heat treatment Fabrication: Casting. Use of powder + Near-net techniques to produce shapes + Wrought powder metallurgy products (standard shapes for further processing) 9 l Production or powder l l l of finished products Mechanical working: forging.. forming. drawing parts from ingots Rolling. brazing. 10 1VT Course Federal Aviation Authority introduction April.5 . etc. 1998 to Metallurgy A. welding. coating.

1998 to Metallurgy A. The Nature of Metals . Focus on three important metallurgy + Solidification l l Mechanical Hardening methods pillars of and ingot structures working by heat treatment and other 11 . Effects of Finishing Operations Operations 12 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Authority April. Strengthening l & Solidification Structures Methods & Mechanical Working in Metals Effects of Fabrication . Solidification l Fabrication l Mill Products .6 ..

conductivity also ions 0 Crystalline l Inorganic materials also 13 Abmic B c~stan smctums BCC FCC @J$gg Atomic Structure-metallic bond + Positive “ions” surrounded by electron cloud 0 Crystal Structure + 14 basic types (metals or non-metals) + Most engineering metals l -Body centered .Face centered -Close-packed cubic (KC) cubic (FCC) hexagonal (CPH) + Other types include (tetragonal. I998 to Metallurgy A. orthorhombic) 14 IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority Introduction April. ductile l + Exceptions: Na brittle. Good thermal & electrical + Some non-metals l Form positive Hg liquid.l Distinctive luster l Malleable.7 . etc.

1998 to Metallurgy A. Iron (Fe) + BCC at elevated l temperatures l FCC at intermediate l BCC at the lower temperatures Titanium temperatures (Ti) + BCC at elevated temperatures + CPH at the lower temperatures 15 .Liquid: . Solidification: Liquid- + Also known . Metal has different l Depending crystal structures on temperature . Metals exist in three states + Vapor + Liquid + Solid .8 ..Solid: solid as crystallization No crystal Crystal structure structure 16 IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority Introduction April.

It is important to understand solidification processes for pure metals and alloys 17 Topics covered: l Pure Metals l Alloys l Phase diagrams .9 . 1998 to Metallurgy A. Cast/ingot microstructure control 18 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Authority April. Most metal and alloy tonnage as ingots Ingot production l involves produced melting and solidification l Casting is a common production method + Casting production and solidification near-net shape involves melting I..

Dendrites touch-no l l eventually more liquid Each dendrite called Fully solidified o grain microstructure + Single phase .Grains separated by grain boundaries 20 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Authority April.0F + Solid crystals resemble trees -Called dendrites . Crystallization by nucleation and growth . Slow uniform Crystallization temperature -Arrest line l cooling at one .More than one grain .98...Only one pure metal l Polycrystalline structure .10 . 1998 to Metallurgy A.

.Undesirable + Intentionally -To obtain impurities desirable An alloy consists component l l Component: compound properties of more than one Metal. Alloy system + All compositions from components l Alloy system + Binary + Ternary that can be made can be (2 component) (3 component) + Quaternary system system (4 component) system + Higher systems . + At least one component or stable must be metal 21 .I I . non-metal.No specific names assigned 22 IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority Introduction April. Alloys made + Unintentionally . 1998 to Metallurgy A.

1998 to Metallurgy A. Fe&) 4 Metal/Metal (e. l N&AI) o l 0 Solute atoms be l fin Substitutional 24 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Authority April.g. An alloy consists l of one or more phases Phase: Uniform. At elevated temperatures + Liquid phase: Amorphous substance (no crystal - structure) At lower temperatures + Solid phase(s): Crystalline l Number and type of phases present depend + Composition.. homogeneous can be separated mechanically . number of components.. temperature l on 23 l Solid solution l Interstitial 0 -Solute atoms (small) between solvent atoms Solvent atoms + Substitutional -Solute solvent l atoms sites Interstitial in l !zfP ?%a3 Compound: chemical formula l Metal/Non-metal (e.g..12 .

13 .Binary n systems Basis m Easier for higher to work systems with I IVT Course Federal Aviation 25 introduction Authority April.. Summary + Cdoling l l sheets describing charakteristics Phases present Exist for + Binary and higher alloy systems . 1998 I to Metallurgy A.

Binary Phase Diagmms constructkm . Pure metal solidification . From cooling curves .@& Composition B PHASE DIAGRAM 26 Binary Phase Diagmms cootiinat@s l Abscissa: Composition (weight or atomic %) . 1998 to Metallurgy A-14 . One curve per composition l l Constant temperature + Arrest line Alloy solidification l 100 l 80 60 40 20 O+%A ljf!\!!f\\J im i COOLING Temperature range No arrest line CURVES A Time ki. Ordinate: Temperature (OF or OC) Liquid + Solid Composition A B 27 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Authority April.

* f .o: Composition of liquid t E! .5% 29 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Authority April.g. 60%A 0 of a 6 Liquid o Ii uid (%) = E x 100 a("h)=~oxlOO 74%ii Liquid (%) =Lox100=62.5% .. 80% A-20% B alloy l 7’ Construct tie line mo at T . Determine relative amounts of phases at T l + Construct tie line at T + Use lever rule (next slide) Predict microstructure i i a j i E 8 .i x 100 = 37. 1998 to Metallurgy A-15 .l Determine composition of phases at any temperature (T): e.m: Composition of solid . A 100 0 9b 00 10 20 Composition I 74 70 26 30 B 28 m h /I\ n 10 units A * 6 unitsA Fulcrum /I \ Wt of solid phase Wt of liquid phase Amount of liquid : Amount m ni a-------------------90%A 10 .6 a (%)=.

2800 systems 2600 + Unlimited solid solubility . 40% Cu) growing to liquid (43% Ni. ICUI % Nick&l Ni Nuclei (67%Ni. 50% Cu) Dendrites (60% Ni.Solidification by dendrite nucleation & growth g 2200 b I+ 2000 F 1800 Rm Temp. 1998 to Metallurgy A-16 . 57Th Cu) 0' lime + 31 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Authority April. Example: Cu-Ni system (next slide) l Slow uniform cooling: 50% Cu.All alloys exist as one solid phase F d 2400 L . 50% Ni alloy . 33% Cu) formed in liquid (about 50% Ni.

l Fully solidified microstructure in previous example + Single .Cu-Ni l phase solid Polycrystalline -More than solution structure one grain -Grains separated boundaries by grain + Looks same as pu’re metal? . 1998 I to Metallurgy A-17 . .Not really 32 IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority Introduction April.

1998 to Metallurgy A-18 . a2 and as) loo0 232937 50 77 71 63 50 75 25 100% cu 0% Ni 33 l Dendrites are not chemically homogeneous + True for all alloy systems + Distinct look under microscope l Inhomogeneity eliminated by + Homogenization or mechanical anneal working Dark areas: Ni-rich 34 IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority Introduction April.2700 - Dendrites form over temperature range l + Composition of solid varies with temperature .Richer in Cu at lower temperatures (Compare cq.

Ai%~ySystems CompMmon& Pmpem*es SdidSo~~ooa l Properties vary with composition + True for all alloy systems l Alloy properties l Property + Reached maxima differ from pure metals or minima at different compositions 35 ectrical resisti IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority Introduction April. 1998 to Metallurgy A-19 .

) -Arrest line on cooling curve 0 Metals A and B: Limited . 1998 to Metallurgy A-20 . Changes mutual in slope of cooling + At beginning solid solabilities curve 2%end of transformations 37 90%A+ 60%A+4O%B lo%19 Time + 0 10 20 30 40 50 6070 % metal 8090100 B -w 38 IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority Introduction April.a Liquid phase -2 solid phases (L- a +p ) + At constant temperature (t& -Called eutectic temperature (lowest melting temp.

2.. and 4 [a or p formng before eutectic referred to as primary a or Bl 40 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction’to Authority April. I998 Metallurgy A-21 ..g.3. solid solution alloys 6 Alloy properties different from pure metals % component B 39 Eutctic mixture Microstructure vs Temperature for Alloys 1. Properties vary with composition + True for all alloy systems -e.

provide + From one orientation to other -Grains of same phas e Grain - . Interfaces transition I . 1998 to Metallurgy A-22 .g.Microstructures .Grain boundaries + From one crystal structure to another -Phase boundaries Grain + Between colonies of different orientation -Cell boundaries 42 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Authority April. cells of eutectic mixture Interfaces Atomic Structure ..Interfaces Grain boundaries l l Separate grains of same phase Phase boundaries l + Separate different phases Cell boundaries l l Separate colonies (cells) -e.

Involves several phases + 6. a Ferrite (BCC) + 6: Austenitk (FCC) + Fe&: Cementite .--. 1998 to Metallurgy A-23 .Orthorhombic (right angles. Covers steels & cast iron + Steels: C C 2% l Cast Irons: C X2% IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority Introduction April. a#b#c) . I -_ 0 Potential sites for + Precipitation + Phase transformation l Impurity segregation + Cracking 43 l Constructed from cooling curves .

Eutectic Mixture + Eutectic Mixture .c&: 2554 t-7 . Nucleation +6 : from melt l y : on 6 grain boundaries *a : on y grain boundaries i.8 z #Steels& I IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority I 3 4. _____-_-----.Should consist of 1666 alternate y and Fe& plates .a .C. Complexity Diagram of phase *Due to 3 Allotropic forms (phases) of Fe _____________ Gff?B. lines .87 I Introduction April.C. Time 45 Eutectic at 2065OF + Liquid c-g &++Fe.3 5 Cast irons 1 C% ‘37 li.6. Y.C. a Fe B.C 28OC 2:.C.--. ii i i 1 t.i &I E $ I 0..Usually: rounded y ” areas in Fe. 1998 46 to Metallurgy A-24 . nonmagnetic curve +3 arrest ___. Cooling Aquid 2800 Y Fe F.C matrix + Arrest line on cooling curve l Same solidification principles as before h ?Eutectoid 925% F g 1 f%.

1998 to Metallurgy A-25 .3 5i i 1 Introduction April. Y@25% :I[ 0 0.8 1 t f.Arrest line on cooling curve heat treatment + Basis for steel l IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority a.e3. 2 3 ii4.

Representation of crystal growth from uniformly cooled melt. 1998 to Metallurgy A-26 . Crystals begin to form at random locations in melt and grow uniformly until restricted by neighbors or walls of container. Faster (but uniform) cooling + More nucleation sites (thermodynamics) + Finer grain structure . with shape of each grain determined interference with other grains and walls of container. Metal completely solid.Finer grain and cell sizes l Seeding =b finer grain structures l Finer grain structures mechanical properties better 49 IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority introduction April. b. spherical growth. by 48 l Nucleation Multiple random sites + Equiaxed grains l . a. Unrestricted c. Crystals beginning to form.

Columnar Gralns in a lead casting 51 IVT Course FederalAviation Authority April.. Freezing continuing.. of solid metal. l Nonuniform temperature l Mold walls cool faster Nucleation at mold walls l Growth parallel to gradient l -Columnar l cooling gradients dendrites Basis for + Directional solidification l Growing single crystals (DS) : (SX) . a. Freezing complete.Progressive formation of columnar dendrites. Shrinkage cavity is formed at center 50 . at container walls. DS & SX used in jet engines ... 1998 Introductionto Metallurgy A-27 . Freezing begins at wall of the crucible.. Restriction of sidewise growth and the temperature gradient from outside to center of the melt encourage formation of columnar grain shape. c. Freezing beginning b.

Three microstructural + Fine equiaxed zones grains (4) 3 -Fast uniform cooling at mold surfaces + Columnar grains (5) . & (3) Fabrication Methods Topics covered: 0 Overview l Mill products and mechanical . 1998 to Metallurgy A-28 . cavities porosity (Z).Typical Ingot Structure Steel .Growth under temperature gradient 4 Coarse equiaxed -Slow l Casting l uniform grains (6) cooling defects Pipe (I). Importance of mechanical working working 53 IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority Introduction April.

Mill products l + Bars. or elevated drawing 55 IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority Introduction April. 1998 to Metallurgy A-29 . and shapes 54 L c l Mill products produced + By mechanical . forging.Metallic l components fabricated + By near net shape methods -Casting -Powder metallurgy + From mill products -Machining. welding. wire.Ingots . rods. billet.Rolling. bonding. adhesive forming. sheet. plate. forging. working at ambient extruding.Wrought l powder Mechanical of’ products working + Deformation temperatures . brazing. tube. etc.

Breaks down coarse structure . Improves mechanical properties I 56 Topics l l covered: Deformation l Single crystals l Polycrystalline metals Effects of temperature + Stress relief + Recrystallization + Hot vs cold working . Primary and secondary IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority working 57 Introduction April.. 1998 to Metallurgy A-30 . Closes chemical we use ingot dendritic uniformity porosity . Produces the useful shapes . Enhances .

By slip on slip systems (4 (4 (4 (b) Elastic and Permanent Deformation of Metal Loaded in Shear. (6) elastic strain produced by load below elastic limit.Singk Crystak Deformation + Elastic l Plastic (permanent) . (c) increased elastic strain plus permanent strain by slip.Study of deformation understand l + Production + Properties essential to of mill products of mill products Study of deformation l + Two steps -Single crystals . IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority Introduction April. (a) Original crystal. only permanent strain remains. resulting from load above elastic limit. unstressed. 1998 59 to Metallurgy A-3 I .Polycrystalline Debmation l metals . (o’) load removed.

. 1998 Introduction to Metallurgy A-32 . Slip system l Close paced direction + close packed plane 4 Closest atomic spacings :. T: Resolved shear stress l z =Area of slip plane= +2 =OsinX IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority F’ A/COS$~~* ’ = LA SinX CosX I Cos k 61 April. Strongest l Easier to move along than through HCP FCC 60 l Stress resolved slip direction l l l along Shear component slip Normal component favors fracture F:applied force. A: cross sectional area.

l Slip starts + At most favorably -X. = 0. sin x.cosh=0) l Slip plane parallel to tensile axis (2. 1998 to Metallurgy A-33 .7. = 0) IVT Course Federal Aviation 62 Introduction Authority April.h=45° oriented system + When Tc is reached .: l critical resolved shear stress No slip when ‘c = 0 + Slip plane or direction I to tensile axis (h=90.

All deformation l Involve . Specimen l ends forcibly Slip planes & directions -Align with . The location of the active primary slip plane is shown. Direc of sli (b) Shear can be pictured as occurring in this manner on each of the (c) Since the axis of loading actually remains vertical. I998 to Metallurgy A.. the angle changes significantly.I Rotation l restrained Universal rotate strain axis preferred orientation processes restrain & preferred orientation phenomena I 63 (a) Initial condition of the crystal. IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Authority April. Rotation principal =W .34 .

Range of plastic deformation n: coef.z ti __.‘/__ 2 E to remains i i i I* !I I II point Define 0. I: 1a:i:: II :: III I: II. .. yield not well defined l .2% offset yield strength v 0. Releasing load in plastic range Some elastic takes place l recovery + Some permanent set . Generally. !:i ____- --_* -.35 . in/in Elastic strain 66 Introduction Authority April. :: :: : :: i IL Strain. .2% offse I+ -Plastic* (Permanent) strain IVT Course Federal Aviation I:I: . of strain hardening Extension 65 Yield strength . 1998 to Metallurgy A. \.

Called stringers 67 l Mechanical working of say Fe specimen at room temperature + Same effects tensile test observed in . 1998 Introduction to Metallurgy A-36 . Each grain behaves as single crystal + Rotation & preferred orientation + Grains become elongated After Brittle particle Brittle particles/ compounds l Before Do not deform + Break & form broken lines l . ductility* more elongated .Elongated grains & stringers l 75% prior reduction of thickness r Each time section is reduced + Strength + Grains: * ..More difficult l Stringers: z g 50% No prior reduction to distinguish finer and longer 66 IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority April.Rotation & preferred orientation .

Finer grain sizes + Higher strength + lower ductility l Example: (usually) Iron alloys (see graph) 7 III 0 ! 2 4 I 6. w.. Grain Boundaries + Obstacles -Slip -Force to deformation changes direction must be resolved + Major source from grain to grain . IVT Course Federal Aviation ! ! 8 mm “I. ! ! ! ’ 10 70 Introduction Authority April.gets smaller of strain hardening 69 Grain BoQandaties and Pmp@mes . 1998 to Metallurgy A-37 .

I998 to Metallurgy A-38 ..Requires very long times .By heat treatment Two heat treatments l 0 Stress relief (low temperature) + Recrystallization anneal (higher temperature) 71 . + Only eliminate some residual stresses 6 Ineffective in elimination of effects of prior deformation 72 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Authority April. To avoid fracture + Must eliminate effects of prior deformation . Mechanical working at room temperature + Continued of say Fe specimen reductions* fracture . Heating at fairly low temperatures Slow process + Elimination of effects l of prior deformation .Not practical l Practical stress relief cycles .

Further mechanical .appear -By nucleation and growth + Initial room temperature restored . Used between + Also called: properties working reduction Intermediate possible passes anneal 73 Stages of recrystallization. (4 (4 (c) Original crystals disappear. (b) Nuclei grow into new crystals. 1998 to Metallurgy A-39 . (a) Stress-free nuclei appear. stress free grains. and recrystallization is corn plete. (4 IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority 74 Introduction April. and some additional nucleation.l Heating above recrystallization temperature + New.

1998 to Metallurgy A-40 .5 of absolute melting tern Derature (see plot next slide) .. For alloys + Must be experimentally determined 75 e K OR 3000 g 1500 IE 5s 1000 .0.-i 500 z P 8 u 0 K = OC + 273 OR=OF+460 1227 2 t 727 JO00 L oI*Y~ 0 0 4000 2000 2000 1000 Melting 540227 1I-460’ 1 -273 6000 3000 OR h E i s ‘3 w i Fz iii u OK temperature 76 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Authority April.l For P ure Metals l TYP tally: 0.3 .

. Finer recrystallized grain sizes + Higher strength + Lower ductility (usually) l Coarse recrystallized favored by grain sizes Less extensive mechanical working + Higher annealing temperatures l Long annealing times l l Stringers remain (see next slide) 77 Before Microstructure (a) and After (b) recrystallization 78 IVT Course Federal Aviation Authority Introduction April. I998 to Metallurgy A-4 I .

1998 Introduction to Metallurgy A..Cold & Hot WoMing l Two conditions define hot working + Temperature 2 recrystallization temperature + Rate of recrystallization 2 deformation (strain hardening) rate l Hot working microstructures Recrystallized grains + Stringers remain l l Room temperature working + Can be hot working -For low melting metals (e.42 .g. Pb) 79 Undeformed recrystallization 80 IVT Course Federal Aviation Administration April.

9 20..3 super spring l l No elevated temperature oxidation Suitable materials l for hot.Lower energy inputs l + Lower Strength at elevated l Continuous recrystallization -Keeps strength low More reductions l possible + Higher ductility at elevated + Continuous recrystallization -Keeps ductility temperatures temperatures high 81 Better dimensional control .43 .5 68.g.9 112 hard 29.1 special spring 80.1 extra hard spring 60.4 314 hard full hard 37.FeS melts at grain boundaries . 1998 to Metallurgy A.6 extra spring 75. Higher strength 4 Proportional to % cold work (see chart) 02 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Administration April. not deform . Better surface quality TEMPER ROLL DESIGNATIONS Copper 8 Its Alloys Temper % Cold reduction 114 hard 10. high S steels . short + e.1 50.Grains pull apart.

For production of standard mill products + Bar (round. square. 1998 to Metallurgy A. and extruding- l To convert standard mill products to + Near-net shape products + More desirable configurations l By ring rolling. flat) hexagonal. By rolling. upset and closed die forging.many others a4 IVT Course Federal Aviation Administration Introduction April. sheet and foil + Shapes (l-beam. drawing. wire Plate. forging. sheet metal forming. . channel.44 . + Tube and pipe + Billets (reforging stock) l angle) . + Rod..

1998 to Metallurgy A.ductility Providing to slip* : and hardness #. 05 Dispersion hardening l Strain hardening .Strengthening: resist slip l l Resistance . Grain size .45 . Solid solution strengthening l Second phase hardening l Heat treatment l 66 IVT Course Federal Aviation Administration Introduction April.strength .(usually) means to t I .

g. compacted and sintered -Hard particles resist slip .46 .always -Interstitial l or substitutional Second phase hardening 4 Alloying leads to formation of hard second phase -Hard second phase resists slip -Example: eutectic systems % component IVT Course Federal Aviation B Introduction Administration April.0 Dispersion hardening (powder metallurgy) + Hard particles blended with matrix. Solid solution strengthening + Foreign atoms in matrix resist slip .. Strain hardening + Cold work strengthens -Performed l metals (discussed earlier) by mill (e. 1998 88 to Metallurgy A. H tempers in Al-alloys) Grain size l Finer grain sizes strengthen -Grain size control: through working (discussed earlier) during solidification or .

S&T?
wag
mat Tkwam?nt
Application
properties

l

of heat to change or restore

+ One or more heating

Hardening

l

heat treatments

+ Precipitation
+ Quench

cycles

hardening

hardening

. Non-hardening

heat treatments

+ Annealing
(including
+ Normalizing
4 Stress relief

recrystallization

I
anneal)

89

l

Three

basic

steps

+ High temperature

heating

- Solutibn heat treatment or austenitizing

+ Quenching
- Prolonged

delay: no hardening

+ Low temperature
- Aging/precipitation

. Performed
0 Not all alloys

heating
treatment or tempering

by mill and/or
hardenable

user
by heat treatment
90

IVT Course
Federal Aviation Administration

April, 1998

Introduction to Metallurgy
A- 47

. Age/precipitation
hardening
l Solution
heat treatment + quenching

+

age/precipitation
treatment
+ Used for
- Nonferrous alloys, (e.g., alloys of Ti, Al, Ni, Co, Cu)
- Some steels, (e.g., precipitation hardening [PHI
and maraging steels)
l

Martensitelquench
l

Austenitizing

hardening
treatment

+ quenching

+ Used for all carbon-hardened
300M, 4340, etc.)

+ tempering

steels, (e.g., 4130,
91

IVT Course
Federal Aviation Administration

Introduction
April, 1998

to Metallurgy
A- 48

l

Consider Al - 4% Cu alloy ingot
+ Ingot hot or cold worked
+ Heated at 520% (968OF) for a few hours
+ Slow
cooled to room temperature

l

Resulting microstructure

(a + p)

+ p: coarse, mostly on grain boundaries
-Blocks
l

only

few slip planes

(see next slide)

To increase strength
+ Must block more slip planes
92

Single

phase u
j3 phase particles
form on ccgrain
boundaries

more /I formed;
previous /3 grown

Al

2 4 6 8
Copper, wt%
93

IVT Course
Federal Aviation Administration

Introduction
April, 1998

to Metallurgy
A-49

1998 to Metallurgy A-50 .l Must have suitable alloy + Single phase at some temperature + Favorable precipitation rates . Purpose: Temperature experimenting + Affect + Avoid Al to obtain single + Must dissolve second + Hardening proportional dissolved l ’ 660. wt% 8 94 phase (a) phase (p) to amount and time optimized to by adequate dissolution undesirable grain growth .Very high temperatures . Example: AU%Cu [close to 20241 0 Solution treatment at 520°C (968OF) for about 4 hours + Water quenching 6 Aging in the ambient 240°C (464OF) range .Excessive times at temperature 95 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Administration April.37O L 2 4 6 Copper.

Added or forming strength (e.g.. tempers in Al-alloys .g. At room temperature l Natural aging . T8 temper + Softer than slow-cooled - No second phase in Al-alloys) (annealed) particles to block material slip planes 96 . and T. T. At higher temperatures + Artificial l aging Properties + Aging vary with temperature .. 1998 to Metallurgy A-5 I . Time-temperature & time dependence + Varies from property to property 97 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Administration April.+ Quench l delays Little and/or slow cooling rates or no hardening Alloy soft after quenching + Can cold work - Straightening .e.

I I o.000 Time. Sometimes equilibrium a grains increase transition phases precipitates strength form .oo 2 6 90 ii I 80 7.1 1 10 100 1000 10. days As-quenched hardness 99 IVT Course Federal Aviation Administration Introduction April. Maximum possible hardness (H. Aging super saturated precipitates + Mostly - within a + p a ==z+fine p a grains on grain boundaries . AW%Cu: l At given hardness aging (or strength) temperature-2 + Hardness increases with aging time .not 98 . Fine p precipitates within l Not just c1 Block more slip planes.om 0. decreases between 1 30°C-240°C g 110 d . increases between 300c-110% l stages 130 $ 120 H.Equilibrium microstructure: .01 0. I998 to Metallurgy A-52 .To peak hardness l Hardness decreases with aging time (overaging) ..) vs aging temperature: 6 H. . Quenched microstructure: Unstable (super saturated) l .

. ‘Very long artificial aging times + Not practical + Expensive (furnace time) . . . .. . To obtain highest possible hardness (about 123 Vickers) -AgeatllO-130°Cforov .:. . ‘. t I :~~a~i~~e~r~..* .. 1998 to Metallurgy A-53 .. ..~s~~~~~~~~g) E precipitate on larger particles *Less particles present aLess slip lanes blocked Gtrength P hardness t E s *As quenched *Single phase a *Slip planes free *Soft Note: Cooring to room freezes micro-structure-no temp. . .. - s b .I .*. Typically age at 190% for 24 hr l Accept lower property values As-quenched hardness IVT Course Federal Aviation Administration 101 Introduction April. at any time additional changes 100 ~~C~~~~~~~~~ cti@arf ~~~~~~~#~ Cans~derations .’ . l .~~@~~~~C~~~~~~~~ff l-h%m?ent Micmstructwe L Changes f *All p phase particles formed *Many slip lanes blocked t P hardness1 t 1 *Strength I l p phase particles forming Gome slip planes blocked Gtrength t hardness t r 5 . *:’ . -* . P **. . .. -. ... Ab4%Cu alloy .$ .

AI-Mg & AI-Si (6000 series) + Ni-alloy: Ni-AI. Ni-Ti + Cu-alloys: Cu-Be l 102 Steel Heat Tmtment Fabrication and Heat TWHment . Steel ingots + Mechanical’work *mill (wrought) . 1998 to Metallurgy A-54 . Heat treatment + Between and/or l l at conclusion of fabrication operations For cast and wrought alloys Can be hardening or non-hardening .Non-hardening: To eliminate effects or improve qualities of fabrication.AgeiPrecipitation Hardening Phase Oiagmms & A/lay Development l Foundation for development hardenable alloys l Shape of phase diagram -First clue to potential + Only certain compositions l of age hardenable Examples Al-alloys: AI-Cu (2000 series).mill productl products parts Castings .Hardening: To increase strength . or improve hardening response 103 1VT Course Federal Aviation introduction Administration April. Al-Zn (7000 series).

.. 1998 10 Metallurgy A-55 . . .2 I Or4 I+-+-+* Low Medium carbon carbon steels I Or6 steel I 4-Hypereutectoid I I 4. . . medium.. & hypereutectoid + Low alloy (S 8 weight O/Oalloy content) l High alloy (> 8 weight % alloy content) Eutectoid wypoeutectoid I I . High-carbon Carbon Steels IVT Course Federal Aviation 104 introduction Administration April.0?8 I ~ *Irons 4.Steel Heat Tmtment Steel Classitkatiotis l l Carbon’ sthels l Low. Hypoeutectoid.8 t. Alloy steels &‘high carbon eutectoid.... I ..2 steel----.. 54 % Caw . .0 I.

1998 to Metallurgy A-56 .Steel Heat Thatment Critical fempepipture Range l Heat treatment l l Apply to carbon and alloy steels Carbon l principles steels easier to understand Using Fe-C phase diagram (see next slide) . con& I i . 0.8 1 Steels e I 1 4- I Cast Irons Carbon percent Logarithmic IVT Course Federal Aviation 106 Introduction Administration April.All steels have one lower critical temperature (1333OF) 105 Sfeel Heat Tmfmenf Critical TemperaWe 800 vo600 Y- 008%C .Each steel has different upper critical temperature . Range.

Development of a normal hypoeutectoid structure in a 0.._.8%) only pearlite forms In hypereutectoid steel (C > 0. Eutectoid temperature is reached e.: .. Ferrite grains grow d. .40% C steel slow/y cooled from above upper critical a. then pearlite Ferrite. . a 108 IVT Course Federal Aviation Administration April. Ferrite appears at austenite grain boundaries c.Non-hardening Treatments Effects of Slow Cooling . Original austenite .I :.:.. All remaining austenite is transformed into pearlite Note: At room temperature Ferrite + pearlite Ferrite called proeutectoid ferrit L Non-hardening Treatments Effect of Carbon Content I l l l All hypoeutectoid steel (C c 0...IXI.8% steel) + Cementite forms.4% C steel of proeutectoid asC%* In eutectoid steel (C = 0. 1998 Introduction to Metallurgy A-57 ..8 transform in same manner as 0.. :I.-.. grains b..

.I’ ‘..:.In furnace (annealing) .. : . i”‘:: Non-Hanlening Full Annealing .. ’ Heat Tmatments and Normalizing . :.Due to faster cooling l Overheating l rates =w coarser Poor mechanical structures properties 109 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Administration April..&.1..In air (normalizing) ~ l Normalizing 4 Finer structure & stronger .. I998 to Metallurgy A-58 . Full annealing and normalizing + Heat above upper critical l Slow-cool to ambient . . 1.

