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new food manifesto for Scotland
as a contribution to the food and
drink policy framework.
Connect the way we grow, produce,
distribute and consume our food
with our climate change targets
Connect the environmental policy
framework to our health and
Look afresh at the values that
underpin how we organise our
THE AIMS OF THE FOOD MANIFESTO ARE TO:
e Food Manifesto is printed on 100% recycled paper.
e bag is hand stamped and made from recycled kraft paper.
e have a food market monopolised by a handful of companies and health and nutrition targets
that we’re struggling to meet. ese ideas are all about creating more joined up thinking in how
we grow, consume and distribute our food and a more diverse economic model. It’s also about
creating some real urgency about the real problems we face in our health and in our environmental
challenges in Scotland. At the moment there are some great things happening in the sustainable food
movement, in community development and in environmental protection. But we suﬀer from operating
in a society of silos: where the crops in our ﬁelds and the food on our plates are completely disconnected.
In 2008 the Scottish Government developed our ﬁrst national
food policy, emanating from ‘Choosing the Right Ingredients’
came ‘A Recipe for Success’ (2009). It was ground-breaking in
trying to develop a ‘cross-cutting’ policy and putting aﬀordability
and local sustainable food at the heart of plans for changing the
way we grow and eat our food. It promised a ‘holistic approach’
when awarding food and catering contracts, the adoption of
sustainable food procurement as a corporate objective for all
public sector organisations, the extension of free school lunches,
increase in the uptake of healthy start vouchers for pregnant
women and children.
It’s seen some notable success: there’s undoubtedly a revival of
interest and pride in Scottish food, and sales in the food industry
are up. At the heart of some of this success has been the Climate
Challenge Fund that continues to support the Fife Diet’s work.
But it’s not just us: “Our £27 million Climate Challenge Fund has
helped over 250 communities reduce their emissions, saving an
estimated 700,000 tonnes of CO2. at’s the equivalent of taking
225,000 cars oﬀ Scotland’s roads. Over half these projects have
focused partly or wholly on food sustainability, representing £9
million in funding.”
But the world has changed a lot in four years. Our economy has
faltered. ere is a fundamental revaluation of the values that have
guided our economy for so long. Do we really want export growth
to be the main measurement we use to chart ‘success’ in food? If
we look at nutrition or other health indicators we’re ﬂat-lining. We
need to be bolder and take some fresh-thinking.
Under Labour, the plan to ban smoking in public places has been a
huge success with a reported 15% drop in childhood asthma rates
after three years. Under the SNP the plans to introduce a minimum
price for alcohol oﬀer another huge step in tackling Scotland’s
problem relationship with drinking. We need some of the same
radicalism and foresight to tackle some of the other huge issues
we have around food and environment. is could start with a
moratorium on supermarket expansion, and a focus on ensuring a
healthy food system and a healthy society through a whole host of
initiatives, including those outlined in the manifesto below.
e way we grow, distribute and consume our food creates 31% of
our greenhouse gas emissionsi. Yet our food policy has no real plans
to start radically shifting this impact and is entirely disconnected to
our ambitious and world-leading climate change targets.
e purpose of the manifesto is to try and help build a food culture
in which communities can begin to be part of a restorative practice
for a better food system. We propose ‘food sovereignty replacing
‘food security’ as the guiding principle of our policy, and explore
the opportunities for collaborative gains between the agendas of
community food and health, aﬀordability and sustainability.
THE POLICIES FALL UNDER FOUR THEMES:
ese ideas have been formed out of ﬁve years working to explore a more sustainable food practice.
We recently held a series of discussion groups in Stirling and would like to thank the following for their input:
Robin Gourlay, Professor Annie Anderson (Professor of Public Health Nutrition), Sascha Grierson, Bill Gray (Community Food & Health Scotland),
Peter Brown (SFQC Director and SFQC’s Project Manager for e Larder), Donald Reid, Pat Abel (Nourish), Laura Stewart (Soil Association) and Kate Campbell (Eco Schools).
We would also like to thank:
Clem Sandison, Joanna Blythman, Jo Hunt, Antonia Ineson, Eva Schonveld, Justin Kenrick, Colin Lindsay, Wendy Gudmundsson, Patrick Mulvany,
Andy Wightman and Phil Hanlon for their support and ideas.
Mike Small & Teresa Martinez
no child to leave school without knowing how to make a pot of soup
MORATORIUM ON SUPERMARKET EXPANSION
focusing instead on CSA, urban agriculture and food co-ops
RIGHT TO GROW
opportunity from the Enabling Communities legislation & the Land Fund
DECENTRALISE OUR FOOD INFRASTRUCTURE
encourage and enable development of diﬀering scales of mills and abattoirs
A SEASONAL 5 A DAY
a joint national environmental & health campaign through schools, blogs &
GPs / health centres / cafes exploring what a Scottish 5 a day would look like.
a Terre Madre for Scotland – exploring the vision of food sovereignty
a small tax on the most unhealthy ﬁzzy drinks as has been applied successfully in France
A FOOD LEADERSHIP TEAM
to draw together the strands of food policy, make sure it works and drive it forward.
Also to develop strategies for international issues.
ELEVATE FOOD TO THE CLIMATE CHANGE AGENDA
develop speciﬁc Food Emissions targets. see also Waste & Composting
– see the Zero Waste Plan for Scotland
SUSTAINABLE PUBLIC PROCUREMENT
build on East Ayrshire model, making sustainable public procurement
to key corporate objective for LS’s, schools and hospitals.
PLASTIC BAG TAX
hypothecated tax going back in to community food initiatives
FARM CORPS, GARDEN CORPS
a chance for gap-year, NEET and young people to get work experience
REGIONAL FOOD MAPPING
building on the work already being led by SOAS
GM FREE SCOTLAND
we should maintain and champion Scotland’s GM-free status
NEW FOOD INDICATORS what indicators other than export-growth should we be using
to chart ‘success’ in food policy? How many new farmers we attract into the sector? Vitamin
intake, soil quality, expansion of organics, food mile reduction, resilience in local economies?
QUEEN OF THE SEA
celebrate and foster our ﬁshing heritage – research project and publication
to celebrate our seafood culture.
building on work being led by Nourish at Elmwood College
SCOTTISH ORCHARD / FRUIT
large-scale co-ordinated re-planting and boost of plant diversity
part of the curriculum for excellence
A NEW FOOD ECONOMY
connecting people with the potential of a food economy
(social enterprise in food, sustainable catering and cafes)
Frequently policy-makers struggle to ﬁnd ways to achieve
that holy-grail: ‘ joined-up thinking’.
How to make the competing demands of society,
economy & culture link in a meaningful way?
