EAEC2011_A52

COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF CREVICE FLOW AND SOOT ENTRAINMENT IN A DIESEL ENGINE
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Tan, Shin Mei*, 1Ng, Hoon Kiat, 2Gan, Suyin Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia 2 Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia KEYWORDS Computational Fluid Dynamics, light-duty diesel engine, diesel combustion, soot entrainment, crevice flow ABSTRACT Implementation of a crevice model (CM) is important for the simulation study of soot mass entrainment into engine oil via crevice flow, especially when examining the detailed influence of in-cylinder processes on this. In this reported work, operating parameters affecting spatial evolution of combustion soot and the associated bulk gas transport processes into crevice region in a light-duty diesel engine were appraised. Numerical computation of diesel combustion was undertaken by means of linking a plug-in chemistry solver namely, CHEMKIN-CFD into ANSYS FLUENT 12, a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. The chemical reactions mechanism of n-heptane surrogate fuel was integrated with the Eddy-Dissipation Concept (EDC) model to represent turbulent-chemistry interaction of the fuel oxidation process. Discrete phase model of the Lagrangian approach was employed to represent the particles of liquid fuel spray dispersed in the continuous phase, with a hybrid spray atomisation model, Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) implemented to model fuel spray breakup. The computation mesh comprised the crevice region to allow quantitative and qualitative inspections. With the CM activated, an increase in soot mass entering the crevice region was noted due to higher velocities induced at the vicinity of the crevice region by this transport mechanism. The pressure difference between the combustion chamber and crankcase generates the flow of mass charge through the crevice region. Effects on the soot spatial evolution are studied for different injection strategies, which include single injection with different start of injection (SOI) timings, as well as split main injection with different dwell period. Most significant soot mass entrainment into the crevice volume was found in cases with retarded fuel injection and split main injection with large separation in between the pulses. INTRODUCTION Diesel engine is long known for its higher thermal efficiency, and as such is a promising propulsion system to power motor vehicles into the future. Despite this, diesel engine designers are challenged by the need to comply with the ever more stringent emission standards while at the same time maintaining the engine efficiency. Standard regulations of engine exhaust emissions of both oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and soot have encouraged engine manufacturers to improve the engine designs and operating strategies in order to reduce emissions. However, these modifications results in an increase of soot concentration in engine oil. For instance, the usage of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) successfully lowers NOx formation, but produces an undesired effect on increasing soot formation (1).

Modification to the ring and piston has been made to reduce burning and consumption of lubricating oil. However, the combined effect resulted in higher soot concentration in oil (2). Soot in engine oil can clog filters and pyrolise into hard carbon deposit, which can lead to oil starvation and damage of the engine. Soot contamination in engine oil has been found to increase oil viscosity and engine friction (3). Furthermore, many researchers have suggested that soot-contaminated engine oil causes increase in engine wear rate (4). Researchers have found a substantial amount of soot deposition in crevice region (1), which exhibits the importance of fuel dispersion into crevice region on formation of soot deposits on crevice surfaces. During normal diesel engine operations, the very high soot concentrations are produced within the combustion chamber, and often exceed ten times the exhaust concentrations (5, 6). At the same time, the high temperature in the combustion chamber due to fuel oxidation leads to high heat transfer rate to the combustion chamber wall, resulting in soot deposition on the chamber wall. In other words, understanding the locations and amounts of soot depositions is important to assist in improving the performance of diesel engine, in order to reduce soot emissions and deposition. The objective of this work is to computationally study the spatial evolution of combustion soot and the entrainment into crevice region in a light-duty diesel engine. The combustion and emission processes of diesel engine are simulated by means of linking a plug-in chemistry solver namely, CHEMKIN-CFD into ANSYS FLUENT 12, a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. CFD simulation allows the in-situ examination of fluid characteristics within the combustion chamber, where as experimental measurements generally provide output results without the description of the processes occurring inside the chamber, and is prohibitively costly and time consuming. The crevice model (CM) is implemented in this study to take into account the effect of the flow of charge mass through the crevice on the combustion and soot spatial evolution. In this study, the effects on the spatial evolution of in-cylinder soot and soot entrainment into the crevice region are investigated for different fuel injection strategies. Fuel injection in a diesel engine is a process that prepares fuel-air mixture, which governs the subsequent ignition characteristics, combustion rate, and exhaust emissions. The injection profiles examined in this study include single main injection with different start of injection (SOI) at -6 crank angle degree (CAD) and +2 CAD after top dead centre (ATDC), and split main injection with fuel mass split ratio of 60 to 40, and different dwell periods of 0 CAD (denoted as 60/0/40) and 20 CAD (denoted as 60/20/40) between injection pulses. Results are compared for the combustion simulations with and without the CM activated. Subsequently, CM is implemented for modelling the combustion and soot formation processes with different injection strategies employed. ENGINE GEOMETRIES AND OPERATING CONDITIONS In this study, the simulation is conducted based on the engine specifications of a test engine, which is shown in Table 1. The engine is operated at 1600 rev/min. This simulation focuses on the closed cycle of the engine from the intake valve closure (IVC) at -143 CAD ATDC to exhaust valve opening (EVO) at +131 CAD ATDC. The fuel injection scheme comprises of a pilot injection, followed by main fuel injection 25 CAD after the pilot injection. The main injection profiles include single injection and split injection with different SOI timing, which are -6 CAD ATDC for early injection cases, and +2 CAD ATDC for cases with retarded SOI. Additionally, the split injection cases consistently use a fuel mass split ratio of