. p z g gk = 80 ft .C) Overheated Steel .8 m 280 240 200 160 120 -.8 % Carbon Composition 111 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Administration April. 1998 to Metallurgy A-59 . Graphkal Repmsentation and Overheating .--.--.Full Anneal.i -Jr =C :si Z” gii :P ii$ s Normalized Annealed . Full Anneal & Normalizing Effect of Carbon Content . Normalizing. A: Austinite.%Cff + More cementite -Strength to block slip 8 hardness 8.. ductility 4 fg E.. a P: Pearlite (a + Fe. y F: Ferrite.

Also rectystallize l Spherodized ferrite 4k SDheroidized structure + More ductile 8 softer than pearlite Heat Treafmenf Isothetmal .By heating above 1333OF + Transfer to bath at say 13OOOF . Anneal The Subcritical l Heating at 1000 .Non-ham/e&g Heat Tmfmenfs Cementite. subcritical + Hold for various . 1998 to Metallurgy A-60 . Perform experiment on eutectoid (C=O.Specimen Cold water Quenching periods of time 1 shortest.8%) steel (see slide 106) + Austenitize say 4 specimens .Below 1333OF.13OOOF for several hours l l l Fe& (Black) Ferrite (White) Cooling rate not critical Cementite platesespheroids For cold-worked steels + Subcritical anneals at -1 300°F . :. Essential of Steel Transfomations to understanding Molten salt bath 1425OF (774OC) Austenitizing hardening . 4 longest + Quench in water to stop reaction l Examine microstructures Molten salt bath 1300°F(704%) Isothermalheattreatment 113 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Administration April.

37 . 0. ./. .I ..8% c mm?oid) $a%!~. ....isothermal Transformation . 1998 to Metallurgy A-61 . IVT Course Federal Aviation Administration 4 Introduction April. . . .

scale) 116 IV? Course Federal Aviation Introduction Administration April.1 Time.8% ‘C (Eutectoid Steel) A: Austenite 1700C: Cementite B 800 0. Repeat previous experiment + At several transformation down to 1000°F -Obtain isothermal reaction curves + Use data to construct . seconds (Log.Isothemal Transformations T7T Diwmms . 1998 to Metallurgy A-62 .lTT: l temperatures TTT diagram Time-Temperature-Transformation At lower temperatures + Transformation + Transformation starts sooner products finer 115 TTT Diagmn 0.

pearlite + For hypereutectoid .Ferrite forms (C < 0.Cementite l (C > 0. I998 to Metallurgy A-63 .8%) steels before.8%) steels forms before pearlite End result always l Austenite transforms -Equilibrium phases + Finer & stronger temperatures to F + C on phase products diagram at lower 117 777 Diagrams of Carbon Effect A+F+C Time HYPOEUTECTOID W I) I) I) EUTECTOID e HYPEREUTECTOID Carbon Content 118 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Administration April.TTT Diagnims Other Carbon Steels l Similar TTT diagrams + For hypoeutectoid .

Down to 1000°F + Below 1000°F -Transformation -Finer.77T Diagrams Tmnsfomation Below OOWF . seconds 777 Diagram IVT Course Federal Aviation for a 0.40% C Steel Introduction Administration April. stronger times increase & more ductile products 0 Critical cooling rate + Rate to avoid all F+C transformations next slide) (see 119 77T IXagrams Critical Cooliolg Rate A: Austenite F: Ferrite C: Cementite 1 10 100 Time. 1998 to Metallurgy A-64 . Isothermal transformation say 400°F + Transformation down to starts sooner .

(martensite l ..6 0..2 % Carbon 122 NT Course Federal Aviation Administration April.8 1..4 0.0 1.E M I ’ 0 Time. Marfensife tiardoless and Crystal Structure l Martensite l Hardness hard & brittle depends .4% steel austenitized + Reach MS (martensite l .Transformation finish) temperature ends Complete 77T curve for a 0. 1998 Introduction to Metallurgy A-65 .40% C steel 4 z.\. seconds On’ 1 10 100 ?!?O I?. Crysta.<x: Martensite ____. .I structure: on C% body-centered tetragonal cj/[/--0 0..2 0.that Ti-eafrnenf of Steels The Martensite Reaction 0.Austenite and cooled at rate >critical start) temperature transforms to’martensite Reach M.

: .0 1.’ . M. (unstable) Martensite Martensite 1 10 100 lioo Time. *. Steels with C > 0. . Time. . 200 100 O Austenite % $700 3 E 500 25% _--------------------_-----------_____________~~I"O~76% q 0. >T2 >T3 >T4 austenite as C%* 123 The MartensHe Reaction Effect of C%.2 % Carbon. and’ M. .7% l M. 1998 to Metallurgy A-66 ..Retained austenite . T2 . .Between martensite .6 1.t.+- I. depend on C% .2 0. Heat Tmatment of Steels Martensite & Retained Austenite 0 Martensite needles form instantaneously + No nucleation & growth T.1 0. Percent martensite depends only on temperature .6 0..4 Martensite Formation in a 0.40% C Steel 124 Introduction Administration April.Eliminate treatment 0 More retained needles @C by “subzero” T.. & Temroeratunz 0 F 900 $330 . below ambient temp. seconds IVT Course Federal Aviation 0.I.

Nb. 1998 to Metallurgy A-67 .Heat Tmatmeht Eikt of AMoying Elements . During quenching + Pearlite may form in interior. pushed to lower temperatures + With increasing carbon and/or alloy content (except Al. .Less risk of quench cracking/distortion l MS.. Cooling rate at center < at surface . alloy i. V) . Ti. M. Co. lower critical content cooling rates + Milder quenches required for hardening . TTT diagram l of Steel moves right (longer times) With increasing carbon and/or (except Al. Co) l More retained austenite at room temperature .Adverse effects on some properties 125 L Heat Treatment of Steek HatienabiMy .e.Section will have low strength l Hardenability: Ability to harden thick sections + Deep hardening steels: Low critical cooling rates + Shallow hardening steels: Logarithm high critical of time cooling rates 126 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Administration April. Longer times.

1998 to Metallurgy A-68 .Quenchant type. Hardenable (Oil Quench) 4130 __msw___-wwm-_2.50 4140 __~~~~__~~~~~~~ 2.00 128 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Administration April. temperature -Agitation -Size of quench tank l Smaller section sizes 127 Depth of Hadening EiBct of Allov Content Steel Nominal Total Alloy % Max.55 _____-______---___--___I________ 1.20 ______________________________ccc_ 2.90 --~~~~----~----------I---- 5.Heat Tmtment of Steel Depth of Hardening a Depth to which martensite l Increases + Higher -Alloy forms with hardenability content + More severe quenches ..00 4340 ______-__.____- 4.50 3()0M -----I- 5. in 0.18 ~~~~~~~~~~-~~~~~----~~-~~ Dia.

0 20.0 60. I998 to Metallurgy A-69 . kai 151 107 103 of mass on typical CJ~ . 18 19 in 2 in.0 22.Heat Thatmen? Considerations .0 55. HB 50 55 55 335 202 293 130 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Administration April. Section of Steel in Hardening size + Problem in carbon & low alloy steels (see next slide) l Severe quench Increase Increase l l l depth of tiardening risk of cracking/distortion Use of higher alloy steels l Larger section hardenable with milder Less risk of cracking/distortion l More l quenches expensive 129 Depth of Hardening Effect of Section Size Effects of mass Bar size In. Surface in area % hard. % of heat-treated 4130 steel Surface d. kai (Jo kai Elong.0 properties CT. 1 2 3 Effects Bar size in. .0 58. of heat-treated in Reduct. 165 133 125 143 109 95 15. aI 128 83 78 on typical properties Elong. HB 307 223 217 4140 steel Reduct. 18. 1 2 3 (J.

Heat Titedatment of Steel
Tempering
. Steels must be tempered
l

after quenching

To reduce brittleness

. In tempering
+ Steel heated to some temperature
- Below

lower

critical

+ Held for some time
-Typically

2 - 4 hrs

+ Cooled at any desired
temperature

rate to room

131

Tempering
E&c? on Prppeties
l

Tempering

accompanied

by

+ Reduction
in hardness & strength
+ Increase in ductility & toughness
+ Changes in other properties
l

Tempering
+ Strength
+ Ductility

temperature
and hardness
and toughness

%’
4& (usually)
@(usually)

132

IVT Course
Federal Aviation

Introduction
Administration

April,

1998

to hletallurgj
A-70

Tempering
,Microstructure
l

Changes

In tempering: Martensite =&tempered
martensite
+ Tempered martensite: mixture of cementite & ferrite
+ Tempering

temperatur

- Size of cementite

part

- Strength

and hardnes

- Ductility

and toughnes

Black particles:

with tempering

Cementite

temperature

White background:

Ferrite

.:,.~;:.‘;;.:.:::,,
~

..‘:.!
..:j .:i.‘;’.$y..
.:t. c.,
. ,..1

oj)

@

Tempering
TEM
133

Heat Treatment of Steels
,Temperin_qCurves
290,ooo

.

270.000
250,000
230,000
210,000
190,ooo
170,000
150,000
130,000
110,000
mm
70,000
50,ooo
400

5w

Normalized

I

NT Course
Federal Aviation

600

700
900
900 looo
1100
Tempering
Temperature,
OF
at 15GIPF, reheated
to 155oOF, quenched

1200

1300

in agitated

oil

134

Introduction
Administration

April,

1998

to Metallurgy
A-71

hat

Tmatment

of St&s

Case Hatdenim
. To develop hard surface
retaining tough core

layer while

Methods

l

+ Chemical:
hardening

surface enrichment
elements

with

- Carburizing
- Nitriding
-Others
(carbonitriding,

+ Non-chemical:
-Induction,

boriding)

heating
flame.

laser,

surface

layer only

light
135

Case Wdening

of Steels

Cartwizin~
l

Heat to within
+ In contact

austenite

range

with carburizing

-Solid
(pack carburizing)
-Liquid
(salt bath carburiting)
-Gas (gas carburizing)
- most
l

Soak to achieve

l

Quench

l

Temper

desired

agent

widely

used

case depth

136

IVT Course
Federal Aviation

Introduction
Administration

April,

I998

to Metallurgy
A-72

.g.Case Hardening Nitnwna l l of Sfeels Harden and temper as usual Heat to nitriding temperature tempering temperature) l In contact -Gas with nitriding agent (gas nitriding) -Liquid (salt bath nitriding) l Soak to achieve desired l Cool to ambient temperature l (lower than Cooling case depth rate not critical 137 Case Hardening Non-Chemical l Surface of Steels Methods layer heated to austenite range + By induction.Heating time -Heating parameters (e. 1998 to Metallurgy A-73 . frequency in induction) Quench Surface layer hardens + Unheated core: unchanged l l Temper 138 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Administration April. flame or other method + Case depth controlled by l .

plating: hydrogen embrittlement + Plating on aluminum or titanium: poor adhesion + Painting. brazing. abusive working forging + Due to reactions -Welding. 1998 to Metallurgy A-74 . l coating. thermal spray: exposure of base metal to processing temperature + Pre-penetrant etch: destruction hydrogen embrittlement l Must avoid or remedy of surface finish.Fabrication Opwations . sealing and inspection Can affect final product l Acid cleaning. Can affect microstructure + Due to processing and properties temperature -Welding. l bonding. effects 140 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Administration April. adhesive machining + Due to mechanical -Forming. with filler metal brazing Must consider or remedy effects I 139 l Include + Cleaning.

The listings are by no means exclusive and.Superalloys Instructional Video Teletraining Federal Aviation Administration Course Introduction April. and Alloy Steels Corrosion Resistant (CRES) Steels Appendix BS-------------. 1998 to Metallurgy B . some of the alloys used in the aircraft industry are s presented. CONTENTS: Appendix B I-------------- Aluminum Appendix B2-------------- Titanium Alloys Appendix B3-------- Appendix B4-------------1 ______ Carbon. they do not include all the alloys used in the industry. Alloys Low Alloy. Designation system and chemical composition listings are included. as such.Appendix B Appendix B Aircraft Alloys In the following appendices.

1998 to Metallurgy Bl .Appendix B Appendix Aluminum Instructional Video Teletraining Federal Aviation Administration B-l Alloys Course Introduction April.

.. and cast 2xx.. Ix.......... Notes Wrought 2xxx..... the alloys are grouped by major alloying element(s)..........: ..... 606 I -T6..... ... The basic temper designations are: I ........... ...... Otbcr eknwnrs .... . Prefix X signifies an experimental alloy... Magnesium ........... Mmsium ....... ..... ........ ....... Letter H followed by two or more numbers to indicate level of strain hardening.............z krs PUJ buJ XxX...... 5052-H3...... ........ In each category.............r......... .......g...........................l ....................H: strain hardened by cold \rork ( for lr-rought products only )........... . Otbct elements ._..................2: INGOTS Temper Designations Temper is identified by a letter or a letter plus one or more numerals: e.. ..................... .... ..m%..... some Sxxx... Silicaa ..... .......... Aluminum Alloys z99... 6xxx.. 7xx and 7xx alloys can be heat treated to high strength levels............ Tin............... .................... 7xxx (except 7072)... 4.. 3x............ .. .n~ JUJ 7rr............... zinc .... 2r.... .. 606 I-F.......... Aluminum alloys pxpd by M rlkyial ekmcnt(s): Copl=r ......... ....u 9ur Silicon.T: Solution treated and aged..................Lr Aluminum..F: as-fabricated 2......:................. r99.....m..... ..._........... 3ur Sux 6ur 7xXx &. processing details..................... Lua alloys gouprd by majw dbyin( ckmmltr): copper.......... ........DESIGNATION SYSTEMS FOR ALUMINUM ALLOYS.............. The letter T is followed by a number from I-IO to indicate heat treat specifics......... . Irr~ 4r. . and by temper designations.......... to describe their Alloy Desienations A four digit system is used for wrought alloys whereas a three-digit one is used for cast alloys.. zinc ... Wrought Cast Alloys Aluminum.... ....1................. Unused tir . . .......... with addal copper l ndla nqnesium ................ ...0: annealed 3... ............. hlAn&u”........ .. OVERVIEW GENERAL Aluminum alloys are identified by alloy designations...................... to describe their chemistry.......0: CASTtNCS xXx. ......... .. . Unused series ........ Msgncsium and silicon ........

8 o.__.aM 0.m w.2 ‘.90 Pp... ” ..03 0. rma Td 0. 0. 0.. .45-0. 0.. 1175 127s IIW II85 l28( II83 A91175 . ...0 0.03 0...02 0.. .10 0.10 0.lF .01 0..05 0..Qdl 0..ca3 .10 0..2IM.3 .. om 0......u - .......u .. 0.03 om 0.03 0.x .....02 0..35 0....lJ .o 3Y...o ....X 0.10 0.U- 0. AICU4Mg...03 0..XUl... .60 .. . ..__.85 Pp...m 0..0 0... ..07 O.bl.LLz..005 ......10 0. ..M OJJj 0..10 1..rO 0..05 0.02 0..01 o.05 1193 IIW x01 APll%l(cl APIIW “. .45 tSi + Fe1 INO A91350 E-AI 99.. or) 0... OJo(Si + Fcrbl IIY) ... o. ...owJ.03 0. . 15-23 4..05 0.S...006 '...15 lSi * Fe1 0....m-o..9-5.l w + li) .10 0...01 0. ..M 0. 0.0s om ... 0...02 0.3 0.03 . .04 .Is4Jo E-o. undloyd 0...... .x 025 0.02 .......1: 0..05 1 - .’ .... .‘. OYM.7-1....01 0. Y . .z 0..... .M 0. 0...AO 0... 0. 0...m 0.40 S&6.3348 Ozno.0x 0.. O.02 0..01 .. o..... 0... 0...” El 0.10 0. AKuuh4g .....m 0...0 0....10 I..7 S.... o.01 0..419 A92519 ml(c) 0. 0.03 0..01 ‘B”0.03 0.. .03 . Ill0 uNsk.. ..x 0...M 0.m 0..x) 0.03 O. 0.03 ..’ .. mJ8 0..03 0. .04 0.7. Alw.. ....M 0.65 ISi + Fen 1w A91345 .04 0.... APlOY) A91015 API050 A91060 API@35 A9lOXl A9lUa A9l@S A9lWO A91 IO0 of wrought Lsom.. 0.01..03 0.01 0. ml ml4 2214 2017 2117 Arnll AJ9all4 A92214 ml7 A92117 Xl018 PI.Y) ‘.00 0.03 0.3-5.1 s.03 0.. ..03 ...45 W.. “. 0..m-0.1) 03$Q 030 0...x ...m 0 SW...ll oa....‘.3. Om .05 o...03 0.032 0.1 O.01 I..m 99.M 0.01 0.m 0.05 .. o.Y) S.03 0.01 0.......? 0.*) 03sI.....03 0. . . .CC6 W-5.m ..02 B.02 0. ...10 (v + 5) ...25 0... 0x0 0....03 0.... 0.. 83 .03 0.COS 0...05 B.1: 1189 IIW APlIi%Y .Ol 0...m .1 0..03 0.05 0. .45 O#l. ...m .U 0......0 3. .01 0..9 13-1... ruwsi.00 (Si + Fe1 0.01 o.05-0. AlW...’ -....01 0....8-6. .01 (v * mo (v .. ..... ...0 “.02 0.03 0...M cr RI “. . 9935 994 W.01 0.m 0.... 0....30 1Si + FCI E-AI 99..o .01 0.. . .4 2618 2219 2319 2419 2319 1021 AK018 Acml8 A92618 A97219 AmI9 A??.. 0..8 04 0: 0....10 o...M om 0.Y) 0.02 0..10 0.03 0.‘%... O. 0..2 0...M .10 * 99.03 0. ‘..05 om 0....35 .u 0.O 0.8 0...50 .x 0. .... . . 0.0 .....05 .M 0. ...015 ..m 0..05 0.10 0..01 0... 0..X Alw.01 0..m .O 0.0 0......~ 0...M w ..8 0.m aluminum -- %4# Mn C..404.. .....%?. ...10 0.03 om om ..m 0....40 03LI..‘.02 0..8 l”L1..03 .. .w 0.’ 0x6 0..an 0.05 0.70 1.45 W. 0. 0...8 0.5 gg .05 8..0 0. 0..M 0....9 0.02 ” ” 0. 0.....M 0. .. 0...00 Pp. . . 0....m .. 0.ti6. ...01 ..02 0. .0 3.0 0..PJ.w 0.0....010 O....o IYJ 3-3 Oh-l... 0.m 0.. .. . ..01 ...m .43-1.8 ..o .02 0.‘ ..M .. 0.05 ‘.... 0. 0....cs. .0 .Ol..._.10 O... .w. .I0-030 H-6.. .04 . ...m 0.... 0.... 0.8 0.Y) 5.. A9llBl A9lms ..x 0. .. O.3l .7~Ll 0...... .10 0.1(Fo.o.m 0... ” . O..m .11) 0...0 0a.. 0.. A9lm .03 0.al 0..M 0..02 .3-U 0.03 ...Y) 0. &IO 0. . .....0s 0.... or) 0.10 0. ..10 0.. 0.m 0.. Ia3 IO40 104s IOSO IwA lobs lum lml la35 Ian Km lla.10 0.8 0. . ” ... . .....5 .._ 0.02 0. . ..m 040 0..98 Pp....al..M 0.10 0.25 ..06 0.xl AlW. 0.M . .03 0.. om 0.. .m 0. 0. 0.rO tSi * FCI .30 0.. 0.U 99.03-0.02 0.10 010 ‘.. 0... 0...... ....02 lzdo In0 13-m A912&3c) A911m .0..S&l..0 and wrought 0.r) ..oyb..M 0.6.10 0.m 0.01 0.8.^ _.Q .01 0........ 1145 A91145 035 (S + Fcr I345 A91W .X W35 w.... .e1.: O.......10 0....09 0.. 0.0s 0.2 0... .01 0.01 023 alloys u- - v n 0..6 0. AKwiM&. 0. .5.05 0....a 0.....01 0...33 isi 0...m : li) .40 144.95 (Si * Fe) Alw. 0....7-7-l 0.15 iSi + Fe...03 0.40-1...8 0.5i + FCI II35 A9llls .m 0. .m Bi....10 0.d) O.02 P + m (I) .05 .. .... Alw.M 0..03 0.4cLl..0 0.u...L’ .. OdM. 0.13 0.......z 0...X 0.10 0..... ..15 03-030 . .... 0.. .m 0..m . .. 0.m 0..O.‘.. .ocu . 0.. ... 81-2 i .. .. .02 .0.M ....10 ..03 0..10 0. .*M....20 ...02 050 O.1) 0. ” ” 0...8 0.05 0..... 0..... ... 12x A91230 Alw.0 0.m ” 0. ... “. . 0.. ...M 0.. ......01 .01 0.10 OS0 0.....M 0....W 0.. .CQ5 O.10 1. . .....8 0.10 O.....05 0.02 (v Ian llrn A91m ‘.. 0.. ...01 0..03 0.02 0..u.. 0..05 0....m ‘.......=...10 0. o..a 0....... ...08 0.1043 zmlh OJCU32Qul~ 0..M 0....... 0. I..3 03l z.05 0. g ::: .01 L OJJ 0.......2(u).. 0. 0.... ” ..02 .. .os-O. ..10 0.03 0..0 0.....M O..m 0.7 .‘ 03 0.35 99.... 0.8 AKu6Bi Fb.~0 W3O 99.. ....a 0.Si l Fo If35 A912ls ..01 + lxct (a) 0...6 0.01 0.m 0. 0.M O.....0 Ea.. .. .2 03&I.0 0..CZO~F% Ii1 ..M #...03 0.02 0.10 0...‘ 0..O s-F63 3....0 O.1: ...pI . .o..m 0.. 0...03 0.....m 0.01 OS05 0.8 Om-o.U rz W... .10 99.10 o.05 0.m ..8 __ o.0 0.. 0.....01 0..m 0.02 0.m 0. 0..0.5.. o. ‘...03 0.. 0.n 223..5 3-3 I.... .. o..20 0... . .. . .10 0. O.9 035 03 aluminum 0.10 0...0 l..005 0.. . ” 0.. ..m . 0.. 0...0 0..01 0..ALUMINUM ALLOYS WROUGHT Composition .m 0...

02 ..15 0.......3-10.. ..' o.. ...6 0..1-1........15 0. 0. ...6 ..u 0... 0.6 0.. 0... od-I3 O&l..0 A%4J ...61... Is 0.15 0. ..B .7 Am03 AkinI it: 0. ...U.M 0. . 0..0 0..6 0..a 0.owJ..x) 0. ..6 0. ....... 0.m 0.10424 O... 0.7 OJO 0....r) 0......0 0.........50 mm37 ........... ......0 0..M .a A95W Alh4115inO AlhQIJ ........043 03lM.Cl....6 0. ..m .2 0...3 0.lwO...10 0.......a 0-d 03Wd 0..m 0.. ...7 A95O.10 .. .o 02 0...4 1.... .zuo.. IO 0....O 0.....0 .. . ..:WN O.....10 om 0......43-a...... ..9 0. 0.......M 0. O.0 p.10 0. ....10 0........ ..&lJ pb ml am xl36 2037 a338 aD18 am z 3102 3(m 3lu3 Ei m 3104 ylll 310 YLlb XV7 3107 3xn UJ7 Ku7 aDp MI0 WI1 ..0 w .5 0. ...t2 . 0.613 O.lwao ...a-o.0 A9404J Alsd.uLl. .. 0..... 0....08-0..6 A9SM ABQI ..Y5 o-15 AWJ2 ..2s 0..... .....ml.... 0.6 0. .03 0... ... 0. .0 0.....10 0....7 .M@_C .Jw..U 0.6 om4..0 0.......M ..0 1..a 0.M O.. ...od od-13 O.‘7 ~12......10 om ..a.1 0. 0...m 0...10 0..15 .M 0..10 02 0. 0...03 0... ...10 025 0..7 A93lC" ....M 0............m .....10 0..s5...sl. ...U 0.3 0. 0....o A%03 ..0 0.10 0. ... 0....40 0......U o. :?I 0.. 0..... " .. .0 0....11.......M 0..5 ........1w..........&IO...40 ... 0..ssI.10 0... 7.....10 ..01 0.. ...40 0. OYLI.7 ....... ..15 0.. .... ...a x-3.....iO 0-W 0-w o-10 03 01' 0..10 0.. 0.. ..M 0. b....a AmI6 .l I.M 0...0 ...13 0.. ZI o..... .. 9. . 0. 0... ..7 0..10 0...040 0.M o?J 0. .. O....... 0....ao.....Ol-O.03 0....7 ...M-030 O..y) I.. .W ...... .....10 0%I...M o.1s 0..6 API145 ........0 Am AlMnl... I.......10 A93l(a .M 0.M 030 .......u E 0.%IJ I....4 om-030 0...&ll...n .15 0...a OX-O.......10 0. ... ...0 0.. 0.. .. .M 0............03 0..-W 0. 0.10 O...05 0.. . 03 A93m i:: 0. 0....n o...... .15 0..10 0......... ...... 0.20 A93311 .m....&lJ J 1..... 0....03 0..... .o u)II 4013 4032 4M3 4343 4543 4443 an4 4045 4145 yY7 m xx8 yxlb SO10 sol3 y)l4 WI6 WI7 2440 5042 yY3 Yyv w1y) AlMnlCa . . .. ...8 APYM 0. ..30 0.a o.1s 0..2 0Yu.. ........0 0...6 0...20-0.IlLo....15 0. ... 0. ..oz-o.10 0....50 A9aoyI .....f-7.J ...0-53 o.a..9 1...... o.... 0.. 0...10 0...15 0....7-1.7 A9XOJ . ..40 0.8 o..m 0.m 0.01 0.25 0.....6 A92w ..40 A9WIO .............. 0-Y) 0.... ... 0....9 424...... .I04Jo 0...w.&l03 Od . 6 0.9 oYu. 0.... ..blJ 3.IJ 0.&.... 0.....20 .10 0...U 0... .. 4..s O.. m-7.4 .. ..... P.....504..0 ...13 0....a 0.10 0.6 0.U 0....... OJO 0.....10 0.. 0.15 0.0 0...7 0..........0 0.10 0............. .l0-0..n 0-u-l-l 03 0-Y 0..M 0...10 0.w.15 0.10 0.1 ...X 033 IS. .3 0...2s 0s 0..8 ........29 0.10 0..ll...25 iz O.B lC3. ..: 0.IJ O..QLo........u 0.10 o. .....11 0..15 om 0.2 .u 0..Iw.....M .10..ou3...4S-4..20 o. 0.M 0.. P. .1s 0.. I.al 0.o....... .... ....w0.9 0812 0Sl.....10 0.... ......10 OX-O..0 0..1s 0..0 0.a .2-1...7 ..15 0...6 050 A94543 .&LO I..w....9-1..............1s 0.1s 0. ....D 035 ApyY3 .u 0. ...0) om 0..25 0..M 0.M 0.8 Awn4 .a 01) 0.yL4... .....&I5 O&l.10 0.. 0.*) 0.....mBi..10 0.. 0.... ..15 0. Is 0. .15 0.....u 0. .J 0...oJ-o. 0.15 0.M 0..... .M 0.... 6....... 0.. ... 0.M 0......... IO 0. .M 0......10 a.U 0.. 0.......0 !2ld 035 1. . . on 0.6 I.E 0.... ........7 0.. OYI 0..6 0.15 0.. 0. .8 AWIM .M 0..... .2 0.. .a 0.l6Zrfo) t(O) .10 0.....L-_' 0.IM_X)OS-O.10 ...10 ...10 0. 0.05 0...u) 0. .. ...20 0.10 0..m... . ....20 0..25 0.. 0.. 0.. 9....M 0.M 0...au 0.. 0... 0...7 A9JOlO ...0 0.M 0.... . .*l............2 0. L-1.3 0..3 0m.. .u 0. ....M 0.m-o-u 0....1s 0. .10 .M 0....U 0..~ 0. 0.. .M 0...10 0....7 ...... .....10 0...10 .10 0... .........Y) 0.7 A9Jm #uMnl....7 .... 030 ...10 0...10 0....10 . 0..7 APYlOP ..10 0..... ..15 0-m ...au3... 6.. ..I 0......!-Q3 0.. ..7 A93107 .....7-15 0. . J........6 0....... ....10 0. .9 0..1s 0..&13 0. 03bl. O..0.623 0..m 0. .... .9 0.... ...33 0... 0.... 0. .....0 I .......1-16 ..M 0.......03 0.... 0...M 0.U (curldad) 61-3 I ... 0.. llCZ.....10 0....1 O... .PEi ...6 0.." ..10 ox 0.....l5 @I (4) (4) o....10 0....0 0.m .10 0... ..&o& I.0 ..10 0.b9..0 0. ............&I..aono.IuI.... ..05 0....OJ 0... . ..... ....a. 0.8 0..U 0...... OX 0..0 0.......2 Obld tC1.10 0.15 0..J .10 zr .a o.7 ....... .uMgllB... .05 I..7-13 I... ...........10 0.... IO 0..cso..10 0......&l3 O..15 0. .2-18 1..Cl....2 APO(S .....xu....12 .......61..r) 0.07 Be w E o:oLo.0 0....03 0.40 0.... 03 0. 6... ..15 0..29 0.4 Id-I5 0.&LO 0...U 0....20 . 43v....6-1.......7 A93006 .10 o.0 0.. ...611 IJ-I..8 0.... 03 0.a .....u 0.... 0.10 0...... 0..xLo..12 A9am ...X A9xm .23 ...n 0.C: 3 0..u 0.....M4.....&lJ I.1) 0.......M ....15 0.10 0..bl... .a 0...7 I.. 0....10 . .........0 0..25 0.10 .10 0....20 .. 0. ......l 0. ............ .n 0.al 0......M 0.....7 ..7 3312 XII3 )Ol4 XII5 ml6 Uxy 4lM yIlb m 4033 ux)p y).15 0...2..... .w 0....o 0..7 0..lOt+li .M 0.1s 0..10 0..9 OxLod O..1) 01) 0.p" 0..M 0. 0.7 A9YB7 .B od-IJ 0....u 0..9 4. 0....10 0.ALUMINUM ALLOYS WROUGHT --- I br - ?I 0...7 AW.n . 050-I-1 .... 0. .....60....LLu).. ..25 0-y 0....6 0. ...rJ 0.0 ... 0..c2.3 OdLQ.20-0. 0..10 1.15 0...4..50 0.10 0.y) 0... ... 0.....m ..M 0. ...... ..8 A%!..2 0. 0....20 O...6 AWM ..IOzr ....M 0. . 0......0 0...10 O.0 ....45 .. (I) ....10 O...9 O....8 A9433 ...6 1... ..... ...15 ox-050 3Jd.0 ...o 0-a . ....7 A931(15 ruMd)St#U s.......8 0#4J. ......... ... .aw3....U 0...n o...... ...aI 0.O 0.O 0.. o...I0-0.6 0.7 0-d I..05 . ... 0...U 0..... ....6 0....15 0.SU 0.........5 0..10 .... O.5 0.......m 0.10 0-u 0.M 0....... 0. . 0. ..a 0..6 .....~I..10 0.... 0..&i..10 ..0 0.0 o..40 0...05 0..0 0. " .