THE ANSWER IS SOUP.
e Soup Test is a very simple idea: no young person should leave school without knowing how to
make a pot of soup for their friends. e idea is about life-skills but also brings to the table a notion of
a rites of passage. New research shows that the majority of 18-25 year olds in the UK (57%) are leaving
home without the ability to cook even a simple recipe such as Spaghetti Bolognese.
e Soup Test is a single point that has multiple advantages:
sociability & life-skills, aﬀordability, seasonality & locality as well
as the obvious beneﬁts of eating fresh unprocessed vegetables in a
healthy soup. Making your own soup allows people to season their
own food without having to eat the often overly-salted tinned
soup. Soup can be a nourishing meal which can play an important
role in combating Scotland’s obesity problems.
All the evidence suggests that once an individual has mastered
one or two recipes they are learning some basic skills of food
preparation that opens the door to a host of new learning and the
potential of a lifetime being able to look after yourself (and others).
e Soup Test ﬁts into the Curriculum for Excellence and the
great work of Eco Schools Scotland’s Food and the Environment
is could be explored in a non-proscriptive way, with
many routes to the same outcome.
We propose that pupils learn four seasonal soups across primary
seven and then choose one of their own to prepare for their
classmates and friends.
Where there are school grounds as pioneered by Eco Schools
Scotland, and where this is possible students could even plant and
grow ingredients at the beginning of the season and then harvest
them at the end of the summer term. Some schools have used
the ‘going up’ ceremony as celebration and thanks and invited P7
students to cook for the dinner ladies, teaching staﬀ and others.
e social capital gained here is obvious and the potential to
combine soups into a one-oﬀ catering thank you is clear.
e Soup Test has the potential to allow schools and local
authorities to discover and explore more about their own Scottish
food heritage and it’s regional variation. Scotch Broth might be
appropriate in one area with plenty of mutton, Cullen Skink in
another near the sea, Cock a Leekie in another, and so on.
e economics of Leek and Potato Soup might not seem at ﬁrst
to be a standard topic on any curriculum, but the idea opens up
a huge possibility for learning through tasting and sharing. e
Soup Test is not intended as an exam but an experience.
WHAT IS THE SOUP TEST?
2. See COSLA Obesity Strategy: www.tiny.cc/FM_1_2
RIGHT TO GROW
ith increasing numbers of individuals and
communities keen to become involved
in growing their own food, access to
land is becoming a key issue in any expansion of
community food production. Many individuals
and groups are experiencing diﬃculty in obtaining
land for growing despite there being suitable land
available. Despite some useful initiatives, advice
and support services, land availability remains a
key constraint to the expansion of community
food production with many groups failing to make
any headway in securing land from private and
For community food production to thrive, land
access needs to be made far more straightforward.
We believe that land for growing should form a
central part of the Scottish Government’s policies
on food and drink, land reform and community
empowerment. ere are now real opportunities
to make land for food a central part of wider
policies on land and we believe that the following
proposals would assist in that ambition.
Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003
e community right to buy provisions which comprise Part 2
of this Act are too restrictive in their application and too complex
to be readily used by communities. e Act only provides for a
right to buy if and when land is sold and thus does nothing to
help in making land available in the short term. e Act excludes
all settlements of over 10,000 population and thus excludes
over 70% of the population who live in urban areas where land
availability is most acute. e Act should be amended to apply
to urban areas and to enable community food groups to apply to
register interests in land.
Community Empowerment and Renewal Bill
e Scottish government propose to launch a consultation on this
Bill in 2012. is is likely to be a wide-ranging piece of legislation
and it provides an opportunity to explore new measures to provide
new rights over land. e Bill may also provide the opportunity
to pursue a number of the other recommendations made here.
If the proposed legislation is to achieve real empowerment of
communities then community food should form an important
part of the powers contained in it.
Land Settlement (Scotland) Act 1919
is important legislation was used to create smallholdings and
allotments across Scotland. It’s provisions remain part of Scottish
law but have seldom been used in recent decades. In particular,
the Act provides powers for Scottish Ministers to acquire land for
the creation of small-holdings. ere is an ever growing number
of people who aspire to own 100 acres or so of land for individual
small-holdings and community gardens. e powers exist in this
Act to enable this to happen. e Scottish Parliament should
review and amend the Act to make it ﬁt for purpose. is should
include extending the provisions of Section 21 to private land.
Scottish Ministers should indicate their willingness to use the
powers the Act confers on them.
e legislation governing allotments consists of the Allotments
(Scotland) Acts of 1892, 1922 and 1950 and the Land Settlement
(Scotland) Act 1919. Many of these provisions are no longer
ﬁt for purpose and a wide ranging review of the legislation is
urgently needed to enable the rapid expansion of allotments in
Scotland’s towns and cities. Such a review should also incorporate
a radical review of the purpose of allotments. In Germany, for
example, allotments include huts where families can spend
Likewise in countries such as Norway and Denmark,
hutting provides an aﬀordable means of recreation for urban
families and are often associated with intensive food production.
Scottish Rural Development Programme
e ﬁnancial support available through the SRDP has been
monopolised by farmers and landowners with one respected
agricultural commentator calculating that between £50 million
and £100 million is being paid out every year to farmers who are
doing no farming.
With the ongoing review of CAP, now is an
ideal time to review how future agricultural support funding can
be used to support community food production. A sum of 10%
of the funds currently being given to non-active farmers (£5-10
million) should be ring-fenced for community food growing in
the forthcoming agricultural support package.
Scottish Ministers own 1,890,500 acres of land in Scotland,
87% of which is managed by the Forestry Commission (FC).
In January 2012, the FC launched a “Starter Farms for New
Entrants” scheme designed to provide tenanted holdings for new
entrants to agriculture.
is scheme demonstrates a willingness
by Scottish Ministers to enter the land market and there is no
reason why they should not also develop a scheme for community
gardening along similar lines using the powers contained in the
Forestry Acts and the legislation outlined previously.
COMMUNITY RIGHT TO GROW
A Community Right to Grow Act would promote food production by creating a legal presumption in favour of
people growing food on land that is lying unused. is measure would provide valuable opportunities for food
production, enhance the environment of derelict sites and revitalise abandoned land. A protocol for how this
might operate should be developed and piloted with local authorities who have the power under Section 21 of
the Land Settlement (Scotland) Act 1919 to make unused land available for food production (see below).
A ﬂourishing community food movement needs land to grow. ere is no shortage of land as such. Many
thousands of hectares are lying unused or under-used which could be put to beneﬁcial and proﬁtable use for food
production by local people. A range of legal provisions exist which, if suitable amended and implemented could
liberate this land and provide the basis for the food revolution that Scotland is ready for.