60 to 40 but different dwell periods. The close-coupled case has a dwell period of 0 CAD between the injections, while for the case with large separation, the dwell period is 20 CAD. The SOI, split ratio and dwell period of the injections are illustrated in Figure 1. Inputs of the mass flow rates of fuel injections in the computation are reproduced based on the injector needle lift profile recorded from the experiments. The injection specifications and the operating conditions for each case are summarised in Table 2.
Table 1: Test engine, injector and fuel specification

Engine type Piston type Cylinder head type Displacement per cylinder (L) Compression ratio Stroke (cm) Bore (cm) Piston bowl volume (cm3) Piston to head clearance (cm) Clearance volume (cm3) Connecting rod length (cm) Number of injector holes Nozzle diameter (mm) Fuel Fuel temperature (K)

Light-duty diesel engine Bowl-in-piston Flat cylinder head 0.5 18.2 8.6 8.6 19.29 0.1 25.1 16.0 6 0.149 Diesel #2 285

Figure 1: Illustration of injection profile Table 2: Injection profiles and operating conditions

SOI (CAD ATDC) Injection profile Total injection quantity (mg) Pilot injection quantity (mg) Experimental trapped air mass (g) Simulated trapped mass (g) Difference in trapped mass (%) Initial pressure (bar) Initial temperature (K)

-6 Single 25.4 0.521 0.511 0.543 6.3 1.01 313

-6 60/0/40 25.3 0.582 0.541 0.543 0.4 1.01 313

+2 Single 27.6 0.521 0.500 0.543 8.6 1.01 313

+2 60/0/40 26.7 0.583 0.573 0.570 0.5 1.06 313

+2 60/20/40 31.0 0.583 0.581 0.570 1.9 1.06 313

NUMERICAL MODELS Various physical models that account for the spray breakup, turbulence, combustion and emissions characteristics are employed for the simulation of diesel engine combustion. Computational models implemented in this study are summarised in Table 3 and will be described as follows. The computational grid used is also explained.
Table 3: Computational sub models implemented in the current study

Spray breakup model Drag law Turbulence model Turbulence-chemistry interaction Reaction mechanism Soot model Soot oxidation model

KH-RT (refer to Table 4) Dynamic drag RNG k-ε Eddy-dissipation-concept n-heptane (7) Moss-Brookes Fenimore-Jones

The computational mesh of the combustion chamber utilised in this study is shown in Figure 2. The combustion chamber is represented by a 60° sector mesh, attributed to the symmetry imposed by the 6 equally spaced injector nozzle holes. The computational mesh is created with 1.5mm cell size, containing a total of 37,335 cells at IVC. An additional grid is introduced to account for the crevice region above the top ring, which includes the top land and the top groove. Crevice region below the top ring is modelled by the CM in ANSYS FLUENT 12, as explained in the later sections. The mesh size has been tested to produce grid independence solution results. Further mesh size refinement does not improve results but causes an increase in the computational runtime.