m 0..... o.......4WB3 ..&l.40 0.10 0....05 0.7 1.... 0..10 OB 0. 0.2%0.m 04 0...40 0....15445 o.. .... 0..... ...1-3.... IO 0.a.........u 0... on 0.10 0.9 )*I-3........10 o....MI.....0 0... v - 0.9 0...45-0..05-0a O.M 0..17 0.... 0..u rem m rem Rm rem Iem w run rmY 0.m .2 030 0.. A%652 ...w........6 020-0. 03 ..u 0.05 z 51a YIO 518 m 5086 6101 6201 6301 em2 X03 61133 day MM (I(15 4m KO6 61% Ma36 Ku7 Ko6 61109 ml0 6110 a11 6111 (on Ml3 dDl4 mu 6016 6017 6UI Ml ml a.U 0.10 O.u 0..03 0.....u oa .6 oJsO.......2 0.u.35 .7 0..05 0...50 0.10 0..... 0.. .10 0.......0 0... AJq3J...40 2.m 0. ... o.10 . A952s3 ...4 0.w.....10 0.0 0...05 0.....15 0........ ... on Alhf&qA) AJu#Mal.....10 0.10 0... . .7-1...0 ...0 0..m 0.a ....m 08 .6 1..40 0.m o..0 0....0 0.. 0.10 0.....01 0.u....W..24 A95454 A95554 A956% A95m :g 5MI 5UI %54 n S ..... 0..u Inn m w Km om 0.10 0..u 0.M 0.B (.10 0. AlM52.... ..4sO.10 * Fe) 0..35-1..u mm ....0 o...10 oa OS12 o......15 0.624 .. .10 QB 0.....30 035 035 0. 0.05 0. 6 0.o.10 0. .... ........... 0...6-1.0 4...9 0.. .. .01 03 0...7 M ..10 0..61.... A.....mA 3.. O-..m 0.. ..u 0..10 0..M 0...u 0..M 0.. ...10 ....6 0....7IA) oa 0.......6 oiso... .0 ..0 om-1....m .. . .....03 0..2 0.. .BOsl (........IM.10 0...0 0...612 0.u 0.m o... .....Fe) 0..7 o.s2 A9mQ A951m ..03 .u 0.....10 0.....Iw....u 0. .m 0...0 0.0 0..10 0.. Ml .10 0.054113 0.....7 035 033 OJO Od 1.4so.10 04~ 0.. O.05 0.m 0..10 0....8 1...... oa on 0.. ..03 0......05 0. h 0. ....05 0..u 0.u 0.6 E 0...10 I.9 4s52 4s5..m... .7 O..0 OS-I.. 0.10 0.. G .su 0.u 0..w..si 02 on 0..0 4..0 0.. . 0..W..7-55 4...m 0. 5457 ~95457 ............. ...m 035 0. ........ ..10-0..10 0... ...10 0..05 o.u 0...0 ..0 0......... .M 0.......45 AJM@2..15 O...6 0.61. ..JJ 0.m 28 ..o.05-am 0..05 0........s 0....u 0.....00..w....02 0. .10 0...... 28 .020 m .10 oa..M ....10 0.35 035 0...........3!? o.........u 03 !r? W 0.25 0...Z on ....u m--w 5356 5456 55% 139 A95356 a5456 A.M 0. . .14 oa o.u 0...W..61...y) 0.6 0....... ...0 0...B ......ao.10 0...M-o..lso25 030 ..0 0..23 0....C.04... ..15 ...zI 0. .05 0...... ............aM..... A%%3 .40 0.10 0.......M 029 0.0 0. .....U ..10 0.......1 0....ao.....6 4s5-5 4.7 0..o .Q35 o. * Fe) 0. ....10 0. 0...10 OS-O.... A95154 A95M2 AIM&u bs57s2 .10 0.6 0...m 0.. ....9 o.10 0......04-035 0..10 O..0 ono.0-5..u 0.. N&3 ......06 ....) (r) 6i ...ll od-1.10 o...7 0...10 0.......10 0... AlM#JMa .10 .u 0.... .u 0..u 0. ........25O....... . 0.10 rem 0-e . -17 A%Ul A%351 A%951 A9@53 A%253 0.......zI 0..........0 om 0..u 0.05 .7 035 025 025 0..7 0.0 0... 0.. 0.... A9%% A96101 A%mI Nmol .3-1..10 0....15 0. hpsml AIM@.m 0...... .... ..I3-0... .6 0.0 0. 0.6 0.......1 IS-1 ..1-1....u 0........... ....m (*I f..... 0..10450 0.....10 0...10 t)Ju)y.a ..03 o...08 025 025 0.10 0.10 0... A&6Q .7-1...05-0.7-22 IS21 1.~ on 0.) ..u rem ran rem rem rem rem rem rem rem rem mm Rm rml r+m fun rem m mm rem w 0.....u-o..10 0334.....7 0...0 0YM... ....M-o. ..........w.7 oYM...yLo. ....61.... 0. .u Ipo m m w rem m rem w w rem (4) 0m7... AlhQ%ldA) .............QW.10 0..u 0.0 0.. ...10 0...10 0...m 0..10-0....9 0.10 0.10 0.0 0....10 0.. 0.....45 0.40 O-...6 odM.a ... .m 0.0 0.. ..552 5m2 g 5454 5554 5654 m Ais. Aim@..~ 0..m 0..0 0. ...01 os1.U 0...... ..u 0.....u 0.. .u 2s 0.lU 0.4 0..m-0...W.0 03 LE 030 0......45 (Si (Si (S E 0.0 OJM..u 0. A92452 ...9 0.....10 o.... .....B 0.0 0..... . zc3... . A&lMg-5Mrl.....0 u-43 4.m 0........D 0... .7 O-CO O..1so....10 i&d O.u 0....m 0.M 0.... .Lu 0.a .10 .. ..a-o..3 o.G0..M 0.. ... 0....... ..m 0304.....6-12 0..M..m... .pI 0. IO 035 : : : .... ...' 0......... 02 0.10 0...ouLz5 030 0....10 0.10 0.wJJ5 o.0 M QB 0.& O..... on on 0..u 0.10 0.25 on 0.......0 0........10 0. ..LI .6 0....... . 0......u 0...lclJ 0. .08 0...10 0.. ......9 aw .61.35 z20.01 0..0 3...u 0....7 0....10 0...0 0..30 0.......... 040 ....0 .. .. OJ5-0.4 . .10 0. ...10 0.... .10 0...ID ...ULO.......Owl.. .45 4S5... .0 0....U om 0..40 + Fe) 0. .m 0. ...u 0.10 0.m 0.....0 04 0-w 0-w 025 0.054..4 1013 0...0 OS-I.u 0...6-0..10 0. . A95151 ....10430 3....M-o. A96aY Ag60D5 A9610 A9an . . ...w.. ..u .4 OSMP 0..7 a bb 0 rc 1-FI.. A93ua A%l...0 0.. ...u 0..10 om 0...........wJj ....u 0.. .M (aootpd) 814 I..60..05 0. ..... .Y) 0.......0 odbe ..4-3....61..... .10 0.649 OS-I..10 O. ....M 0..u 0...... LO 0.0 0..u 0.......10 0.05 0..0 0.7-53 O..... ....I 0....u 0...0 0..9 o.10 ........1-3.u 0... ...05 0..0.u rem lml em mm Rm ran rem rem fun mm m run fan mm mm rem m rem 010 0....04...-i..6 1 *L - %.... E....619 O&12 O...612 0. . on 0..0 063 oa5 ..------?I z 3451 5052 5n2 5352 5... NM@Si .....6 .a1. 0.. .....6 0...10 0.0 I:: ... ...... on ...u 0.W...0 0. .9 osO.w. 0.5 Od-IJ O.. 0.9 u-3....4so.w....10 0..40....10 0...U.. 0.. .m OSO ..1 I% 0..05 0..M 0.. on on 02n 0... AlM@JMe.06030 0..~ 0...10 0.. .w.... .... 0-a ........45 0...G3..... A95351 . .J 0.... ....a d 0..........u al......10 o..0 2.10 0....u 0..226 ........l 0.u 0.ALUMINUM ALLOYS WROUGHT u-- r.......aO 0.oM.....12 0..U 0..15 0..u 0..03 0.10 0.m 0..u 0.10 0.Q * Fe) 0....a ...0 0...m 021 G..03 0. o.....m 0. A55352 ... ..... .10 (rm - 0. . ..30 0.. T H DDllr = auIoPhL 010 0..M 0..0 0.. .08 0. ...0 0... 0........15 0.a...................612 os1. 0...1 OLB 0..15 0. 0........... 0..u 0.:::::::: NM#ua.wm7 .....u 0......10 0... ...10 0.10 0........ 0. .w.. ..... 0....4 0.0 0....0) Y?..1-3.M .... 0354. 0.lb 0.10 0..@ 0.m . ... 0..a4.. . IO 0....IWo-D 0s 03-030 zl3 0... ..10 0..7 iJ&.0 0....o... ..l5a.. .10 0... am 0..05 0..7 0... ..10 0.0 O-.10 0.....u 0.u 0...95554 A95uI . ...0 .w.7-U 1..u 0..10 0.M).10 0. . .6 04w)# &J.u 0.... .M 0. 0....... .0 oa 0. .ma.1 0.U 0.........u 0..9 oJo.. . .. 0. .12 0... ...... 0....10 ..........204...m .05 0.10 0..........10 0.u 0...054....... on 0.60... A96oa) A9mlO A%110 A%011 A96111 .. .5 au 0..6 0....05 0.m 0...... 0..622 l&U 2128 M .. 0.... ..... -"g 0...10 0......J 0.u 0... ...m 025 0B-o.....u 0.9 0....m 559 A955n ...6 O..10 0..0 2.4 0.10 0...6 0.... n CZL 0...... 0.. .6 O. ...9 0... ........m 0.0-5..10 023 0.9 o. .w.m ....a 0.Iso.....200....u 0.10 i:&...a.10 o...........w.6-0.....10 0..15 569 A%69 ...... 0..Iu).... .6 0..0 0..10 0... ...w.

.. .M ..XI 0.7 0..0-6..05 0.6 0.. .m-o.10 o.m 0.....U om-I. Nmglsim Alupsi ALM@..5 0..m-o..25 0.6 2..1s 0.0 o..18 I 0..8 0.35 0.9 L&L6 I. (9) .6 6. 0.10 0..25 O..l5 0.8-63 0.....0 0..10-0...2 0. md5higcu . ..ce 0. ...61.m 0. 0......u 0-u 0.10 . IO 0...’ ... .u 0..15 0.40 0. ..15 0.ra 0.........15 0. 0..C8 O.m 0.u 0....&53 La65 I L?..15 0.0 0. .. . 0....4so. 4151 42-51 4...B 0..10-0. . ...2 0.wa.IW.7 0.I0-0.30 0....0s 0..15 1.. 0.. .. .7W 0..45 0. IL1.25dl..Pl....m 0.10 0.u 0....B Oa .lu...0&0.M 0..05 0... .m 0. ..M 0..2 0..u 0..15 0. .M 0. NZd5lh4&u..7-1.. .. .7 2.5 o.3s 0.1s 0.10 0..9-26 2. .' .8 0...45 0.. ..0 3...111 0. OaI od) 0. 0.10 033 0..40 0....Ll.1s 0.m 0..0 OS-I..u 0..6 O...03 .15 0.u 0.......6 0.I8-0..0 I-F20 l-FL0 LO-15 us.u 0..7 0....M 0.15 au 0.1W.u ..15 0.6 . IO 0.....3 0.U 0.M 0m-o...aMl.u 0.25 ..o 5. . .M 0..IW.0-63 u-4.........1-29 2.......n-o.15 0..1 0.Y) OX-1.15 0...a-a....242 7..9 o.. . l-w.10 0. 0...2s O.W.... yp.45 0. . .Yla ‘.30 O..18 24 0. .6 0...Y) 0.bl.1..OAO 6. .u 0.. 0..10 0.03 43-5-l JYJ r.03 0..10 0...4 Lo-1..0 0.u 0.S6.05 0...15 0. AlzatM@..IW.. .10 0..0 0..fnQ. ...06 04) ~~~~) 81-5 .....iw..M 0.....03 .2wl. .6 7..7-1..67.10 0._....10-00.r) ... ...m (0 O. 0.4 ..35 035 025 03 0..15 1... 0...7 . A9Ff72 AV74Tl A97175 A97475 &!a~..ai...05 0..10 4.15-0.7-1.10 0. ...652 32-45 43-53 0.12 0.LL O..04 ....6 0. I . AIM& ..IM. 4.4 I. AKd5hQI ...2 AsilM@in ........20 0.10 0.10 0.10 (-4 0.M 0...12 0.....04 O..6 l...0 4....m 0.. . 0.. 0.. . 0.. .28 O..u 0.05&35 0. .9 0.0 J.lN3.20 .10 0....m ” m + a) 0.45 0.. Am A97129 .10 0.70 o.. 050 0.7 o.0 I L-2.10 O.U 0....35 0.12 0.IW...10 0....61... 0. I.1w.05 0. ...&I..M O. Wl .62....’ “’ 0.04-a I6 0.u-050 o.M.a 0.45-0.6 0..iw.lW. .&&O 43-U 0..15 0... .u 0.. 0.15 0.loa..2-L7 0...15 0.m 0.40 054 0. ....03 0. g m .8-1..10 0...m 0.67.U 0.&l.05 0.a 0. " .... .06 0. 0.10 0..03 I .u 0..7-u l%Zl “’ 0...... IO o..1-73 24 zf 24 O.1-29 2...Z 0..040 4.....9 l..2 O...B (v) O... mY3rsmr.U 0.15 1.0 o. 6066A9686 mA9wm 6411 6181 dDgl 7ml m 035 033 0.’ .. 035 0.40...AI ..M 0...0..m..blJ 0..15 zt 0..40 04 0....U 0.03 0..15 0...4 OS-l........0 0...m 0..5 i. 0.U 0.m o.. .....05 0.lW.2-53 r&51 0.10 0..05 0..Y3 0..QI...IW. ....0 oxl 0. 0. m46A9m6 7146 A97146 m9 Amn9 71Y) A91149 m5Q.0 .... .. .61.05 0.1s 0..b .0 LO-LO I.....os-o.03 " .lW..45-1...10 0..4 0.cso.. .2-U la-5.611) O..M 0..15 0..7-1.6 Lo-29 La-29 1....12 035 0.10 0.u 0.....10-0.....10 0. .10 0...15 0.0 0......03 0..lW..x) o..4549 0.uLa.00) Pb 0.10 0.15 0...10 .....G~ 0.......&0.u 0.12-0..15 0..30 0..20 0...I5-0.2 263. ‘.25 (0 0.10 0..25 0.05 o. 0.u 0....” *.Y 0.u I 0.9 0.25 0.....10 5.lW.0 0.. l ..oB 030 0..10 “..1 0..ctQ. ...33 ILLI 0.A9-m0 7150 A971y) xm64 -RYE HR m75m 7175 7475 ii7aaM@ ..M 0. .115 0...P 0..a 0... O&l..soa.35 0.aI.IW.aul.1 ALsiM@. ..%..40 0..20 0.35 ..03 ..IIU...7-1...M 0.05-0...M 0.35 i:: 0.12 0. . 0.1 O.10 O..0 OJn 0.0-1.. .05 1...fL5...15 0.IW.u-o...767 5.0 0.. mi5 7016 7116 ml7 ...63.3 0.3 0..0 0...9 0.60.06 ON-O.. ..lboz5 ..10 0.7 0.......6 4..10 0.10 o.0 OB 030 0..9 OYJ-I..O 5...651 4.. .1s 0..16 ..21M. .35 0. .M 0.1 lS2.10-0.. om4. ..1 0...M 0..15 0.... ~97013 ..9 oN.....a 0.04..15 7018 ml9 .15 0.Y) 0..so o........0 0.M 0..0 0...yI on ..0 0....9 0...3 0..si.. .05 0..M 0.oso..2 0.15 0.... .wo. 0..8 Om4..15 0. 0..PL7 1.10 0. ZI 0.0 0. ....~5..10 0. ....10 0.6 0.aO 0.zl 0. Ao+sal .25 0..m .0 0.10 0...U li) 0..40 0..0 O.M 0.u 0.. . . .03 0. 0..0-1. ..5 033-0.....M 0.20 0.. .1-29 1.0 0.B..3 I.. .M ‘...a 0.... .M 0.m-o..05 0.m 0..7 4.....20 0. ...40 0.u 0.15 0.m... ..10 0.m ....M on5 0..03 0....20 0...u 0.J aJ24 a ...u 0.15 0.a am 0...lW.a * Fcl 0..10 0...u 24 0.. 1......u 0.lM.. 0.10 0..10 0.&1..10 I4 '... .. ..4 o.....cl.33 0.Cl.x11.IW.... ._.10 0....u 0.. O.roo.....05 0..10 0.0 24 t 0.923 0.M 0.. .50 OJO 050 0..... 0.61..45 zz ... IO 0.ul o....Lwo...10 (ZJ m29 7129 mp m 0..4 O-w-I... ...33 ii 0..o.6 0... .lW.m ‘..01-0.LL5..03 0. A9m)l my- ..0 0.m i3 0.M 0.L2..40-0...-.Y) O.m 0.10 ZI 0.bi..10 0..u 0..0 0.U o. 0..06 0.10 O.. A~~II(C) ..0s 0...06 0....03 0....6 5..3 1....b2..15 0.oao.lo..M 0.03 t o..10 0.10 0.m 0a 6. . IO 0.15 0.03 0.M 0.M-o... I4 24 0..m ..m-o..ALUMINUM ALLOYS WROUGHT cuaA%463 6763 A96762 &j ..u 0....7-13 1~2.. A9mZI ..IW.o( 0..9&9 0...M 0. .. .?&2 5...'. .61...0 0... ..10 0.m 0..0 0.M.l-L6 l.0 0.u 0. O. ..6 024 0..M 0..6 030 0.M 0.m-o.9-L6 I.10 1..M 0.. 0..10 09 0..05 ...u 0....U 0......9 3545 6.Sl..15 0.. ...m O.2&l 035 0..0 rs53 4s53 5?-5..m 0.20 0.m 0..au “’ LL3.7 0.. .. .aI .7-1.. .lW. .. 6.05 0......10 0..35 0.20 0. .2 0...10 0..7 033 ILL2.. ~9Fll6 . ...M 0..9-29 0.10 0...05 o..20 0......10 O.4 2.05-0.m .10 0.0 3..45 0..2-LO .. .40 04 0.04 o......9 ox-O.10 0.10 0.7-1..9 3.40 0-U 0.25 02 0.45 040 0..20 0.23 0... ...6 0.___.30 zl 0.w Om-o. m2l m .M 24 om 0..” 0.....7 0... . .62...n 030 om 0....u 0.10 - 0..U odo 0.0-5.m 0.....6 Lo-l.....Iao.. .M 0.61..LI.25 zf 0.10 l-l?..10 0.Al 0.12 0. ..22 O.15 0... 030 .03 0.25 0..0 l.0 0.15 0-u 0.6 O. .10 ...8 263.m-o....15 0. w ....W.M 0.P 0.....6 o..u .12 0.10 0..76.20 0..CS mio mli 7012 ml3 ml4 ..aL1..z 035 0.8 0.10 0..Ma50 0..... .9-l-c 2..

10 .0 0.10 0.7 0.50 0.10 0...10 0. . .. .... .. ....Y) oa 0.u alo 0. . ..9-1. ” ........0 0...... . .. .10430 ..m on 1.04 0... OB Iv + WC) 0. . . .6 0... . .. mm1 A!aml .10 0. . . . .o 03-1...a-I....... .O.F .. . 0.10 Ox-l.622 0.622 0.. .lM.@-O. .0 03 03-0.m 0..oy). I.9 0..aD oJw...u 0.... 0. . .7 Eli 0.Ll...05 ..1M.. 6lxl A5uIrn aDl6 8176 8n6 A9W76 ..m I..70 0.10 0..... ..60..&waw3 .0 om om om 0.mxl .7 ca 0....” .03 0. .... 0. APB176 ....04 0.. 0...0 0. OB .’ .10 0..3 667.u . 0..B O..O O.oc4....&LO 0...15 Ma .....0 so 18..10 0.. .0 (Si * Fe) 0.. om 0. .12 . ... . %r -...7-u u-3. . .ll 0.......x) 0..10 0.0 .10 w .0 l.05 0.01 B . ...M ..16 2...0 003 Ode o. ... 0.. O.u ...10 0.1&m 020 0.....03-O.0 . O. o..15 o..‘.m-o. 0..uLl....m aio w .& .6 0...1 ‘.. 0..u ....m 0.10 0...40 0.0 B WI 0.. .0 0..10 mal 60x A9Kuo A. ...05 0.U O.o...M 0x4 0.X3-0..m ... ..1 2s3. ..76 .... ..... O.__.10-03l 0.. ...7 29-3....u 0..61.u 0..m O.9713 A91opo ‘..10 so O.10 0.Cn 0.Ql x9192 “......7-l-l . Om.a.u 0.7 I..0 030-0...I” i.. ....7-U 0. ... 12-20 l&Z0 O.0 .30 0..30 0.. ..... o.11 01) 0....0 o.....05 0.7 0.Luo~ .m o....o omau w .8-4d 3d4d 7-7 (a ..005 0....W... ” .. ...10-030 0... .0 .05 0.lO ml0 ml1 8111 11112 Ql4 ...&L4 I..U 1.10 0. 0.10 0.... ..45-0. .613 ...03 ” ... ....O.0 0. 0. . .10 0.17 ml7 Am07 ..10 0.lO .7 0.6 0.16 2~ 0.o. .... ‘.05 0.m 0..6 .u w 016 I ...1-1.. 0.8-1. . .u w 0.01 .M 0.10 0.o( B.mD O.613 0.m 0.M IQ L 0. 0. 0....a. . ..9 o. ..m 0.Y) O........ .40 0. IO ...17425 0.....0 0....4 3........ . ...... 0..10 ..... 0...o)B . ...ULO.... O. .a 0.10 xwn ..’ .....u w ran nm rem nm 0..05-0...01 ...05 om 0.O..ilk4 B ..Iao.. .. .03 0..... ..10 1.35 O...05 co au au a10 au au au ... E eIm . ...05 a 3..10 0...616 0.......a LO-LO . .49mI ...8 0..0 03M.0.. .lO ...m 0. ..15 03so... .. Cd oa .10 . ... ..oLo.10 0. . .10 0. 0.. 0.. ..0-1.7-43 6L7.. .4 o.43 0..a 0. 0.0 1.LFo. . ...0. 0. 0.....lM. .7 0. 0.9-13 .! ...B O...u 0. 0. . 0.10 5s7. . . ALUMINUM AiIiYS WROUGHT = a lzzI 7176 Et 7179 ma LZ)h s ImshDD #7m &f7. . ...4 O..12 ml ...u ...30 OS I.. .. ... ..IM.u 0. 0..m OM 0... .m 0.’ I” Oa3-odca .IM. 0....IcLo-w) 0...2 29-3. Amm A.u ::: .e1.7 0. .2 0... . . . 0....7-12 0...10 0....D-0....... ... 0..1 1. . ..6 035-0. 0..” . ... A98011 A93111 a9112 AmI4 -17 ..j%m w m w 0. .oOd OB 0... ..9 J&7... ...10 .Y) 0..0 om 0. . .10 0... . .... . ..7 2.....OlJ.... ..6 01547 0. 0=3 .0-1.. 8x3 A5um . . ..lWZl 0. .. . . . .W.0 om 0. 0.&l. (2) (U) .....m-I.0 0..7 0... .0 0..~tL0 0.. ..... .. 0.... .4 0111 OB ...qo)o.0 0...m....’ ....29: zr 0. .a Bm m 0...T. 1...033 Ii tml O...~ 0...m 0.15 h 0.10 0.. . .0 .. 030 0. ...10 0... 0..6 0. Y 0 1.8 ..