2. Andrew Arbuckle, Something-for-nothing culture has to be brought to an end. Scotsman, 12 March 2011.
FIVE A DAY
he notion of ‘5 a day’ is now well understood across most of Scottish society, though the numbers
of us acting on that knowledge is far lower. In fact consumption of fruit and vegetables in Scotland
increased from 3 portions to 3.5 in 2010. is is till 1.5 portions below the 5 a day target.
not eating enough fresh food, and overall consumption of healthy foods is signiﬁcantly lower in the
most deprived populations.
Excess consumption of saturated fat, salt and sugar, and low consumption
of fruit and vegetables, are all risk factors associated with one or more of
heart disease, cancer, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and obesity . . .
. . . said the latest Scottish health statistical review. So what if one way forward was to locate our health
targets amongst the seasonal and local food the rest of the food policy is focusing on? e answer would
be a seasonal 5 a day, where we would be eating rhubarb in the spring, raspberries and strawberries in
the summer and apples, pears and brambles in the autumn and winter.
To counteract the daily bombardment which most consumers
are faced with we could present an alternative message, which is:
eat simple fresh unprocessed seasonal fruit and vegetables. is
approach could connect our health agenda with our environmental
agenda and could accelerate the move away from the notion
of endless consumer choice as being a social good. Sometimes
expensive tropical out of season fruit is held up as an aspirational
choice. In reality it’s often a tasteless product of dubious
We propose that plans to increase fruit production, food education
and access to land to grow food, as well as re-skilling for better
horticulture all can combine to increase reliance on out of season
foods and make the shift to home-grown local produce.
As Stephen Jardine wrote earlier this year
ahead of Scotland’s
Food and Drink conference in Perth:
While we have world-class chefs &
produce that is the envy of the world, we
also have health statistics that are a national
disgrace. Latest ﬁgures show 63% of Scots
are overweight or obese, and that ﬁgure rises
every year. Fewer than a quarter get the
ﬁve-a-day fruit and vegetables considered
essential for a balanced diet.
THE 2008 WHO REPORT ‘PLACED CLIMATE CHANGE AND HEALTH
FIRMLY ON THE AGENDA OF THE HEALTH SECTOR, EMPHASISING THAT
A CROSS SECTOR RESPONSE WAS VITAL.’ THIS IDEAS SPEAK TO
THREE KEY THEMES OF THE NATIONAL FOOD AND DRINK POLICY:
Supporting consumers and the food ad drink industry to
make healthier and more environmentally sustainable choices
Celebrating and enhancing Scotland’s reputation
as a land of food and drink
Access and aﬀordability in relation to food
A national campaign led by community food groups,
chefs, cafe owners and health centres to promote the idea
of a seasonal 5 a day
A GIY network to enable home grown fruit trees
and the development of a national orchard similar to Ireland’s
Open air markets with fresh produce and
competitive pricing, found in most other
countries are virtually non-existent. In
Scotland, the 'climate' is often said to deter
farmers and gardeners from growing fruit.
Yet, oddly Scotland remains the EEC highest
exporter of soft fruit.
1. www. tiny.cc/FM_3_1
see: Chart 3.7 Food/Nutrient changes in relation to the Scottish Dietary Targets 2007-2009
2. Lang, Dowler & Hunter, 2006
3. www. tiny.cc/FM_3_3
4. www. tiny.cc/FM_3_4
WE PROPOSE THE INTRODUCTION OF A SODA TAX ON
ALL SUGAR-SWEETENED BEVERAGES (SSBS) BASED ON:
e fact that Scotland
has one of the highest
obesity rates in the
world. ere is an
of scientiﬁc evidence
that links consumption
of SSBs to obesity,
& other ailments
e income raised
from the tax could be
earmarked to health
with a focus on children
& lower income families.
around the world
are applying similar
political measures with
success by taxing
sodas & fat foods.
ere is a growing evidence of research that links the
consumption of SSBs with obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type 2
diabetes and also with cancer.
An increase in one serving per day
of SSBs is associated with a 0.45kg greater 4 year weight gain and
also increases the risk of Coronary Heart Disease by 19%.
supplemented with SSBs lead to lower satiety, higher energy
intake and weight gain. e innocuous name of the ingredient
“caramel colouring”, responsible of the brown colour of colas, is
a known animal carcinogen present in Coca-cola, Pepsi-cola and
their diet versions.
According to data provided by OECD and the Scottish Health
Survey 2010, Scotland has the third greatest obesity rate of the 17
countries considered, only surpass by US and Mexico, and is the
fattest in the whole Europe. Between 2003 and 2010 the percentage
of obese men and women rose from 22% to 27% and 26% to 29%
respectively. In 2010 13% of Scottish girls, and 16% of boys were
obese. A recent report looking at summer advertising campaigns
for soft drinks have found that many of the marketing messages
are misleading, and that they are encouraging parents and children
to consume drinks that contradict public health advice.
additional prevention measures are in place the conservative trend
is that by 2030 41% of the Scottish population will be obese for age
group 16-64. e direct and indirect cost of overweight and obesity
to the NHS Scotland in 2030 could be as high as £3 billion.
e data speaks by itself and a sense of urgency needs to be
brought to the table. ere is already some good work and pioneer
initiatives to build on. For example, all regular and diet ﬁzzy
drinks are banned in Scottish schools. is is because the acidic
ﬂavourings in these drinks also contribute to tooth decay, besides
the afore-mentioned obesity concerns.
Scotland has already
introduced a bill for minimum price of alcohol and in February
2012 the SNP led Scottish Government passed a public health
levy on retailers who sell alcohol and tobacco. is is part of
the SG push for greater preventative spending and could set a
precedent for the introduction of the contentious but necessary
food related taxes.
Taxing unhealthy food and drink is becoming a popular political
measure in various countries to tackle the obesity epidemic and
associated health risks. Denmark has recently introduced a tax on
food rich in saturated fats, including butter, potato chips, ground
beef and pork. Hungary has started to tax food that has a high
share of salt, sugar and caﬀeine. e mayor of New York City
has proposed a ban that would prevent the use of government
subsidised food stamps to purchase soda or sugary drinks. France
has recently approved a tax on sugary drinks- one euro cent per
can- that will boost the state’s coﬀers with 120 million Euros. e
tax has been introduced as part of the government programme
to ﬁght obesity and as one of the measures of the wider austerity
Dr Richard Simpson, labour Shadow Public Health Minister,
presented a motion in September 2011 applauding France’s
plans for a soda tax and asking the SG to consider giving local
authorities the power to introduce a similar tax. e income raised
could be earmarked to improve school meals, build on the work
of previous administrations to reduce sugary drinks in schools and
support community-based nutritional improvement initiatives.
e motion was well received but ﬁnally rejected. However, there
is strong support from public health professionals and local food
initiatives to bring it to the forefront of the public health debate
together with a whole set of other comprehensive measures.