Figure 2: Computational mesh domain of the combustion chamber at TDC

The Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is applied in this study to model the fuel spray breakup, where the values of the model parameters are adjusted for this parametric study. The breakup time constant, B1 may vary from 10 to 60 (8), and the ratio of Levich constant to B1, CL/B1, is computed as 1 for diesel spray with high Weber number. The values of the model constants used in this study are summarised in Table 4. The O’Rourke’s collision model (9) and the two-way coupling are implemented to account for the effect of coalescence between the liquid droplets, and the exchange of properties between the discrete phase and the continuous phase, respectively.
Table 4: Values of KH-RT model constants

KH-RT model constants Breakup time constant, B1 Levich constant, CL CL/ B1 Cτ CRT

Values 12.5 12.5 1 1 0.5

A reduced mechanism of n-heptane (7), consisting of 44 species and 109 reactions is employed in this study to calculate the chemical kinetics of the diesel fuel combustion. The reduced mechanism was validated under 48 shock tube conditions, in which the ignition delay (ID) timings were reproduced (7).The chemistry of the n-heptane is integrated with CFD solver through CHEMKIN-CFD. The Eddy-Dissipation-Concept (EDC) model (10) is implemented to incorporate the finite-rate chemistry with turbulent mixing. In this model, the chemical reactions are assumed to occur in fine scales of small turbulent structure. The model transport of the turbulence is solved using the RNG k-ε turbulence model. The Moss-Brookes soot model (11) and the Fenimore-Jones oxidation model in ANSYS FLUENT are implemented to predict soot formation and oxidation processes, respectively. The soot precursor species for soot inception is set as benzene ring, while acetylene is exploited as the surface growth species. Subsequently, the Fenimore-Jones oxidation model is applied to account for soot oxidation. The Moss-Brookes soot model was originally proposed for the soot prediction in methane flames and can be applied to higher hydrocarbon species by modifying the model constants (12). The parameters of the oxidation model are therefore calibrated. The values of the model constants modified in this study are shown in Table 5. The simulated soot mass output was validated against the experimental results for different injection profiles.
Table 5: Values for modified soot model constants

Soot model constants Oxidation rate scaling parameter, Coxid Collision efficiency parameter, ηcoll

Values 100 0.13

In this study, the CM is activated to account for the effect of the crevice flow on the soot spatial evolution and entrainment into the crevice region. The CM implemented in ANSYS FLUENT is a zero-dimensional ring-flow model based on the model outlined by Namazian and Heywood (13) as well as Roberts and Matthews (14). The equations for mass conservation in the crevice geometry are solved by assuming laminar compressible flow in the region between the piston and the ring, as well as an orifice flow between the ring and the cylinder wall. This model does not track individual species, and the mass flux into the domain from the crevice is assumed to have the same composition as the adjacent cell. The representation of the CM is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Representation of Crevice Model geometry (15)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Validation Motored Case Prior to the firing case simulation, the motored case is validated with the CM activated. Results of the in-cylinder peak pressure as well as the fluid flow in the simulations with CM activated are compared against those of without CM. When the CM was activated, the peak in-cylinder pressure is reduced by 3% due to mass loss through the crevice.

Figure 4: Velocity vector at +20 CAD ATDC for case of SOI at -6 CAD

Figure 4 demonstrates the velocity vector at a cross-section plane of the in-cylinder volume along the spray axis, for both cases with and without CM activated. It is observed that for the case with CM activated, the fluid flow in the combustion chamber has higher velocity. This also indicates a higher mixing strength of the fluid flow. Referring to the simulated fluid flow in the top land volume when CM is not activated, fluid in the crevice region flows in the outward direction despite that the piston is moving downwards. As the mass flow past the crevice is not considered, the air trapped in the crevice region prevents the fluid in the combustion chamber from entering the region. Firing Cases Subsequently, simulations were carried out with and without the CM activated for single main injection cases with SOI timings at -6 CAD and +2 CAD ATDC. Figure 5 shows the incylinder pressure and heat released rate (HRR) results of the experiments, as well as those simulated with and without activating CM. When CM is taken into account, the associated effects on ID and HRR of the combustion are minor. On the other hand, the peak pressures are reduced by approximately 2 bar for both different SOI cases. Figure 6 illustrates the soot mass production in the combustion chamber for both -6 and +2 CAD cases. Soot oxidation rate is found to be lower when CM is not activated, resulting in higher soot emissions at EVO. This can be attributed to the low mixing strength of the fluid. The mixing strength

governs the air entrainment into the soot formation region, which assists the oxidation process. On the contrary, the predicted soot mass in the crevice region is lower when the CM model is not activated, as depicted in Table 6. For the early injection case, difference between the predicted soot mass with and without CM activated is in the order of magnitude of 107. This difference is caused by the trapped air mass in the crevice region which prevents the fluid flowing into the crevice from the combustion chamber, as elucidated in the previous section.