.3J OJJ 0.lJ 0.X 0..OJ O.0~3 O...IJ O.07 O...0 I.Ug2 RI64 hKUCurSi?Mr: ..Z X&O 3w..54 0.05 o.IJ O.6 o......2 4.J 1... ..05 I.. .0 I...’ O. .. ...7 0..8 1.2 -36.J 0.05 O.........OJ O.....e1. IO 0.25 0..m 0...OJ O...lJ 0.8 06 0.... ..oxc~ O..OJ O.3J 0.6 0..40 0.. .01 ::9 0......Y 0..2 24J.sJ.20430 O.3J 0.......30X1...7-l .. I0-0......0 M4....&J-O 45J.:-J..m lcm IEm em ” “. ..J 4.....3J 0..... 4..____...1 1.3-1.. m Icontinued) 81-7 ...7-2.IJ O.....? AIOJ 0 A30J.1 1..030) O.. P Irisa 5..1s 0.. ‘...0) and ingots (MN.13 O.OJ O.15 0..S 0.J+J l.LJ... IO 0....Y.OJ 0.M O.3 1.. .. . I 224.10 0.JO OY) 0.0 4......10 0.....lJ-o.J 2.m 0. .2 IO5 0 YIJ.30.IJ O...... P InpC S.. IO O.07-O.JJ 3...J 1... IO s. ..74. P In&n lnpn 5 ln~m In601 S IrUa 3 ln:ol Ingot P ln@l It. I 242.3J O.10 0.Ll.0-1.20 0.J J.8 I. I 201 .0 O.m .O 4. S/P Inp~ 5.. ‘..bJ...Dl 0..J 4%J...m 0.......1so.J-J.30 O.7A.l~.10 O...2J O..OXmJ O.2w.dSiJCdFe hlsibCu4 In OF&&J 0..6 0.: ..’ ..OXCJ 0.9 1.11 0..0-J.. ...O 0..lJ O...1 A242........ 243.OJ O....3J 0.20 0..0 4.0~1) O..10 O.7 0.2o-o.0 201...JJ O...02 0.9-2..1 119.Rl 2. . ..J 4. . P lnnn S-P Inpc InLDl 5.3J ‘.8 0.lJ 0..OJ l. (hl O... ...m 0. ..m O.7-2........20-oo.OXrn) O. . AIp9.lJ 0.10 0..0-9.lJ 0.M O.. P ll?pX lw= J..1~. .1-2....29 0...0 213.2J O.0 030 O.7 1...0-J.7 0....LJ.... IO 0.lJ 0..10 0..0 D31.40 1..05 O......8 0.lJ O......01 0...IJ-O. ........0 J&6 0 5.... “’ O.0 A201..m 0.. .20-030 o.IJ-O.10 O..2 2W...20-0..2w... ” ‘. I 31.lJ 1..01 0.2J O.Jo O..J 3....7 9..30 .OJ 0.10 O...LI 0..10 0..0 240. I or rxr.23 0......X O.M 0.62.LJ.O 9....OJ 2..3 1....u 0. P lnpl S.lJ O....0 4..OYi) O...OJ 0.0 222..m O.J-6.lM.OJ 0..3J O.....IJd. IO ICI O.JO 030 0...01 0......OJ O.1 x8..... 3J ” O.. ...0 ho2042 AOZW A02052 AI2E4 Al2062 AO?OBD AO?CO I AOZPZ AOZl3O A02131 AO22M AO222....lJ 0..IM...2J 0...2&0.lJ O.J 1....M..0%(n) 0.40 0......2 ml.JJ O.J I&I.OJ . I 170...10 0.....10 O...01 0.3 0.J 3..2 A242.lJ O.10 0... ..OJ 0..10 0. .54 rem FC~ rtm ran feat nm Fcol rrm Rln rem rem ran i-cm nm rem rem ICEI mn rem mm Rm rem 0..M...OJ 0...u 0...IJazJ 03 ..)J 0. IO 0..2Q4...2-10.0 6..0 4.. 3J22 h...IJ-o.8 1..1 -36..8-2. IO O...&&O J.2 0....0 4...o7-o.) 1. AM.2 ICJ Id ICI 0.20-0.2-1.’ ..__.11 030 0.l 3aI..6 0..” .OJ 0.....o 1... O.2J 02 0.....10 .3J O.Imo.074.OJ O..W.7 0.8 o.~J.IMkJS O. .3 l...30 0.m o.....7A..10 0.... O.. .M.fJ 0.. .....OJ O..ow..2W.J 6...IJ O..ZO-O. IJZ? AICU(Ni?... 0.bJ.10 0.x) OS0 cn o&.0d..05 0.3-1....0 ISI-l..CI.....2-J. ....ALUMINUM ALLOYS CAST Composition of unalloyed and alkyd c=*-1 aluminum castings (rrr._ ...20 .1) 0. ..OJ 0.J 1......J 1..Iu)..1) O.8 .01 0.l%o. 0.1 0.lJ 0.7 l.. I 242......0 A242.JJ 0.......JJ 0...0 2. ..9 4...6 0.7 1.m 0.J J...10 0...... .J-4.3J O.3 0.J I&1...0 0... IryoC .10 J.....IJ O.2J.0 2...0-J....0 224.I h30J..J 4%J..M..l AlSKdMn hlSKti AISi(Lu4Mn AlsiJCUl ......10 0...lJ O. P i4l ICI ICI id ..JQ W.20-030 0...ZO-O.. IW AOIJOI AOldOl AOIrnl A02010 A02012 A12010 Alrnll h2mto AOZOIO A01032 A02040 In#n ln@M In@x S ln#ol s lnpc s S ma......lMl.O 206.10 0.0 I.. .05 O..lJW . ..J 4%J..OJ O.0 0.3 1....040 ID-40 l.. ...3-1.Jo o...10 0..JO 0 m-o.. IO 0..10 0.50 030 0.3-1....2-1.30 O...OJ O. .JO 0.lJ 0.OJ O.6 0. IO 0..0 m.lJ O.20 .....3J 0..lJ O.. P In#aI 1~ S.03 0.2lLWO 0...0 0.OXi) 0.&a..CJ...8 0....1s OS0 tern nm nm rem rtm RKI rem 024 030 rrm rem 030 030 0...10 4.20 0.. lJ22 JJ22 IJ22 3J22 RIU RW RI64 h1SiJCu...7-I...3 la-Z......_........1~ 0. .JJ 0.... 0.....OJ 0.ti6.0s ‘.....1) I.44 0..30 OX S......3~ 0. . .M.0 4.04.o m1.... “..40 0.IJ-o..J 0.ZW.0 5...Jb6.2 h3I9...OJZ AIM0 AI3OJI AI3OJ2 AOWI(LD AONI AOX A01190 119..OJ b.IJ Rln rem rem rem rem rem rem R~I 0.2~4t) O..2O-O....J 2.OJ O....JJ 0.IH. ..2 2W..J-J. lJ22 hlCu4MnTi RI64 AK&Ti RZl47 AlCu4MgTi .20 ..0 296. P lnpc Inp 0. .....0 295..OJ 0... 0.. 0.. ....30 0.20-0....2-10...Jo O.0 4.... .J ~h-66..IY).JO 0.2-J.2 AT&......_. “..J 3.8 0.O Al032 m.21 0..20 0.bJ....@..lJ 0....lSiJCu) JJ2l AlSiSCulMa 3122 ALSiiu4 1J22 AJSaCu(Mn RI64 ~JSIJCUJ Rl6( ALWCuJFc RI64 hJsifLu4 ..M.......0~~~ O.0 4..0) O..0 4..W J I.0 O..M O..IJ 0...0 4.. ..03W 0....7 4..lJ O.._.2J 0..I capmm.OJ 0..OJ O.0 A02421 A02422 A12CO Al2421 AI2422 AO24)O A02411 A02950 A029Jl AO?9J? A02960 A02%l A02962 AOMJ4 AO...10 0.01 O... P lnloc 5.06o.1 8201..30 O.9-2.. 0.10 0.OJ O..OXIJ 0.31 O.2 0..0 A01191 A01192 Al3190 .zw..... ...01 O.8 1.JJ 0. ..1 ‘22.J4...2 211.m .10 0.U. .2 240....1 0.oJ 0....10 0...20 w..OJ 0.0 0..11 O.bJ ...7 0... lM.Y.lJ O.. O.....7 .J 4..OJ 0.10 O.. IO O...lJ O.....lJ O. .IUl...L3.....OJ O.bJ. .m 0.6 0.....1J 0..... ..2 119.. ..0 0.01 O.2) r(s 1 F I I!4 I IJO I 160.7 1..IW..IW.2 4...tM...._..J 2..20 0.3 1...10 O.... ” ICI (Cl Id O.30 0..0 I..JJ O..10 0...0~ 0...J 4.........3J 0. :42.OJ 0......... ...2) 03 0..J J.73 0...3J O...31 O.......8 I.....3J 0..7-l . “’ ” .2J 02 0...01 1. .: 2..10 0..OJ ..Jo 0.o( 034 0...10 0.. ....lJa2J O.20 t:: 03 0.6S..IJ 0.8-2..50 024 0.... 0..0 0....’ ” U4...u ...!L2.0 0.3J 0.Ll..6 O.bJ. A02240 A02242 A02400 A024DI A02420 A199 J ..10 0.5 2 A:....~0.. P Innot S lnpr 0...J 7....0 7.JJ O....JJ O..0 4...lJ 0.. .Y w rem nm rrrn rctn rem pem rem 0...0-J....s 0....O 4.3bo..10 O.0 O.....20 0....30 0..30 I.. .......10 O.10 “’ .10 1.lJ 0...0 I ...O AOI~I ..3J O.. ...OJ 0.8 1.9 0..J 2.1) 0....Y. .OJ@ 0..0 4.OJ 024 030 0.03 0........10 1..CJ..20 0....oJ 0.J 3. 02 0..6 0.: 0. IO 0.J 4. 0.” . “’ ...OJ 0..10 0.3047 O.10 0....CJ.IyL.IJ O.1 9J.24..

6 0.... .I 136.1 I.O 0. ...20 0.7-1...J 0.10 0.1 o.. ....6 0.0s 0..eI..640) Osao) O.6 0....._.4-4...G7-7.. O.Jo 0..3J O.......6 0.0 ll&l1.1(M.2W.10 0... .&11...03 0....12 0. .54 030 0.4-0.05 0. 0...4-9. 0................10 O...J b.. . R'l47AlSilOMI(O..sJ...05 0.0 1sIO.Zit&O 0..10 024 0. .J 6..O-1......0 l&4...tJ 0.0 1.6 0.OYpl 0. .9 I....IJ 0.lUoJ 0. .6 0..0s O...23 0.2 0...10 O.10 0.....2J 0.1 0.10 O. P Ingot 5.01 Mm % 03 0.20 0.. P lfl6Ol IlIp s..M.10 03 .tJ 0.054..J-7..I 154... P Inlou .6 7 a.15 ICP 0.. ..IJ 0.. .6 tl... ...7 O..0 -cl AOIJJZ AJIIB h)llJl w.J 0.rS 0..m o.J I..54 0.J 6..0 1...4Ul.W AJ60.s10....2 JJ7..N.? CJ116.7-7.10 0..J 6....lJ O.. ..0 I....10 0. .. IO O..10 0..10 0...20 0.6 I. .... 0.W.bZ..JU.44d3. .0-6.....0 l. .11 9 e-10.10 O...m 0. .0) 0.Mn AOhao AOJWl Ao3m A03J92 AOMXw . A63J62 . s !..J h...6-9. ..I0-0.. 0.0) 0..0 Kolbl bmm.1 657..U...0s 0.10 0...2 0..JS O..m o.. 0...QJ(pJ rem 0.. 0..0 A33J.O 0..04-o........15 nxm rem mn mm It* RI rrm l-cm Iem l-cm lem rem IeEl Iem Iem rem rem rem rem rem rem mm rem rem rem rem 0....1 312.J 6..cp..4J O.7 0...&l3.0 Jl2.9 O.73 0...23 030 030 0...J 657...0..?omm 0.12 0..2 ClJS.50 030 ....O I* In- ::: 0.10 0..5 I..20 o. ..04.1 1..10 0.m 0. O. .... .IJ O.1) mm mm mm 0. .20 4 w Td "..M 0.8 0.. # 02 0.0 9 610..tJ O.2-2.OJ 0.6 0.....W.._.... h?.IO-o..:) 0.7 O.9 o.459.20 0. -a 0.54 030 0.l 516..0 Il...ou1.10 0...0-3..lJ O..12 0.m .4 0.... P ...7 O.20-0..I0-0....ZO O.JJ O...0-10.. 0.10 OS0 0...J 0.' " 0..ospl O..tJ 0.Od..0 I.20 0..4&0..1 IJJ.6 02 0..-u -AL 1..1 AJs7.2J 0.6 0.. . . .... 8:..J O... .t40) O...ti...0s 0.0 2. .0 o..10 0..6 I...10 0.&&o 7..J O.. ..Ll.. .2) 0.10 O.24 2...05 0.10 0 " 2. ..c7.2 JB.1 112..05 0. BlI9.J 0..0 JY..1 4.2 8157.0 D if I.J 0.0 J24.JO 0..0 1.12 O......01 0.W...J-7.4-0....7 0.. AlSi7M6 .... .J l&l.6 0.......10 0.W.O 2.5 Jm I- J522AtSKuIM9 Rl6( AlSiJcUl.lLl. la9c 12 .6 I...? I%.6W AIWIW AlW'2W A03610 . .9 0. 0..6 OX-O. P lrrpc s.15 0.0-4.6 0.0 l..10 0. .oYrl O.IJ 0..LJ.4b3..J 4...J 4. IW@ s.Jbl. 0.0 2. ..IW. ..50 ..w-o._..1 316.2 Jmas) In@4 S.0 I%. .J 1. ...2 BJ16.01 0.m 0.7-7.06 0.10 0.Jo 0.09 O. I Al3191 A2llal A23191 A032m A03201 AOIZY) A01241 A03242 AO1m AOlrnl A01120 A03321 A01322 AoIlY) AWJII AIlIlo Al3331 AOIW A03361 AOJW AO31m .044... .4o-o.J 6..&I.M 0.rJ-O.0 l&22.0 6..B-I .6 o.....U 0...6 O.. I ..50 0...8 0...M 0.35 O.10 0... .20 03 o..6 0.J 0.6 0.50 0.10 0.JOlol O.i 0..J-7...J-'....09 0. ...m 030 0..4J 0.6 0.10 O..15 rem mm rem m mm rem i-cm mm 0. ..J 6.01 0.04-o.. 1~ .. .. ..lbO..01 $9 ..lnp I __ P "'..03 0. .2J 0.. ......J 6. AOl4JO A03411 Mlno AO3J4l MIJJO AO~JJI n16.10 0..J 6.rn 0.0 2. ..SI0.L7.m 0..' .P lqol . El47 S%..52 Ax&l A2lJt.0 7..4Jd.OJ 0..0 1. .2 0. .10 0.2J O... " ... .0 C3JJ.m 0....Jo-o..OJ O..lM4...IJ it0 "' ".6 0.P b-1 s..0 0.u O.m O.. 0.20 02 0.U O...0 0.U..23 0.30 ...0s O.m o.2W....Qb 6..zJ 025 0.6 0.....1 l41..&I... .9 0.15 0. ...1W c60.. . 0.OJ .1 AJll..J 4SJ..0) O.....0 BJ#.J 6..lJ 0.03w O.4J O.8 I.25 a.. ...20 0.m 0.&If.10 0..0 a..01 0.01 0.0 0.0 J)c.lJ 0.40 ::ii 0. .10 0.OJ O.. .6 O....J Id-l...lcO..eW.05 O.01 0.8 0.m-o..2s 0._ .2 A3Jw) A3lJ62 AblJm lnpl 5...4 8.01 0.1 Y 0..0 1..0 dJ6... .m 0.0-1..10-0.. .05 0...4SO.. P InpI InpI s.m 0.0 1.U...ALUMINUM ALLOYS CAST w-7 IL U -a m9.. P Into1 S. .M rem rem rem rem mm rem rem rem w mm mm rem T~(D mm ” "....4J 0. E O._ s.. ......... .......2.JO-1..s0.Yrcm o. C.1 ID.. ..l%o) O.17d.10 I..P IfUOl .6 0. .03 0.lJ 0.20 O.20 O.. ....50 o.1 hr.Jo 0..w....20 0..01 O.. .07 0. IO ... .10 0.J S.35 0. ..2 0.....J D . .06 0.2 0... . lnpc D lnpol P s....0 0...lJ 0.OJ ..... ..OJ O..7 0...0 1.J 6.10 r(* OS0 0...6 .6-94 P ..M 0.10 1..40-0..S-J.lJ 0.0 0.. .4-4..m 0.5 I&I. ..J 0....3 O... P lnpl ..m 0. ..&w)O.OJ O..9 I.W.. P ln@w s..or S.0 31..m 0.6 o....1) mm rem w mm 0.10 0... .......1 9. .W 0.OJ 0..62.0 x0-4.lJ 0. .20 0.50 030 0.0 BJJ7.20 O.OJ O.10 0...0s O..2 AluY....lJ O...05 O.50 0.6 030-0.03 O..09 0...lJ 0.7 6...23-0.~~0) 0.J 6. .1 6..J 6.S !..2J-O.. .S7.J-7.....ZJ O. .20 7.M 0...I 124.JS 0.15 O.0 1...5 I.” ” ” ” ” ” ” 0..15 0.cLIO.o Cm. " "'.....ti..0 lo-r.1s O.ou).. .6l..lJ 0.m 0.JJ 0.50 030 0.2 cls7.0s ...so 03l 0.0 A317.OJ 0..m 0.J 6 L7.15 l-tm 0... A01570 A03J71 AlIS AI3J72 .4J O.01 .J D 9.. .J 6.10 O......o4-o.30 0...l III..10 020 0.10 0.0 9.o44.4IFo.. ..4Ql..W.wo..? A15J..J l.0 m-IO.03 0.040..U....50 0.6 030 0..m 0.2-1.0 AlJJ......sl..2...IJ 0.......0 l..I.6 0.. JJZ? AlSi7M: “...m 0.0 JJJ. .6 o..QJ .0 7..50 0.6 1...m 0.4-0.0 ll.1s O.0 339.m 0..10 O.J .7-1..sJ.lJ O.u L.Cl..0 AOlfO2 Al!. 0..6 0..20 0.7 o.u...lJ O.0 S.6l.2s 02 '......0 . ... . .0 II&13.0 0.zl 0..lJ rem rem "' -..30 0.. AO3J6l AOlJ62 ...05 0..L5&4J 0..m 0. ...lbO.IJ-O.10 0..OJ 0...0) 0.25 0.15 O...&l.......W.JO 0.J 1. . S..s7..4fU.. ....m O...J 657.4J n 0....1s 0.BXOl 4.w-o..J-3.05 ” .. .0 8319..05 O....M.M O..7 ...h5.01 O...J 0..J--'..1 1..0 120...7 8.10 0.m 0.0%0.OJ 0.0 Y1.9 1..JJ 0.....lJ 0.044. .6 0. .. .C7..JW.l 0...OJ 0.J 4..05 0. _..!-J...J 4..6 0. . All%l All%1 rclJ.. .4J 0.30-0....lJ O. .....05 0..J-J.0..ewo a......0s 0....45-0.lJ O&S 0..20 0. .0 90-10.JUol O. ..... .U.o. .I A....m 0..0 CJY.XU.0 113. lnpl AIIJJO AI3JJZ ti3lJ2 A03JW P Insol In@ P ....OJ 0....10 1.0 0.20 O.20 0. .1s 030 03 O....0 JJ9. ..0 l.....10 0..0s 4..2 11.10 O.. -- .1 0. .m O.0) O.0 I.OJ 0..xw)...J-9.m 0..2 JJ9. .4so.lJ 0.2 DJJ7. ......0 0.ao.9 I...J O...0s 0.10 0..01 0..6 0.20 0.2 IN..lS 030 O.ow..0s 0.M 0.....9 0. P lnla s..10 0.c.o-IO...L7... .2J 0...io..10 0. SSP ..m-o.0 I.0s 0.0s 0... h 0.....OJ 0....20 o.lJ 0.7 b.12 0..s10. :: f: 0.J O..20 0..10 .20 0..J 4.2 FJY...10 0. ..lJ O....J .ln#ol P lnrol lngol S .. .1 0.. x0. O. .lJ 0.lLl.. O.10 O.o~(p~ 0.0 t 1.IJ rem 0......W 0.c).20 0..0 2..o 2.er.m 0...6-2....6 8.311 .O.10 O.. .10 O... ...LJ....040 2. o.W..o-4...cu... .I2-o...J-7.JJ 0.I CIJJ..04 0. P ..2 133..09 6.. l.Jh3.0 1.23 0...01 0..0 lJ7.m o.8 0.IJ O.5 1..01 0.lnpc ..... ..0..01 ....ao. P ln....50 030 0....two.m 0..lJ 0.J OX-I..OJ 0..2 Am.4CW..10 0..15 0.6 0. .....OJ O.. . ..Jo O... . . I 0..0 11..4U..0 II.

15 0.asJ 4lJ..10 o.. _...m 0..8 0. . 0.. .s3..10 0..1 0..' ....10 0. .0 l&O-2O..0 0.23 0....4 0..4 0...I 364.4O 0.....0 A443. 02 0.io-o.340 4.O 4..25 0... .61. .50 0.0 1.@-Il.cLlJ.3 1.35 0... ...0 Il..20 0.5 6.M.s11.........4 J.10 0.5-3.. 0.' i:: 0. IJ 0.5-9.10 0... .5 6. .413." ..OXVJ O.6J._...10 0.. IO 0.1 O. .13 O..LI 0....s 10. ...O II O-m." ..3 1.&l3... .10 ::i 0.10 0.m 0.m 0.10 0. ..8 0.10 0.....40. ...__.&1.53 0.10 0..O%wJ O.10 0..03 0...03 OJ5 tern O.. .lO-O.J 3..25 0.0 II&13.20 03 0..0 2l.m 0. 0.20 0.b 0..ORwJ 0.......W....IJ 0.3O-O..20 Iem rem rem mm rem rem mn rem ltm rem mm Rnl rem rem rem Rm rem rem nm rem nm #-cm Rnl rrm 0..15 0..2J 0... IO 0.15 0..15 03 03 0.20&% (1) (0 7......0 0.l CUJ. ..u 0.10 0... ...0s O..5 0..33 0...1 %O.111 0....0 lb.20 0. _.. I&o.. ....1 390..1 7.o 4.50 0.13 0..0s 0.3 7.0 392. I 393..50 0.O¶ 0....45 0. 0...13 0....0 I..W.7-I..0 2._._ ..13 0.....O¶ 0.23 0.. .03 0.....m o...05 0.0 ::!a 0...15 0. .....23 0.. .05 0. ..10 0.0 11.P ?I I.. .7-1.10 0.4 0...ALUMINUM ALLOYS CAST Cd-s-h-. __.' "' "' I ..I MS..1 I.....045 030 m-b.. I 392.1 0. .9 1..2sOLo..05 0... P Inpl D III&M D lryol S..__..0 3b4.35 0.25 02 0.. 0..I BU3.&18...03 ..... __..m 1..540 4. .3 0.1 N.... P Inpt .rQ3. %I. ...o(sJ MO...3J 0.rOGu 0.. ...OS 0..... IO 0.m-o300. IO 0..15 0.1) 0.O-18....10 1..10 0.10 0...WrJ O.......10 0.. D . . L--fizb ma.40 I....er..3 0..O-4....M. .2 MRb..5 1.S 4.613.%M. .OS 030 0.10 0.0 4. AISiJFe .0 3. ..0 0.. I c443.2 0%I...2 Mb..20 .0 11.10 0.61..3 I..0 4.... .7-1....10 0.0 0...s I.m ...M.05 0.l 435.llrJ A4I3..2lX) 4Il.0 Il.03 ..OYVJ 0...29 0.3 I ......J 0..20 0.05 ..9 0.) 0.m 0.....m .6 0..10 0. D ...1 I. _.54.... 3% AISilXuFasJ !!2 AISil? FCIII RIM AlSiJ2lsl RIM NSil!Culrl RI64 AlSil2CuFn11 RI61 AlSilZFetsl Cl47 AJEI~IsI.. S..U.2lSl AllhXrl A4II..2 408 2IrJ uR.9 0......0 3.50 0.0 ll..... I 193.15 0....:... .03 03 03 0.10 0. IO 0. .. IO O.3 I.J Bl-9 / .15 Rln rem mm nm ll!m mm rem mm trm l-em lu0 0..5-12. VW..10 0.. .0 0.0 sm..10 0....0s F -4l w n 0.0 393.9 4.0 4... L L 0.. .7-1..20 024 024 m4...3 b. o.1 AO#ll k..PS.. .4 0....b 0.. "... ..s 1... .0 IO.2 AUO...15 0. MSii.0 lb.03 0.....35 0. IO 0...4.30 0.10 ::i 1. ..0 2. Inpt _.2 369...m 0......10 1...10 0..10 0. s ..C2.m 2...." ..8 I.2w..5 657.LlO.Cl1.33 0.10 0.15 0..... I 443.23 ..10 0.23 0...2J 0.P.10 0.. ....15 0..Sb6.. ..10 0....o-4.20 rem nm rem fern rem tern rem mm mm 0.20 0.. .....7-1.10 030 0..10 0..20 0.15 0...... .0 4...40 .0 4..0 m-4..1 . 0...J 1. AI4IYXsI AI413IlsI Al4132llJ A24130 824131 AO4352lyJ AbuY) AO443I AO4432 A IWO Al4431 A24430 -eI 1q.1 I.23 0....O bu.0 2....23 111 (II 0.D lnpl lnpl l...31 tern 0..35 0..J 7. ‘...61..0 443.15 0.6 2.. D Inpc D Inw s..10 0.61.....2 0..4Ql.4: WJ.d 0.15 0. .....6 I.30 0.... '...m 0. .... .. .6 0.5 9.m 0. ..s12.......10 0..5-6.0 Y s.2O 0..50 03 03 0.b 0. .5 2....30 0.3 9.0 1.10 0.35 0...I3-O... 0. IO 0...10 0.m 0.ul O..35 0.....10 0....040 2.10 0.ec..10 0.1 0.. 0..0 0.0 0..20 0.0 8390.s12...m 0.0 I..J 9.20-0..5 0.........m O. IO 0..20 0.50 0. ..33 O.10 0.54....25 0.20 0...kll- I RIM . IO 0....20 ... ..0 s84...S7.0 21.&l3.xl 0% 0.6S..05 O.10 0.13 0.5 II&12.. ... . BA43...~12......1 0.0 0.... .. .L9.o-b.07 0.040 0.05 0... .. . ‘2 .13 0......b..45 0...0 0..5 0.......13 ... ....0 10.20 0.23 02 0.. IJ 0. ..b4..0 0....m 0....2 AU3..0) 0.10 3..m 0......s10.10 0. .3 3.10 0..300 A28wI 0011) .. ..4 0.0s M 0. ..' '.. D .6 0...._.0 2..10 1.s1.2W.03 0..10 0.65 o.1 0...._....m 020 OJS 0.m 0.20 '..15 mm Rnl rcm rem Rm rc0l rrm rem r4m scurr. .1 0...3 Oh-l. 0....O 4Lu.1 0....35 0....05 '...o Y3.. 0..o 1." .0 7... .... IO O..l o...10 0.....0 A384.5 7.W..O.6 0..111 0.30 0....040 l.040 4.3 1....3 .........10 I.5-9.....8 I.35 0...L7.L1I...05 0.M 0..11S) AJm..... I____.x) 0....O 0. ..30 ll.15 0.." 1d *4.0 0...G!l.10 0.13 0....05 0.O 21.25 0. D . ...04.b 0....O 4.x) 0. IO 0. ..O-3..50 0.15 O.0 A13OOllsJ Al)802 A2J..50 0.05 '.1 yL3......) 0.1 0.so-o..0 Ib. .10 03 0.0 8.6-1...0 2..1 0.6 0. 5.10 o.O 0. . 352 . '..0s 0...10 0. IfG .10 0.W.s9...0 I. . IO 0...10 0. ..0 lJ.s12.10 0.. .0 6..&23..61 o. .3-9.15 0.S7.m 0.10 0.. .....3 7.05 WJ (UJ O.6 i:: 3.... ..61.10 0.e2. _..m 0% 0.? A4440 AMI1 Au430 AU431 AM432 AOurO AM442 Al4UO Al4441 AI4442 D tc....0 10..3 1.#~l Lnpl In@ . '.23 0..3 '.7-1.... D In&H ...JOabJ 0. .L3...bl...3 2. .0 I6.m 024 054 0...... P lnpc D ‘SE ln#Ol P lnpl ‘ruol 4.n AOl830 A03831 A0132 A03R4 A03841 A03842 Al3W AIWI A0150 AO3RSl AOX A03W2 Al1900 Al35Ul A23900 rlllpol A0397il A03921 A0393O A03931 A03932 AC"CSZlx1 A04092tr~ AlMll21~J AWl3alJ -.2O o...1 1... ..6-1.10 0.5 2.. .....0 3b9..0 1...1Mo.2 BJBO...0 10. ..&l3... IO 0.‘n..0 1." .2 8413..0 ll.OhJ A03630 A0363 I ~0364 A03642 AO~M AOWN AOlWUsJ A03802 ~Ilao A360.4 0.10 0..30 .s9.. InLa .05 O. ...13 0. IO 030 0.... 0...0-18.21~) 441. .35 0.5-9.5-9.7-1.43-0.3 2.o 0.0 2.. .. ..0-12..0 0... ...m 0. ...10 0.9 3.Q( 3522 Alsii RI@ CUI.USi&XFr RlMNSi&X3Fe.lJ 0. 0. .?lXJ 413.50 0.4040 0.05 0...15 1..10 0.10 0.....m . IO 0.bS..0 393.M 0. . .10 0.J 7.13 0.O 4....J 9LII. Ianw IfI I0@l ln@ D lasa .8 0...... .10 ::9” 0....lS0. ..0 IbO-Ill....50 0.m 02 0..*. .10 0.6 0.....m 0..0 a380 I 3R1. I3 0..2 Al90..10 0.20 0.%... 0...10 0.O 4...0 AM..2044 0.....Lu...10 0.Cl2...0 2.6( 0.10 0..30 0...10 0.2 4U... . .... .....15 0..15 03 0....&l3.25 0..0 0...50 0..0 2..540 7s9..1 3. . I 8190.3 1..0 0.0 11.040 4.. _.e2..0 2.......20 0. ...05 0.50 0....40-0.. .35 0.&23.0 ~...13 0.l 0..3oa.30 03 i: 024 030 0..0 B413. ..30 024 03 0....' ...5-9. IO 0.m 2. D Iapc it ln#ln IfI@ G Mm w cs 9.m4....10 0..10 0......m 0...m-o.9 0..19 0.O 16..m O.10 0... . . ... IO 0.0 590...20 0... .7-1.0 10...W.

,”

,,

‘-‘I:

,f.% ,,

.F

s

4

ALUMINUM ALLOYS
CAST
gL#.,

LyIbb

lm-

-0

s

bS7.5
511.0
Jll.l
Jll.2
J12.0
.._
112.2
;;;:;

AOJllO
AQ(,,I
AOJ,IZ
A@120
AQ(lz2
ml&

Jl4.0

AOJlYl

J14.1
J14.2
JIJ.0
JIJ.2
Jl60
J16.1
Jlt.0
JIB.1
111.2
J20.0

A05142
An5150
~O5lJ2
AaJI60
A05161
AOJIrn
AOJIOI
Ao5ls2
Am200

.

. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ..
~___.....__.__._.
~__............__
.... . ..
..
~................
. . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. .
. . .
.
JWAlM&l
RI64 AlMI.3:

Inpl
In&M
s
lu@l
P
ln#oI

o.Jo-o.7
o.Joa.7
o.Jo-o.7
1.4-2.2
l.CL.2
0.30
0.30

OJJ

520.2
JlJ.0
JJJ.2
1u3J.O
Mu3J.I
BS3J.O
B515.2
705.0
705.1
7070
ml.1
710.0
710.1
711.0
711.1
112.0
II?.?
w.0
7lJ.I
n1.0
RI.2
RZ.0

AOJ202
AoJm
AOJJJ2
AIJJJO
AIJJJI
A2J3m
dlJ2
A07054
Arm51
A07070
AOrml
A07100
AO7lOl
A071 IO
AmIll
AO713l
A07122
A07130
A07131
AURIO
A07712
AOTfX

77i.i A07722

1so.o

u0.I

151.0
8sI.I

ArnJm
ArnJoI
-JlO
AmJII

852.0

A!20520

152.1

A06521
Am@550
-512

8Jl.O
U1.2

O.JJ
0.30
ox-I.0
0.504.0
0.3el.J
0.3Sl.J
0.3J
O.)J
0.23

... ....... .
. . . . . . . . . ..___....
3J22 AlM#IO
RI64 AIMlo:
111147)rlGgb
. .
....
. ~................
. . ~................
.
...
. . ..__._
.
'....,.........,.
. ‘........__..___
. ~............_._.
. . . . . . .._...____.
. . ...
.
~..__...__..,...,
. . . . . . . . . . . ..__..

I-

s
Ml

+
IIuo~
s
1~
s. P
lnpr
S. P
lnpl
S
ltuot

.....

................
...............
..... ..........

P
IW
s
1wc-l

................
................
........
.......
................
......
.........
................
................
. . . . . . . . . . ..__...__
...
. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .
~_._._.,.__.,,,,,

s. P
lnpl
5
IvS
lnpr
s. P
Inpc
S.?
lm

... . . .._.._.._.....
. . . ._.___...__..,.