WHAT IS THE CURRENT PICTURE?
1. Malik, V.S and Hu, F. B. (2011). Sugar-sweetened beverages and health: where does the
evidence stand? Am J Clin Nutr, 94, 1161-62.
2. De Koning, L., Malik, V.S., Kellog, M.D., Rimm, E.B., Willet, W.c., Hu, F.B. (2012).
Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Biomarkers of Risk in
Men. Circulation online. American Heart Association. www.tiny.cc/FM_4_2
3. Centre for Science in the Public Interest . (2012). Lab test ﬁnd carcinogen in regular and
diet Coke and Pepsi. www.tiny.cc/FM_4_3
4. Children’s Food Campaign. (2012). Soft Drinks, Hard Sell: How soft drink companies target
children and their parents. Download PDF www.tiny.cc/FM_4_4
5. Scottish Government. (2010). Future Estimates. Preventing overweight and obesity in Scotland.
6. Scottish Government. (2008). Healthy Eating in Schools: A Guide to Implementing the
Nutritional Requirements for Food and Drink in Schools (Scotland). www.tiny.cc/FM_4_6
7. FCRN (2012, January 16). French Soda tax comes into force. www.tiny.cc/FM_4_7
8. e Scottish Parliament. (2011). Motion S4M-00892: Richard Simpson, Mid Scotland
and Fife, Scottish Labour. www.tiny.cc/FM_4_8
ELEVATE FOOD TO
THE CLIMATE CHANGE AGENDA
Scotland has world leading ambitious climate change targets
and the our ﬁrst ever national Food and Drink policy.
two seem to operate in complete isolation.
We know that the refrigeration chain constitutes about 15% of
the C02 emissions from our food
yet we celebrate every time a
new out of town shopping development is announced or a new
multiple opens a new superstore.
We know that GHG from our agricultural sector has been ﬂat-
lining since 2007 – yet we have no coherent plan for reducing this
(see Chart 5.3 Net GHG emissions from agriculture in Scotland,
We know that the way we produce, distribute and
consume our food creates 31% of our annual C02e each year
yet we have no co-ordinated plan for changing this.
THIS AMOUNTS TO AN EXTRAORDINARY
ADMISSION OF FAILURE AND LACK OF AMBITION.
WE PROPOSE THE INTRODUCTION OF:
A speciﬁc annual food emissions reduction target
e promotion of low carbon foods as a key goal, aim and indicator
A coherent framework for reduction of GHG emissions
from our primary agriculture sector
Development of carbon literacy around food so that individuals
will know whether they are personally on or oﬀ target
and the better to help collective collaborations
Scottish conditions and opportunities will be diﬀerent. ere will be no immediate
consensus on what constitutes ‘low carbon food’. But what can be adapted is a plan that is
ambitious and has immediate impact. A plan that also has short term, medium term and
long term targets. is approach can only be possible if emissions reductions are given
real priority and a sense of urgency. is approach can only be possible if there is a critical
culture open to new ideas and ways of working and not dependent on a small but powerful
lobby continuing practices in a closed-loop.
Innovation in food production and distribution is essential, so some thought to creating
conditions for risk-taking is essential. Regional-scale trials of new food systems and city-
wide experiments in new food structures are needed if we are to make the leap from very
small-scale to society-wide transformative approaches.
ere are other models. e CAT’s Zero Carbon Britain Report suggested: “In the
zerocarbonbritain2030 scenario abundant food for the population is produced but
livestock products are reduced to 20-30% of their present quantity. Cow and sheep
stocks in particular are much reduced. e levels of egg, poultry and pig-meat production
are only a little lower than today because they use little land and we can feed them on
high-yielding crop products and food wastes. Plant protein is greatly increased; at the
moment the ratio of meat to plant protein is about 55:45, and in the scenario it is to 34:66.
is proportion of livestock products matches recommendations for optimum dietary
health. Essentially the livestock sector switches from quantity to quality production.”
Again, particular Scottish conditions will make a diﬀerence. Our proportion of rough
grazing is far higher than other parts of the UK. But this should not be allowed as a
simple get-out to continue cattle-farming on the same scale and structure.
Creating the conditions where we are open to new ways of working will not be easy in
a sector that is enthralled to business forces or the innate conservatism of many farming
communities operating on a tight margin. For many the climate change agenda is not one
they have ever been asked to take seriously, or for whom this will have been conceived of
as a marketing opportunity, something you can pay lip service to, or something for which
the only appropriate response is mitigation and adaptation.
A strong clear sense of leadership and purpose will be required to make these changes
possible and a mandate from as wide a sector of society as possible is required.
WE CAN LOOK TO OUR IMMEDIATE EUROPEAN
NEIGHBOURS FOR INSPIRATION. THE DANISH IDA CLIMATE
PLAN 2050 OFFERS A BLUEPRINT FOR A STRATEGIC
APPROACH TO LAND USE AND FOOD PRODUCTION.
Reduce nitrogen surplus in
agriculture, introduce better
feed practice with less impact
on the climate, a doubling of
the organic agricultural area
and reduction of 1.6 million
tonnes C02 equivalent.
A quadrupling of organic
agricultural area, a reduction
of a further 5 million tonnes
C02 equivalent from
agriculture and food
Increase in biomass production
on land to around 200PJ
and of marine biomass to
around 100 PJ, reduction of
a further 9.5 million tonnes
C02 equivalent, and that the
impact of climate from diet will
be 0.9 tonnes C02 equivalent
per Dane per year for Danish
and imported foods.
IN BRITAIN A NEW TESCO, MORRISONS, SAINSBURYS OR ASDA OPENS
EVERY OTHER DAY. WE PROPOSE A MORATORIUM ON SUPERMARKET
EXPANSION IN SCOTLAND BASED ON:
We need to ensure that a comprehensive environmental and socio-economic
impact assessment is in place before giving the green light to any further
food retail development owned by the major food retailers
(this includes high street convenience stores and hypermarkets).
Local competition and retail diversity are guaranteed by the competition
and local authorities before any further expansion.
e belief is that this proposal will contribute to one of the main objectives
of Scotland’s National Food and Drink Policy of creating a more secure
and resilient food system, based on the diversity of our food supply.