Figure 5: Experimental and simulated pressure and HRR for single main injection cases with SOI at (a) -6 CAD and (b) +2 CAD

Figure 6: Simulated soot mass for single main injection cases Table 6: Simulated soot mass in crevice region at EVO for single injection cases

SOI (CAD ATDC) -6 +2

Soot Mass in Crevice at EVO With Without Crevice Model Crevice Model 9.46 x 10 -32 1.29 x 10-39 3.78 x 10 -26 1.06 x 10-27

Next, numerical studies are carried out for the split main injection cases to investigate the soot evolution and soot entrainment into the crevice region when different split main injection parameters are employed. The experimental and simulated results of the pressure and HRR are given in Figure 7. Comparisons between the experimental and simulated results

show that the maximum offsets of the predicted ID of the main combustion are retained within 1 CAD and the percentage difference peak pressure is less than 7.5%. The measured and predicted exhaust soot mass is shown in Figure 8. By setting the single injection case with SOI at +2 CAD as the baseline case, the exhaust soot mass is normalised, for comparison between the experimental data and simulated results. The trend of the simulated results for soot emission by varying the SOI, split main ratio, and dwell period between injections, are found to be comparable with the experimental results.

Figure 7: Experimental and simulated pressure and HRR for split main injection case with the injection profiles (a) -6 CAD- 60/0/40, (b) +2 CAD- 60/0/40 and (c) +2 CAD- 60/20/40

When the SOI is retarded, the corresponding in-cylinder pressure and temperature are lower, which delay the combustion. The longer ID causes higher value of the peak of soot mass production, as more time is allowed for preparation of combustible air-fuel mixture, and higher fuel mass is available for combustion. Low in-cylinder pressure and temperature also decrease the soot oxidation rate, resulting in higher exhaust soot emissions. The closecoupled split main injection case produces lower soot mass as compared to that in single main injection case. The separation of the injection improves air entrainment into the fuel spray. This promotes a more complete combustion as the air entrainment into the spray creates a leaner fuel-air mixture, which also contributes to the lower exhaust soot mass produced by the combustion. However, the predicted soot mass concentration is lower than that of the experimental results for the split main injection cases with large separation of 20 CAD. This can be attributed to the underestimation in the ID of the second phase of combustion as seen in Figure 7. The earlier start of the second phase of combustion indicates higher temperature and more time available for soot oxidation until EVO, therefore reducing the exhaust soot concentration.

Figure 8: Normalised soot mass at EVO

Variation of Injection Parameters Start of Injection Fuel from pilot injection is delivered at 25 CAD prior to the main injection for all single and split main injection cases, and the soot formed during the pilot combustion contributes to the entrainment into crevice region. As can be seen in Figure 9, a higher soot mass is found in the crevice region at EVO for cases with SOI at +2 CAD, as compared to that of -6 CAD. Figure 10 shows that the earliest soot entrainment into crevice region occurs in the cases with SOI at -6 CAD. Soot entrainment begins at +5 CAD ATDC, and the soot mass drops at a high rate due to soot oxidation. An explanation to this is that for early injection case, the pilot fuel is injected earlier in the compression stroke, where the in-cylinder temperature and pressure is lower. This increases the ID timing and allows for better air-fuel mixing and preparation of combustible air-fuel mixture. Also, the soot entrainment begins at near TDC where the incylinder pressure and temperature are high, thus it provides the environment for high soot oxidation rate. The soot mass in crevice region at EVO is merely 3x10 -9 % of the peak value. For the late injection case, the soot entrainment begins at +11 CAD ATDC and peaks at +17 CAD ATDC. At this time step, the in-cylinder pressure drops due to the expansion stroke, resulting in lower soot oxidation rate. The soot mass in crevice at EVO is only reduced by approximately 60% from the peak value. It is also noted that the late injection case produces a lower peak soot mass in the crevice region, as depicted in Figure 9. Due to the shorter ID,

the pilot combustion and the associated soot formation occurs earlier before the soot has the chance to enter the crevice region. When the soot entrainment into crevice begins, the soot mass formed has dropped due to soot oxidation. The soot entrainment into crevice region hence reduces correspondingly.