S.,'
m

.. .
..
..
. - .._.._____._._._

. 5. P
1~

?*
0.61.3
0.54
0.40
0.30

0.6
0.30
0.40
0.30

0.w)
0.40
030
1.1
0.61.0
ox-I.0
0.JJ-0.7
I.8
I.1
0.7

Cm
0.10
0.1)
0.1)
0.10
0.3J
0. IO
0.10
0. IO

O.lJ
0.15
0.10

0.m
0.10
0.30
0.Y)
0.U
0.U
0. IO

0.25
O.IJ
O.lJ
0. IO
0.20
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.15
0.15

0.30
0.20
O.lJ
0.10
0.20
0.15
0.12
0.1
0.6
0.8
0.6
0.w)
04

0.25
0.20
O.OJ
O.OJ
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.05
0.n
0.20
0.20
0.20
O.JSOo.bJ
0.1Ml.61

0.m
0.30
Ou)

0.1-I .4
0.7-1.1
O.-Y)

0.J54.65
O.lUl.65
0.25

0.15
0.25
0.2J
O.lJ
0.10
0.15
0. IO

0.40
I.1
0.8
0.15
0. IO
0.15
0.10

0.25
0.4rLI.O
0.40-1.0
0. IO
0.10
0.10
0.10

0.7
0.7

0.7
024

0.7-1.5

O.lJ

2.61.0

0.7

2.0-1.0
0.40

0.30
0.7

0.40

5.5-a
5.x5

0.50

0.7
0.50

0.7-1.1
0.7-I.J
0.7-1.3
1.7-2.1
1.7-L.)

),U.O
I.040

Ma

ci

MI

xl

o,,o

0.3J
OJJ
0.10
0.8
0.10
0.30
0. IO

0.3J
OJJ

1.M.J
1.W.J

1.64.J
3.Y.J
l.b-4.J
3.Y.J
1.ti.J

0.IJ-o.Q
0.1M.44
O.JJ
O.JJ
0.10

2.M.5
7.J.d.J
7.66.J
7.&&J

0.404.6
0.0s
0.011
0.05
O.OJ
0.10
0. IO

...

...

..
. -.
0.25

'..

.
.

.

,..
.. .

l-l

.
0.2tw.40
0.2SO.u)
0.204.Y)
0.2SO.Y)
.'.
J

0.1s
O.lJ
o.to
O.JJ

0.10

'..
'.'
"
...

"

0.25
03
0.20
0.25

0.20

1.4-2.2
LC2.2

"
'.

0.20

O.lJ
O.iJ
0.10
o,,o

'..
...
..'

0.U
0.25

.
. . .
0.2&0
0.w.a
0.15
O.lJ
O.OJ

iti
0.20
0.15
O.lJ
..'

0.;;
0.10
O.,J

0.1&O.i3
0.10420

O.lJ
0.05

.

O.lJ
0.10

...

.

9.5-10.6
9.610.6
6.2-7.J
6.67.J
6.S7.J
6.Ct.J
6%7.J
6.67.5

o.lo-a.45
0.5ca.6J
0.5&0.65

.

...

i.W.J

1.4-1.8
l.Sl.1
1.6-2.4
1.9-2.4
0.6-0.1
O.bsM
0.2wlr5

-.

.
.

1.W.J
3.64.J
1.64.J
2.w.o
2.74.0

0.4b3.6

h

0.10

0. IO
O.W.6
O.W.6

0.15
0.10
O.lo-o.rr
0.10-0.2J
0. %0.Y
0.IW.U
0.05
0.05
0.404.6
ON-O.6

Ir

. .
.
.
I

.
"
.

0.40-0.6

.
,..

2.7-u
2.7-u
r.u.5
4.0-4.5
b&7.0
b&7.0
6.0-7.0

6.0-7.0
5.0-6.5
s&&s

0.40-0.6

0.m

'.'

0.20

ltm
rem
nan
rem
rem
rem
Rml
rem
mm
rrm
rem
nxn
rem
mm
Rln

0.20
O.ISO.25

0.05
0.05

0.15
0.3

Rln
rem

0.05
0.10

0.20
0.25

rrm
rem

0.10

03

bptl

0.15

7oa.o

"'

7.oao

'.'

0.25

0.10
0.10
0. IO
0. IO
0.10
0.10
0.10
0. IO
0.10
0.10

0.8-1.0
0.8~1.0
0.6-0.8

0.06-0.20
o.wto.2Q
0.06-4.20

.
'.

b.J-7.J
6%7.J
6.&7.0

0.bu.t

0.064.20

09
o.,o

o.&oo.9
0.7-0.9

0.9-1.5

. . .
. . .

0.9-1.5
.

0.IQ-O.20
0. I0-0.20
O.IO-o.2a
O.lO-o.20
0.m

'..

5.w.o
JS7.0

.

J.5-7.0

0.m

5.5-7.0
5.s7.0
5.5-7.0

;:i
0.20

. .

-;

0.15
0.15
0.15
O.lJ
0.15
O.IJ
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
O.lJ
0.15
0.15
0.15

0.1.'

5.L7.0
5.s7.0

rem
ten!
tnn
feEI
rem
mm
E,"

0.05
0.05
0.05lUl
O.OJ(bbJ
O.OJ
O.OJ
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
O.OJ
0.05

0.35

6.S7.0

O.lJ
0.15
0.15
0.15
O.IJ

0.2J
0.20
O.IM.25
O.I(M.23
0.23
0.25
0.I0-0.25
0.1Wo.25
0.U
03
0.U
0.2J
02
0.25
0.20

0.35

"

0.05
0.05
O.OJ
0.05
0.1
O.OJw
O.OJ(ZJ

rem

0.23-4lm

0.7-1.1
0.3m.7
0.340.7

mm
awn
rem
mm
em
mm
rem
mm

24,

0.25
0.10

0xLo.m

0.7-1.1

0.X
O.lJ
0.15
0.1s
0.1s
0.1)
0.15
0.15

-..

0.6
0.6

"'
"
'..
..'

Td

0.10
O.OJ
0.011
0.0)
O.OJ
0.05
O.OJ
0.05

'..

O.IsK5
0.25

0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10

cmb

0.20

rem

0.05
0.0s

0 I5
O.lJ

rrm
Iem

0.05

0.15

rem

0.05
I'
.

0.1s
0.m
0.x)

rem
Rln
Rln

.'.

0.30
0.30

rem
mm

.,.

0.30

mm

0.m
0.30
030

fern
rcm
mm

I

El-10

ALUMINUM ALLOYS
TEMPER DESIGNATIONS
Temper Designation
System for
Aluminum
and Aluminum
Alloys

Temper dcsigttatiot~
for wrought
prod.
UN that are sttcttgthcacd
by straio hrrdcning EonCat of att H follwd
by two or more
digiu. The 6nt di&il
following
the H indi-

The ~entprr Jesignatmn
system used in
the Cmted hater for aluminum and alumtnum alloys is used for all product forms
tboth wrought and cast). with the exception
of ingot. Tk sy~ctn IS based on the Yquences
of mechanical
or thermal treat.
ments. or b&h. used to produce the various
tempers.
The temper dcsignatlon
follows
the alloy dcsignaiion
and is separated from
it by a hyphen. Barx temper designations
consist of irntividual
capital Ic~tcn. Major
subdivisions
of basic tempers.
where rcquircd. arc ittdicated by one or more digits
following
tk letter. These digtcs designate
rpccific
sequcoccs of treatments
that pre
duct spcctfa combmations
of charactcristics in the duct
Variattons
in trtalment
conditions
within major subdivisions
arc
idcntilied
by additional
digrts. The conditions during heat treatment
Isuch as time.
temperature.
and quenching
t-ate) used IO
produce
a given temper in one alloy may
diflcr from those employed
lo produce the
~amc tcmpu in another alloy.

c&r

use

rrnin hardening rcntaining after the product
hu ken panidly
annealed.
HI,
ad Slahilized.
This
@es
IO products that an! StJain-hardened
vd W~OSZ t~~~hanical ptopettiu
arc slabihd by a lowmtempcraturc
lhcrma laxalmcnl
a as a tudt ol heat intraluced
during f&icab.
St&&at&t
uwally imptover ductilsy. T?tis dcsigmtbn
applies only to those
rlbys Ihal. unku
slabdid.
duauY
rgc
adlen at tmm tentpctaturc.
The digit Mow-

Strain-Hardmd

Basic Temper Designations
Designations
for the common tempers.
and descnptiis
of the sequences of opcta.
ttons used to produce
these tempers. arc
given in the following paragraphs.
F. &-t&k&ted.
This h spplitd to pm&
uctsshapcdbyoddwork&botwork+~
ittwhkhoos@alamaol
=WPt3xx thertualomditioruor
stmin turdckug is
emplqd.
For ~IGU&I
produa.
tkrc are
no-p?qxltylitlths.
0, Awdcd
0 applies to wrought pmduaa lhat UC annealed
to obtain Iwststrength
temper and’10 U
products
that
arc anncakd
IO improve
ductility
and dinunsiond
stability. llte 0 may be loUwed
by a dir
atut than zeta
n, slnbwwght
Pducb
Otdy).
This indicates
products
that tuvc
been srrcn&eatd
by strain hardening. witi
or urithout
supplementary
thermal treatmm
to ptotlucc
some
rcductimt
in
strength.
Tk H is always folkvcd
by two
or tnore di&s, as discussed
ia the suztion
“System
dm Strain-Hardened
this attick

Ptuluc~”

W, Sdutpn
Htd-lrcatd
This is an unslablc
tcrnpcr applicable
only to alloys
whose
strcagth naturally
lspontancousty)
changes at room temperature
over a duration Of months or even years after solution
heat trcattmtt.
The dcsignaton
is spe&ic
only when the period of natural l gmg is
indicated
@T example.
W ti h). See &o
the diacussktt
of the L-51. Tk5?. and M
tcmpws
in tbc section “System for HcrtTreatable
Alkrys” in thir article.
1. b(Utio0
Heat-Treated.
This applies to
alloys whose strength ix stable within a few
weeks Of sdution heat treatment. The T is
always follaed
by one or more dipu. s
discussed
in the Mction “Sptcm
lot HcrtTrca~able AlLays” in this ankle.

the specific &quc~cc of-basic opcta-

tioas.
Hl, stircOnly. This applies to
ptoduc~
thaw arc strain hardened
to obtain
the desired suet@
without rupplcmcntrty
tltcrtd
matmeat.
The digit following
the
Hl indicates tbe degree of strain hardening.
n2, sltaln-andPUtMy&
mJed.
This pwuina
to ptoduas
IhI arc
rLtti-budcacd
more than the duitcd
fld
amout
and tbcn reduced in strcngrh IO rbe
duired
level by partial annealing.
The digit
lothAng
the H2 indicate4
degree of

ia

When it is desirable
IO identify
a vartatton
of a twodi@I
H temper. a third digit (from I
lo 9) may be assigned. fhc third digit is used
when the degree of control
of temper or the
mechanical
properties
are different
from but
close lo those for the twedigit
H temper
designation
IO which if .is added. or when
some other chatacrcnsttc
is signifKantly
affected.
The mintmum
ultimate
tensile
strength of a thrcedigtt
H temper is at least
as close IO that of the corresponding
twc+
dlgit H temper as it IS IO ctthcr of the
adjacent two-digit H tempers. Products in H
tempers whose mechanical
propcnics
ate
below those of HA tempers are assigned
variations
of HAI. Some threedigit
H remper designations
have already been assigned
for wrought products in all alloys:
Hz/f applies to products that incur sufC
cient sttain hardening
tier fitta~ artrtcaiing
to fail to qualify as 0 temper. but not so
much or so consistent
an &mount of stain
hardenmg to qualify as Hxl temper.
HI/2 petins
to products that may acquirc some strain hardening during working
at elevated tcmprrature
and for which thcrt
are mechanical
propcny
limits.

ing the H3 indkatcs
the dem
of sttain
hardening rmnaini~
alter subilizdi~n.
MdiIiotul
1-r
D+utiau.
For IIlays that age soften at room tempctature.
each Ht temper has [he same tnittimum
ultima~t tensile strength as the H3x temper
with the same second digit. For other alloys. each Hk temper has the same minimum uhimalc tensile sircngth a~ the HIx
with the same second digit. and slightly
higher elongation.
The digit following
the designations
H 1.
Ii!. and H3. which indicates the degree of
strain hardening.
is a nut~~t3l
from 1
through
9. Nurr~tal
8 indicates
1cmpet-s
with ultimate tensile strength equtvaknt
to
that ackved
by aboul 75% cold reduction
ivmpctatum
during reduction
not to exceed
50 T . or I20 ‘R lollowinn
full annealing.
Tcmprn
between 0 (anrtc&d)
and 8 a&
designated
by numerals I thtuugh 7. Mated having an ultimate tcnsilc strength ap
proxtmatcly
midway between that of the 0
tempct and the 8 temper is designated
by
the numeral 4. midway between the 0 and 4
tempers
by the numeral
2. and midway
between the 4 and 8 tempers by the numeral
6 Numeral
9 dcvgnatcs
tempers
whose’
minimum ultimate tcnslle strength exceeds
that ol the g temper by IO MPa (2 ksi) ot
more. For twwdigit
H tempers whose secund digits ate odd. the standard lirmts for
clrcngth
are the anthmctic
mean of the
rtandard limits for the adjacent two-d@! H
tempers whose second digits arc even.
For alloy5 that cannof be sufklcntly
cold-reduced
to establtsh an ultimate tensile
qtrcngth applxable
to the 8 temper (75%
cold reduction
after full annealing).
the 4.
lcmpcr tcnsilc rlrcnglh
may k established
by cold reduction
of approximately
S58
following
full annealing.
or the 4.tcmpcr
rens~le strength may tx crtabhrhcd
by cold
reduction
of approximately
35% after full
annealing.

Bl-11

ALUMINUM ALLOYS
TEMPER DESIGNATIONS
System for lieal-Treatable
Alloys
The
temper
Jcsignauon
skrtcm
for
wrought and casl product\
IhaI arc Jtrengthcncd by heal IrcaImenI
employs the W and
T dcsignalions
described
In Ihc section
“Basic
Temper DcJignaIIons”
In [his ar11.
cle. The W dcsignalion
denotes an unslable
Icmpcr. whereas the T designation
denote,
D Jcable remper ocher Ihan F. 0. or H. The
T Is followed
by a numhcr from I IO IO. eact
numkr
indicaring
a Jpccfic
~qucnce
u1
basic IrcaIments.
11. Coded From UI Elevaled-tcmpralun
sJuPin8
Process and NaIuralh
Aged IO a
sU~*hlly
Stable Cmditim.
lhs
desIgna
IIon applies
lo products
rhar arc no, cold
worked afler an elcvrtcd~rempcr;lIure
rhrping process such as casung or exwu~~~n
and
for which mechanical
propcnies
have been
stabilized
by room-tempcnturr
aging. II
also applies
lo products
arc flattcncd
or
nnightcncd
afIcr cooling from rhc shaping
omccss. for which the effecIs d Lhe cold
wart Imparted by flattening
or straightening
are not accoumed
for in Jpccihcd D~ODCRV
limits.
12. Coded from an Ekvalcd-TemperaIure
Shaping Process, Cold Worked. awl Namrally Apl
to J Subrtrnlially
Stable Condilhm.
This varialion
refers IO producIJ
IhrI arc
cold
worked
Jpecilically
IO Improve
scrcngth aficr cooling
from a hoI+orkmg
process such as rolling or cx~ruJIon and for
which mechanical
propcr11cJ have ken JIabillzcd
by room-Icmprature
agmg. II also
applies
IO products
in which Ihe cff~~~ of
cold
woti.
impaned
by flancmng
or
sIr-aIghIening.
arc accoumcd
for In specified
properly
limirs.
13. blulion
Heal Treated. Cold Worked.
and NMurally
Aged lo a Subrtantiallv
Stable
Condillon.
T3 applies IO producIs
IhaI are
cold
worked
spccilically
IO improw
sIrcngth
afwr solution
heat Ircatmcm and
for which mechanical
prop&es
have been
stabilized
by room-IempcraIure
aging. II
also applies IO products
In which Ihc cffectr
of cold work.
imparted
by llartenmg
or
slnaighterung.
are accounred
for in JpccIfied
property
limirs.
14, sdutial
HCal lrclled
ud wI8rally
Aged ICI a Subrtantlally
Slabk
Corulll.
This Jignilies
products
that are no1 cold
worked lltcr solution heal Ireatmem and for
which mechanical
propenies
have been SObilized
by room-temperature
aging. If Ihc
producls
are llallencd
or siratghicned.
ilie
cffccrs of the cold work Impaned by flancning or sIraIghIcning
are no1 accounted for in
JpcGd
propcny
limirr.
15, Coded From an Ekvatd-TcmpraIurc
Shaping Process and AIMXally
Agd.
TJ
includes
producrs
1haI arc no, cold uorked
after an elevated-IcmpcraIurc
Jbaping process such as casting or extrusion
and for
which
mechanical
propcnIes
have been
JubJlanIially
improved
by preeipilalton
heat lrealmcnt.
If the producer
are flalIened or straighlcncd
afIcr cooling from
the shaping process. the effecIs of 1hc cold
work impaned
by llatlening
or straighwning art not accounied
for in JpccIIicd prop
crty limils.
16, Sdulion
Heat lnrled
and ArliIicWIy
A&
This group cncompasxs
prcducts

. . _

Ihal are no, cold worked aflcr solulion
heat
treatment and for uhIch mechanIcal
propxr‘[ICI or dimensional
JIrbiliry.
or boIh. have
b~cn subsmnlially
Improved
by prccipitauon heat Ircalment.
If Ihc producls
arc
flaIIeocd or stta&tencd.
the clTec~J of the
cold work ImpatIcd by llatlcnmg
or JIraighI.
cmng arc not accounted
for in JpeciIied
propny
limits.
77, nut
Trea1ed and omagmi
or Slaixd.
l7 appltes to wrought
pral1~1s th1 have been precipitation
heat Ireatcd beyond the pomt of maximum Jtrcngch lo
ptwde some rpccml chancteri,tic.
such as
tntunccd
rcsiswuc
IO JtrcJJ-coIroJion
cracking or cxfotia11on
corrosion.
II applies
lo a.51 product.5
char arc arIifmially
aged
lRcr solution
heat treacmcnt
to provide
dinwtsiorml
and SI~CII&I JtabiliIy.
18. Sohim
Heat Treat4
Cold Worked,
ad Artiliciily
A&
This designation
applies to prcducrs
lhat UC cold worked spc
ciF&ally IO Improve
strcngIh after solution
her1 rreaunent
and for which mccbanlcal
properties or dimensional
Jtabili~y. or both,
hyc been JubJunItally
improved
by preckitumll
kal
Lrcalmcnt.
The cffec0
of
cold work. including
any cold work imprrrcd by flattening
01 s~rening.
are ac%uIled
for in Jpccilicd
propcny
limilr.
19, Sdution
Hut
Treated.
Mificially
Aged, ud Cold Worked.
This grouping
is
comprised
of products
1ha1 arc cold
worked
J~ecilically
IO improve
slrcngth
after they hove been Precipitation
heat
treated.
110. Co&d
From an EkvaIed-Temperahut shapiv
PmeJJ.
cdd
WorLcd,
4nd
Mifwially
Agd.
TIO tdcntifies
producrs
that arc cold worked specitically
IO rmprovc
s:rcngIh allcr cooling
from a hot-worling
pmcor
such as rolling or cxltusion
and for
which mechanmal
propcnies
have been
substantially
improved
by prccipttauon
heat
wcauncrn. The effcc~s ofcdd
work. includirg my cold work imparted by flattening or
Juaigl~lcning.
arc accounted
for in Jpccifted
projx?~
limits.
Ad&hod
1 Temper Vaiatiau.
When i1
is desirable
IO Identify a wiation
of one of
he Ien nujor T Iempen
described
above.
additional
d&J.
the firs1 of which cannot
k LCI~. ntay bc ad&d IO Ihc dcJignaImn.
Specific
KCS of additional
di(pIs have
been assigned
lo Jlrcss-relieved
wrough1
pmduc,,:
Sttcn Rtlirvrd
by. Strrrching.
Comprrrrkg. or Combination
of Strrtrhing
and
Comprrrring.
Thus designation
applies
to
Ihe following
products
when stretched
to
Ihe IndIcaIed
an~oun~s aflcr solution
hut
treatment
or atkr waling from an elevatedlcmpmafurc
shapmg process

4 TISI apphec
specIfIcally
:o @ale. lo
rolled or cold-Iinished
rcmj and bar. IO die
or ring forgmgs. and to rolled rings. These
producrs rece1w no funher
Jwal~lenlng
her stretching
l
T1510 apphcs
IO cx~rudcd
rod. bar.
shapes and Iubmg. and IO dnwn tubing.
producrs In this temper rccmvc no fuunhcr
slraIghlcning
aflcr svcIchq
l TIS I I refers IO products
Ih! may receive
minor Jtnighwning
afw
urcIching
IO
comply ;viIh srandard ~olcnt~cs
This variation
compressing.

involves

stress

relief

by

Tr52 applies IO products
thl arc SIICJJ
relieved
by compressing
after solulion
heat lrca1mcnl
or after coding
from a
hot-workmg
process to produce
a permanent se1 of I to 5%

l

The nex1 desIgnaIIon
is used for produas
tha1 are SWCSJ rclwvcd
by combining
stretching
ud compressing.
l

TIJJ applies
relieved
by
die. l’lhese
M-may
k

to die forgings that are stress
restriking
cold in ik fmish
same digi,51. 112. and
added IO Use designation
W

IO Indicate unstable soluwn-heat-Ircated
and sIrerr-relieved
Iemprrl
Tcmpcr designalions
have been assigned
10 wrounht
heal treated from the 0
~I
raroduc1J
or Ihc F Icmpcr IO dcmonrwatc
rcrponsc IO
heal Ircatmcnl:
0 TX means solulion
heat uuIcd
from Ihc
0 or the p Iempcr IO ckmonswa~e
rcJponsc to heat IrcaImeaI
and plurally
aged IO a JubsIamia.lly
s&k
condiIion
l T6? means sdution
hca1 ~ratcd from the 0
or rhc F temper IO deCtY5pXlStfO
heal imatmcnt anti anit%aDy
aged
Temper designations
TX and T Q also
may be applied IO wmught
products
heat
Ircarcd from any Icmpcr by the user when
such hca1 treatmen
msult~ in the mechanical properties
applicable
IO lhesc Icmpers.
System for Annealed
Pm&c&
A digit folkwit!g [he “0” &icams
a pralucr in annealcd condition
habq
spcial charac~crisrics. For eurnplc.
la heat-~u~ablc
alloys. 01 indiCaleS a protlducr thal has been
heal ~rctwd a1 approxinwcly
the sarr~ lime
and Iemprruurc
required
fa solu~nm kat
Ircalmenf
and Ihen au cooled to room ternprature:
[his designaumn appirs
IO prcducls
01a1 arc to be machmcd pm to solulico hear
trmmcm
by tk user .Merhanical
property
limits are nc4 applicable.
Designation
of Unregirltrrd
Tmpers
Tk IcIIcr P has ken asrtgratd ~oderu~e H.
T . and 0 temper vatiatons
tk+t M ncgcktcd ktwecn
manufacturrr
and pwchaw.
The
lcrter P follows the temper de5igwion
that
rrms1 rmrl) pcnams. Tk use of lhI5 1ypc of
deJignaIion
includes situaouts
where:
0 The use of the temper is vlffIcienlly
Itm.
iIcd IO prccludc its rcgisrntion
0 The ICSI conditions
arc dilTcrcn1 from
[hose rcquwed for rcg~stntmn
vuh 1hc
Aluminum
Associalion
l The mcchamcal
propn)
limils art noI
established
on Ihe same basis as required
for rcgwraoon
wrh ihe Atuminum
Asso
clarion

El-12

1998 to Metallurgy B2 .Appendix B Appendix B-2 Titanium instructional Video Teletraining Federal Aviation Administration Alloys Course Introduction April.

Zr. Alloys are designated by: 1. .. Specification: ASTM. Alpha-Beta Alloys a) Major alloying elements: Al.DESIGNATION DESIGNATION SYSTEMS FOR TITANIUM ALLOYS SYSTEM There is no standard designation system for titanium alloys. Cr.g. Mn. MO b) Minor alloying elements: Sn. 2. MO.. Fe. 3. Zr b) Minor alloying elements: V. Nb. . . AMS. . Sn. . Ta. Alloy content: e. Ti-6AL2Sn-2Zr 4. Zr. .I MO. . Fe c) Many alloys can b heat treated to high strength levels: Ti-1 SV-3Cr. Alpha/Near Alpha Alloys a) Major alloying elements: Al. Fe c) Many alloys can b heat treated to high strength levels: Ti-8AI-I V. Ti-6A1-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo 3. Beta C. . Sn. Transage. Nb b) Minor alloying elements: Al. Cr. Trade names: e. V. Beta/Near Beta Alloys: a) Major alloying elements: V. Ti.g. Commercially Pure (CP) Titanium 2. The same designation is used whether the alloy is wrought or cast. Cu c) Many alloys can b heat treated to high strength levels: Ti-6Al-4V. Ti-6Al-4V. MO. . Beta C.1OV-2Fe-3A1 82-l . CLASSIFICATION Titanium and its alloys are classified into four groups: 1.

.04 0. 0.30 IC) 0.03 0...3 0.0125 0.30 0.05 0..20 0..10 DIN 1.35th’ JIS Class 3. .... 0.05 0.7023 ......_.30 .20 0..... 0.0. ICI 0.25 0..Ol... ..0: 0.01s 0 01: .. .013 O.20 .15 0.... IO 0..08 COST ET14 .... 0...05 0......P.SS RS34001 .20 0..O... 0.........3 O. 0.10 DIN 3.9 Hi 480 70 380 53 I: ” 82-2 ..20 0.- mh ‘c JIS Class I....lO ASTM grade I I ICNS R5??...O! 0..4 MO.WROUGHT TITANIUM ALLOYS C...010 0. ..I24.... O.( cwdd~lkm..03 0.013 040 0.2-0... ..7055 0.&O....05 ES l%27Uin.__...5-45 24 0.W1 0.. 0.: 190-MO 382-530 480-617 55-77 70-90 440 64 Fe+dkml rym-@1 MR u 16Sfb) 2Ub) 170-310 175 2-5 25.. ASTM Me 3 ILNS RI3001 __..30 0. .06 0.3 0..25 Pd ICI 0 I8 0...06 0.10 ASTM -de 7 IUNS R524fm .0. . ..’ 0.20 0.20 0.07 BS 23. leek u-Mh u t75A-410 40-w 240 295-410 295 285410 343-S IO .35 0..18 0.__...03 0. ASTM endc : ICNS RJo46ol ....~au 3 0 0..30 0..015 IC) 0.23 0..3 0. JIS Class 2.. 0. ..20 0...... TITANIUM Comparison of various specifications for commercially pure titanium mill products ....08 COST BTlX$ . 0.. .30 mu 0.. . 0..20 0.5 195 2IUbJ 28 31(b) 27-10 245 4040 35.. _.....25 ...* 27 41 U)(b) 3n-sm 55-75 SW u&m a0 67-85 a4 323 70 47 343 30 275410 4040 20 Pd 240 35 170-310 24.. IO DIN 3.30 ICI 0..5 285 3431b3 -1 ..10 max .50 0. ..7035 ..... 0..12-0...10 ASTM grade I: tC....30 ICI 0...10 0.03 0.-. ..10 n O.03 h 0th Tad OtblJ 0.30 0. ASTM ~mdc I IUNS R500250. ...10 ASTM @ride 4 tUNS R507001 0.. ..20 0. . 0.013 0..OW 0.0125 0..

lSI 02SSi INb.b’.?SL ncm 0.So-5.( 0. I w.2 lb) 0.._.3 10.SSn. 4911 lnnllsl. IO 0. lb1 0.00 :. AMS 4915.wml 2. 0.. .4 lOllI .17Si 2.013 0.7>1. and TA.ISl 0... IO 0.( AMS 4926 lbars._. IO 0.. sheet... srnp.7hb..0: O-O? ul:! 0.AYS 4919.O O ! .32. bdlct.2 (bl 0.O! fl-SAI-L.SO4. 4976 0..2 0 I! L S govcmmenr 0..05 00125 “’ II 1o.platc.00 4.OCt.. I5Si 4. lo&&..5-l I.12 0 + Fe = 0.1 mar orhcrr IV 0.43Si B2-3 .O..5 ! 3 4 I 0.8 0%I.1s lb).2 0.TPd ?.3 ronl 0 + Fe = 0.02 0. shcc. sheet.7S 0. 4973 lforgingsl .- S.2 3. govcmmcnr J J0-6.12 0.SSSa IUHS daiglurkil II C titanium -iiizzY Fe 0 m .3 0.25 O..brr.2 O.00 IL’NS RMlOl.2 XL2.4 total others 2._.015 Tl.0125 0.. TA...26 British TA.12 0. C.0125 0.ELI AMS 4924 [bars..3JBi.25 0.03 0.08 O. otherrIb.wrc.ICIN MO Ckk’ 0.5 4909 fplak.O 0: .. ITa .. I? O.5&5.O.Yb.cl AECMA..2 0..JAI-2.27 Tid?4ZS.0.25 0.O. and ASTM B 381 .w.W 0.05 .4 0.8 Typlcai. O.>11.1: 0..cG6. .08 001 0. 6 H-&s 0.OOJY 0.. .ooSY 0..2s 0. .003 0. 0..OJ AM 4910 .0s uutc 0. O.O.LcV 0.O?.4% O.O.01s O. fcqmgsl 4.R. AMS 4974 Ibars..00 0.25 OS 4 0. TA 2:..2.08 0..O! ASTM B 348 .o05Y.. TA.:’ 4 3 3 3.5 0.*I *ooriw yai .O.? 0.s.’ . ..o.01: 0. O. 0.13s~.1 lotal Id).1’V .. 4975. IMI 685 lMl829 _.00 ?Nb. IMI BY _..O.30 0.18.03 0. .___.CbSi 03Si 0..M.5%?Zr-?Mdfl TibAl-2%.OJ 3420-TA7 IChincscJ.15 .7Sl..OI.! 3.3 4.05 Sheet w strip 1prEN2128) and forgings 1prEN2522 and 2531.0 O. 0.12 0. ASTM B 265 lp+.04 .5 I. slripl .644 I .. IO Impurity limits same as AMS 4910 0.?Cl.S.00-3... O.02 VTJI ....GI.1-0.lC.8-1.O! 0.G6.2 0.7llS) .0-J au 0 08 0.5 4._.5 5s 6 O.w 4.19.u..4 total olhers :..lWJY. 4972 (bars.20 lmdlnryl TI-6AI-2.00-6.32. .50 I&?..025 10.cTI Tl-679 IUNS Rs790) Typlcal. rings) and AMS 4966 lforgmgs..17 0.O... 0. lorgingsl Brmsh TA.UNS RS462OHcr .4 I .&C 0. ..l.30 0._.U.. Ti. ..ITa-0.IMo.c ML-R-81588 lnng._.5 4.0-3.cXOKb.5 5 4. 0.75-1.% 78. .0 4.w I.0 2.O.. 4955 .S.bX MO (CSS R562101 lmilinryl . 4916. .Wo alloys Uaia -15 w Impurity limlls not available 8 0.orb Rw2ol DIN17851 lalloy WL3.forgingr).o. strip.O... wire1 .2 O.012 0 0125 0.20. 0.0-6.0s 0. ._.10 AM.S.cNel.M li m m &me as TA.( 0.bl.2 0.Ol! 0.o 0%I.S 0.05 each.20 0.PM _.OOSYIb) 0.5 0._ .O’ 2.012J 0.04 0.O.l.015 0.’ 0. I?a.04 0.OJ TI-gAl-IV.02 0.0: 0.01 TI-6242 mm.‘Zr. 0.w 0. I5Si 4.. O.013 0. O.0.CU 0.aJ-3.JO l.2 0.10 0.0-60 I 0.. 0.2 0.O.08 0.1: 03 0.WROUGHT TITANIUM ALLOYS ALPHA/NEAR ALPHA ALLOYS Compositions of various alpha and near-alpha IPIdan rprcilblim Impurlly * Bars IAECMA slandards prEN?J?I and XII .. .15.au 0.00 4 w-6. Ti-5Al. .4 6 5 6 6 5.ocr1.OOJ 0. .10 001: 0.75 tUNS da@rutioa R54521... .4 0.