Supermarkets have been around for ﬁfty years and they are now
well established in our food consciousness. eir expansion in
the post war area was aided by concerns about the ability of the
UK to feed itself, together with market liberalization policies, the
relaxation of regulations, and the Green Revolution in farming
from which the globalisation of the food system sprang and the
transition from traditional to intensive agriculture was made.
Every day we are reminded that supermarkets are the panacea to
revitalise the harsh economic reality of impoverished communities
in the UK. Tesco has recently announced the creation of 20,000
new jobs over the next two years by improving customer services,
opening new stores and providing training.
also presented as the best option for communities to access
cheap food. Food price is one of the driving purchasing factors
for UK consumers and one of the main reasons for the success
of supermarkets. Choice, aﬀordability and job creation is their
mantra and some sectors of the population would argue that
supermarkets oﬀer the majority of people what they need when
they need it, which is the perfect solution to our fast paced
lifestyles. So, why a moratorium on supermarket expansion?
Supermarkets have created a powerful and paternalistic image as
providers of cheap food and job opportunities, but this ignores the
knowledge and potential within communities to generate vibrant and
sustainable local food businesses. Alternative local food economies
oﬀer communities more control over how food is marketed and
produced, allowing for a larger share of the food industry proﬁts to
remain in the local area, and not in the hands of a few corporations.
In Fife the annual supermarket turnover in 2009 was £500.5 million
(approximately 79.5% of retail spending on food in Fife), while the
local food market via farmers markets and farm shops accounts for
only 0.52% of the total sales, and estimates for the UK are similar.
Fair competition and alternative market routes are needed to develop
the local food system.
However, the Local Food Movement in Scotland is ﬂourishing
with community food initiatives of all sorts expanding throughout
rural and urban areas. Many of these are funded by the Scottish
Government’s Climate Challenge Fund (CCF). According to a
recent survey the number of Scottish people trying to buy local food
is increasing and 54% and 49% of the respondents said that the main
reason for buying local food was to support local producers and local
retailers respectively. 40% stated that buying local food helps to keep
jobs in the area.
is is also something called the local multiplier eﬀect, a measure
of how money is re-spent locally instead of shifting proﬁts to
shareholders, insurance companies or management. e New
Economic Foundation compared the multiplier eﬀects of buying
fruits and vegetables from an organic box scheme vs. a supermarket
in an area of Cornwall. e results showed that every £10 spent in the
veg box scheme generated £25 for the local economy, as opposed to
£14 generated by buying in the supermarket.
e Competition Commission has discussed the eﬀect of
supermarkets on local jobs and research has shown that every time
a new supermarket opens an average of 276 local jobs are lost in the
mid- to long-term.
Recently, we have seen how the controversial
Workfare programme of the UK coalition government has re-opened
the debate on low paid, part time jobs and the poor quality of jobs
oﬀered by the big retailers.
Competition policy is currently a matter reserved to Westminster.
A monopoly in UK legislation is any one business group that controls
more than 30% of a product market. is is exactly in line with the
market share of Tesco, who are the largest retailer in the UK.
e issue in Scotland is not only to reduce the monopoly threshold
and control it in Edinburgh, but also to apply it through local
authority development planning – so that no one business could
control 10% of a market within a local authority area. Inverness, for
instance, has 3 Tescos and one more under construction: they take
51% of all retail spend in the city. But the planners are not allowed
to consider this as a relevant planning matter when considering their
plans for a 5th store. Using local market penetration as a planning
tool would beneﬁt food retail diversity and restrict supermarket size
and numbers eﬀectively.
Supermarkets are diversifying in order to access consumer trends,
from out of town hypermarkets oﬀering a wide range of non-food
retail services to convenience stores in the high street. e Oﬃce of
Fair Trading, and various campaigning groups have been warning
about the domination of the grocery market by supermarkets, which
make competition at the local level very diﬃcult and has a terrible
eﬀect in town centres. e National Farmers’ Union championed
the 2009 Competition Commission’s proposal for a supermarket
watchdog or Ombudsman that will protect producers and consumers
from being ripped-oﬀ. e proposal was widely welcome among all
the political parties, but its real power has been watered down and it
seems unlikely that the now called Groceries Code Adjudicator will
be in place before 2013.
Consumer demand for greener products has increased and therefore
supermarkets have been improving their sustainability credentials.
However, there are structural problems in supermarkets that prevent
them from being greener, including strict speciﬁcations on suppliers,
which results in food waste and increased pesticide use and food
miles from vast food imports, packaging and refrigeration, etc.
ere is growing evidence that eating local, fresh, and seasonal food
considerably reduces carbon emissions, and these products are mainly
sourced by farm shops, farmers markets and CSA schemes.
e reality is that we don’t know the long-term environmental and
socio-economic impacts of supermarket expansion, and planning
legislation should consider these aspects before granting permission to
new supermarket developments wanting to “get local”. It remains to be
seen whether the new neighbourhood development plans introduced
by the 2011 Localism Act will address these concerns. What we know
is that a moratorium on supermarket expansion will create breathing
space for sustainable and local food initiatives to develop and it will
establish new connections between consumers and producers. is
will contribute to creating a more secure and resilient food system,
which communities will have better control of, in addition to a greater
understanding of how food gets from farm to plate.
MYTHS AND OPPORTUNITIES
1. Proactive Investors. (2012, March 5). Tesco to create 20,000 jobs. www.tiny.cc/FM_6_1
2. Ritchie, P., Martínez, M.T. (2010). Our Mutual Food. One Planet Food.
3. TNS-brmb Scottish opinion Survey, October 2010. Food and Drink in Scotland: Key Facts 2012.
4. Ward, B., Lewis, J. (2002). Plugging the Leaks: Making the most of every pound that enters your
local economy. London: New Economics Foundation.
5. Corporate Watch., Michaels, L. (2004). What’s wrong with supermarkets.
Oxford: Corporate Watch.
6. Friends of the Earth. (2005). Brieﬁng. Checking out the environment: Environmental impacts of
supermarkets. London: Friends of the Earth. Download PDF www. tiny.cc/FM_6_6
WE ADVOCATE FOR A GREATER DECENTRALISATION
OF FOOD INFRASTRUCTURE BECAUSE:
e development of
diﬀering scales of food
mills, storage warehouses,
contributes to more
resilient local and regional
food systems; making them
less dependant of climate
events, external and
volatile market behaviour
and corporate domination
of the food chain.
It will create more
producers and consumers
and a greater choice of
routes to market for the
farmers (farm shops,
farmers markets, direct
sales). It will also encourage
re-skilling and the
development of locally-
owned enterprises such
as Dalbeattie abbatoir,
recently funded by a Scottish
Government Grant and
run by a local co-operative.
e food that we eat
aﬀects our health, the
environment and the
food is produced. It
seems irresponsible that
the way we produce,
process and suply our
food is in the hands of
a few corporations.