Figure 9: Simulated soot mass in crevice at EVO

Figure 10: Normalised simulated soot mass in crevice region

Images of predicted soot concentration shown in Figure 11 are obtained from the top view projection of the 3-D soot iso-surfaces, where the soot cloud layers are featured as semitransparency to allow inspection of soot spatial evolution. For the single injection case, all the soot mass found in the crevice region is mainly contributed by the pilot fuel combustion. Based on the visual examination as depicted in Figure 11, soot produced from the main combustion of the early injection case dwells in the piston bowl throughout the expansion stroke. On the other hand, for late injection case, certain portion of the soot formed escapes the piston bowl and progresses towards the cylinder wall. An explanation to this is that the whole course of the early injection occurs mainly near TDC, while for late injection, fuel is delivered in the expansion stroke as the piston progresses downwards. This results in small amount of fuel from the late injection to be delivered into the cylinder. Apart from these, the combustion of the early injection case occurs at TDC, where the in-cylinder pressure and temperature are at their peak due to compression effect, thus promoting soot oxidation and reduces the soot mass escaping from the piston. Close-Coupled Split Main Injection Comparisons of the soot spatial evolution for the cases with SOI at +2 CAD from Figure 11 shows that the soot formed in the single main injection case propagates further towards the cylinder liner as compared to that in the close-coupled case. In addition, higher soot mass concentration is also observed in the single injection case. As the fuel injection is split into two pulses in the close-coupled injection case, there are losses of momentum of the spray particles and the spray penetration length is hence reduced. The separation of the injection also improves air entrainment into the fuel spray. This promotes a more complete combustion as it prepares a lean fuel-air mixture, which also explains the lower exhaust soot produced by the combustion with split injection. For the cases with SOI at -6 CAD, the difference in the soot spatial evolution between the single injection case and the close-coupled case is not significant. As elucidated in the previous section, soot produced from the main combustion of the early injection case resides in the piston bowl. This explanation is applied for both the single injection and the close-coupled case. However, it can be distinguished that the closecoupled case produced lower soot concentration in the piston.

Figure 11: Spatial evolution of soot for different injection profiles

For the close-coupled and the single injection cases, soot formed after the main combustion does not reach the cylinder wall and the crevice region. Therefore, it can be concluded that the soot mass existing in the crevice region consists of only the soot formed during the pilot combustion, and it is not affected by the split main ratio. However, difference in the soot mass in crevice region is observed between the close-coupled and single injection case as seen in Figure 9 and Figure 10. This can be attributed to the inconsistencies in the injection velocity. As only a small amount of fuel is delivered during the pilot injection, a slight difference in the injection velocities gives an effect in the amount of soot formed. Separation of Split Main Injection For the split injection with retarded SOI and a large separation of 20 CAD, soot mass of 1.14x10-11 kg is found in the crevice at EVO as shown in Figure 9. Among all the test cases, this case produces the largest amount of soot mass in the crevice region. The second pulse of main injection occurs later during the expansion stroke where the piston has moved downwards. Consequently, the fuel is injected into the cylinder towards the cylinder wall, instead of into the piston bowl. Figure 10 shows that soot entrainment into crevice region occurs at +48 CAD ATDC, which is approximately 17 CAD after the second pulse of main

fuel injection is delivered. Likewise to the previous cases, soot formed from the pilot combustion exists in the crevice region prior to the main injection. However, the associated soot amount is much lower as compared to that contributed by combustion of the second pulse of the split main injection. Referring to the soot spatial evolution given in Figure 11, soot mass concentration is detected near the cylinder wall from +60 CAD ATDC. The soot formed during the combustion of the second pulse injection is less than that of the first pulse of fuel injected. Due to the split main ratio, the second pulse injection consists of a smaller fuel mass. Additionally, the fuel being delivered late in the expansion stroke where the corresponding in-cylinder pressure and temperature are lower, results in a longer ID. This promotes air fuel mixing and prepares a lean fuel-air mixture prior to the combustion, thus resulting in lower soot formation. CONCLUSIONS A computational study on the effect of different injection strategies on the soot spatial evolution and soot entrainment into crevice region in a light-duty diesel engine is conducted. CM is activated in this simulation study to account for the effects of the crevice flow. Validations were conducted and the results obtained from the simulations were found to be in good agreement with the measured data. The activation of the CM induces higher velocity and stronger mixing of the fluid in the combustion chamber, which gives rise to higher soot oxidation rate. Higher soot mass in the crevice region is also predicted, due to higher velocity of fluid flowing into the crevice region. The soot spatial evolution and entrainment into crevice are analysed for different injection strategies, and the outcomes are as the following:  For the single injection cases, retarding the SOI increases the mass of soot entrainment into the crevice region. Soot entrainment occurs at a later time step at which the corresponding in-cylinder pressure and temperature are lower, resulting in lower soot oxidation rate. In early injection case, although the close-coupled case produces lower soot concentration in the piston bowl, both single injection and close-coupled case have similar soot spatial evolution as the soot formed resides in the piston bowl. In late injection case, soot formed does not propagate as much towards the cylinder wall for the close-coupled split injection case, as compared to the single injection case. Pulses of the split injection results in loss of momentum of the fuel particles and improves air entrainment into the fuel spray. This promotes complete combustion and reduces the soot formation rate. Split main injection with retarded SOI and large separation produces the largest amount of soot mass in the crevice region. The second pulse of the fuel injection is delivered late in the expansion stroke where the fuel impinges on the cylinder wall, resulting in high soot mass formed near the crevice. For all cases except for the split main injection case with retarded SOI and large separation, soot mass found in the crevice region are contributed by the pilot combustion, as the soot formed after the main combustion have not come in contact with the crevice at EVO.

Based on the simulation results, , it is noted that only the case with split main injection and retarded SOI with large separation has entrainment of soot formed after the main combustion into the crevice region. However, it is important to take into account the spatial evolution and the wall impingement of the soot formation. Although the soot formed does not enter the

crevice region, soot cloud near the cylinder wall can result in soot deposition on the wall which can enter the crevice region during the exhaust stroke. In future studies, inspection of soot mass near the cylinder wall and also soot deposition mechanism can be included to provide a clearer description of the aforementioned phenomenon. REFERENCES (1) (2) Ra, Y., and Reitz, R. D., “Effects of Piston Crevice Flows and Lubricant Oil Vaporization on Diesel Engine Deposits,” SAE Paper 2006-01-1149, 2006. Wiedenhoefer, J.F., and Reitz, R. D., “Multidimensional Modeling of the Effects of Radiation and Soot Deposition in Heavy-duty Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper 2003-010560, 2003. Miyahara, M., Watanabe, Y., Naitoh, Y., Honosuma, K., and Tamura, K., “Investigation into Extending Diesel Engine Oil Drain Interval (Part 1) – Oil Drain Interval Extension by Increasing efficiency of Filtering Soot in Lubricating Oil,” SAE Paper 912339, 1991. Mainwaring, R., “Soot and Wear in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper 971631, 1997. Kittelson, D.B., M.J. Pipho, J.L. Ambs, and D.C. Siegla, "Particle Concentrations in a Diesel Cylinder: Comparison of Theory and Experiment," SAE Paper 861569, 1986. Kittelson, D.B., M.J. Pipho, J.L. Ambs, and L.Luo, "In-Cylinder Measurements of Soot Production in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine," SAE Technical Paper 880344, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1988. Pang, K. M., Ng, H. K. and Gan, S., “Model Development of Reduced Surrogate Fuel and Soot Precursor Mechanisms for Light-Duty Diesel Engine Simulations,” FISITA Technical Paper F2010-A-088, 2010. Beale, J. C. and Reitz, R. D., “Modeling Spray Atomization with the KelvinHelmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor Hybrid Model,” Atomization and Sprays, vol 9, pp. 623650, 1999. O’Rourke, P. J. and Bracco, F. V., “Modeling Drop interactions in thick sprays and a comparison with experiments,” Stratified Charge Automotive Engines, I. Mech. E. Conference Publications 1980-9, P. 101-116, 1980. Magnussen, B. F., “On the Structure of Turbulence and a Generalized Eddy Dissipation Concept for Chemical Reaction in Turbulent Flow,” Nineteeth AIAA Meeting, St. Louis, 1981. Brookes, S. J., and Moss, J. B, “Prediction of Soot and Thermal Radiation in Confined Turbulent Jet Diffusion Flames,” Combustion and Flame, 116:486–503, 1999. Moss J. B., Perera S. A. L., Stewart C. D., and Makida M., “Radiation Heat Transfer in Gas Turbine Combustors,” In Proc. 16th (Int’l.) Symp. on Airbreathing Engines, Cleveland, OH, 2003. Namazian M. and Heywood J. B., “Flow in the Piston Cylinder Ring Crevices of a Spark Ignition Engine: Effect on Hydrocarbon Emissions, Efficiency, and Power,” SAE Technical Paper 820088, SAE, 1982. Roberts C. E. and Matthews R. D., “Development and Application of an Improved Ring Pack Model for Hydrocarbon Emissions Studies,” SAE Technical Paper 961966, SAE, 1996. ANSYS Fluent 12.0 Theory Guide, Fluent Inc., New Hampshire, April 2009.

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