5V 0.lMo-IVIe .20 tc. IO 0..75 0.. ..30 0.5V 3.11 0.5-6...35-1.35-I . .25 0..05 0.I9 0. forgmgs.u.10 0.05 $1 IO oo..?Z~.. TI~AI-~S~. IO 0.01.utl 0 :o UIU n.5d..5 J 2 6 a M-6.J-r.75-2.W5Y (dl 5.75 5.J-J.08 0.JV 3.4YS A979 ibars.JV 3. smp8.12 4 3.m5y 5.c 0.?JPd 0.56.’ 0.? 7 r..30 0.0.WROUGHT TITANiik ALLOYS ALPHA-BETA ALLOYS TyplCal 41loy Ti-P6J m AECMA jnndard prEN25M for bars.14 0.vl-551.7Ku.05 0.75 5..15 0.?Si IV OcmSI .20 0.0.ti. O..JV IUNS US66201 Trpical 4MS J918.30 0. 0.30 0.10 0. and J967 lneg5.35-1..&I 0.6-6.2 0.01 0.75 3. wlp.0.75 5.JV 0.4 lOlaI ICI.’ 4 5 3..5-6.4 mral kt.30 0.” AM.’ O..12 0.75 5....4l.. 4936..50 0.nndard prEN25 17 for sheer.3 0.0.08 0.17 lscc also Table 5~1.OV Same a5 aboe a-f3 alloy5 L’NS iAOl?Otin AYS J908l css 5670 I.JV.25 0..5-2.M 0..05 0.01 008 0.0-6..4MS 491 I fplalc.. 0. IO ~I.25cr O.3 total 4 2.4MS 4954 Iwlrel ASTM B 265 iplate.OlC O.’ 0.5-5. Tt.08 0.3 5.20 0.10 0. 0.Y.08 Rs64a1.MS 49431 IHI 550.7:2.0 1..10 0.01:.5 0.25 0.’ O.JAI. sheer.05 0.( O.ti.IM.2 0..3 0.05 UM 0 0: O. 4 I .sccu.75 6 J. O. .0.71651.n13 0.5-1.5V 3.012! OOI’..:.I:-O.4MS 4905 lplarel ...25 4 2 II I II-t. Tld.05 o. .411oy Ti-PM m .Iu. ..AECMA ..08 0.o.01: 0...1 max 5.01 0.54.’ O. .7~2.c!mY 5&o 2 1..05 0.Y.. I. 4MS 4920. T&a6 I tiNS R562bOl T1....011! 0.Mu.ol:! 04 0.W.&J.015 0.15 0.O4 I.75 5.2&s .Ol1!lr.lw.75 0. IMI ml. IW 679. 0.Y.5-2.. O.O ?).u.5v 3.u.y 0015 0.5-fl.5V l.’ 0.25Si ICu.3 0.%l.75 J.5-4..75 3.caJY 0..:C~-~~O.1 max 0.5v 0..20 0.05 0. o.20 0.’ 0. I IX-?.AMS 4906 fshccr.0 0....%x75 5.. ..Ol! o.?‘ISi.u)5Y ICI. _.01: 0..56.Y.01:..Z.4STY F 467 tnu~rl and F 468 Iboll5l.5V 3..25 0.o u.: 0.75 5..5-6.(V tin A.2 0. .4978 (Mn 0.08 0. O. wires) .7i2.13 ICI.20 ICI..11 O.20 0.. 4STM F 467 IIWISI and F 468 IbollSl lv6.4 local 5.O’ 0 01 001: 0.5 6 -3 1 1. wip.4MS 4996 fbdlell . 0.cu forgings. 0.005Y IC) 5. plate DIN 17851 Catby WL3.O 0.20 1U.25 4 .OMn 7 6 5.3 0.20 ICI 5.01:5 0013 0..5 J9701.01’ o.JSi ?.. 4934.OV 0.2 0.5V J. 8..2 2 4 6 4 1.ocr O.10 0.40 0.05 0.0 0.03 0.10 o.r .25 0. sheet.4v I.’ 0. O.5 0..18 0. .5-6.40 0. ev 0.25 4 I .5-6. tbt 0. o.3.05 0.0: ” 0u.5-5.. 1.12 0.4STM F I35 fbar.4928. 4971. .03 0.1 max.O! 0 01 0 (u 0 03 ‘l.20 ICI 5 o-6.1: 0. O.5-5.05 0. 5.aMS J907 and 4930.20 0.. Ti-6Al-6V-2% 0.G4V-ELI IL% .

CCr 12%I4.75V IL16V.35 0..5-3.s3.?Fe-3AI.015 0.01s 0.35 0.05 0..545 4.5 2.98 MIL.6-2. _.0 0.5 O.05 0.05 003 0..@-12.~14.3~ 0. of various alloys 0. and B 338 Ti-IOV.10 0.343 2.&l3.4 0.35 O.s 10. High-strcngrh allo) Ttansqc I29 .12 0.03 0.J 7.~14.03 oa!l 0.” “.01 0.20 0. .5 2.20 0. I I.05 0.&l3.0: 0.C2. IO.6-3.025 0.WROUGHT TITANIUM ALLOYS BETA ALLOYS Compositions beta titanium AMS 4917 AMS 4959 Iwirel MIL.13 0..5-l4.W 82-5 .5-2.OBtnom) IC) 1.30 0. 2.>).23 3.18 0.L-3.) 2.. and MIL-F-83142 Beta C (UNS R58MOl.5 1.17 0.7.5 2.Kr 12..:.05 0.M. Shecl alloy Ti-17ldl.Kr IO&l2.62.0125 1. 4980 ASTM: B 348.3AI (UNS R588201.5 lO.. AMS 4977.5 II 3.T-9006.015 0..1.4 IOUI 0.05 0.0: 0.023 0.a).s14.sv. 0.J-B.4 0.5-&5V 3.020 0.005Y 0.&l?.02s 0.M.OV II.5 1.O? 008 0.13 0.5433 I?&l4.543 9.JV 3.SV.ls-o.M.4 1.05 0.7M..5 ss6. I2.015 0. Forgmg alloy Tel53 .4 roral 0.5.30 0. B 26).35 0. MIL-T-9017.2-l.16 0. IO.’ IbYe) :.17 (bl (bl.084 I3 IC) ICI IC) 2.4 IOUI 3.2%10.05 0.) 2. 0.5-33 4..0 2 1s2.W.05 Ti-I3V-I tUNS ICr-3AI 580101 Ti-BMc-8V-2Fc.5Cr 3.17 0.sa.015 0.05 0. B 337. I2.: 6.J 0. Same as above Beta Ill.0s 0.lItma.R-815.4 tocal 2.&l2..4 0.OV .W IO.T-9U46.Y..05 0.01s 0..0s 0.5-3. clcbaledlcmpnl”re Tnnsage 134..15 tbre) xL3.. Engme com~rcrv~r 4#OY Tnntage 175 Hiph-clrenglh. 0.W.CCr 7.17 2.030 0.25 0. O. MIL.W.>)..&12.05 0.J 12.008 MIL.01) 0.05 0.T-9047: MIL-F-83142 High-loughntrr grade 0.w.62.0 7.

5 3 2.015 0..03 O..25 0.. Ti-3AI&‘&rdZrdMo t&U-C) Ti-ISV-JAI-3Cr-3Sn (Ti-13-3). T&l . .... TibAl-2Sndt... ... Commercially pure Iitanium Igrade 2).OW 5 3...10 0.10 0...03 0..2 0..006 O.a 0. ...J .... .006 s..3 . ‘. IO 0. . ..006 6 6 7% 0.006 Ti-MI-L... ..010 TibAl-ZSndZr4Mo ... 2 2 6 0...015 0.10 0. 4 0. .015 0. ....2 0.... ........03 0.015 0.... ....4 4.. ” 2 6 6 3 ” Cl% 0..... .. ... .. .ax 0. 0.. 28 Y ..15 .35 1 w poprtlr(nn) Ccned p”rposc Crywcnictarghmss Comsiofi =rismC Elcvawd-rcmpmurc C=P Elevated-rcmperuure rIren8Ih Cryogenic toughness RT strength Rfr~n#h Elevated-tcmpcruurc propenies Elevated-kmpcmrurc properties IOOQ 826 ..45 3.. .03 0.12 0. C I% C 1% Cl% Cl% 0.75 4 .. .2 0..006 o.... Ma 2..... .. 0... M-834 Cl% 0.... ...02 .11 0. .5 3 6.2Mo titanium bladd mhdWI d& 8596 ALLOYS alloys Nadd I ?( C II 1% 6% 0..... .1s ..16 0.W6 0.04 0. .7 .......015 0....I umpdkm...07 0..010 0.. a. nr v cr sr o.015 0. 4 6 0.03 0. TidAIdV TidAIdV ELI(b)...” ..1) . 0. .3 0. .CAST TITANIUM Comparison of cast *lbl ..W6 O..10 0. ..04 0.5 15 . .0 0.. WL ....0 ” .06 0. I8 0.03 O..W6 0 AI .01: 0.SSn ..... .. ..010 0... 4. Ti-II00 .02 ..0 0.. . . 3 0.03 0..

Low Alloy. I998 Introduction to Metallurgy B3 . and Alloy Steels Instructional Video Teletraining Course Federal Aviation Administration April.Appendix B Appendix B-3 Carbon.

Cr 1.50 .20 0.25. Hi 0.0.Ni .00. . . .. . Mn 0.Cr 0.02 . .65 and 0.Jiui” 15xx is used widely sti Steelr @AdAA !h?dA XXBXX B denotea bomn fuel leaded steel . .50 . .45..50.20.27.Ni 1. will have no AISUSXE HY 80 and 3OOM. 0. e.65 High-Strength Low-Alloy .50: 3. stainless steels excluded.30 Occasionally.45 c 1. Steels Designation Systems Classification by composition is the most Carbon and Low Allov Steels The AISVSAE designation system cast or wrought. 9xX Steele .80 and 0. MO 0.Cr 0.85.40: 0. ..25 and 0.By properties High Strength Low Alloy Steels (HSLA). .Ni 5. NlckelCbrodum-Molybienum carbon (max Mn range1.35 .Ni .Ho 0.. Tool Steels.Ni 0.No intentional alloying elements added.. 3.05. . In such cases.Total alloying element content I 8% c) Alloy Steels.By end product Spring Steels. .Ni . Gun Steels. industry. the steel is identified by the trade name assigned by Alloy Steels Alloy steels are strictly identified by trade names assigned by industry.659) 13xX.Ni 0.00.Ni 3. Ni 0. Electrical 4.N.92. .Cr 0.12.MoO.80: MO MO Ho MO MO MO MO Ho 50xX.0.65 . .10 And 0.Mo0.25 .75 Nickel-Chromium 31XX 32XX 33xx 34Xx for steels..40 and 0. for carbon A& .Cr 0.30: . Ultrahigh Strength Steels.20 and 0.&85and1.12 0.82. Cr 0.%dA . Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr 0. . 0. 0.12 0.50.60.82.g. .Ni 1.50 and 0. . HP-9-4-30 and Marage 300. Cr 0. 0.50. Cr 0. . Cr Cr Cr Cr 0. .00.77 steels.400. .40 and 2.By composition: Three classes are identified a) Carbon Steels.55. 94Xx 971xX 98Xx Steel..Ni 3. . .00 Steela ..00 to 1.30.25. .03 min Cr 0. . . N-AA fypaOf#&dd dwu 8ofAiMl CarlmE 23xX 25Xx mad and rephoaphw St&a ..Si 1. MO UBVXX . used system NumerAla Auoy lOXX(a) .&82. . the steel is TypOOflrerlAd nomid Chromium rlloy woteot SteelA WXXX SlXXX 52XxX . . .75.?Ji 1. 1. Ni 0.Total alloying element content > 8%.40. .0. .50 and 1. 0..50 and 0.20 0.2Oand . .L denotee SkdA . MO 0. a steel D6-a. . 0. Nitriding see appendix D Steels.52 41xX and low alloy dldta 81XX 86xX 87Xx 88Xx 93xX.20. V 0.00 mill Chromium-Vanndium 61Xx 0.ay: l.ReAulhuircd 12XX .Steels Classification Steels can be classified in more than one \\.Mo 0.25: 1. . . Bearing Steels.0.20 and 47XX .Ni 3.00 Lmeded XXLXX Sccclr .35 0. .55.95. .80 and 0.Ni 0.25 0. 0.12 0.75 Silicon-Mangfmere 92XX . designation . 83-l . . .00 and 0. .00% ..80. Plain carbon 11xX.N. Cr 0.75. .By processing Carburizing Steels. ..57 0. 0. Molybdenum 40XX 44xX (Mn 1. .h’i 1. 3.55.55.50.95. b) Low Alloy Steels.15 min Tungsten-Chromium Steel 72XX . 0. 51xX designation systems is used whether are as follows. The same AUO~ content Sted~ . .95.Cr 1.80 1. 2. e.g. V .20.0.55..07 1. 0. 0. MO 0.25 Chromium designation NuQltrAh end didtr ‘PypcOf~lAd nomhl 433xX 48xX SteeL t%WUhEl*MO~ybdCllUl The corresponding Nickel4folybdcnum Steela 16XX. .VAriOuA hmtl .12 and 0. ...25 Steela .82 and 0. .Fk.hIn 1. .PlAin Mangaacme Nickel eontent Steeb .50... 1.cr3fp7.45.W 1. * .

48-0.050 0. .40-0.35-1. .SAI earboa Hooh with a maximum manganow l xsoodiag l. .05 0.22-0.0.050 1.23 0.10-1.19-0.srcelsltr~ed in thlrtablc are generally not deondxred wrh rilicon ~b'Cont~ns0 15 10 0 35’i lead. ..04 0.24 .040 0.45 1.19-0.65-0.0.13 0.49 0.04 0.18-0. Cl1440 .canbcpmdu&u !+d ~~ll. .Oi-0. .40 0..050 Cl5240 0. .09-0.15 1.00-1.25 0.30-0.0.37-0.85-1.13 1213 Cl2130 0.70. 83-2 .26-0.JS'i lerdand identified byinwningrheletvr L in the designation-llL17.19 . .65 1.70-1.35 12Ll+b. S Cl1170 Cl1180 Cl1390 . . .04 0.33 0.040 0. 13 0.040 0.60 0.39 0. .050 0.24.:: Cl2120 0. . .Oi-0. .65 0.00 0. . 0.50 1. . .55-0. BcuuroTtheadvcrsee~~tol~ilieo~on machinability ~teel~liadinthti ~bl~~~gcnerallyno~dco~idi~cdilh rilicon..0.04 0.25-0. .040 0.36 .37.70-1.44 0. .12 0. 4 .20.13 .05 0.60 0.oe-0. able can be produced wth the same lead content.08-O.05 Ml010 Ml012 Ml015 Ml017 . .90 0..20 Cl1370 0.050 0. 13 0.0.M motuboa+ quality rwois c-poswoa SA1 standard mogos and msulharlxod AISI-SAE UNS dcrilnatioa . other steels ItsId III th.Steelli~vdin thirub<.04 0. ..050 0.050 0.0.CARBON STEELS composltioa roqos and limits (or AlSl4A.40 0.71 0.15 1.12 0.10.D(W maximum phwphoma. .60 0.040 .~. .13 121? . .10-1. 1137 . Cl1400 .47-0.050 0..05 UNS dwignarlon 1.55 0. 0.10-0. .lO 0.07-0.08-0.24 1.60 0.050 0.60 0.60 1.040 Cl5720 CorrporHion rosalhwisod Pmu Cl5130 G15180 Cl5660 1572(b) Ma C Cl5250 mm and UNS dcrignatioa 0.08-0.15 0:13 1211 c12110 O.29 0.050 0.43-0.05 0.09 0.08-0.10 0. . .04-0.45-0..0.40 0.08-O.050 0.55 0. 1522 1524 1525(b) 1526 1527 1536(b) 1541 1547(b) 1548 1551 .40.48 1. Cl2144 0 75-1.32-0. .08-0.35-1. 0.0.60 0 25..30-1.80-1. 1139 .lo%-aoatlfinisbad proawes for forging‘ roliod aad cold flaisbod bmrr.05 0.05 0.20 CODHO* HeatzgF.43 1.040 0. . .SAE dcalgnacioa umit.60 0.0.00 O.25-0.50 0.04 0.25-0. .30 .26-O 35 Cl2150 0.00 0. .20-1.O. ..13 1151 .00 0.24-0.60-0.35-1.14-0. win rod and seamlosr 1513 .33 0.35-1. . . 1552 1561 1566 hot rubimg AISI-SAE designation smu F0mr Am-SAE dcrl#tuUon 0.u. .25-0.51 0. .65 0.050 1027 1036 1041 1047 1048 1051 1052 1061 1066 1072 AiSl.9 .09 1215 '11 &cauuoFthc ad\cru ck~ofc~l~conon machinsb~lity.50 1.15 0.25-0.42-0.13 'aJLimitonpho~phonueonrent1~~~eninTable1~chccrpiulvaluci~O.05 Ml023 Ml025 Ml031 Ml044 max GlllOO 1117 Ill.040 0.14-0.60 0.O. 1140 1141 1144 1146 .05 0.050 0.30 ad limha ropbosph&xod for 0.d C Mn dtQnation 1110 Ml008 ilmlts for carbon 0.07-0.040 0.* P S 0 60-0.0. ..65-1.09 0.08-0.040 0.20-1.10-1.12-0.35-1.15 toO.56 0..13-0.25-0.040 . .050 0.04 0.60 0.44-0.05 Ml020 .050 0.16 .60 0.30 1.O. Cl1460 hmposhiom standard AISI.65 0.04 0.13 o..040 0.60 0. st00h Hc~ceo~~~o&ionrange.14 .70.13 0.25-0.l?-0.21 1.12 0. . .65 ran~ea and iimlk fee AISI.76 1.35-0.SAl stmndad tarboa stools Hc~mpolition-er~ndUml~~*I MI3 c m. .05 -0.29 1. .23-0.05 0.40 1. . Cl5220 0. .29 0.21 0. .85-1. .10-1.30-0.040 0.04-0.00 0.20-1.65 0.040 0.44 0.0.35-1.20 0. .04 0. . Cl1410 .10-1.040 0.27 0.04 0.65 1.00-1. .1. . .35-l 0.26-0.0.. .52 0.40 0.25-0.050 1024 Cl5256 G15270 Cl5360 Cl5410 G15470 Cl5480 G15510 G15520 Cl5610 0. .50 0.040 0.25~0.13 0.37 0. Cl1510 0.1.uqw 1518(b) .t~ic~llycon~lning0.14-0.75-1.iO-1. .36-0.16-0.65 0.16 0.22-0. .15 0.08-0. AISI.15-0.

o..w 360.s-1. 1OlS 1019 1020 1021 IO-22 1023 1025 1026 1029 1030 : .404.15-0.0.038 0.434.6o-o.W 0..90 0.25.~3452 0..M l.23 0.90 0. ..lS u) OJs-* leti •~~+ntifidbfl-ryIhkur L lnths dargNuon-IlLI : berm meeLcul be expecwd ro~nu~n0.60&90 0.c.60 0.30 0.60 0.0.50 0.60-0.31 0 26-034 :.u~ hnw de-don lSB21Hlbl lSB35Hlbh lSB37Hlbn 1584lH’b.Wl.50 0.6o. .16 0 15-0.50 W.16-0.OK 4 mm”.45 0.0.i0.o.60 0.:: Cl0230 GlO25o c1026o Cl0290 1 G10300 loo6 1008 1009 1010 1012 1015 1016 101.00 0.00 0.0.~ 060-0.30-0.l~tba G10350 Cl0370 G10380 GlWso Glo4oo I.72.60-0.SAE UN9 dr~i#nntionderi~tion 0...0.30 0.7O-1. %.66 0 594.30 I: tm.0.60 0.53 o. h values in Table I qp..1.w 1090 lo95.0.80-O 94 0.34x.88 0.50 1522H H15220 0 17-O 25 0.O. 106Stb~ 1070 G lo6@) elm C106.24 0.CARBON STEELS Hrrt AISI.13-0.6o.00 lo49.55 0.70 0.300 60 0.90 G1p6w GlO7oo 045-0.00 0.46x.23 0.60-0.4: 0.. 0.70 O.65 0.1.44 0.70-1.00 0.90 0 6O-C.#sad. l nd 0 m rams” o.o28 0. wbd IimiU.7O-OSO 0.0.08 msx 0 10 max O.39-0.00 lO36H.w 0. LOW 1053 1055 1059lCl Cl0490 GlOSOO Cl0530 Clan GlOS9o 0.70 0.0.~ 0.4: 0.98 0.0.54. HIM50 1.90 0.30 0.6a-o.4M.15. 1016 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1025 1026 lo30 lo33 lo35 lo37 Glow3 C10080 GlW9O GlOlOO c10120 GlOl50 GlOI6o Cl0170 GlOl6o Cl0190 Cl0200 Cl0210 Gl0220 Cl0230 Cl0250 G 10260 G103W G 10330 G10350 Cl0370 Hea1 compowi(Ion nngt.60490 0.32-O 36 032.6a.6o. St+ lised In tha Ubl* un k pdd -I ddiuonr d kad or bmn Lradrd MII onially mnum O.0.30-0.00 O&O-0.55.d . Lo66.75 1524H H15240 l.10 0.25.00 0.7o.90 0.S5 0.00-1.o4 O..15.80 0.29-0.O.20 o 3o.5O-C.11 0 14-0. 1..30-l 65 No-1 55 1 m-1 55 1. 1043.90 0. mum PhVPhO~ ad o. 1065. dwd #Tw&only.17.60-0.30.39-0.6.16 0 13-0.o.50 0.70 0.53 0.44 0.050 030.1.16 o 12.2.60 o.oo.5O.o&I.44 0 6o.4o-o.7Ol.70.15.OMbprmudrrsIdrnuId by tnrnm the IeturT mtkdew Ition15B41. compoMa~adulck~A9uIEIu ALSLSAE detioo AlSI.9@l.00 0.38 O. 1036.1 Lmiu on phe ld & mntenY al? rwain%M* I..36-0.150.60.0.0.88 0..0.60.0 20 0 14.0.360.o.70.94 0..604. low.13 OJ5max 0 25..3(’ 0.ulhr aonunl w only rq.65 o.7o-1. 1010 IOllfb.30 4.550.2U 0 lY.23 o 17-O 23 O.30-0.00 0.7O-1.90 0.90 o.60490 0.0. 15521 b.55 0.76 0.250.W O.35042 0.@J~.0.490 0.UM.34.35-0.‘Io-1.51 o. 1095.M) 0.94 0.90 0.47 o.0005rO.90 0.o3 060.60.15-0.5a 0.l C .20 l.0. Cl0120 G10130 Cl0150 Cl0160 Cl0170 0 10.23 0.9-0.90 10741bl 10751bl 1076.2.30-050 0.60-0.25-0..SAE de.31.43 0.600.1.Wn CM drumanon 1005 loo6 IO@.80 03o.90 0.60-0.6~0.~ o.23 0 19-O 25 0 22-0.08-0.o.1. Can bc 83-3 _--.6o-a9a 0.70-1.30 0.26 1.60 0.60 0 3O-MO 060-0.90 0.5o-1..30..0 39 0.69-0.90 0..29 0.5 0 27-0.15-o.66 0.X _.93 0.X..w.m 108Ybl.50 06Omu 0 30-0.00 0.7s 0. H1038O 0.w 0.55 mm&?derkr~ H.200.0.5o-mo 0.0. .15-0.29 0 22.28 0 22.46-0.6&0.43-0.40-0.0 90 0 TO-1.&lJ 0. 0.96 O.43-0.wl 0.42.0.6o 0.sl~.~~.lSmax 0.30-O&o 0..90 0. WnI C Mm AISI..25 0.:O-1.1.0.50-0.60-0. h.O.00 0 3O-0.0.9-0.52-0.22.34 0. 15241bl 15271 bl 15361 bl 1541(b) 15481 b.16 0.wl.15 0 12-0.oo.ad ID corirun 0 ooO5 *a O.wPA~~J~~O~-.70030 0.0.75o.30 0. Cl0900 Cl0950 Cl5240 Cl5270 G15360 Gl%lO G15W Cl5510 o&-c.09o 1035 103.wQ -mum ‘“‘fur when allcan rrngc3 01 IiilU m m mlumd.00 0. On pkoqhorus .i#wtion C AISI.30-0. 1044 lo45.6O-093 0.15-0.80 o 50.6o 0 60.59-O 70 0X54.60-0.0.18-(3.60 I)~~.051.420.14.&l 0.35-O 45 154lH : Hl5410 We” I” tab* .5o o.SAE drmrion comporidon rrrqcs and limu.1.47-0. ‘c’ APSI de 91 0.5-0.30-0.90 0.0.18-0.00 0x5-075 G1036o Cl0390 ClOIoo G1042o G10430 GlO450 G IO460 G104U) GlO5OO GlO550 GlO6W GlO640 GlW c1o:M) ClOTI cIo:&l Cl080 Glo640 Cl0650 GlO.60.Bo 0.0. 1080 lo64.45 0.PO&&~ UNS wrroo Hem mmpo~ition “asrr and limiu.20 0.15 0.80.w lo42. C1OOsO c1w6o CIWW GlOloo GlOllO 006mar 0 08 mar 010m. Cl0120 Glo430 Cl0440 G~om Clo46o 0..44 0374.55 0.64-0.o.io-1. lo46.90 0.38 o 31-0.30 0.30.6a-a.60 0.18-0.850. Cl0850 Cl0860 Cl0900 G10950 0.60 0.50 1x.0 90 0 30.22.20 ~1. ?I*) C Mn LX9 dc.50-0.W45 0.90 0.25 0.30-0.o. 15Es62H~br WV o MW UN9 dedirioa H15211 H1535L H15371 HI5411 Hl5481 Hi5621 muimum pbwhoma C Haleompaiboa dumiwWLI Lb u. Si 0.30-l 65 1.15-O 30 0 15-0..90 0 TO-1..0. 1039 1040 1012 1013’bl 1015 1016 1017.90 0.37.750.15430 0.93 0.50 1.~.72.90 1060 106(.42 0.90 o.30-0.a 00.0.13 0.=II=U= ~fw.3w.00 1OISH.7o-1.o.lbo.0.l.60 0.4o-0.36 o 31-0.13 +10.70 O.60-0.3s 030..cJ 15646Hlb.53 0.0.140.SAE Mm 0.cBo.5O 0.45.75 1.1.21-O 30 1526H HlJ26O 1.1.40 120-1.9o 0.d+dy ICI &I sun.8o4.90 0.15-0.42.li-0.70.60 0 60-0.20 0.800. abl S~.80-0.60 GlOleO Cl0190 GlO2oO Cl0210 Gl0-220 0.W.1.0 40 030.55 O.11.50 0 550. Cl0740 Cl0750 Cl0760 Gla6Qo Glow 0.60 ‘b.34 0.6o.47 g30.