Corporate farming and its buying power controls most of the food
chain, but surprisingly the majority of the food that we eat is is
grown, collected and harvested by more than a billion small-scale
farmers, pastoralists and artisanal ﬁsherfolks. Reliance on corporate
farming and global trade is risky, and it would not ensure the
resilience of the food system. Reliance on small scale agriculture
puts those who produce, distribute and consume food at the heart
of food systems and policies rather than the demands of markets
and corporations; as proposed in the Food Sovereignty Framework.
Our current food system is characterised by centralisation and
giantism. Six processors (Arla/Express, Dairy Crest, Robert
Wiseman, Glanbia, Associated Co-operative Creameries and
Nestle) control 93% of UK dairy processing and six supermarkets
control 65% of liquid milk sales. All these companies use
centralized systems of production and distribution. Corporations
such as Danone either build large 1000 cows farms or encourage
co- operatives to build their numbers and the size of the farms
that supply them. In Scotland, the number of small dairyfarms are
falling every year: from 2,000 in 1999 to 1,300 now. Small dairies
only survive if they can organise their own bottling and supply
customers directly, or if they can add value on farm through cheese
or ice cream.
Just two companies Rank Hovis (part of Tomkins PLC) and Archer
Daniels Midland Milling account for more than 50% of bread ﬂour
milled in the UK; the third largest cereal producer in the EU after
France and Germany. In 2005 12% of the UK cereal area was grown
in Scotland. e main cereal crop in Scotland is barley of which
34% goes into malting and 54% for animal feed. Milling wheat
grown in Scotland is mainly used for biscuit making and also in
distilling and for animal feed. It is therefore unlikely that very much
of the cereal grown is milled locally for food consumption and
although there is available technology for milling cereals on a farm
scale but centralised plants are the norm. While large plant bakeries
supply over 90% of the UK market, craft bakers supply over 90% of
bread in Italy.
Livestock contributed 53% of Scotland’s agricultural output (worth
£1.916 billion) in 2006. Two-thirds of meat processed in Scotland
is sold to the rest of the UK. In value, the cattle sector (beef and
dairy) is the most important. 9 key abattoirs (each with an annual
throughput of over 25,000 animals) account for about 85% of the
total cattle slaughtered in Scotland. Just under 1 million
Scottish sheep were slaughtered in England and Wales between
July 2006 and June 2007. 55% of lambs produced in Scotland are
slaughtered elsewhere in the UK. e majority of prime pigs are
slaughtered within Scotland but the industry is heavily reliant on
a single slaughterhouse.
Successfully run local abattoirs; such as the privately owned in
the island of Barra, the community owned in Mull and the one
in Dalbeattie owned by a co-operative are good news for the
decentralisation of food infrastructure. Shorter supply chains give
the farmer a greater choice for marketing their produce, connect
directly with local consumers and add value to their own livestock
through branding. Additionally animal welfare and bio-security is
also improved. As suggested by the Leadership Forum, who helped
to design Scotland National Food and Drink Policy: “ e Scottish
Government should continue its investment in the food production
and processing industries, particularly where this supports resilience
in fragile supply chains”.
FACED WITH THE CHALLENGES OF
CLIMATE CHANGE, FOOD SECURITY, &
ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION; WE SHOULD BE
CLEAR & COHERENT ABOUT THE MODEL OF DEVELOPMENT
WE WANT FOR OUR FOOD SYSTEM IN SCOTLAND:
Disconnection model: highly centralised and dominated by
large processing, trading and retail companies and highly dependant
on global trade and markets. is model is characterised by the increasing
disconnection between how food is produced and consumed, and
disconnected of local ecosystems and regional societies.
Connection model: more autonomous and less commodiﬁed.
It is based on the ecological capital of farming, the reproduction
of short and decentralised supply chains and on building links
between consumers and producers.
1. Food Sovereignty Framework: Concept and Historical Context.
Download PDF www.tiny.cc/FM_7_1
2. Some of these statistics have been extracted from:
· Tulip, k. and Michacls, L. (2004). A rough guidc to thc Uk larming crisis. Corporatc Vatch.
· Ritchic, P., Martíncz, M.T. (2010). Cur Mutual Food. Cnc Planct Food.
Download PDF www.tiny.cc/FM_7_2
3. Leadership Forum Report: Development of the National Food and Drink Policy.
Download PDF www.tiny.cc/FM_7_3
4. More information: Van der Ploeg, J.D. (2008). e new Peasantries: Struggles for autonomy
and sustainability in an era of empire and globalisation. London: Earthscan.
BLASDA IS GAELIC FOR TASTE, OR FLAVOUR. IN 2011 FIFE DIET TESTED
OUT AN IDEA TO HOLD ‘BLASDA: SCOTLAND’S LOCAL FOOD FEAST’ AS
A CELEBRATION OF FOOD SOVEREIGNTY.
e idea was simple, let’s ﬁnd out what each region ‘tastes like’. Let’s create an
opportunity for regional food celebrations and a ‘local food feast’ in multiple
locations at the same time.
We invited communities as diverse as Uist and Possil, Kirkcaldy
and Moﬀat, to participate. 12 core communities were invited to
join and each of these were featured in a pamphlet we created for
distribution on the day. Each of these communities blogged about
their idea, the preparation and then the event itself. A website,
twitter and Flickr stream was created.
What happened was a fantastic range of activities, from pot luck
suppers to full-scale ceilidhs and ‘whole-village-lunches’. Events
took place in Aviemore, Perthshire, Aberdeen, Edinburgh and
across the Borders. MoﬀatCan held the ‘Edge on Veg’ celebration
followed by a ceilidh, Kilﬁnnan Community Forest, Transition
Black Isle, Aberdeen Students Association, Incredibly Edible
Dunbar, Tweedgreen, Camuscross (Skye) and East Kilbride
Development Trust all took part. One of the largest was In Uist
where hundreds turned out. Organisers sustainable Uist reported:
“Over 600 visitors attended to enjoy the tasting tables, see cheese
being made, have a ﬁsh ﬁlleting lesson, see hand made chocolates
being made and cakes being decorated. ere were cooking
demonstrations by local chefs and the gathered crowds enjoyed
sampling the ﬁnished dishes and taking home the recipes. Such
was the success of the ﬁrst day that some of the sellers were short
of stock by Sunday!”
e project was delighted by the response with dozens of
communities becoming involved and an estimated 6,600 people
taking part. e design ideas, and social media meant that the
message of celebrating local food and the local food movement
received the widest audience possible. e festival is to be repeated
this year in a collaboration with NVA’s Hidden Gardens that will
bring a culture kitchen recipe tour visit each of the communities
as well as being linked-to by the Fife Diet’s own Seed Truck.
Hugh and Sascha Grierson from Grierson Organics said:
For us that’s what it feels like – we are
part of a burgeoning community of people,
businesses and community groups who
understand that we need a range of solutions
for our food needs.
Blasda is just a cultural expression of the wider food sovereignty
movement. e term was coined by La Via Campesina, an
international peasant organisation, and is deﬁned as ‘the right of
peoples to healthy, culturally appropriate, food produced through
ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and the right to
deﬁne their own food and agricultural systems.’
is is all about changing public policies governing our food
and agricultural systems. At the recent Crofters Gathering
in Strathpeﬀer ('Liberate Diversity') there was a renewed
commitment to the Nyeleni declaration,
commitment to changing and reclaiming the food system:
“Our struggle includes changing public policies and governance
structures that rule our food systems - from the local to the
national, European and global levels and to delegitimise corporate
power. Public policies must be coherent, complementary and
promote and protect food systems and food cultures. ey must:
be based on the right to food; eradicate hunger and poverty;
ensure the fulﬁlment of basic human needs; and contribute to
Climate Justice in Europe and globally. We need legal frameworks
that: guarantee stable and fair prices for food producers; promote
environmentally-friendly agriculture; internalise external costs
into food prices; and implement land reform. ese policies
would result in more farmers in Europe. Public policies must be
designed with the help of publicly accountable research to achieve
the objectives outlined above. ey must ensure that speculation
on food is banned and no harm is done to existing local or
regional food systems and food cultures either by dumping or
by landgrabbing in Europe, particularly Eastern Europe, or the
Global South. We work towards new agriculture, food, seed,
energy and trade policies for Food Sovereignty in Europe which
are internationally sound. In particular these must include: a
diﬀerent Common Agriculture and Food Policy; the removal of
the EU Biofuels Directive; and global governance of international
agricultural trade located in the FAO and not the WTO.
We call upon the people and social movements in Europe to
engage, together with us, in all our struggles to take control of our
food systems and Build the Movement for Food Sovereignty in
We see the need to reconnect, and the pivotal role culture can play
in telling the story of our food, where it comes from and what
our traditions are. Blasda is a small scale festival but our proposal
is that it becomes an annual event and in doing so lodges in the
pubic consciousness the idea that communities can and should
have a pubic role in celebrating food and in shaping food policy.
A CULTURAL EXPRESSION
1. Nyeleni Europe 2011: European Forum for Food Sovereignty 22 August 2011
Most of the ailments of the global food system stem from a
disproportionate imbalance between power and governance.
Food and agricultural trade is controlled by the World Trade
Organisation (WTO), which promotes an export-led model
of agriculture and the deregulation of the food market. is
has favoured big agribusiness companies and retailers, which
control most of the production and retail market, leaving small-
scale farmers, consumers and some states with little bargaining
power and little control over the means of production and the
supply chain. In short the result is an undemocratic food system,
which is not only unable to provide food security for all but
also contributes to increasing poverty in both developed and
From Scotland, we might not be able to control all these variables
but we have the opportunity to change direction by ensuring that
our food system is democratically controlled. In August 2009
the Scottish Government launched the National Food and Drink
Policy: Recipe for Success. is has been a landmark in Scottish
policy, since it recognises for the ﬁrst time the importance of the
food system as a whole, and not as a mere subsidiary issue of our
economy and health. e policy was developed with the help of
the Leadership Forum, a group of high-proﬁle individuals and
experts to make recommendations on issues related to health,
environment, aﬀordability and the economy.
e Scottish Government consulted the public in developing
Recipe for Success and the top three topics were diet and
nutrition (68%), local food and local economies (49%) and health
However, as it laid out, the National Food and
Drink Policy favours ‘export growth’ over local food economies
and health promotion. e Scottish Government wants to see the
contribution of food and drink to the national economy raised
to £10 billion by 2017 but economic drive alone will not assure
sustainable food consumption and production for Scotland.
e basis for the target ﬁgure for food industry growth is not clear,
nor is the impact of achieving this target on domestic production,
diet, land use and greenhouse gas emissions.
ere is no continuing public forum for discussing
implementation or reporting progress and the Parliament’s
involvement in food policy ha so far been very limited. However,
the Scottish Government recognises the need for Food Advocacy
and has convened a group of stakeholders to discuss how
this should be taken forward. From the discussions, the most
desirable option seemed to be to create a Memorandum of
Understanding or Charter for Food Advocacy between a looser
group of NGOs, academics and others who ascribe to coordinated
messages and actions. It still has to be decided whether this
should be undertaken by the Government itself or by an existing
organisation on the Government’s behalf.
WE PROPOSE A FOOD LEADERSHIP TEAM BASED ON:
e need to create an independent and cross-sectoral critical voice to monitor
the implementation of Scotland Food and Drink Policy and to contribute to its development.
Continuing the previous consultation and dialogue process started by the
Scottish Government and Leadership Forum during the design of the policy,
and ensuring there is a fair representation and participation of all the
interested sectors, including those which are less vocal.
Redressing the imbalance between power and governance by bringing
the Food Leadership Team’s resolutions to a parliamentary debate.
e FLT should be cross-sectoral, with a fair representation of
all the interest groups and stakeholders: from private business
to campaigning NGOs, food poverty groups, school, hospitals,
community organisations, academics, experts, farmers, thinkers,
youth groups, women’s organisations, public oﬃcials and wider
networks. e FLT could act both as a monitoring body of the
National Food and Drink policy and as a hub of joined-up
thinking incorporating creative proposals, developing new
indicators and mobilising action. e FLT would create
meaningful connections within disparate food interests in
Scotland, but would also link with movements and groups
internationally, making sure the way we consume and produce
food in Scotland has the least possible social and environmental
impacts in other countries, and working together towards a more
sustainable and democratic food system worldwide.
In order to avoid becoming a “talking shop”, and to redress the
imbalance between power and governance that characterises the
global food system, the proposals approved by the FLT should
have leverage in the Parliament. e FLT could provide a credible
and recognisable arena to apply pressure as a focused critical
mass, a space where Manifestos like this one could be debated:
food democracy at its best.
Governments and political will can be transient depending on the
economic and social context. e current economic recession and the
reassessment of values that have guided our economy for so long, necessitate
the creation of a robust and critical Food Leadership Team (FLT) or
similar advocacy group to ensure that the gains of the current food policy
are not lost and to contribute to an evolving food policy.
1. Ritchie, P. (2010). Making Scottish food policy: a cross-cutting approach. Food Ethics, 5(2), 28-29.
With greater than ever competition on food prices, increased
consumption of energy dense processed food and little awareness
of how food gets from farm to plate, the hidden environmental
and social cost of the conventional food chain escapes the public
eye. Scotland is still very reliant on food imports. For example,
in 2010 the value of imports of fruits and vegetables was £142
million and imports of animal feed, such as soy from monoculture
plantations in Latin America accounted for £406 million (60%
more than in 2007).
e negative social and environmental
impacts of soy plantations have been widely reported, and soy
could gradually be replaced by home-grown protein.
Public sector expenditure on food and drink procurement in
Scotland is £129.3 million. Local authorities spend 48% on
Scottish produce and frozen food accounts for a third of spending
by local authorities.
is buying power allows public procurement
services to play an important role in promoting the environmental
beneﬁts of shorter supply chains and a sustainable local food
economy. 80% of retail spending on food goes to the main
supermarkets. If just 10% of public procurement food expenditure
went to local farms this would also boost local food distribution
networks and local processing business. It would also enhance the
role of the farmer as a service provider and establish meaningful
connections between producers and consumers. Some farms
and food producers will need support and training and work
cooperatively to be able to provide food at a competitive price
which is accredited for food safety, ensure there is suﬃcient
capacity to supply and at a consistent quality, and have the
potential to manage complex distribution arrangements.
With the right support through the contract process this
measure could provide a farming business with a predictable
income stream, and make use of seasonal surpluses.
It could also
encourage farmers to shift to more sustainable farming practices.
ere are already successful examples of sustainable food
procurement in Scotland and internationally, where farmers
and institutions are partners. East Ayrshire Council followed
the Soil Association’s Food for Life’ guidelines (at least 75% of
food ingredients must be unprocessed, 50% locally sourced, and
30% organic). e increase in cost was marginal, and for every
additional pound spent by the council there was a social return
on investment of £6. is proves that moving away from low-cost
catering culture can pay oﬀ for councils.
WE PROPOSE A FARM TO INSTITUTION
PARTNERSHIP BASED ON THE FACTS THAT:
Local authorities and public
institutions have the power to
show by example, inﬂuencing
consumers and new generations
to become part of a healthier and
more sustainable food culture.
Public institutions’ buying power
can contribute to rebuilding local
infrastructure and stable local
food markets dismantled by the
globalisation of the food system.
Connecting institutions to
local farms can have signiﬁcant
economic and social beneﬁts.
ere is already evidence of
best practice on creative food
procurement in Scotland
to build on, as shown by East
Ayrshire Council, supported
by the Scottish Executive
“Hungry for Success” initiative.
is proposal is in keeping with
the 2009 Scottish Sustainable
Procurement Action Plan and
the recommendations of the
Future Delivery of Public Service
Commission, which stress the need
to build a common public service
ethos and joined-up integrated
services to develop local capacity.
FARM TO INSTITUTION APPROACH TO PUBLIC PROCUREMENT
Rome has probably the most successful school meals programme
in the world; when meals are not fully organic, they are at least
locally sourced or fairly traded. Each meal cost about one pound
more than in Scotland but meals are also highly subsidised.
In Scotland we could use revenues raised from the Soda Tax
proposed in this manifesto to subsidise healthy school meals.
Rome’s ‘All for Quality’ school meals programme supported a
“big tent” deﬁnition of health, one that includes children’s social
and nutritional health together with a clear philosophy
of environmental stewardship.
In Oakland, the ﬁrst hospital farmers market was created in 2003
and by 2005 farmers markets were held by 25 hospitals in various
states. e markets work as a subtle form of preventative medicine
and show the hospitals’ leadership in building demand for healthy
food and supporting local produce. ey all have three guiding
principles: the markets must provide certiﬁed organic food; the
food should not need refrigeration; and the markets must serve
as healthy complements to the existing in-hospital cafeteria food,
and not as competitive alternatives.
One of the main barriers named by local authorities for local
food procurement is the EU Procurement Directive. However,
regulations seem to have been lawfully overcome in other
European countries with strong local food economies, such as
Italy and France, and there is no reason why Scotland could
not do the same. ese countries may not specify ‘local’ in their
tendering process but they buy fresh food, organic food, domestic
varieties of fruits and vegetables, seasonal produce, they allow the
use of lots and use third parties to manage meal provision, etc.
is is an exciting time for a change in public food procurement
in Scotland. We already have a Sustainable Procurement Action
Plan, and a Bill will be put before the Scottish Parliament towards
the end of 2012. e government has published the Catering
for Change guidelines for buying food sustainably in the public
sector. e guidelines make it clear that ‘value for money’ should
not be about buying the cheapest possible but that a sustainable
food procurement policy should seek to derive social, economic
and environmental beneﬁts.
Local authorities are aware of these
sustainable procurement guidelines; however “Supporting local
and regional economies” is the most important criterion when
local authorities are asked to rank sustainable food criteria in order
of importance. However, this has to be moved from aspiration and
rhetoric to more mainstream practice.
LOCAL AUTHORITIES, HOSPITALS AND OTHER PUBLIC SERVICE AGENCIES SHOULD ADHERE TO
“SUSTAINABLE FOOD PROCUREMENT” AS A CORPORATE OBJECTIVE. THIS COULD BE ACHIEVED BY:
Avoiding territorialism and following a joined-up approach to public procurement
(the Scottish Government is developing a Health and Environmental
Sustainability Framework for joined-up decision-making)
Working in partnership with other parties such as the third sector and private business
Developing guidelines for public food including health, social and sustainability criteria
Funding joined-up decision-making and action in order to be successful.
1. e Scottish Government. (2012). Food and Drink in Scotland: Key Facts 2012.
2. Food&waterwatch. (2011). e Perils of the Global Soy Trade: Economic, Environmental
and Social impacts. Download PDF www.tiny.cc/FM_10_2
3. e Scottish Government. (2009). Public Sector Food procurement in Scotland:
An overview of current evidence. www.tiny.cc/FM_10_3
4. Ritchie, P., Martínez, M.T. (2010). Our Mutual Food. One Planet Food.
Download PDF www.tiny.cc/FM_10_4
5. Liquori, T. (2011). Brieﬁng paper. Rome, Italy: A model in public food procurement:
What can the United Sates learn? Liquori and Associates.
6. Project for Public Spaces. Kaiser Farmers Market. www.tiny.cc/FM_10_6
7. e Scottish Government. (2011). Catering for change: Buying food sustainably
in the public sector. Download PDF www.tiny.cc/FM_10_7
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