25 0. .00 0..035 0.20-0.040 0.15-0.75-1..45-0. .15-0.30 0.65-2.40-0.. G50401 G50441 G5wjo G50461 G50501 0.... .64 0.30 0.15-0..30 0. 0.25...LOW ALLOY STEELS 1330 1335 1340 1345 4012 ..70 0..50-0.035 0.. 50461~1 .035.00 0....70-0.50 0..30 0..040 0....20-0.035 kontinued) 0..30 0..90 0.65 0..O50db.30 0..00 0.035 0.035 0. G41470 G41500 G41610 G43200 G43400 0. ..040 0.15-0.17 0..00 0.15-0..80-1.. SOB60er ..040 0.30 0.30 0.X1-0.90 0.70-0..18-0.10 4135tc1 4137 4140 4142 4145 . .90 4720 4815 481i 4820 50151e1 G-47200 G48150 G48170 G48200 G50150 0...35 0..15 0...150.60 0....040 0.040 0.13-0.30 ..15-0..15-0.10 0.30 0.30 0..035 0...15-0.035 0... .25 .035 0..2OKk35 0.75-1..40-0..22 0.040 0.00 1.40-0.43 0.17-0.30 0.15-0.....00 1.60-1..15-0..30 0..45.040 0.30 0.80-1......00 0.25 0.75 3.30 0..035 0.025 0.90 0..30 0.30 0..150.60 0. n-0.040 0...MO 0..25 0. 50B44ie) .90 0. ..30 0.85 0.65 0..70-0.1s 0..25 0...30 0. G40230 G40240 G40270 G40280 GUI320 0.. ..10 0...035 0.13-0..70-0.30 0.80 0...30 0.040 0.15-0.040 0.43-0.040 0..15-0.53 0.40-0.15-0.15-0.45-0....O.035 0. .60 0..20X1.035 0.30 0.035 0.70-0.040 0....15-0...20-0...22 0.20 0..90 .035 0..40-0.35-0.00 0.35-0.20-0.20-0.56-0.35-0.2s 0..15-0.. 5OBSOjet .150.15-0.20-0.20 0.035 4037 ..30 0.035 0..20-0.38.90 0.13-0.30-0.48-0. .65-2.. Cl3300 Cl3350 Cl3400 Cl3450 G40120 0.15-0.48 0.45-0.90 0.. 0.35-0.O50(b.50 0.15-0.::: 47181~) .75-1...35 0.. 4617(c) 4620 .33-0.0..43-0...65 0.10 4147 4150 4161 4320 4340 ......15-0.2CbO..040 0..75-1.0..25 0.20-0. 46211~1 4626 .30 0.30 0.90 0.O.18 0.80-1.30 0.30 0..80-1.. ...80-1.43 0.30 0.53 0.035 0.00 1..15-0..40 0...15-0.90 0.70-0....70-0.28-0.: ::: .. .60 0.38 0.035 0..70-0.35-0.0.22 0.56-0. 1.45-0.10 0.__.20-0..38-0.22 0..035 0.35 0. 4118 . 4422(c) .43 0....30 0.e1 .15-0..70-0..70-0...30 0.040 034 0.40-0....70-0.80-1.040 0.. 4130 ..035 0.23 0.30 0.00 1..09-0..35-0.035 0.70-0.O..60-1.25-0.040 0.75-1.15-0.30 0.040 0.040 0.90 0..90-1.43-0.00 0..........90 0..15-0.45 0..90 0..28-0.56-0..30 0.25 0.652..040 0..60-1..035 0.70.40 0..30 0..00 0.70-0.15-0.. G43406 G44190 G44220 G44270 G46150 G46170 G46200 G46210 G46260 G47180 0..20 3.48-0.040 0.30 0.040 0.040 0.25 0....60 0.30 0. .38 0..00 1X5-2.15-0. 1.23 0.75-1...18-0.90 0.30 0.10 0.64 0.30 0.15-0.75100 0. 4427lct .:.. .......30 0..70-0..035 0.20-0...025 0...15-0....20 0.70-0..040 0.30 0..30 0.90 1..30 0...040 0.65-2. 5120 ..48 0.035 0..20-0.035 0...040 0...150..45-0.30 0.035 0..2s 0.60 5060~1 .....75-1..25 0.90 E4340tdJ .44-0. ..30 ..30-0.15-0.15-0.035 0.90-1.70-0.035 0....25 0. .18 0.90 0. 4047 .15-0.18-0...29 0.15-0.. 0.24-0.15-0.15-0.24-0..1.65 0..00 0.75 3253..035 0.... G506~ 0.30 0.035 0.00 0.15.15-0.15*0.150. .23 0.. 0..65200 .. .. .15-0.90 0.. 4023 4024 4027 4028 4032 .040 .040 0..30 0.40-0.15-0. Sllirfl . s-O....035 0. c40370 G40420 G40470 G41180 c41300 0.10 0.. 0...15-0.90 0.70-0..035 0..035 0..50 0. 4042(c) .90 1.. 441%~) .30 0.90 0.. G51150 G51170 GSl200 0.0.035 0.160.15-0.040 0.25-0..15-0.30-0.15-0.10 0..33 0..035 0..75-1...40-0.035 0.45 0..040 0.30 0.40-0.30 0.75 0.035 0.12-0.65 0....65 0.035 0.90 0..60 0.33 0..40-0.040 0.30 0.38-0.20-0. ..5s 0.65-2...90 0.30 0...75-1.30 0.25-3.15-0.......55 50B40(c..15-0...29 0..70-0.30 0.040 0.4s 0.38-0... .45-0..30 0....33-0..75-1...150.80..00 0..20.50 .:I.14 1...035 0...15-0.035 0..040 0.30 0.25 .48 0..040 0..035 0.08-0.035 0.25-3...30 0..60-0..040 0.60 0..00 0. 4615 ..035 0..48 0.75-1. 5115tc1 ..040 0.43.040 0.1... ...21 0. G41350 G41370 G41400 G41420 G41450 0.43 0..30 0.30 0..45 0.150.30 0.30 0.64 0.90 0.20-0..040 .75-1..15-0.60 0.035 0. 0.0..45-0.040 0.20-0..30.90 0..30 0...20-0. .38-0.035 0.30 ..20-0....040 0..40-0.70-0..70-0..2s 0.0.17-0.50-0.45-0.60 0.._.75-1.17-0..00 0...70 0. 50B46e1 ..15-0.035 0.30 0.60-1.17-0...0....040 0.40 0..20-0..040 0..040 0.70-0.15-0.00 0..035 0.65-0..90 0.30 0.15-0..16-0.43 0.30-1.040 0... .00 0.....035 0.70-0.30 0.49 0.20430 0..035.23 0.150.30 0..20 0..15-0...20-0...90 0..90 1..30 0.70-0.30 0.60 0 404. .70-0.

a65 0 16.10 0 154.090 070.a 044.4b.m 0.035 0035 ool5 .m 0035 0033 0035 0035 0.023 0.m.455 056obl o.sl-ob4 070.00 0.am 0.~045 ou9.095 0104m om4Ym 0.45 0..l.ca 016100 070090 0 70.lMI.u 043445 om-090 010.m oabou ow.5 0025 oom 0055 owl5 o.1.751.064 019.u owu 0.035 om5 0514.020 O.151.90 070490 0104.m OWJO omou 0lso.090 0035 0035 o-335 046. “-4*1-l 03341 03M)..055 oal5 OoM).5.3M).90 o..5 0.rn 0.ca 0.1.05.5 0w.7CIoo om.. -mdYIIkADSO-SAJB d8T ewb--’ buboo.a) O.s3 0150. -.ao..15. 01M). 0.0% 0035 02oa28 ozY4.l5.o.7s.059 owe4 076.059 05. 0035 0035 099.15.035 oal5 003.5 ou.m 015100 0025 0.76.090 0 7m..9o om.59 ow.sJ 05.00 oLu5 00s 0035 0.50410 oma.I 00 01.542o o.a 0100.75*.90 07oom oaY5 0035 o&a5 0.2bou 040.70495 0.zl 070490 0.6&050 0.IJ 0 13-O 15 0.00 075100 076lm 0.md Olaol8 0 L5.1.10 096110 09bl..053 0.u omY.00 oca5 OatI om.5 051.035 0035 0035 0.LOW ALLOY STEELS .

15-0.23-0.15-0.60-1.80 0.15-0.15-0.60 0.30 0.30 0.30-0.49 0.20-3 80 3.65-1.23 0.75 0.035% expected 0.60.30 0.15-0.10 0.60-1.00 0.20 0.25 3 20-3.30 0.17-0.60.1.15-0.15.30 0.15-0.15-0.10 0.15-0.10 0 0.00 0.20 0.30 0.25 0.65-1.0.70 0.65-1.60-1.20 0.95 0.20 0.47-0.15.00 1.20 0.44 0. tgl lel SAE Conrslru standard 0.15-0.60.30 0.20-0.23 0 li-0.27.05 0.15-0.15.37-0.21 0.70 0.90 0.1.33 0.1.65495 0.30 0.30 0.60-1.33 0.30 0.30 0.42-0.45-0.00 0.06-0.30-0.27-0.70 0.30 0.75-1.1.30 0.37-0.12-0.75-1.25 5150H 5155H 516OH 5186OHtej 6118HIF H515W H51550 H51600 H51601 H61180 O.80 6150Htgr 8lB45Hael H61500 Ha1451 0.45.14-0.43 0.70-1.70 0.3.50 0.30 0.30 0.44 0.0 30 0.15-0.30 4118H 4130H 4135H 4137H 4140H H41180 H413W H41350 H41370 H414W 0.29-0.15 0.30 0.65-1.30 0.75-1.li-0.0.45-2.65 0.15-0.32-0.15-0. (d) AISI nandmd mmimum vanadtum and grade sulfur only.60-1.25 0.46 0.10 0.30 0.60-1.00 0.20 0.55-2.15-0.25 0.43-0.70 0.15-0.30 0.55-0.30 0.30-0.20.1.29 0.51 0.38 0.15-0.60-1.17-0.30 0.55-0.30 0.30 1.00 0.20 0.24-0.17-0.20 0 17-0.90 0.20-0.00 0.60-1. 5135H II) Typical limna on phosphonu grade only.65-1.30 0.00 0.040% O.20-0.15-0.55-2.60.05 0.x) 0.15-0.75 462lHlcl 4626Hldl 4718H1cl 4720H 4815H H46210 H46260 H47180 H4:2W H48150 0.75-1.30 0.20-0.65-0.40 0.08-0.34-0.25 0.54 0.05 1.41 0.49 0.00 0.17-0.15-0.50-0.90 0.30-0.23 0.0.0.75 0.15-0.30 0.32.15-0.33 0.60-1.43-0.44 0 42-0.20. steel.0. Electric lb) 0.30-0.70 0.46 0.60.65 0.15-0.1.003% boron.05 1.55-0.60-1.05 0.0.00 0.32-0.65-1.0.00 0.30 0.30 0.20-0.40-0.39-0.75-1.30 0.30 0.15% 83-6 .0.65-1.44 0 37-0.25 4142H 4145H 4147H 4150H 416lH H41420 H41450 H41470 H415W H41610 0.15-0.55-2.30 3.c* H51320 H5 1350 H514W H51450 H514.05 0.95 0.30 0.60.30 0.65-1.37.23 0.30 0.60-1.49 0.25-0.10 0.15-0.30 0.15-0.35 0.30 0 20-0.158 1.42-0.00 0.15-0.20-0.10 0.20-0.60-0.30 0.00 0.45 0.35-0.47.60 0 55-0.1 j-0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50-0.60-1.21 0.10 0.65-1.30-0.15-0.00 0.30 4617H 4820H 50B4OHtel 50B44Htel 5046H H48170 H462W H50401 H5044l H50460 3. % 1.00 0.30-0.45-2.00 0.47-0.1.35-0.54 0.65-0.15-0.0.65-1.00 O&O-1.10 0.35 4320H 4340H E4340HI 4419Hlcl 4620H H43200 O.23 0.60-0.80 0.25 0 85-1.30 0.38 0.25 0.35-0.42-0.65-1.75.13-0.70 0.60 0.65 0.30 0.30-0.30 0 20-0.40-0.80-1.15-0.10 0.15 furnace vanadium.30-0.10 0X5-1.30 0.30 0.10 0.36 0.49 0.30 0.15-0.1.44-0:51 0.60-1.44 0.55-0.60 kmntinued) mu~mum 10 contain phwphowand 0.00 0.30 0.45-0.50 0.65-1.75-1.60.30 0.80 0.15-0.0.40-0.15-0.65.30 1.54 0.65-1.00 0.10 0.15-0.15-0.20-0.10 0.00 1.43 50B46H1e1 50B5OHtet H50461 H50501 H50601 H51200 H513W 0.25 0.15-0.2.70 0.18 0x0-1.55-2.LOW ALLOY STEELS Heat css deaprution AlSl.15-0.00 0.29-0.15.20-0.65 0.34-0.15-0.23 0. contenu lee Can M h 0.15-0.15-0.3i-0.40-0.30 0.60 bl 50B6OHle1 5120H 5130H 5132H .1.80 0.27.40-0.15-0.30 0.10 0.70-1.35 0.15 0.15-0.65-1.0.1 Cr Si Yo 1330H 1335H 1340H 1345H 4027H HI3300 HI3350 H134W HI3450 H40270 0.45.30 0.1.10 0.44-0.15-0.54 0.60.30 0.15-0.60.55-2.00 0.30 0.70 0.75-1.0.30 0.30 0.30 0.39-0.60-1.00 maximum It7 Cantainr sulfur.25 0.52 0.85.30 0.15-0.15-0.li-0.0.20 0.30-0.65 0.20 5140H 5145Hlc1 5147H.30 0.05 1.49 0.33-0.1.30 0.30 0.30 0.95 0.45-2.23 0.30 0.75-1.30 4028Hlbl 4032H 4037H 4042H 4047H H40280 H40320 H40370 H40120 H404fO 0 24-0.15.15-0.75.30 0.15-0.15-0.30 0.15-0.1.23 0.15-0.41 0.15-0.15-0.50.SAE denignacion C compoairion Mll ran#cn and Si limiu.1. 1.44 0 42-0.30.15-0.17-0.13-0.70 0.30 0.15-0.30-0.15-0.15-0.0.10 0.O 0.25 0.00 0.15-0.00 0.CW5 to 0.20-0.30 0.25 0 15-0.95 H434W H43406 H44190 H46200 0.20.10 0.

30 0.23 0:37-0.15-0.75 0.05 0.54 0.SAE Heat CSS dcsignwion designation C Yn compwition Si range@ and limits.60.15-0.0.70-1.75 0.35-0.li-0.35-0.42449 0.65 0..22 0.0.70-1.20 0.20 0.30 0.45 1.65 0.35-0.35-0.60-0.33 0.0.10 0.25-0.04 0.12-0.04 0..55-0. HelMCOiCO~(~~ PMX 0.60-0.60-0. (bl Electric fvrna~ Noel.30 0.35-0.95-3.35-0.65 0.i5 0.44 0.70-1. A second rtix “K‘ indicates that the steel is produced fully killed using fine grain practice.65 O.37-0.70-1.35-0.15-0.65 0.35-0.65 0. srandud grade only.70-1.13 0.15 1.70-1.35-0.0.7s 0.30 0.15-0.70-1.30 0.65 0.55 2.45 1.05 1.15-0.22-0.42-0.15-0.35-0.70 0.15-0.21 0.0.9oQ Si:tb)Secondand thirddi ‘Uof deoqnation lndxate minimum ‘eld strength in ksi.14-0.35-0.1.35-0.05 0.25-0.25 8640H 8642H 8645H 86845Hlem 8650H H86400 Ha6420 H86-450 HB6451 HE6500 0.35-0.15-0.040% maximum wlfur.25 0.08-0.39.0.26 Mamax 1.15.22 1.30 0.7s 0.60-0.65 0.19-0.30 0.25 0.18 0.LOW ALLOY STEELS AISI.05 0.35-0.15.15-0.30 0.23 0.25 0.15.35-0.25 0.41 0.0.35-0.30 0.08-0.35-0.04 0.0.70-1.95 0.35-0.25 0.95 0.65 PIMX 0.20-0.04 CaJ Maximum conrcnuofrulhrrandsillcon forall grader: 0.07-0.26 0.35-0.25-0.2s M55H 866OH 8720H .70-1.15-0.05 0.x 0.70 0.25 0.75 0.05 0.35-0.30 0.15-0.15 O.65 0.15-0.0.15-0.30 1.25 0. vanadium.75 0.25 0.47-0.14-0.35 1.10 v) 0. IS-O.05 0.65 0.04 0.33 0.974OH 8822H H86550 H86600 HE7200 H.15-0.26 0.20 0.75 0.0.15 0.35-0.1.35-0.23 0.35-0.60-0.05 0. Suffix “X‘indicatee that the steel contains nio E hum.35-0. .70-1.25 0.30 1.15.35-0.35-0.0039 bomn. ICI Sti.25-0.75 0.15-0.00 945c 0.0.35 945x 950A .0. 0.75 0.30 0.35-0.15-0.15 1.65 0.15-0.70-2.35-0.30 0.04 0.15s minimum vanadium Heat SAE design&on(b) cmax comporltion lhnk 9(a) Mnmu 942x 945A .25 0.65 0.15-0.15% vuud~~m.65 0.35-0.44 0.30 0.75 0.35-0.15.15-0.65 ’ 0. . .15-0.04 0.95 0.30 0.5s 0.05 0. 8627H 8630H 86B30Hte’ 663iH H861iO ::: 0.35.25 0.75 0.25 0.15.60 0. + High Strength Low Alky .70-1.40 9260H 9310Hlbl 94BlSHlet 94B17Hlea 94B30Hle.30 0.05 0.15.25.49 0.34-0.65 0.30 0.27-0.25 0.15-0. otherwise.04 0.30 0.25 1.30 0.15-0.25-0.O.28 0.70-1.65 0.95 0.35-0.30 0. W Contam 0.Si400 HE8220 0.40.27-0.X-0.050% S.30 0.45 0. Cr 9 101 Ni wo Hd6200 Ha6220 Ha6250 Hd6270 H86300 H66301 Ha6370 0. IO Containa 0.65 1.65 861iH 8620H 8622H R625H ____.35 1.55 0.30 0.O&O. 0.00 1.55-0.30 0.46 0.3so.15-0.24-0.55 0.65 0.035% maximum phosphorus ud 0.30 0.05 0.23 1.15-0.75 0.95 0.20-0. the steel is produced scmikilled.05 0.15.33 0.75 0.27.17-0.75 0..75 0.04 0.15 la) Typical limirs on phosphow and sultur contenu M 0.65 0.95 0.65 0.15-0.60-0.0005 u) 0.40 .04 0.15-0.15-0.65 0.15 0.65 0. H92600 H93100 H94151 H94171 H94301 0.30 0.60-0.70-1.30 0. cd8 MS1 WNMJ& mdc only IC) Can be expcvd u) contain 0. 0.60 0.65.35 1.25 0.35-0.0.65 0.04 0.15-0. nitrogen or other al r oymg elemenrs.30-0.26 0.08-0.25 0.15 0.04 SAE deriunation(b) 950D 950x 955x 960X 965x 970x 980X C mm .95 0.19-0.7s 0.00.25 0.05 0.04 950B 950C 0.0.0.35-0.95’ 0.50.

.W... .... HP ‘)-I-MC).. .. . .1 .7Oa... ..4).32-0.75 0.4% Ti.33 0.90 0.?0 0.9cLl. .3s 0.50 0.38 O... c Si Cr rtlmb Xi V MO co rle& .20 max I .2W. _.0 ... HI3 ..I MISCELLANEOUS ULTRA iiL&Y STEELS HIGH STRENGTH STEELS Compsilion. .J5-1.314. nominal....5 18..3&0.3 5.w-0.10 man 0. Cobah.8% Mu and 1. _.0 .. ISNIIYO). Is-o. . ..6&0.J6 0.30 0. ..40470 0.25 0. .60 0. AMS 6434 .0 2.. 0. I 0.75-5... (cl Comams S% 83-8 ’ . . 18 __ _. I7 . HI 1 mod.03% C.. .45 1.5-2.1Oa3....0 4.65-2.45 0.8&1.90-I. .53 0. .20 SIC& _..80-1.I5-0. ...7 I. 0. ..2.60 0.oo o. 6150..90-1..05-o.1 0.. lSNi(300) .0 I2...10 0.00 I .50 0. 0.. 8640 Medium-alloy - O.. 0. __ __ _. ..0 3..35 l.43 . .. IO max 0.3wJ. _.u..20 4. .. IO IO o._..50 7..10-0.35 0.40-0. lSNi(350) .3 0.25 0...13-0. .. 3OOM .4 I. I 0.x-O. lSNio(X)).40-0... .5 IS.8&2.90-I.35 0.10 0..35 0. ..30 0.25 4.free sod brsobah Cobalt-free Cobalt-free Lowtobalt Cobalt-free lSNitC0j.1&0...80-I.65-0. .~l.?(b) 4..85 0..0 .17423 0.424. IO 0.l. 18 _. 4340 .70 O. gmda _. .40 1. 18..JO4... .0 5. . I? bearing .34 MARAGING lSNit200) .%3 4.7&0.30-0.10-1. 0..?&1.. 0.0-8.. .90 O. lSh’i(Z50).8&-1.. 014. 18 __.. 0. . ISNiEast).38-0. ....37-0. . I I I I 0.80 0. (b) Same produccn ux a comb&lion 2. _. _.48 0. _..3 3. 0. air-hardening toughness \la o....3Oa. High fncture ’ low-alby Jl30 .00 0.:5 STEELS 3..co..40 0.75-5.17 0.80 0.__ _.10 0.10 .J 10..7&O. .6 0.. I8 _.40-0..00 0._ I . Ia) All pdcr Cr comain _.50-10.43 0._. 9. .20-0.05 min 0.6...lSO. . .2 I .i.6 4.5 no more than 0.4 0. 12-S-3( 18OMc).. . 4140 . .xul.48-0..X-0.6bO..J&O. I 0. . 0.w 0.00 0. .6.00 I .20 0. .2 0. .. .90 O..:0-0.7-1. .25 steels ...8&1. rmigMlkm or trade Medlumcsrbon AFl4lOtbl.5 18.3s 0.90 0... .10 0.. ..35 0. ...65-2...7 I. _. I 0.x-O.. .JO 0.x4.95 0...43 ..80-1.60 0. I? IS%-II.J 8.. ...0 .80 0.~1.5 9.1u.25 0.43 0. I~cg. ISNi(250) .6 3 8. D-6a . 0.2 0.. .

1998 to Metallurgy EM .Appendix B Appendix B-4 Corrosion Instructional Video Teletraining Federal Aviation Administration Resistant (CRIB) Course Steels Introduction April.

. F: 19% Cr-9% Ni. martensitic.. . . ... .. . Cr. . . .? E ?lO- 0 corrosion service.. The first two digits indicate the third digit the Ni%. the grades are identified in one of three ways: a. ..By trade names assigned by industry. . . 2 I-6-9 and PH 15-7 MO.. include Cr... . . . . .08% carbon..3xx . .... The designation followed by one or two numerals and one or more letters.. . austenitic. . .. . .r 8 The Last Letter(s) E 2o 0 1 To indicate the presence of alloying elements other than Ni and Cr. CAST ALLOYS Designation System A special designation system has been assigned by the Alloy Casting Institute (ACI).-\ To indicate the maximum carbon% x I00 z = ... .. . . . .. ..4xx ... Some compositions... duplex (ferrite-austenitic) and precipitation hardening(PH)...PH .. .. .. . H: Heat resistant alloys. . . . . . 17-4 PH and 17-7 PH. . ferritic. . .. U) I d 1 The Numeral(s) . ... Instead. e. % 50 I . .g.. standard ALLOYS and nonstandard grades Standard Grades Standard standard stainless steel grades are of the austenitic.g. . . . .. PH 13-S MO.. . . . .. Note that many of these alloys as steels but are listed as such for convenience only. . Austenitic 2. . . as follows: First Letter Either C or H C: Steels for liquid corrosion service. . p”! 1 IT- 10 20 be classified ( 1 N ’ letters wxy I 0 for liquid of two should i : : Example CF-8M C: Steel A consists lo Nulckel 40 COntent.. . . Nonstandard grades.. e.. .. martensitic and PH types. .. A through Y. . austenitic... . ... . ... include Fe-Cr. .... . to indicate nominal Cr and Ni contents per the graph shown. .g.. 15-5 PH. . . M: MO 1 I not I ! .Cr-Ni...?a -o.. e. .By parent standard grade designation followed by the particular modification. Cr-Ni and Ni-Cr steels. . . .2xx . . .. . ferritic. WROUGHT Wrought alloys are classified into two groups.. .... . Martensitic 4. . Cr-Ni-Mn. martensitic.. . .. . Precipitation Hardening* l Only four standard grades exist. Fe-Cr-Ni and Fe-Ni-Cr alloys. . ... . .... . . .. viz. . . . . . . b.. . .... c. . were specifically designed for best performance in only one type of application. Custom 455 and E-Brite. . The martensitic and PH steels/alloys can be heat treated to high strength levels. . . The the C&J and Grades Nonstandard grades cover all types of stainless steels... . . however.. . ... there are no standard duplex grades have been assigned the following designations: I. . . There is no standard designation system for these grades. . .. some cast alloys can not be classified as steels. ... Most of the steels/alloys described here can be used for applications involving elevated temperatures and/or those requiring ambient temperature corrosion resistance.CORROSION RESISTANT (CRES) /STAINLESS STEELS TYPES There are five types of Wrought of stainless steels. ... .. . 60 10 . . ferritic. .Ei--. The same types exist for cast alloys.By composition.. 8: 0. . .. .... viz. . Austenitic 3. ... . . 3 16 Cb meaning the standard 3 16 plus Cb additions...... Second Letter A letter. duplex and PH. . .. .... . .

::.03 0.04 0.03 0.50 0 JO 1...... 330 .7LI..75 im l.&l4..0 II LIJ.0.25 Nb O.......00 Il... .X4 40 N 0.C18....o 22.0-18.. 305 3x ..03 0..SJ...l6 X-3.03 0.:! I4.o-IO.0 0.......J 8.03 0.0 lO..ClO.. 2..m 2.0 17.0 l.. ...M 0.O 9.00 2..m 11%13. Ia .m 1.01 0...06 0.M 0.’ 0....16 J..45 0..01 0.&I.... 310 ....0 OWJ 0. mzcu ..m 1..0 11%Il.J MO: 0.kl8.O 6.MJ OSUJ 0..015 0.S Ti li * 4 l%C l Nb) 4 N vp :.01 0..m 2....... Dupk~ s&ulm tkritk-ticakl ...OCu:O....03 0.4J Y.045 OL’N 02 N 0.m i.....m IO.....&23.00 i.....0 MO J I W min Ti 5 x SC min Ti N N IO I SC mm Nb IIr%Cmm-l.. .01 0..x 0.&I ...&18...23 I.03 0.15 O.m l.00 0.m 1.m i..m i...75-1.&20.03 0. 309s .5 II... II4 ....m 1.12 i..m 1..cm.cl s317m SJIIOJ s32lm SJZIW NOW330 sJ47m 534709 SYSM SJuIW SJLYM CRES STEELS 0 0..M 0.01 0.03 0.015 O.0-Il....m YlcccJ s4lJm sl16OO S416:J YxoI YXVO 0.5-7 75 2.0 17. ... .......m 2...n-I! :m 2....0 17. 303 .O-I0.0 MO 2.0-I) 0 9&lJ.0-3.. lo? ...m I.12 n..0 ......95 0. 316 ....0-18.03 0.07 0.. .IO...6 Udbl 0.01 0.m-o :5 0....u)....m 1-m YJO! SAC00 ..0-2 I .m 1-m I..lW4.m i.Y MO Mo: 5 x X-C min 0..m :3. 003 0.0.00 2...pa ..0 17.03 0..W 0..0 0 I..&!..03 0....k 42o 42OF 422 431 4lo..w19..0 16.m 200 2. .O Ho:O.0-18...01 0.:s 0.’ 0.5 l2......m l...m 100 im I..0111 0.03 N: 0..LJ.0 16.. Jl6LN .7K.0 8.01 0....M 0.2sMo:O.00 2m 2.. .0-19 15.0 17...618.~l8.1~).m :..0 16..MJ O. : JO1 ..0 MO: 0...m 2.0 10.030 I ...a.. 17.2 1.0 l6...15 min 0.&?0.03 0.03 0........040 0....o-19.m 2...00 too IX I JO I.... 10: ms .......01 0.m 2.....01 0.l~.o-12.5-I 1... 419 44: 444.0-27......1. .03 0 03 0. JlbF ...l! 0..75 I4 O-16..C26.o-18..o 17.......0 18..08 0ola10 0..015 O.-~I.1 rn.04.045 0.03 0.0 Il....0 I2&I4...0 lb&l8.0’ 0 :o 0 0:s i.0 0.03 0.. J&L ...0 u4.......5 I5 o-17.:~13.0-19... lw .25 0.20 0.m I ..W.07 0.0 17..04s O..08 0.75 mu 6 I SC 0..O I&o-20.12 0..M 0.00 I...0 17.7 PH l..OmuNb 0. Mu¶auilk 403 410 414 416 4lb.MJ 0.wo 0.00 2.0 8.MJ 0.0 I o-l.m 200 :.m l.m 0.....2 Co: IO * Lit min Nb: 0.bl2..C..c 0...:Ll. .w 020 I.5 10.00 i.50 0 h-1..lm lb N cu I6 N ?..m 0.04 001 OM 0.M 0. JMLN ....crl4.LIJ..1: 0 I: 0.01 Nb Nb N 84-2 ...0 lO.O i.e3..0 1..045 0.. .MJ 0. IW..M 0.:o l.W 0.20 O.1: 0..a.wo....O-20.m :..MJ 0.Y.c i.0-19..03 0.o-IJU 9 &I?. .25 I.OO l...l.0 11..0 I7...5 Al 0.33 Al: 2.00 1..?J-2..00 0. 317 ..1: 0.0 MO 1..e19....M 001 0..0 0.03 0.M 0..LI4..h20...J 3.00 i.m i.06 0.0 17. .:s4.&22. .06 0.03 0......&IO i.0 lx-14..0-10. Mn ......kIO.x SIJO:! Sam s.J 8.00 :.13 mm se 06 Udbl O......m im Z....03 0.01 0 03 0..01 0.........O I:&15..&IJ.00 I.0 I2.o. 15-J PH I74 PH .....0) 0.Sl9..&IO.J MO 2. 347 ..03 0..7>2..:s MO MO sio type S138m SIJ.00 2....08 O(*I 0.0 8. ..&l4...015 O....~l.03 0..0 l7.lti...J J..MJ 0.0 19..MJ 0. ..WROUGHT STANDARD ml . ..10 100 i.30 Al mm ....0 8......00 1.5 0...03 0.0 P.00 0..&l4. 0..03 0.....9...03 0.0 l6....&19.CL28.&12.045 O.08 0.&lJ.00 I.06 O& OM 0..03 0.0 lO..0 R.:n 1.01 0.m I.1: 0 I! &I! 0...05 0.00 l...25 I.00 l.0 22.. ....00 lm I..M O.0 17.1: min Se o....2 min - m 0..m l.Gl8...15 0..03 0...0-14..” n 15 ml” 0....% RN1 II * %C min . JMN ..0 I zs-2% 0....0 19..3 0.MJ 0.. .m 1..7s 2J..ur2.u00 .Yl i.0 ll.m 0..25 lo) tm l.5O 1.0 MO 3 (Y. ..00 2.0 34.0-m..z.XXI S17401 Sl77m 12.~22.70 mu .045 O.......... :.0 9...0-18.0 s40.. JM JMH ..&19..0...0 17.045 O....0-17..&lO...s .. 2.00 1.0 8.03 0. ....03 0.W ...0 0 0 i8..00 2.m I.08 0 ou)....>l4..M 0..00 i..01 0...0 I6.4 4400 UK y0.0 0.... 302B .m Il. .0 24.08 009 o. at..MJ 0.U....2..0muNb:O..03 0.6 Hdbl 0. 317L ..1s min 0.5 IO....MJ 0....3v o.00 1.0-14.iOTi MO: 0.0 MO 2.00 i..m 2.5 IJ.0 23. ..MJ 0.08 0.0-26.m Ys409ca Yxm YJam Y.m I.. Jl6N..9.7..617.0-10.03 0.0 10....5 Ca: O.0-18.. IO min 0. .20 0...0 24.0 IO&14.03 0.IW..03 0..M 0..a-12...03 0.015 0.03 0..0 l6..0-18.15 In..m i..0-26.0 18.o-18....l! mm se 0 10-0 3...m i.M 0.GJ...01 0... .0 lb.5-T ! 7....03 0.5 o.5cu...&l&O 16.m 1...’ 0 TW.OC0 0.IOTa 0.. 5.n-I9 16..MJ O&J 0.kl9..0 I2..03 0.15 min 0.11 s:nlm sm2m : smsm sJolm : s302m sJn?l! s303m SJOJ23 SJoa-ll SJWJ9 SJn4aJ SJN!J s3tun SJt-ht!I sJnxa SJRJm SJWno SOWS SJlca SJlKc3 SJIM s316m SJ1620 SJl@B SJl603 SJl6!J SJIL.m 0.tq n I! n 12n.m 1.m 1.&l9 l8.. ....X OOR 0.. 347H .00 l..1uI.MJ O..U w:0....m O..m I.10 Ta l~p 40s u9 429 430 4JOF 4JOFSc 434 rltd 329 n...&lJ..00 l.0 lO.m I.....040 O.” 0.W 0.0-24.045 O. .01 n..9.03 O.m 2..S-13..00 l.00 I 1..045 0.01 0.03 0.m ‘00 i....0 19...o-19.. 0.!-J.00 2..m 1.0 16.mm IO IO IO IO I4.o-I9 17.. )Io..S. 316H ..&19.03 0.w2.:s 0...2Co:8~%Cmm-l1.. JfuL ..... J48H .. 301sc .....m l...03 0.0 16.M-n 04% 0...O 9.0-l&0 16.%-13....Li .0 18.m I..0 16..0 19.1 0 I’ 0 is 0...03 0..m 1...m 2..15-0. 321 ..0-19..m i.0 17.m I.. w-m wim sum: yuu? suca Prdpllalka~iIq PH IJ-EYo ...00 :. J?IH Fewilk .m MO t.L17.0 16.6 Mdb) O.03 0.75 6..0 i7... ..&J...03 0.0 7.:%I.03 0.00 2.01s O.00 i.IJ Al: 1..m 2.&18..0 SJ?Qu 020 I..J 16...

-. 8--. I ..STEELS .I WROUGHT CRES.__....I’.._-I.-. ‘ID B4-3 ...NON STANDARD -.. -I._ .

..x) 2. HP.&12.03 l8..5-5.:..50 I .50 I.ouJ IO 0.... HX.o-l.m :.0 12..mw 0..” II j-l40 Il.....5MuldI 6........ IO ..0 9.uHC...0 s-1: 1%II :c:a :A-28 l&17 I? c-l7.~.0-21...... HTIO ..m 200 2.a.mYm I. .. 4.0 19....0-21.Js0.JO 2.5 I... CF. 0. HI .O II.! ll......00 0..JU-o.1% 10 UbY-5 lu HA.&o.....08 0..J._...ZWMO 0...0 I..20...OV: 0.: KU . IO-IOV: 3.5&l.I..2o-o.2ON 1..&cl . A297 A -37..4.0-25..O-3.coM.. CGdM CG-I2 5.00 0...DntdI...cIl.?JW: O. HD. 0 I to 1.. :: I....50 rm ..“.~2QS 22.0 I I.mM. .0 Il. 4max c7 S-II %I2 II-14 ICI8 IS-‘2 19crE. 1.....C16.......CI2.00 I 50 rawal 0....20 0..cIHA ..5&1. CK.CAST CRES STEELS Compositions CA. CF.“tta Iv.o l9.$’ 0... 2. A 297. .m :.0 lb22 23-Z? !J-J7 II-37 JJ-?7 53.0-12.m 1.03 0.00 2..0 m ...0-27....m ...llS4.JMCuN .Ata A.J 0.0 27.24N: .I ..07 O.pDl” I. Rlrn Fe I” *I I.. .5 z. U” mLl..0 22. .x! 0 ma..0 I9 5-20..&26....Sl.SO I.15-133 casting ASTM grHolbl.-s.5043l :...m 2..50 I.&21.4608....... J..6 I4.3 0..9..15.Ku I.e12..e15...~V Z..8 . HL .ml..25Mo: 2.....C!l.Aea A291..m 2.50 7.5 2.Cl.0 ..JO .J 0.~l....50 I..0 IS.0 Lot-3... i.0 I8.OW..20-O . 4.50 2 ... A 3Sl.0 18.WYZ.?Cu: 0 .....~“D.0 s&l 9..‘tl.5-5.JV l.0 Zoo I.LICu 1. HF . IM...IOSMnN .m 2..._..01 116 .I0 0.0-Il..... 4.6-4..00 I.. A 297.00 :3.&I .0 l7.0-3.1....50 mu 0.U 17-:I l&14 ISI9 a ...5 B..blch h. A 567.044 IO I.sTII &ml I rti WLflu .k2..0 I3....bk”“rl I.0 Jl.JM. /410.0 I8..16F.OMO O.. u: 10.. CF..W 0... !-I40 IR.15 .10 0.1: 0.05N ma ?...00 0 JOMtndl 0.. HS. ......08 0.5-II.. l ndO..P. Compositions - .25Mo: O.. A 351 A 297..0 16.20..~ ..L14..7 0...O-II.50 2..!-IJU I I J-14 II I....50 CHd ....50 I......15-o0....0 8.2Y)..... .A!-47. ..75 2.75--:.. .... HE .%T? N #ma. ak4vnl r 1” HA.18N ?.b..: 0.~22..cl.20 0.. O.O 17..... ..40 0.w*Y cumcn.. CA40 CA&IF CB.......ooMo..50 :...M 0..JO I....:$’ I ....A2 g.IOhlC.cl...04-0..... H..00 2.OMo: O.C?l......X-4ON 0 0 6..0 IP....04 0.0-12.. .......8 2.20 2..B-O.lIV Jl0. ...I.....JU.0 9.0 IO&11.U)MO max: 0.0 Nbcfl ?..00 2.O0 I....50 I.W6....I5c 25... HC..W6.. Lt.CGl.A “P.55Nb: 0....45 O... A613 A boo A ta A6cd m...01 0. . CF... Y”l.o IJ.O l&o-21..O-34... .cGl..33 0.. I c I .:&O . IO&Y)Nb: 0..104.. ICI USOOCDOUIN 8 ..0 3741 554: 64-69 0.3-0...0 ?.OZ.0 I I..I a)51 uo HH aI* LUII.... “1 CK. 0.. CN-7M CN-7MS Cr.lMN ..m I.. HW .0-I 9.0 26 O-30..&1. CFdM CF.20 mu 0..%I Slmrll Cr &IO 2&Y) X-Y) 26M I%23 x-28 s30 ?C28 21 e27.. and tvical microstructure of ACI corrosion-resistant cast steel5 1.m 1..... I. ..03 0.0-15.. .50 2..50 1.&9 9. _.... 7 A 608 A 6011 A ml A 151..m 2..50 I.O 2..75-2.cuu 0 I.&-J. A-37..0 22....5Mo ?.IOM... A 151 A 297.50 Y..5-0.WJ J94003 Jplzf4 JW I94213 J‘MWS ” A 217 A.. ...A608 A297..O 20.% I....Ork9 al I.:: HK40 .W. . HL . 0 -3 0....0 0 9. CA.lJM.OM..0:s .ON% s lma....O”..5 _.0 8.5 JI: JO4L IIbL .04.S..... CH-20..~II....50-l..50 3..&J.. CF.0 23.&7.75 <unautm.0 W-12..CL2I.Y)wZlc. CE7CW2 CWMCu CE.5-17.JJSc Ix-3. Y..W..0-57.. .10 .. . am Ik UlRI n MI JNl”llc. CF-1%.a) I.....16 ?02 o..?..Y O.5 0..0 11.. CF...O ..615 I?&I5 17......30 ..l...7 l.oCu Nb: ..0 X.0-12... CCdMMN 0....5-l:.AbOB A137.!SE” .O 18.54 2. .e:7.OMo I.al 303 0..1x) zO...::: ::: of ACI heat-resislanl :::..0-27.. 26.?Cu.Ul I.m zr.07 0. CFUel.O-22.I c 0..00 18...~21 .0 19.aMWV A..50 I50 I...‘ O.06 CH-IO .&lO.: ?A~NM CA.....OMO I..cMo O.lJ 0 05N INI ........75 0...3: 2.Wl3....0) 1.03 0.Cl9...O-18...50 I.&l:..G26.C-J.&:I 23.W alloys ’ A 547.>:..00 2.50 I.OMo 1..?lorlkolh”1110.5 I.50 I.. HP .. HH .OM.00 2. . O..= 192605 JPJCO5 JPJ403 I92603 JPl.0 I” ‘0 Lo 2 &3...20-0...50 I..7! 0. CN-JM.. ..OMo: 0 St-.. CF..M .03 o.:o 0..W 0x-0..O-20......0 17.0 1..OMo 2....M J.b 2.n.&21..~ 5 0.....0 JO4 347 116 !I7 _....7M.AU A297..LJ........040 13U...7Jd. cmtmt~‘oOlCi ror other .5-J....m l. CF...4..m 9. 15. CFdC .0 12.....

I998 to Metallurgy B5 .Appendix B Appendix B-5 Superalloys Instructional Video Teletraining Federal Aviation Administration Course Introduction April.

intended originally as cast alloys. Ni-base alloys with adjusted compositions to suite single crystal growth (e. Udimet 700. These trade names have become sort of an industry norm that is recognized internationally. PWA 1480 and Rene N-4). some of these heat-treatable superalloys will be identified by asterisks. Another application that is gaining commercial acceptance involves the production of dispersion-hardened alloys. Ni-base alloys specially developed for directional solidification (e. Many superalloys are heat treatable to high strength levels. Alloys are identified by trade names. N&base (e. IN 718.. MAR-M 302.. Co-base (e.g. and bear similar trade names to. Rene 41. a) Ni-base: Some of these have the same compositions as. 2. IN 625. Inconel 3. Stellite as wrought. and MP 35N) 600) Cast Alloys There are three major categories of cast alloys: 1. followed by powder production. 2.. Single Crystal (SC) Alloys.g. Polycrystalline Cast Alloys. FORMS Superalloys are available Wrought Alloys Three types of alloys are 1.g.. and powder metallurgy products. b) Co-base: Strictly cast compositions (e.g.g. making them suitable for jet engine components and other high temperature applications. Haynes 188. In the alloy listings. Others are strictly cast compositions (e. Some compositions... their wrought counterparts (e. a group of wear-resistant alloys.g. available: Incoloy 903. A-286. These alloys are mainly used for vane and blade applications. and WI 52). Powder Metallurgy (PM) Alloys. Fe-base (e. presented in the following pages. These are Ni or Co-base alloys. and Nimocast).g. MAR-M 247 and Rene 80H). Nimonic 80. MAR-M 246 and Inconel 713). and Pyromet CTX) 7 18. Superalloy PM involves the production of ingots by conventional ingot metallurgy. The main use of this technology is for the production of components made of Stellites. 3. and Pyromet 6B. Ni.. were selected for PM applications. HS 21.g. Elgiloy.GENERAL is a collective trade name assigned to a group of Fe. These alloys are mainly used for vane and blade applications. Directionally Solidified’@S) Alloys. cast. and Co-based alloys that are characterized by excellent thermal performance up to 80-85% of their melting points. Superalloys DESIGNATION SYSTEM There is no standard designation system for superalloys. usually assigned by the original inventor. from the ingot. by techniques such as atomizing. El-1 ..

m 0 0) O.00 0 0’ ” II “.! :*.0 1" b" ! ! 0! 10 DJ composilionr !7 3s il ” “.“J “up “.I IO of wrought C.? Nominal “.s cu I .036 0.U :.I! Oob OOU “. n h *.!L.0s 0.00.1 ?” I.0 Il.003 O..? I. s O.04 0. OI 0 OJ 0 “7 00s 001 004 OW “.2 0. 0 01 s “l.“.l 10 0.OJ 003 0 07 0 01 ow “a3 u .I 2.: u: 0.J n.001 0010 OK@ Omb OCOJ o.3 1.0 13 2s :. “’ 100 iron-base alloy5 t.q I.0.oY) 0.160 Ou)I 0.? Ub” ‘u 0.m ~.03 00x 0.010 0.‘N 1.! 1. I I.mJ 001 I.: :.?o ” I I.a :s I.010 0.020 0031 O.1 10.Y :. J “1 0.3 0.0 C” O.O! L..: 1.0 .0 l Y “!” O!V 2. Y S4.0 14.!AI.OJ O.s :h “I :.02 0: 0 01 0. “aw ‘I* I4 I) :o ” :.h 44s &a :! c .. *h 0.J” 0.” so SP 4.’ 03 0.010 0.I! 11.WROUGHT Nominal compitionr of urouphf nickel-Iwe SUPERALLOYS rllovr “0. “1 0.0 IJ t:. c-.I .0 IS.0’ O.0 10.: 0. Y Y 0003 0. (*k O. cu.Y I ” I.!.OJ ““! 0.: “. :.J 0.c ?O 90 PO “.10 0.u ” .1 “.012 0 OJ 002 IA 0.10 I s Ta .s : r !.: : 0 !” 1.lJ 0.1 Heat treatable 0 IJ ” so alloy OS07 I.30 01 01 “0’ J.~ 0.0 cu 1.OlJ 0.I !. 0. .O .0: 44‘ OCOJ 0.! (0 17.J ”1 1.rnJ 0.

UlS bal 0.s IIlllIa\ ‘.....2 1.1 Y 8......0 ‘..’ 14.01s hl 0.3 4...1 Sin* cfyul densities JO I.. IO 0: I..0 11.0 8...01 : 0.10 O..t.0 v 7.4 si...s 14.S 12.S S.2 2......- . ITIS MAR.8 3. .OlS .S 2..0 cast cobalt-base I..0 :o ....98 8..0 12.6s si....un i-Q1 bal bal bal brl b.6u U..... 0..015 0.6 3.0 3.‘.._ x4 II 2i U !I.0 ..0 9.....’ u 1U. Il.. __.... C 242..s ma1 ‘....0....01s b-al 0...:.Ol...S Mn 8.?! 0. 0. .” ....792 ... . 1.Oh 0.. .0 Fe 3 0 Rc 0.’ d.0 1..... . Nimocasl 90.......... 0..7 4.07 RcnC41.9 2...4S U..0 h .3 II 0 1u.91 8.7 22... 0 IS Rent l2J HI IMM 00s) .. o. 8.006 ‘..2s 8.’ I! U . p ...s 3.. .u LI u 21.015 bal 0.0 .. 0..45 .O ‘0 ib ‘0 .5 !. CLISX-Jlal . 0..02 Ill! 0....5 8.03 ...3 _ .r.S 2.....9 1..06 c 1023 . 0... U..0 15..h R.0 u ? II 1U. t. 0... ! u 3.n I! ! 20.44 8. ‘..0 9.12 Nimocasl 60 .0 4...2 Es 8.....01 bal 0....1) 7.0 8..0’ 0..001 ocn6 000s bal bal bat 0.10 0.4 “’ “.0 .....13 31 c I30 .0 s...3 0.+. ...Y 0..14 MAR-M 246.12 IN-713LC . 3. ...22 S Fe 8.: 7. cwsx-&I..s 0..20 Ldlmel m . ...0 a..0s 0. : n.0 23 4.3 SI 0.......2 8....4 So) . 0.0s 0...01s M 0.16 CM 247LC .014 bal 0....7 I.5 0.7s 8.( brl brl bal bal brl bl bal bal bal brl bl bal bal ! 0 Il. 0..0 ’ 6 0...0 2...S 1..-...0 0.9 1...ocw bal 0.c 0..I.....5 2.06 0.0 10.01s tral 0..i nickel-base --CcSpd(b.91 8...2 P....6 06 30 4.. .....S 1.: 0..0 ...... 1..05 IN-713 HI (MM Ooo .......2 I..S 0b 4n II......0 10.......?lal .. 26. 0. 0. tiimocxst 263 ..0 7.I..01 0.0 29.18 IN-736C .01 0.1.:S 0...‘..s 12..0 II.’ 10.03 0...OlU * Heat treatable -i_. CMRZJS .....0 9....? 4...2) 3.1 Y 4.0 16.r 1.0 10......_ MAR-M 322 ... 0.16 8.04 I8.0 3.015 O..0 2.0 8......2 2........0 h.0 Ih .. I6 IOV 7.5 ?....1s B-19W.03 INIT5 .‘h !h alI ?.. .....! m....21 8.... 0.I) IJ.40 “’ I..0 9.wn.4 I..al 0..ll IOU 0.1 !.00 I.3 4.....0 I 7S 1..r... 0..S I.0 9... . 0... .5 ‘0 I:..IR U..7s 1.0 I..7s 1.0 2..:...S Fe I 5 Fe 8..8 superalloys A’ n US 0...&i 0.6 1....0 20 IO IU 4......‘ ‘.0 h..01s bal 0. 0. Nimocat 9S ..01s b-al 0..0 ma. 0.3 10 1ll...S Fe. IN-731... 0.M 30:. .08 0.01 0......S . 0 IS Has~clby X .S I2...02 b.S 2..S) 8. 42 U.. UDM Y ._ I...111 RcnC 100 ....8 JO 2..1) I.....‘.. IO B-1910 ...... O...8 0...10 B-1900 HI IMM 037... 0........ 0.08 Rcn4 77.011 O..U lb. U.:o :..........” ” 1.s 9 ... .U 2I.0 1.U ..6 I.0 4.47 8.0 I2....s IS. 0..01s bal o. .0 10..Y S.0 2..... 0.....s 9.S 9.0 10.0 6....0 14. ...S l..01 0.9 U....U 20.11 :. ....s 2s..4 1..2 6... and Tc C...6 “’ . U I .... 2... 0.0 3....0 “’ 3..111 MAR-M 246 Hf (MM 0061 . Il.’ U...5 6.m bal 0..3..0s .02 ll. 1Il.( ?..2 3.....1s MAR-M 200 .s s. 0... . IO 0..4 Al.s S.....s 1....17 IN-7ILC .0 h. co II I- 1.0 “’ 0.04 8........U IO........0 2I._...U IY...2 3.IS 4. .0 4h 4h Vh !....3 ..60Sr ML.4 3..h 4.0 1U.0 28.J ... -..’ 21..U I..lM l!dimel 700 .S 4..3 I0..S 1..0 72 3.070 ” 0. . CMSX.y-1 w 0.’ 0..On U I! 0 IS 0..CAST SUPERiLL& Nominal compositiom *Br IN-718 ........0 16.06 IN-713C ..9 6.0 IUS !8 81) h.8 1... 2.0 9.. AiRcsirl I3 _.. 0.. “’ .8s 8... waspdoy ...0 ....0 8..0 )P ....01 t......0 s....M 200 HI (MM 009... MAR-M 432 ..1 .W 0. 0.S? MAR.0 I.4 3..0 4... 0.10 MMllUZ ...... M-22 ........ 8 b...3 1.08 Haalloy S ...l bal bal bal bal bill bal bill b&l bal 0.0 10. 0..4 4.. OOS IN-100 .0 I ......’ IY.01s bal 0....0s 0..08 l8..0 of sekled MO 12....( 20.os ” ’ Fe bd brl bal bal bal bal hl bal brl bat 0..4 8..!l :..0 CMSX-hul...63 7.. 0..........02 o. 0.2s 0........s 0.... l..6S 0. vs 1s.S YU 20...30 Mn I 0 Fe.J 19........ .0 4..s HI- SU JO &!I 2. : : 0.0 12.3S U..6 S.....2 x.S “’ 1..I 4..7s 3.1 8..43 8. Y......S IO.01s bal 0.. 0.5 0......0 I I.uh 0.... SEL.....J< I U U60 U..__ .’ MAR..0 9....OlC U. Y.. Hb w oi selected (... Nominal co :.4 . “’ 0..V s.7s 2... 0...b 3..8 06 0.17 RcnC8OHf....b ~‘mlpBu*l*....02 bal o... 0...3 7. .5 IJ..c..... . -uo ri II LI F....0 “’ I.....0 I I...08 Udinw 710 .7 1..009 0..... 0.. IO 0.08 8.8 h. 0.5 0.0 -33 0 10.0 I! 0 s....... HS-2S 1L.... 0._.s X.! Mn...0 7.0111 bal 0. . _ bal 0.S3 7..: C 263 .01s ” ‘.01s bal 0.4 ..0 S..’ 1.102. . I0.......0 I0...9 I.0s 0.d-=’ 8.3 Al. 0....0 I 0th Ill3 ‘.0 IS...S 10.< 1.05 0..s S.40 8...4 1. .0 5s alI 0..0 10. 0.. D&-m’ u....01 0:iL-i rJ-M.. ...02 u..” u 0...0 9. Nimocart 242..._.uu...0 10........10 0.. SEL .21 IN-939......0 I2.s 9..h 8...01s bal b) I bal O. 6.3 Mn.... 0.08 0.2 0. ... 0..s s...0 10.0 10...01s.0s 0...0 10....1 S.?S 8... IO 0.11 8.S Fe..... 6..x 0...0 1.I cast 0. .._ WI.. I.. IS..08 Rcn.0 10.. MC.. 0......3 Si ? 0 Fe.0 1.0 1. .5 0....14 0....36 superalloys Ia ...4 St 3. + NX IBB .3 S.._.U Y.. 4.. I U.....10 Nimocasl 7s.s s.0 I!...0 10....3 1’ _..0’ u...0s U...06 OW O....10 0..J h. .6 0.0 1...... 0..lS 0.8 .2s 8..9 I!....Ql....6 2.680..0 3.’ “’ “’ I.... IO 0.... .. . alloy U I.I? ..S 54 4s 6...” I.7 3.3 2.’ O..0 IY.......c I..0 I..0 7.0 2.0 Rcrd MO . Nimocasl lo0 0.0 10..11 IN..n 4.. IO.... .01 bal 0..8 4.1700 .S 9....0 In-ax 2.....___.......W compositions iC Hs-?I IMOD Vlrallium~ HS-31 1X-u)).......I! 3..5 24..on O....1 19.s 1..( 2..: .0 maI olbn ’ ckmu.18 U I4 U.0 8.0 1.! 4.1 II.. ..s I.... GMR-23: .7 2.’ 5 7..10 O.8 i8.0 :o.04 0..U? u.ss Mn n... . ....: 20.8 I... F 7S FSX4I4.0 4..88 9..07 0. ...6 0.....0 hl Y...0 14.17 Y............2s Si...0 Ih...S s.S U.4 3...2 4.. MAR-M 421.....012 bal 0...U 8..0 2....2 ?.‘.1 IUU :1..1 S....3 ...6 3.u IS ! !I.. AiRcrisl ?IS ..0 0.7 4...5 2..0 0.1s MAR-M 247 (MM 0011) .0 (-....01 w 0....

I.._.5 1.’ 8 I4 8 8 V 9 Ill IO Ho W Nb I 4 ‘.03 0...7 5..70 8.59 8.0 4... _.\I Ti B zr 5.5 5... I 0.03 0...5 I.i’ b..015 0.6 1. 002 247.. _. I 0..___.. 5. SRR99 . AMI . sx alloys PWA 148..8 I..uo w Tn n...” Denw1r.36 7. CMSX-? _.Xominal Alby Al ‘C Cr CO . CMSX-3 _.6 3 DS superalloys with V- .9 4. I I engine airfoil MAR-M 200 Hf.5 .b 3.56 8..8 I.o B Zr 0.6 6 6 9 7 comporilion...cb 8..’ R 5 ‘ ! First-generation superalloys 410 w T1 9 4 6 IO I? 5 a 8 8 6 h 3 .5 I .6 0. _..0 I..7 llr Yi’ 0.c 0...._... _.0 5.5 5. 3 3 85-4 . _. extensive turbine Yb 0.CAST SUPERALLOYS First-generation single-crystal Mb! ‘tr CO PWA IJXO RcnC N-4 _.56 7.’ 0. _. I.4 tRcf 8).. -1% Rc ...... Second-generation ‘c Cr CO O...5 4...n.I 9 0.015 0. _.6 I2 4 IO IO “’ “.015 0. ib 0. CMSX-6. IO 9 8 IO ? R u In 5 I 5 I..6 5.0 1...__.0 5.16 0.54 0.0 3.01 0. RenC8OH MAR-M MAR-M .‘cm! lir .1..5 bal bd bal bd DS and SX superalloys Somind AlbJ Ti applications .70 DS alloy CM 37 LC.... RR ~XIO . CMSXJ tRcf IO)._.95 8.98 compceilion..2 5 h IO 9 6..Yi’ I ..7 1... I bal bal bal bal bal bal bal bal m’ 8.. Ta -1% Al Ti ?.03 Hf 3.__.7 0. _..6 4..I? 0.5 IO 3.. I bal bal 8.. _.....87 8. _..2 j:.1 bid a._.8 I.5 5. _...13 0.015 0..0 5. .Ol.010 3.b 5.

Appendix C IVT Course Evaluation Form Instructional Video Teletraining Federal Aviation Administration Course Introduction April. I998 to Metallurgy C .

Readability of text on monitor C A D Press the “Flag” key to indicate when you are ready to go to the next page. Depth of information A C D 3. 8. IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Administration April. Your evaluation of the IVT course is important to us.Introduction to Metallurgy 4/30/98 Please give us your candid opinions concerning the training you’ve just completed. Pace of training A C D 4. Quality of course materials A C D 7. Sequence of content A C D 6. Very Good Good Average Poor 1. 1998 to Metallurgy C-l . Clarity of objectives A C D 5.Appendix C IVT COURSE EVALUATION AIR . Use your Viewer Response Keypad to answer the following questions. Quality of graphics/visual aids A C D Very Poor . Length of course A C D 2. and will help us provide the best possible products and services to you.

Communication between student and instructor A B C D E 11. NO C. UNDECIDED 15. I998 to Metallurgy c-2 . On the key pad. A B C D E 12. Additional Comments may be fixred to the IVT Studio: 405-954-0317 / 9507 IVT Course Federal Aviation Introduction Administration April. Overall effectiveness of the IVT format A B C D E 9. then Enter. enter your number of years of FAA experience.Good Good Average Poor Very Poor A B C D E IO. press the “Next Quest” key on your keypad and answer YES. Overall quality of the course A B C D E 13. Applicability of material to your job. (numeric answer) When finished. Effectiveness of instructor(s) 14. Would you like to take other IVT courses? A. YES B.Appendix C Very .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful