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ASSESSING THE UTILITY OF HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROSPECTION AND MAPPING

Project Design
Prepared by Keith Challis, IBM Vista, Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (0121 414 5563, k.challis@bham.ac.uk) Simon Crutchley, Aerial Survey and Investigation, English Heritage, N.M.R.C., Kemble Drive, Swindon SN2 2GZ Dr Andy J Howard, Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (0121 414 5497, a.j.howard@bham.ac.uk)

Lead body for funding purposes is the Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity University of Birmingham

PNUM 6060 MARCH 2012

PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing

ASSESSING THE UTILITY OF HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROSPECTION AND MAPPING

Project Design Prepared by Keith Challis, IBM Vista, Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (0121 414 5563, k.challis@bham.ac.uk) Simon Crutchley, Aerial Survey and Investigation, English Heritage, N.M.R.C., Kemble Drive, Swindon SN2 2GZ Dr Andy J Howard, Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (0121 414 5497, a.j.howard@bham.ac.uk)

Lead body for funding purposes is the Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity University of Birmingham

PNUM 6060

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Title:

Assessing the Utility of High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing for Archaeological Prospection and Mapping
K. Challis, A.J. Howard, S. Crutchley March 2012 K. Challis 12/-0/2012 1/1 Draft Submission for Comment EH Comments please c:\users\challisk\desktop\work\0000_high_res_imagery\project design\6060_pd_high_resolution_satellite_remote_sensing_of_aggregate_landscapes_v1.doc

Authors(S) Derivation Origination Date Reviser(S) Date Of Last Revision Version Status Summary Of Changes Circulation Required Action File Name/Location Approval

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This project aims to investigate the utility of high resolution multispectral satellite imagery for archaeological prospection. Satellites capture high quality image data at a landscape scale, enabling investigation of large areas (tens of square kilometres) in a single image. Use of such imagery has shown considerable potential beyond the UK, principally where conventional photography is in short supply, but has yet to be systematically tested within the UK. The project aims to examine the utility of a variety of modern high resolution satellite imagery for prospection and mapping using the English Heritage National Mapping Programme specification and workflow. Work will be undertaken as a collaboration between the English Heritage Aerial Survey & Investigation Team and the Vista Centre at Birmingham University. The proposal recognises the essential need to increase sector skills in the use of new imagery sources and includes provision for reciprocal staff training between the two partner organisations.

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LIST OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................................IV LIST OF CONTENTS..............................................................................................................................V LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................................VI 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................ 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3 BUSINESS CASE .................................................................................................................................. 2 STUDY AREAS ..................................................................................................................................... 3 INTERFACES......................................................................................................................................... 3 COMMUNICATIONS........................................................................................................................ 3 OBJECTIVE A: IMAGE SELECTION AND ANALYSIS................................................................... 6 OBJECTIVE B: DETERMINATION OF WORKFLOW ................................................................. 7 OBJECTIVE C: COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS ........................................................................................ 8 OBJECTIVE D: KNOWLEGDE EXCHANGE AND TRAINING ........................................................ 8 OBJECTIVE E: PUBLICATION AND DISSEMINATION.......................................................................... 8

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES .............................................................................................................. 5

METHOD STATEMENT ............................................................................................................... 11 3.1 OBJECTIVE A: IMAGE SELECTION AND ANALYSIS................................................................. 11 3.1.1 A1 Determining the most suitable and available imagery sources for archaeological mapping in the UK.................................................................................................................................... 11 3.1.2 A2 Comparative analysis of common image sources............................................................. 3 3.1.3 A3 Collecting and collating imagery for a range of English landscape types .................... 3 3.1.4 A4 Determination of appropriate image processing methods and workflows for archaeological analysis ............................................................................................................................. 4 3.1.5 A5 Determination of weather factors affecting cropmark formation ..................................... 7 3.2 OBJECTIVE B: DETERMINATION OF WORKFLOW ................................................................. 8 3.2.1 B1 Develop trial workflow for incorporation of imagery within NMP working practice ...... 8 3.2.2 B2 Mapping of archaeological detail apparent on imagery to NMP standards.................. 8 3.2.3 B3 Comparison of satellite mapped information to existing NMP data .............................. 11 3.3 OBJECTIVE C: COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS ...................................................................................... 12 3.3.1 C1 Determine comparative effectiveness and overall financial burden of satellite imagery and conventional flying on a per season basis ..................................................................... 12 3.3.2 C2 Conduct a cost-benefit analysis for use of satellite imagery to supplement or replace conventional flying if required ................................................................................................... 13 3.4 OBJECTIVE D: KNOWLEGDE EXCHANGE AND TRAINING ...................................................... 14 3.4.1 D1 KE Vista staff placement with English Heritage .............................................................. 14 3.4.2 D2 KE English heritage staff placement with Vista ............................................................... 14 3.4.3 D3 Vista postgraduate student placement with English Heritage and Vista .................... 14 3.5 OBJECTIVE E: DISSEMINATION, REPORTING AND ARCHIVE .............................................................. 16 3.5.1 E1: Setup and maintain project Internet presence ................................................................ 16 3.5.2 E2: Project Report...................................................................................................................... 16 3.5.3 E4 Trade journal article ............................................................................................................. 17 3.5.4 E5: Academic Journal Paper.................................................................................................... 17 3.5.5 E6: Create and Deposit Project Archive ................................................................................. 17

WORK PLAN AND TIME MANAGEMENT.................................................................................. 19 4.1 IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RISK .................................................................................... 19 4.1.1 Availability of Data ..................................................................................................................... 19 4.1.2 Success of Imaging.................................................................................................................... 19 4.1.3 Timely Completion of Research............................................................................................... 19 4.1.4 Transferable Outcome............................................................................................................... 20 4.2 MILESTONES AND MONITORING ........................................................................................................ 20 4.3 THE PROJECT TEAM ........................................................................................................................... 20

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4.4 4.5 4.6 5 PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND EXTERNAL VALIDATION ..................................................................... 21 TASK LIST AND TIME ALLOCATIONS .................................................................................................. 21 GANTT CHART ................................................................................................................................. 22

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 24

APPENDIX 1: CURRICULUM VITAE OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS ........................................ 26 APPENDIX 2: HEALTH AND SAFETY STATEMENT......................................................................... 38 POLICY AND IMPLEMENTATION ........................................................................................................................ 39 RELEVANT UNIVERSITY HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY DOCUMENTS ............................................................. 39

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Availability of QuickBird and selected Ikonos imagery for England. Bottom right, sample QuickBird true colour composite showing the Waveney Valley, Suffolk at degraded resolution............................................................................. 2 Figure 2. The principle behind the NDVI, which is based on the difference in reflection properties of green and parched vegetation in the red and near infrared portions of the spectrum......................................................................... 6 Figure 3. An example of the application of NDVI to multispectral imagery, nascent cropmarks not apparent in the visible spectrum image (top) are revealed in the NDVI (bottom). .................................................................................................... 6

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INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

The ability of multispectral imagery to detect archaeological features not apparent on conventional aerial imagery has been effectively demonstrated by recent English Heritage funded research (PN5261; Challis 2009) and a small but significant body of published work illustrates the potential of such imagery for archaeology. However, although useful in terms of its spectral resolution, airborne imagery is hampered by its relatively high cost of acquisition for the unit area surveyed, long mobilisation times for survey flights and small archive of existing available imagery. By contrast, satellite mounted sensors capture images of substantial landscape areas at a single point in time, have lower costs of acquisition per unit area than aerial imagery, enjoy a considerable archive of past imagery and so offer considerable potential efficiency savings compared to airborne imagery collection (Challis and Howard 2006 and cf a recent special Issue of the Journal of Archaeological Science (Lasaponara and Masini, 2011). The spatial resolution of satellite imagery (typically in the order of tens of metres) has been a limiting factor to its archaeological use until recently. However, a new generation of high-resolution satellite sensors, launched in the last decade, are able to capture data at an archaeologically useful spatial scale (with a pixel size typically between 0.5 and 1.5m: Table 1). These new high spatial resolution instruments offer the potential to capture large areas of landscape in multispectral mode and at an archaeologically useful spatial resolution. The potential for the prospection and mapping of archaeological landscapes is considerable, but largely unexplored within the UK. Outside of the UK there is a growing body of research demonstrating the archaeological utility of satellite imagery, ranging from declassified historical intelligence imagery (Challis 2006; Challis et al 2004 and see Fowler 1996, 2002 and 2005 for examples within the UK) to modern high resolution sensors (Altaweel 2005; Lasaponara & Masini 2005; 2006; 2007; Rajan and Rajawat 2011; Grn et al 2011). The use of imagery in such cases is usually necessitated by the absence of other aerial imagery and assisted by the presence of relatively cloud free skies, essential for imaging from space. However, recent work in Norway has hinted at the potential of modern high resolution systems for prospection in temperate climates (Trier et al 2009) and examination of the growing archive of UK imagery from the principal suppliers demonstrates a useful body of image data with cloud free skies acquired at archaeologically useful seasons (Figure 1). English Heritage have identified a need to examine the potential of satellite imagery for contribution to National Mapping Programme and Aerial Survey & Investigation objectives (Horne 2009, 34) suggesting that such a project is timely. The proposed project seeks to address this issue through assessment of the utility of high resolution satellite imagery for archaeological prospection and mapping across a variety of English landscape types within the English Heritage National Mapping Programme (NMP) framework.

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1.1

BUSINESS CASE

The need for a project such as this is most clearly stated in the recent English Heritage Research Department document A Strategy for the National Mapping Programme (Horne 2009). In addition, there is a strong case to be made for the assessment of high resolution satellite imagery for archaeological prospection and mapping from both the scientific and commercial perspectives, From the scientific perspective high resolution, multispectral imagery provides a new untested data source for English archaeology, the need to explore such new data and methods is implied in SHAPE objective 14111.110 (Multi-Disciplinary Research Approaches To The Historic Environment: Challenges And Benefits) and more explicitly stated in objective 14171.210 (Bright Science: Technical And Technological Innovation). Most recently the proposed work scores a medium priority in the National Heritage Protection Plan, Draft Priorities for Action (English Heritage 2010) in the category Remote Sensing Of Unknown Archaeology. The scientific imperative for investigating the utility of new techniques and resources is underpinned by the potential for financial benefits, for example the economies of scale encompassed in acquiring imagery for an entire study region at a single advantageous point in time, compared to piecemeal conventional survey, and the potential cost-saving shortcuts in process inherent in the use of satellite imagery from dimensionally stable sensor systems compared to the need to geolocate and rectify numerous conventional aerial photographs. Cost and process advantages may be anticipated but require the detailed cost-benefit analysis provided in this project to support any ensuing fundamental changes in working method. It is anticipated that the project will provide benefits in two areas: 1. Methodological development 2. Enhancement of sector skills In term of methodology research will determine and document the imagery choices, processing steps and cost benefits most appropriate for the use of high resolution satellite imagery in UK archaeology, specifically within the English Heritage National Mapping programme workflow, but with transferable benefits to other large area prospection and mapping applications within archaeology (for example large infrastructure projects such as roads and railways). In terms of sector skills the research will provide training and knowledge exchange opportunities for University of Birmingham and English Heritage staff as each spend some time embedded in the others organisation to acquire appropriate skills (for EH digital image processing, for UoB the NMP workflow). While some aspects of this work directly benefit the partner organisations it is anticipated that the overall outcome, to be disseminated by academic publication, technical guidance documents and through conference presentation, will be of wide

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing benefit to the UK archaeological community and have the potential to have considerable positive impact of working practice in the sector. 1.2 STUDY AREAS Work will focus on three contrasting study area providing example of a river valley, upland and perimarine landscape. Final study areas will be chosen to provide coincidence of good, cloud free archive satellite imagery from archaeologically productive seasons with comprehensive NMP archive data. Initial study areas are suggested below but will be refined and finalised as part of project task A3 in discussion between the project partners and with the EH project monitor. Study area 1: The River Trent in Nottinghamshire/Derbyshire (Lowland alluvial). Study area 2: The Yorkshire Wolds (Chalk upland). Study area 3; The Lower Waveney Valley, Suffolk, or the Witham Valley Lincolnshire (Peat dominated perimarine).

1.3

INTERFACES

Project work is likely to be of interest and relevance to a number of organisations beyond the partners and will benefit from free exchange of ideas and information. Links will be established with the Remote Sensing and Photogrammetric Society Archaeology Special Interest Group (KC is a committee member) with the Aerial Archaeology Research Group (via EH) and with the AHRC funded Detecting Archaeological Residues through Remote Sensing (DART) research project (KC is on the academic advisory panel). Informal freeform communication will be explored via a dedicated project blog (DART provide a fine example of this) while more formal exchange of ideas will take the form of presentations at national and/or international conferences.

1.4

COMMUNICATIONS

Effective communication between project teams working for two different organisations in different locations will be vital. As well as an initial start up meeting we will organise project briefings for team members at the completion of each project stage. Day to day communication will be by email, telephone and if necessary video conference via Skype. Members of the project team will be responsible for contributing to and updating a dedicated project blog which will serve as a developing record of project work and a place in which to review and discuss ideas as well as a central focus for distributing digital content. Data will bee shared by a dedicated cloud-based distribution service implemented using Dropbox (www.dropbox.com) and a shared workspace for collaborative working on documents will be made available through a dedicated Windows SkyDrive account.

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AIMS and OBJECTIVES

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing 2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The project aims to assess a variety of the highest resolution satellite imagery sources for which a useful quantity of archive imagery data is available for the UK. Assessment of the imagery will combine determination of its base suitability for detecting archaeological features, determination of a workflow for image processing and interpretation, incorporation of satellite imagery within the NMP working framework and a blind comparison of mapping from satellite imagery with areas previously mapped by NMP. We recognise that in general digital multispectral imagery is most suited to detection and mapping of archaeological cropmarks, particularly where manipulation of spectral bands allows enhancement of nascent vegetation differences. Soilmarks and illumination dependent features are less well evidenced on such imagery due to the less pronounced spectral variations in soil properties and the fact that most imagery is timed to be captured in periods of relatively even illumination where shadow features are minimised. Thus this project will primarily focus on examination of the cropmark component of NMP data. Project aims may be divided into five broad categories: A Image Focused Determining the most suitable and available imagery sources for mapping in the UK. Comparative analysis of common image sources (Quickbird, Worldview, Ikonos, Geoeye) Collecting and collating imagery for a range of English landscape types (eg. river valley, chalkland, etc). Determination of appropriate image processing methods and workflows for archaeological analysis. Determination of weather factors affecting cropmark formation as evidenced on satellite and conventional imagery in order to predict when image acquisition might be useful (for example for pre-emptive tasking of satellites). B Process Focused Develop trial workflow for incorporation of imagery within NMP working practice. Mapping of archaeological detail apparent on imagery to NMP standards. Comparison of satellite mapped information to existing NMP data. C Cost Benefit Analysis Determine comparative effectiveness and overall financial burden of satellite imagery and conventional flying on a per season basis. Conduct a cost-benefit analysis for use of satellite imagery to supplement conventional flying if required (eg cost of tasking, image and processing compared to conventional flying). D Knowledge Exchange and Training Increase sector skills by reciprocal training of existing EH and Vista staff and postgraduate student placement. E Publication and Dissemination Disseminate results of research through conference presentations, trade and academic journals and via the Internet. 2012 The University of Birmingham Page 5

PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing 2.1 OBJECTIVE A: IMAGE SELECTION AND ANALYSIS

This stage is concerned with the selection, processing and analysis of appropriate satellite imagery. A variety of high resolution imagery sources are available and offer UK coverage (Quickbird, Worldview, Ikonos, Geoeye) ranging from the fragmentary, to near complete coverage at multiple epochs. Spatial and spectral resolution varies by sensor system (Table 1) and a particular aim of this stage of research is to investigate the trade off between spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution of imagery to determine which sensor system in general offers the best solution for archaeological mapping. In addition to high spatial resolution sensors a range of lower spatial resolution sensors, often with increased spectral resolution, provide a considerable chronological depth of archive data. Since the fundamental nature of past landscape and its remains and the character of archaeological evidence vary considerably across the English landscape we will aim to select imagery that gives coverage of a representative cross-section of landscape types. As well as selecting the most suitable imagery sources for archaeological mapping work will seek to determine the appropriate image processing steps to be applied to imagery to maximise visibility of archaeological evidence. As a final aim we will attempt to assess the impact of short term weather patterns on cropmark formation as evidenced on the selected imagery. It is envisaged that this project stage will be largely the responsibility of Vista staff. The main aims of this stage are therefore: Image selection Image processing and comparative analysis

It comprises the following tasks, method statements for which are provided in section 3.1 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 Determining the most suitable and available imagery sources for mapping in the UK. Comparative analysis of common high spatial resolution image sources (Quickbird, Worldview, Ikonos, Geoeye) Collecting and collating imagery for a range of English landscape types (eg. river valley, chalkland, moorland). Determination of appropriate image processing methods and workflows for archaeological analysis. Determination of weather factors affecting cropmark formation as evidenced on satellite and conventional imagery in order to predict when image acquisition might be useful (for example for pre-emptive tasking of satellites).

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing 2.2 OBJECTIVE B: DETERMINATION OF WORKFLOW

This stage is concerned with devising appropriate working methods to incorporate satellite imagery within the NMP workflow. The principal aim of the project and it raison d'tre is to assess the usefulness of high resolution satellite imagery to the NMP. Work here will focus on assessing how satellite imagery may be most helpfully deployed within the NMP, in particular examining the technical limitations on imagery usage imposed by the working practice and technology typically employed by NMP in house and when contracted out. The outcome is envisaged as a detailed work-flow document outlining image sources, processing steps (from objective A) and technical processes within NMP to allow use of satellite imagery in this context. A secondary aim is the blind mapping of archaeological evidence apparent on processed satellite imagery for comparison with existing NMP data collected via conventional means to support objective C. It is envisaged that this project stage will be largely the responsibility of English Heritage staff, supported where necessary by Vista. The main aims of this stage are therefore: Assessment of good working practice with satellite imagery Archaeological analysis (mapping) of imagery

It comprises the following tasks, method statements for which are provided in section 3.2. B1 B2 B3 Develop trial workflow for incorporation of imagery within NMP working practice. Mapping of archaeological detail apparent on imagery to NMP standards. Comparison of satellite mapped information to existing NMP data.

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing 2.3 OBJECTIVE C: COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS

This stage is concerned with a detailed analysis of the financial and working practice implications and benefits of the use of satellite imagery within the NMP workflow. The aim is to attempt a detailed cost-benefit analysis of the use of satellite imagery within archaeological prospection. We will examine two scenarios; The use of satellite imagery as an alternative to conventional flying as a means of general aerial prospection. The use of satellite imagery as an alternative to and in addition to conventional imagery within the NMP workflow.

It is anticipated that work will be shared between the project partners. It comprises the following tasks, method statements for which are provided in section 3.3. C1 C2 Determine comparative effectiveness and overall financial burden of satellite imagery and conventional flying on a per season basis. Conduct a cost-benefit analysis for use of satellite imagery to supplement or replace conventional flying if required (eg cost of tasking, image and processing compared to conventional flying).

2.4

OBJECTIVE D: KNOWLEGDE EXCHANGE AND TRAINING

This stage is concerned with facilitating knowledge exchange between the project partner organisations. The overall aims is to ensure that at the completion of the project participating staff within both partner organisations are fully familiar with the work undertaken by the other. In addition we recognise the need to disseminate new skills, particularly those related to digital image processing and analysis, more widely within the archaeological community; to achieve this we propose to facilitate a student placement from amongst Vista's postgraduate community to spend time embedded with both partner organisations. Work on this stage will be shared equally between project partners. It comprises the following tasks, method statements for which are provided in section 3.4. D1 D2 D3 KE Vista staff placement with English Heritage KE English Heritage staff placement with Vista Vista postgraduate student placement with English Heritage and Vista

2.5

OBJECTIVE E: PUBLICATION AND DISSEMINATION

This stage is concerned with the dissemination of research results to the wider archaeological community. The results of our research will be communicated to as wide an audience as possible within the archaeological and allied communities. Work will be publicised via the internet and through a written project report, produced on completion of the work and intended for immediate publication via the web. A

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing presentation of project work will be made at an appropriate national and/or international conference. Formal publications will be prepared for the practitioner community and for a learned journal. An archive of research results will be prepared for deposition with the archaeological data service (ADS). . The main aims of this stage are therefore: Web based and published dissemination of project results. Engagement with the wider archaeological community through conference attendance and presentation. Formal technical and academic publication of results. Creation of a digital archive of project results. It comprises the following tasks, method statements for which are provided in section 3.5. E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 Setup and maintain project Internet presence. Project Report. Disseminate results of research through conference presentations. Trade journal article. Academic journal paper. Create and deposit project archive.

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METHOD STATEMENTS

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing 3 3.1 METHOD STATEMENT OBJECTIVE A: IMAGE SELECTION AND ANALYSIS

This stage is concerned with the selection, processing and analysis of appropriate satellite imagery. It comprises the following tasks, method statements for which are provided in section 3.1 Imagery is expensive and in recognition of this initial project stages seek to use only freely available imagery, sample data or degraded resolution "quicklook" imagery in their completion, and to aid selection of the best suite of imagery for purchase for use in subsequent project stages. 3.1.1 A1 Determining the most suitable and available imagery sources for archaeological mapping in the UK.

In this initial project stage the team will examine a wide variety of satellite imagery at different spatial and spectral resolutions to broadly determine its suitability for a range of archaeological tasks, from landscape character assessment to detailed mapping. We will compile an imagery index for the entire of England and acquire trial imagery for a variety of landscape types, indeed for lower resolution imagery probably for the entire of England. We anticipate examining at least the following imagery sources: Landsat TM Landsat ETM ASTER SPOT Quickbird Worldview Ikonos Geoeye

We will construct an imagery geodatabase recording imagery availability and acquisition dates and comprising geolocated imagery, collated in a project Geographical Information System (GIS) constructed using ERSI's ArcGIS 10 (Figure 1). Imagery will be subject to a visual and critical assessment to determine its suitability for archaeological tasks including contribution to Landscape Character Assessments (such as Historic Landscape Characterisation), prospection for unknown archaeological remains and detailed mapping of known remains. In this project stage work will focus on using only freely available imagery and so we propose, where possible, to examine free archive or sample imagery and where no free imagery is available to restrict our examination to resolution degraded "quicklook" imagery.

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing Product The products of this project component will comprise: GIS-based geodatabase of satellite imagery sources for England. Visual and critical assessment of the suitability of different imagery sources for common archaeological assessment and mapping tasks.

Figure 1. Availability of QuickBird and selected Ikonos imagery for England. Bottom right, sample QuickBird true colour composite showing the Waveney Valley, Suffolk at degraded resolution.

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing 3.1.2 A2 Comparative analysis of common image sources

Following from stage A1 this project stage will compare spatial and spectral characteristic and availability of high resolution imagery only (ie imagery suitable for NMP mapping) across England. Imagery will be compared with existing NMP mapping to determine best coverage and appropriate acquisition date for archive imagery for subsequent purchase and analysis. Different imagery sources will be assessed to determine the extent to which they lend themselves to further analysis and processing steps to enhance archaeological visibility. Finally all available imagery from suitable seasons will be examined in quicklook to make an initial assessment of their potential for archaeological mapping. A cross comparison of these various factors will be made to allow selection of imagery from appropriate seasons that combines the best of coverage and analytical potential with a suitable variety of landscape types. The final shortlist of selected imagery and target sites will be discussed with the project monitors before proceeding to purchase imagery. Product The products of this project component will comprise: Comparison of distribution of archive high resolution imagery with availability of NMP mapping across England to determine best imagery for acquisition. Critical assessment of imagery characteristics and availability to produce shortlist of imagery for acquisition.

3.1.3 A3

Collecting and collating imagery for a range of English landscape types

Following the broad assessment of imagery types (A1) and detailed examination of high resolution imagery (A2) this project stage concerns itself with the final selection, acquisition and collation of a subset of imagery for subsequent analysis within an appropriately formatted project GIS which also contains other appropriate data for analysis (HER, NMP, Morphe, Amie, etc). The selection of imagery for acquisition will be based on the correlation of available high resolution imagery with appropriate acquisition date (principally this means acquisition during the prime cropmark formation season, mid June to late July) over areas with a good record of cropmark and other aerial defined archaeological remains documented by an existing NMP project. We will seek to acquire imagery from the full range of modern high resolution sensors (Quickbird, Worldview, Ikonos and Geoeye) and for a variety of landscape types. Our initial selection of test 2012 The University of Birmingham Page 3

PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing landscapes (The Trent Valley, Yorkshire Wolds and Lower Waveney or Witham Valleys) is based on areas well known to the project team and with a well documented archive of archaeological evidence. We recognise that it may prove necessary to vary this selection either due to imagery availability or after discussion with advisors. Where possible we will acquire multiple imagery sources for each study area to allow meaningful comparison of different sensors for the same landscape and suite of evidence, but this possibility will be heavily influenced by imagery availability and financial considerations. As a baseline we will seek to acquire at least one image from each of the four sensor systems listed. Image acquisition will include both high resolution panchromatic imagery and lower resolution simultaneously acquired multispectral imagery. Product The products of this project component will comprise: A project GIS containing a selection of high resolution imagery for each study area together with other appropriate historic environment records, digital map data, etc.

3.1.4 A4

Determination of appropriate image processing methods and workflows for archaeological analysis

Following selection imagery will be subject to a series of standard image processing and analysis protocols to determine those most useful for enhancing archaeological evidence. Image processing is anticipated to comprise three main suites of techniques: 1. Enhancement of spatial resolution comprising image sharpening using convolution filters and so-called pan-sharpening of multispectral imagery (where values for lower resolution multispectral bands are transferred to each pixel of a higher resolution panchromatic image). Where suitable data is available we will also attempt to pan-sharpen multispectral imagery using other high resolution imagery such as lidar or conventional aerial photography. 2. Spectral enhancement, utilising the multiple bands of multi-spectral imagery and largely comprising generation of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and associated indices, which rely on ratio comparisons of red to near infrared reflectance to enhance vegetation difference. These indices have been proven to assist in detecting archaeological evidence in multispectral imagery (Challis et al 2009). Because of the limited spectral resolution of high spatial resolution satellite imagery (usually restricted to visible red, green, blue and a single infrared band) other spectral enhancements such as the tasselled cap transform are not possible.

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing 3. Image classification, using both supervised and unsupervised classification algorithms to attempt to identify and extract archaeological evidence from suitable imagery. We admit scepticism as to the utility of these techniques for archaeological applications due to the heterogeneous nature of the spectral characteristic of archaeological cropmarks and the very slight variation from background values (Challis et al 2009). Nonetheless, recent work in Norway (Trier et al 2009) suggests that in suitable circumstances such techniques can work and this demands verification using English imagery. This latter work will be undertaken using ERDAS Imagine 10. Product The products of this project component will comprise: Critical analysis and documentation of a comprehensive suite of spatial and spectral enhancements for all imagery. Critical analysis of both supervised and unsupervised classification of suitable imagery to extract archaeological evidence.

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Figure 2. The principle behind the NDVI, which is based on the difference in reflection properties of green and parched vegetation in the red and near infrared portions of the spectrum.

Figure 3. An example of the application of NDVI to multispectral imagery, nascent cropmarks not apparent in the visible spectrum image (top) are revealed in the NDVI (bottom).

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing 3.1.5 A5 Determination of weather factors affecting cropmark formation

Limited work undertaken as part of previous studied by the applicants (Challis 2009) has demonstrated that examination of archive metrological and soil moisture data can contribute to an understanding of the environmental conditions prevailing at the time of image acquisition and their potential influence on the visibility of archaeological evidence such as cropmarks. In this project stage we will gather archive metrological data for each of the study areas from the UK Met Office weather station archive and archive soils moisture data also from the Met Office, who provide monthly and weekly soil moisture data for 40 km by 40 km squares in Britain, based on 120 meteorological stations. Data will be collected for the three months prior to acquisition of each satellite image. We are also interested in the influence of weather (principally rainfall) and soil moisture deficit on cropmark formation per se and so additional data will be gathered for comparison with a selection of the best conventional aerial photographic evidence for a subset of archaeological cropmarks within each study area. We will compare cropmark evidence recorded used by the NMP and documented by the aimie and morphe databases with weather and soil moisture data in an attempt to determine the prevailing conditions that are most favourable for cropmark formation in each locale. This will be compared to the conditions prevailing at the time of acquisition of each satellite image to attempt to determine the extent to which imagery was aquired in environmentally optimum conditions. We will also explore the extent to which environmental observations might be used to predict cropmark formation and so be used in planning and tasking future image acquisitions. Product The products of this project component will comprise: Collection and collation of comprehensive archive weather and soil moisture data for the study areas for the period preceding satellite image acquisition and for periods of optimum cropmark formation. Critical examination of these data to determine factors most affecting cropmark formation.

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing 3.2 OBJECTIVE B: DETERMINATION OF WORKFLOW

This stage is concerned with devising appropriate workflows to incorporate satellite imagery within the NMP workflow. Work here will largely be undertaken by the English Heritage aerial survey and investigations team. 3.2.1 B1 Develop trial workflow for incorporation of imagery within NMP working practice

This project stage will determine the most appropriate method to incorporate multispectral satellite imagery within the National Mapping Programme workflow and practice. Since NMP work routinely uses software other than GIS such as ArcGIS and NMP workers are not necessarily equipped with the knowledge or tools to effectively manipulate multispectral imagery work will focus on determining the best derived image products to incorporate within the NMP workflow. We anticipate that this will include incorporation of a combination of panchromatic, pan-sharpened multispectral and derived imagery products (such as NDVI) within NMP workflows as though they were georeferenced conventional air-photographs. While this necessarily reduces some of the benefits of using multispectral imagery, the focus here is on how to incorporate products from the analysis of such imagery (a specialist task) within a n existing and mature working practice with minimum disruption. Analysis will focus on determining both how to best incorporate these data within NMP and which imagery products are most productive in terms of ease of mapping and identification of archaeological features. Product The products of this project component will comprise: Experimental incorporation of a range of products derived from multispectral satellite imagery within the NMP working routine. Critical examination and documentation of this process culminating in a bestpractice work flow guide. Mapping of archaeological detail apparent on imagery to NMP standards

3.2.2 B2

In this project stage the full range of archaeological detail apparent on selected satellite imagery for all of each study area will be mapped, using the work flow devised in stage B1, for the entire of each study area. Features will be mapped blind (ie without reference to existing NMP mapping or other imagery) and to the common NMP standard to allow direct comparison of the results of mapping from satellite imagery with that from conventional sources. Product The products of this project component will comprise: Comprehensive digital mapping of archaeological detail apparent on satellite imagery across all study areas to NMP standards. Page 8

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GEOEYE-1 SPECIFICATIONS Spatial Resolution Panchromatic Sensor 0.41 meters x 0.41 meters Multispectral Sensor Spectral Range 1.65 meters x 1.65 meters 450800 nm 450510 nm (blue) 510580 nm (green) 655690 nm (red) 780920 nm (near IR) 15.2 km Up to 60 degrees 11 bits per pixel Less than 3 days 681 km 10:30 a.m.

Swath Width Off-Nadir Imaging Dynamic Range Revisit Time Orbital Altitude Nodal Crossing

Mission Life Expected > 10 years

IKONOS SPECIFICATIONS Spatial Resolution Spectral Range 0.82 meter x 3.2 meters 526929 nm 445516 nm (blue) 506595 nm (green) 632698 nm (red) 757853 nm (near IR) 11.3 km Up to 60 degrees 11 bits per pixel Approximately 3 days 681 km 10:30 a.m.

Swath Width Off-Nadir Imaging Dynamic Range Revisit Time Orbital Altitude Nodal Crossing

Mission Life Expected > 8.3 years

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WORLDVIEW-2 SPECIFICATIONS Imaging Mode Panchromatic .46 meter GSD at Nadir .52 meter GSD at 20 degrees off-Nadir Multispectral 1.84 meters GSD at Nadir 2.08 meters GSD at 20 degrees off-nadir 400-450 nm (coastal) 450-510 nm (blue) 510-580 nm (green) 585-625 nm (yellow) 630-690 nm (red) 705745 (red edge) 770895 (near IR1) 860-900 nm (near IR-2)

Spatial Resolution

Spectral Range

450-800 nm

Swath Width Off-Nadir Imaging Dynamic Range Mission Life Revisit Time Orbital Altitude Nodal Crossing

16.4 km at nadir Nominally +/- 45 degrees off-nadir = 1,355 swath width Higher angles selectively available 11-bits per pixel 7.25 years 1.1 days at 1m GSD or less 3.7 days at 20 degrees off-nadir or less (0.52 meter GSD) 770 km 10:30 am

QUICKBIRD SPECIFICATIONS Imaging Mode Spatial Resolution Panchromatic .61 meter GSD at Nadir Multispectral 2.4 meter GSD at Nadir 450-520 nm (blue) 520-600 nm (green) 630-690 nm (red) 760900 nm (near IR)

Spectral Range

445-900 nm

Swath Width Off-Nadir Imaging Dynamic Range Mission Life Revisit Time Orbital Altitude Nodal Crossing

16.4 km at nadir 0-30 degrees off-nadir Higher angles selectively available 11-bits per pixel 8+ years Approximately 3.5 days (depends on Latitude) 450 km 10:30 am

Table 1. The spatial and spectral characteristics of selected high resolution satellite sensors.

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing 3.2.3 B3 Comparison of satellite mapped information to existing NMP data

In this final analytical section of the proposal the distribution of archaeological information mapped from satellite imagery will be critically compared with that in the existing NMP corpus. Analysis will have a dual focus. In the first instance we wish to document the extent to which features recorded by NMP are evident on and documented from satellite imagery. This will be accomplished by simple overlay of digital mapping from the two sources, coupled with examination of primary satellite and air-photographic evidence. Additionally we wish to investigate the extent to which individual features documented by conventional aerial photography are evidence in satellite imagery; this task has some synergy and overlap with task A5. To accomplish this we will focus on a subset of features from each study area where there is conventional aerial photography taken in the same season as the satellite imagery used in the project. Here, analysis will attempt to determine the extent which satellite imagery improves on or degrades results achieved through conventional photography and the interplay between weather, soils, geology and other cropmark affecting factors and feature formation. In particular we are interest in whether the multispectral nature of satellite imagery improves the ability to detect cropmarks, even when vegetation conditions are not ideal, or whether conventional photography taken at exactly the right moment is more effective in capturing ephemeral vegetation marks; in effect can a single landscape scale image capture the same content as a sequence of timed images of individual sites. This task will be accomplished through detailed cross comparison of imagery and other landscape data within the project GIS. Since it requires the skills of both the Vista and EH teams to accomplish it is likely to form one of the foci of knowledge exchange between the two organisations (Objective D). Product The products of this project component will comprise: Documentation recording the effectiveness of satellite imagery in capturing archaeological content recorded by the NMP. Detailed site based mapping and analysis documenting the extent to which satellite imagery is able to capture complex cropmarks recorded through conventional means.

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing 3.3 OBJECTIVE C: COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS

This stage is concerned with a detailed analysis of the financial and working practice implications and benefits of the use of satellite imagery within the NMP workflow. It is anticipated that work will be shared between the project partners. 3.3.1 C1 Determine comparative effectiveness and overall financial burden of satellite imagery and conventional flying on a per season basis

In this section of the project we seek to determine the basic metrics of usage for satellite imagery and air-photography in terms of its base effectiveness in identifying archaeological components of landscape and the financial cost of this. The work will be broken down into several stages. For satellite imagery we will produce a simple metric for each study area and imagery source quantifying the proportion of the total recorded archaeological resource (as documented by NMP and supplemented by local HER) identified on the imagery and the number (if any) of newly identified sites or components of sites. Where relevant this information may be broken down into sub-sets geographically (eg comparing river terrace with floodplain in the Trent Valley). Financial burden will be determine by calculating present costs in US dollars and sterling equivalent per 100km2 of acquiring new imagery from each of the sensor systems examined together with the working hours required to process and interpret imagery. For aerial photography we will look in detail at a number of individual sorties to quantify the archaeology documented per km flown. If possible we will use actual routing information (likely to be available from the NMR for more recent survey flights), for less recent flights, or as an alternative, we reconstruct flight details for the available data held by the NMR. For conventional flying we will attempt to quantify financial burden by looking at the overall expenditure on aerial reconnaissance in each study area over a number of flying seasons using where possible archive data. It is anticipated that simple metrics will not reveal the entire picture. So for example the cost per unit area of acquiring Ikonos imagery is lower than that of WorldView (largely as a single Ikonos scene covers a larger ground footprint) but it is highly likely that the higher resolution WorldView imagery may prove more archaeologically useful. Similarly, the financial cost of conventional photography will vary greatly between seasons due to factors such as fuel costs, while effectiveness will be highly variable because of the overwhelming influence of weather, particularly rainfall, on cropmark production. For this reason we will attempt a more thorough cost-benefit analysis as part of task C2 (below).

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing Product The products of this project component will comprise: Simple metrics quantifying the proportion of the total archaeological resource identified by satellite imagery in each study area. Calculations of cost per 100km2 of acquiring new imagery from each of the sensor systems examined. Quantification of the archaeology documented per km flown using conventional aerial photography across a selection of sorties and study areas. Calculations of the financial burden of conventional flying over a number of seasons. Conduct a cost-benefit analysis for use of satellite imagery to supplement or replace conventional flying if required

3.3.2 C2

In this project stage we will attempt to quantify and document the overall cost of acquiring, processing and using satellite imagery as a supplement to conventional aerial photography, and as a replacement, to determine what, if any, benefits accrue in each scenario. Calculation of cost will be based on costs of imagery acquisition (based on single epoch coverage for an entire NMP study area using each imagery source) costs of image processing and interpretation and costs associated with the introduction of new equipment (software) and associated staff training costs. Calculations of benefit will be based on metrics derived from section C1 and will include basic quantification of the effectiveness of satellite imagery in documenting known archaeology and discovering new, hitherto unknown, sites. In the case of supplementing conventional flying cost/benefit is simply a case of determining the overall cost per site documented and new site discovered of using satellite imagery. In the case of replacing conventional aerial photography with satellite acquired imagery we will attempt document the per season flying costs for a number of NMP study areas against the number of existing sites documented and new sites discovered to generate comparable metrics. Comparison of the costs and benefits of each of the above cases will be used to draw overall, tentative, conclusions. Product The products of this project component will comprise: Quantification of the cost of acquiring satellite imagery against its demonstrated effectiveness. Comparable cost of acquiring conventional aerial photography against its demonstrated effectiveness.

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing 3.4 OBJECTIVE D: KNOWLEGDE EXCHANGE AND TRAINING

This stage is concerned with facilitating knowledge exchange between the project partner organisations. Work on this stage will be shared equally between project partners. 3.4.1 D1 KE Vista staff placement with English Heritage The Vista research associate (RA) responsible for image processing will spend a two week intensive period placed with the English Heritage Aerial Survey and Investigations Team, at the NMR Swindon, in order to gain first hand experience of EH working practice and the NMP methodology. It seems most likely that this placement will take place during the completion of Objective B, development of the NMP workflows for using satellite imagery, when the focus is on using satellite imagery within an NMP framework. The RA will be based in Swindon for an intensive two week period; resources have been allocated to provide for travel, accommodation and subsistence to accomplish this. Product The products of this project component will comprise: 3.4.2 D2 KE English heritage staff placement with Vista A nominated EH member of staff working on the NMP aspects of the project will spend a two week intensive placement with Vista at the University of Birmingham to gain first hand experience of satellite image processing methods and practice. It seems most likely that this placement will take place during the completion of Objective A, image selection and analysis, when the focus is on selecting, using and processing satellite imagery. The member of staff will be based in Birmingham for an intensive two week period; resources have been allocated to provide for travel, accommodation and subsistence to accomplish this. Product The products of this project component will comprise: A two week KE placement enabling an EH member of staff to learn and participate in Vista working practice. A two week KE placement enabling the Vista RA to lean and participate in EH/NMP working practice.

Vista postgraduate student placement with English Heritage and Vista A student placement is intended to increase sector skills by providing baseline training for a new, graduate student. Our intention is to offer a six week placement (three weeks at Vista three at EH) to a single postgraduate student taking the UoB MA programme in landscape Archaeology and GIS during the 2012/13 academic year. The placement will be determined by competitive interview, take place during April August, be unpaid but include a modest bursary to assist with living 2012 The University of Birmingham Page 14

3.4.3 D3

PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing expenses. The student will be expected to assist with project tasks as appropriate as well as participating in a more general familiarisation programme giving an overview of both Vista and EH's work and methods Product The products of this project component will comprise: A six-week graduate student training placement with EH/Vista.

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing 3.5 OBJECTIVE E: DISSEMINATION, REPORTING AND ARCHIVE

Results of the research will be prepared for publication as a research paper in a learned journal, most probably Antiquity. In addition a summary of the work will be presented at a UK archaeology conference (most probably the Institute for Archaeologists Annual Conference). A short report on the work will be submitted to the IfA journal The Field Archaeologist, in order to quickly inform other commercial and research practitioners of the results. 3.5.1 E1: Setup and maintain project Internet presence Information about the project will be disseminated via a dedicated blog to be set up and maintained by the project personnel. The use of a blog format allows information be housed on public servers equally accessible to all partners for contribution and editing. The format is particularly suited to providing regular short updates on research and to incorporation of graphical and media rich content. Recent high profile research projects, such as the AHRC DART project (http://dartproject.info/WPBlog/) have provided excellent examples of the use of such blogs for dissemination of research information in a timely and accessible manner. Project personnel also have considerable experience of the use of the blog format for communicating research and teaching information and manage both research blogs (secondsiteresearch.blogspot.com) and student focused teaching blogs (giarchaeology.blogspot.com). In addition to the blog we will take advantage of other new web media including Twitter (for timely short announcements of project results and as a signpost to more in-depth content elsewhere), Slideshare (for distributing presentations of project work) and YouTube/Vimeo, for distribution of video content. Product The products of this project component will comprise: Creation and maintenance of dedicated, multi-author project blog Creation and maintenance of other internet based media/accounts (Twitter, Slideshare, Vimeo, YouTube). 3.5.2 E2: Project Report A detailed illustrated report will be prepared at the completion of research describing the methods and results of all analytical work in full. Hardcopies of the report will be circulated to key stakeholders. A digital version of the report will be made freely available via the project blog. Product The products of this project component will comprise: Hardcopy project report distributed to key stakeholders. Report in Adobe PDF formats available for download from the project blog.

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing E3 Disseminate results of research through conference presentations

The project team will prepare and deliver one or more conference papers at appropriate archaeological conferences during the course of the project. Likely conferences include the Institute for Archaeologists annual meeting, the Remote Sensing and Photogrammetric Society Annual Meeting and the Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA) UK Chapter annual meeting. Product The products of this project component will comprise: One or more conference papers delivered by the project team. 3.5.3 E4 Trade journal article The project team will produce a paper summarising the research undertaken as part of the project for publication in The Field Archaeologist. Product The products of this project component will comprise: A paper in The Field Archaeologist. 3.5.4 E5: Academic Journal Paper The project team will produce an academic paper summarising the research undertaken as part of the project for publication in a suitable peer-reviewed journal. The paper will reflect both the archaeological and remote sensing aspects of the project. Product The products of this project component will comprise: At least one academic paper in an appropriate peer-reviewed journal. 3.5.5 E6: Create and Deposit Project Archive A digital archive of data generated by the project ream will be prepared. The archive will be accompanied by full metadata using the standards recommended by ADS; it will be deposited with ADS at the completion of project work. Note that copyright and licensing issues prevent third party data forming part of the final product archive. Product The products of this project component will comprise: A digital archive of original data generated by the project team.

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WORKPLAN AND TIME MANAGEMENT

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4 4.1

WORK PLAN AND TIME MANAGEMENT IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RISK

The use of high resolution satellite imagery in UK archaeology is a relatively new technique with and the useful outcomes of its application are uncertain. For the purposes of this project, risk has been divided into a number of sub-categories, relating to the successful completion of the project (low risk of failure) and the production of successful and transferable output (medium to high risk of failure) 4.1.1 Availability of Data Low risk. Initial investigation of archive imagery indicates a good body of archive data to select from and work with. Availability increases with older sensor systems with longer orbital deployment. Some newer systems (eg GeoEye) have a limited archive of data for the UK and it may not prove possible to identify imagery acquired at archaeologically useful times from these systems. 4.1.2 Success of Imaging Medium to high risk. The successful imaging of archaeological features, the core of the proposed project, represents the highest risk of failure. We believe that high resolution satellite imagery offer considerable potential for imaging features such as archaeological cropmarks where these are extant due both to their spatial and spectral resolution. However, the limitation of satellite imagery is that it represents unguided wide area reconnaissance not specifically acquired to record archaeological phenomena (unlike for example conventional oblique photography which is taken specifically to record archaeological features). There is a risk therefore that satellite imagery may fail to show cropmark that are ephemeral because it was acquired when such marks were not evident. It is hoped that the wide area nature of satellite imagery will mitigate against total failure (many sites are imaged in one scene) and satellite imagery will be selected where possible to coincide with cropmarks confirmed by conventional archive sources to allow direct comparison. 4.1.3 Timely Completion of Research Low risk. The work plan and resources are adequate to the tasks proposed; as a consequence we feel the risk of failure to complete research on time and on budget is low.

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing 4.1.4 Transferable Outcome Low risk. The general project approach and procedures adopted herein are generally transferable to a variety of settings and scenarios. It is therefore highly likely that the project will produce results that are broadly transferable beyond the study areas. 4.2 MILESTONES AND MONITORING

Four project review points are proposed for the purposes of monitoring satisfactory progress on the project. These are as follows: Review Point 1: Completion of task A5 Assessment of weather factors affecting cropmark formation. Review Point 2: Completion of task B3 Comparison of satellite imagery with existing NMP data. Review Point 3: Completion of task C2 Conduct a cost-benefit analysis for use of satellite imagery to supplement conventional flying if required. Review Point 4: Completion of task E6 creation and deposit archive.

4.3

THE PROJECT TEAM

Project Executive: Keith Challis, BA MPhil MSc MIfA FRGS Keith Challis Research Fellow in remote sensing in the Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity, University of Birmingham. He specialises in archaeological applications of GIS and remote sensing in alluvial environments, he is a member of the Remote Sensing and Photogrammetric Society and serves on the steering committee of the Lidar and Archaeology Special Interest Groups. Keith will be the principal point of contact for the project and will act as project executive. Co Principal Investigator: Dr A J Howard, BSc PhD Dr Andy J Howard is a Senior Lecturer in Geoarchaeology and Remote Sensing in the Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity, University of Birmingham. His research interests include geoarchaeology and fluvial environmental change (both Pleistocene and Holocene histories). Co Principal Investigator: Simon Crutchley Simon is the Development and Strategy Manager, Remote Sensing Team, for English Heritage. He is a landscape archaeologist and air photo interpreter with over 20 years experience of mapping and interpreting features of archaeological and historical interest visible on aerial photographs and other aerial imagery, formerly a Senior Investigator with the Aerial Survey & Investigation section of English Heritage (EH) he has worked with Aerial Survey & Investigation for over 20 years

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing 4.4 PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND EXTERNAL VALIDATION

The project will be managed on behalf of the IBM Vista Centre by Keith Challis. It is proposed to set up a steering group for the project, with the aim of meeting once mid-way through the research. The steering group will comprise selected academics, representatives from English Heritage, the Aerial Archaeology Research Group and the Remote Sensing and Photogrammetic Society and will meet at IBM Vista for a one day workshop midway though the project. 4.5 TASK LIST AND TIME ALLOCATIONS EH RA
Determining the most suitable and available imagery sources for mapping in the UK. Comparative analysis of common image sources Collecting and collating imagery for a range of English landscape types Determination of appropriate image processing methods and workflows for archaeological analysis Determination of weather factors affecting cropmark formation Develop trial workflow for incorporation of imagery within NMP working practice Mapping of archaeological detail apparent on imagery to NMP standards Comparison of satellite mapped information to existing NMP data Determine comparative effectiveness and overall financial burden of satellite imagery and conventional flying on a per season basis Conduct a cost-benefit analysis for use of satellite imagery to supplement conventional flying if required KE Vista staff placement with English Heritage KE English heritage staff placement with Vista Vista postgraduate student placement with English Heritage and Vista Setup and maintain project Internet presence Project report Disseminate results of research through conference presentations Trade journal article Academic journal paper Create and Deposit Project Archive

TASK
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 B1 B2 B3

VISTA RA
15 10 5 15 10

VISTA PE
2 2 2 2 5

10 10 5

1 10 5 2

C1 C2

2 3 ----

5 5 ----

3 3 ---4

D1 D2 D3

E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 TOTALS

10 3 1 5 1 50

10 3 5 5 2 105

12 5 3 10

55

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4.6
Task

GANTT CHART
Months from Project Start
1 April 2 May 3 June 4 July 5 Aug 6 Sept 7 Oct 8 Nov 9 De 10 Jan 11 Feb 12 March

A1 A2 A3 A4

A5

Determining the most suitable and available imagery sources for mapping in the UK. Comparative analysis of common image sources Collecting and collating imagery for a range of English landscape types Determination of appropriate image processing methods and workflows for archaeological analysis Determination of weather factors affecting cropmark formation Develop trial workflow for incorporation of imagery within NMP working practice Mapping of archaeological detail apparent on imagery to NMP standards Comparison of satellite mapped information to existing NMP data Determine comparative effectiveness and overall financial burden of satellite imagery and conventional flying on a per season basis Conduct a cost-benefit analysis for use of satellite imagery to supplement conventional flying if required KE Vista staff placement with English Heritage KE English heritage staff placement with Vista Vista postgraduate student placement with English Heritage and Vista Setup and maintain project Internet presence Project report Disseminate results of research through conference presentations Trade journal article Academic journal paper Create and Deposit Project Archive
EH Exclusive Shared

B1 B2 B3

C1

C2

D1 D2 D3

E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6

Vista Exclusive

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REFERENCES

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing 5 REFERENCES

Altaweel, M. 2005. The use of ASTER satellite imagery in archaeological contexts, Archaeological prospection 12: 151166 Challis, K., Kincey, M. and Howard, A.J. 2009. Airborne geoarchaeological remote sensing of valley floors using Daedalus ATM and CASI. Archaeological Prospection. Volume 16 Issue 1: 17-33 Challis, K. 2006. Archaeologys Cold War Windfall: The Corona Programme and Lost Landscapes of the Near East. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. Challis, K. & Howard, A.J. 2006. A review of trends within remote sensing in alluvial environments. Archaeological Prospection. 13 Challis, K., Priestnall, G., Gardner, A., Henderson, J. And Ohara, S 2004 Corona Remotely-Sensed Imagery in Dryland Archaeology: The Islamic City of al-Raqqa, Syria Journal of Field Archaeology, 29: 139-153. English Heritage 2010. National Heritage Protection Plan. The Draft Priorities for Action. Fowler MJF, Fowler YM. 2005. Detection of archaeological crop marks on declassified Corona KH-4B intelligence satellite photography of southern England. Archaeological Prospection 12(4): 257-264. Fowler, M.J.F. 2002. Satellite remote sensing and archaeology: a comparative study of satellite imagery of the environs of Figsbury Ring, Wiltshire, Archaeological prospection 9: 5569. Fowler MJF. 1996. High resolution satellite imagery in archaeological application: a Russian satellite photograph of the Stonehenge region. Antiquity 70: 667671. Ole Grn, Susanna Palmr, Frans-Arne Stylegar, Kim Esbensen, Sergey Kucheryavski, Sigurd Aase, Interpretation of archaeological small-scale features in spectral images, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 38, Issue 9, September 2011, Pages 2024-2030. Horne, P. 2009. A Strategy for the National Mapping Programme. English Heritage. Lasaponara R, Masini N. 2011 Satellite remote sensing in archaeology: past, present and future perspectives, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 38, Issue 9, September 2011, Pages 1995-2002 Lasaponara R, Masini N. 2007. Detection of archaeological crop marks by using satellite Quickbird multispectral imagery. Journal of Archaeological Science 34(2): 214-221.

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing Lasaponara, R. and N. Masini, 2005. QuickBird-based analysis for the spatial characterization of archaeological sites: case study of the Monte Serico Medioeval village, Geophysical Research Letter 32. Masini, N., Rosa Lasaponara, 2007. Investigating the spectral capability of QuickBird data to detect archaeological remains buried under vegetated and not vegetated areas, Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 8, Issue 1: 53-60. ivind Due Trier, Siri yen Larsen and Rune Solberg. 2009. Automatic detection of circular structures in high-resolution satellite images of agricultural land. Archaeological Prospection. 16, No 1: 1-15. M.B. Rajani, A.S. Rajawat, Potential of satellite based sensors for studying distribution of archaeological sites along palaeo channels: Harappan sites a case study, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 38, Issue 9, September 2011, Pages 2010-2016,

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APPENDIX 1: CURRICULUM VITAE OF PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing Keith Challis, BA, MPhil, MSc, MiFA, FRGS
SUMMARY Landscape archaeologist with a research specialism in remote sensing and geographical information science, a proven record of successful grant funded international research and consultancy, a strong publication record, with REF output already published, and an experienced post-graduate teacher. PROFILE I have over twenty years professional and academic experience with a record of accomplishment in commercial consultancy, landscape archaeology, remote sensing, geospatial research and teaching coupled with extensive international publication. At present I am a Research Fellow in Remote Sensing in the Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity at the University of Birmingham. This role involves leadership in research and consultancy focused on applications of remote sensing and geographical information science in the historic environment. As programme leader for the centres MA/PGDip in Landscape Archaeology GIS and Virtual Environments I took a lead role in curriculum development and quality control including the introduction of distance learning delivery entirely online via a VLE. I have worked and travelled in Europe, the Middle East and Central America, have a wide familiarity with British and Middle Eastern landscapes, and speak some Arabic. My research interests include the application of GIS to cultural resource management and strategic decisionmaking, particularly in alluvial environments and the application of airborne and satellite remote sensing to cultural heritage and environmental management in both alluvial and upland environments.. Much of my work impacts on development of best practice and policy development in heritage management and professional heritage practice. My recent research initiatives have led me into the fields of public and community engagement though on-line social media, advocacy of community digital heritage and experimentation in the use of computer game technology for geospatial visualisation and community engagement. I see my role and interests as crossing the boundaries between geography, geospatial technology and the historic environment. I am an elected Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and am actively pursuing Chartered Geographer (GIS) status. I have extensive editorial experience, have acted as a guest editor for the journal Archaeological Prospection . EMPLOYMENT HISTORY 2004 Present IBM Vista Centre, University of Birmingham Research Fellow in Remote Sensing 2003 2004 York Archaeological Trust Research Officer, GIS and alluvial geoarchaeology 2000 2003 Department of Archaeology University of Nottingham Research Associate, Remote Sensing and GIS 1991 2003 Department of Continuing Education University of Nottingham Part-time Lecturer in archaeology and heritage conservation 1987 2003 Trent & Peak Archaeology Project Manager and Heritage Consultant PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS Member of the Institute for Archaeologists (MifA) Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society Member of the Association of European Archaeologists Member of the Remote Sensing & Photogrammetric Society (Committee Member Lidar / Archaeology SIG) Member of the Thoroton Society of Nottinghamshire (Member of Council) Member of the Council for British Research in the Levant QUALIFICATIONS MSc (Distinction) Geographical Information Science. University of Nottingham 2001 MPhil Archaeology. University of Nottingham 1992

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BA(Hons) Archaeology. University of Nottingham. 1987 PERSONAL RESEARCH and CONSULTANCY INTERESTS Environmental Remote Sensing. Environmental and heritage applications of airborne lidar and airborne hyperspectral imaging including prospection and geoarchaeological analysis of alluvial landscapes, mapping peat erosion in uplands, assessing visitor impacts on fragile uplands. Use of high-resolution satellite remote sensing for landscape reconstruction and field survey support in arid environments. Geographical Information Science. The use of GIS for archaeological and geological deposit modelling, particularly in alluvial landscapes. Modelling impacts of future climate change on cultural heritage. Archaeological applications of GIS for landscape analysis and cultural resource management, including site location analysis and risk modelling. Geospatial Applications of Computer Game Technology. Use of computer game engines to extend GIS analysis and visualisation, with particular focus on immersive visualisation of remotely sensed data, and for public engagement with culture, heritage and landscape. Web-based Media and Social Networking. Use of web-based technologies for teaching and training in particular internet mapping and the exploration and use of social networking for understanding public engagement with heritage and landscape. Community Digital Heritage. Equipping community heritage groups with digital technologies to engage with cultural heritage and landscape, particularly use of open source software and data for creating community led digital environments. Managing the Historic Environment. Project management and field investigation experience in a variety of urban and rural contexts. Experience in specifying and managing site investigations including geophysical surveys, geotechnical and geoarchaeological surveys. Author of over 100 technical site investigation reports. Experience in devising cultural heritage mitigation strategies for development projects including highways, water and gas pipelines, mining, quarrying and urban redevelopment. Contributing author to EIA, expert witness for Cultural Heritage at Public Enquiry.

CROSS-DISCIPLINARY COLLABORATIONS Founding member and secretary of Trent Valley GeoArchaeology, a cross-disciplinary group of stakeholders and researchers considering the environment, heritage and sustainability in the Trent Valley. UoB ESRI technical representative, providing technical support for ESRI products across the institution UoB industry link with CryTek, a major international computer game company, UoB licence co-ordinator for CryTek CryENGINE 3 software. Principal investigator for Mining the Social Unconscious an EPSRC "Bridging the Gap" funded collaboration with colleagues in the School of Computer Science and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering UoB. Co-investigator, FASTRAC, an English Heritage funded remote sensing initiative uniting the interests of the aggregates industry and heritage sector, a collaborative endeavour with colleagues from British Geological Survey and University of Leicester Department of Geology. Member of the cross-disciplinary NERC EOTC lidar group. Member of the cross-disciplinary NERC EOTC UAV group.

INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATIONS UoB host supervisor for visiting research fellow Paolo Forlin, Dipartimento di Filosofia, Storia e Beni Culturali, Universit degli Studi di Trento, Italy. Collaborated on research in to visualisation and analytical methods for airborne lidar, on-going research relationship. UoB host supervisor for Erasmus work-placement David Tomk, Institute of Novel Technologies and Applied Informatics (NTI), Technical University of Liberec, Czech Republic. Supervising research into immersive visualisation and analysis of terrestrial lidar and GPR data.

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UoB collaborator with Erasmus work-placement, Dr iga Kokalj, Institute of Anthropological and Spatial Studies, Scientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Slovenia. Supervised research into application of lidar for assessment of the historic environment, established a vibrant on-going research relationship. Invited speaker and workshop leader, TRAIL 2011 lidar workshop, an international research forum focused on the uses of airborne lidar in cultural heritage, the Bibracte Research Centre, France. Collaborator with Dr Roger Travis, Department of Classic , University of Connecticut, coconveners of an international group investigating the uses of computer games and the game paradigm in research and teaching. Member and contributor to the Universitas 21 international group of research active Universities.

ESTEEM INDICATORS External Examiner for University of Durham, Department of Geography MSc in Geography by Research Reviewer Journal of Archaeological Science, Archaeological Prospection, Remote Sensing, Antiquity, The Holocene, Hydrological Processes, Landscapes, African Journal of Agricultural Research, Military Aspects of Hydrogeology: Past and Present (GSL books) Invited speaker Technological Advances in Landscape and Heritage Management Recording. University Collge Dublin. August 2011 Invited speaker and panel member International Workshop in the Training and research in the archaeological interpretation of LiDAR (TRAIL) Bibracte European Archaeological Centre Glux-en-Glenne, France 1416 March 2011 Member of academic advisory panel, AHRC Science & Heritage funded DART project. Member of the ESRI/EDUSERVE national steering group for ArcGIS Management committee member, Trent Valley Geoarchaeology Member, West Midlands Historic Landscape Characterisation Group Council Member, Thoroton Society of Nottingham, Advisory board member for digital and spatial technologies, Two Saints' Way long-distance footpath initiative Co-winner of Antiquity's Ben Cullen Award for paper published in Antiquity (2008)

TEACHING Programme leader MA/PGDip Landscape Archaeology, GIS and Virtual Environments 20042009. Module convener, Introduction to GIS (PG module), GIS and Spatial Analysis (PG module), Landscape Archaeology (PG module) 2004-2009. Module convener Virtual landscapes (PG module) 2004-present. Undergraduate teaching archaeology, archaeological techniques, remote sensing and geophysical investigation UoN. Open Studies teaching at undergraduate level in archaeology and heritage conservation UoN.

RESEARCH SUPERVISION Regular supervision of master's level student thesis on heritage, the environment and remote sensing.

SIGNIFICANT RECENT RESEARCH AWARDS/CONSULTANCY Remote Sensing Archaeology under the canopy. Research proposal in collaboration with Gloucestershire County Council to investigate processing and visualisation methods for airborne lidar in wooded areas. This is a multi-method research proposal that includes airborne laser scanning, field survey, terrestrial laser scanning and a strong focus on KE and community involvement. Anticipated 50-100k funding with 2012 commencement.

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Applications of high resolution satellite imagery to archaeological prospection and mapping in the UK. English Heritage (HEEP) funded research to examine the use, potential and costbenefits of high resolution satellite imagery in British Archaeology. Principle Investigator, in collaboration with Dr Peter Horne, Head of Aerial Survey and Mapping at English Heritage (50k award, to commence late 2011) Alston Moor: Remote Sensing of a Lead Working Landscape. English Heritage (HEEP) funded research investigating lead working landscape of Alston Moor through application of airborne lidar, hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing. Technical lead for remote sensing. (20k award) Airborne Remote Sensing of Aggregate Landscapes. English Heritage (ALSF) funded research investigating the potential of hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing. Principal Investigator. (45k award) Lidar Intensity. English Heritage (ALSF) funded research investigating the potential of lidar backscattered intensity for predicting waterlogged deposit preservation. Principal Investigator. (105k award) A Whole-site First-assessment Toolkit for combined Mineral Resource and Archaeological assessment in Sand and Gravel deposits. English Heritage (ALSF) funded research developing multi-method assessment for mineral and archaeological prospection. Collaborative research project with University of Leicester, University of Nottingham and British Geological Survey. (20k award) Rivers Dee/Clwydd WFMP. Geoarchaeological/lidar assessment consultancy contract for Welsh Environment Agency. (10k consultancy) M1 Jn 21-30 Geoarchaeological/lidar assessment consultancy contract for ARUP Partners and Highway Agency. (15k consultancy) Nether Kellet-Pannal Gas Pipeline. Archaeological/lidar assessment consultancy contract for National Grid Transco. (5k consultancy) Geographical Information Science Mining the Social Unconscious. EPSRC "Bridging the Gap" funding for collaborative research with the School of Computer Science UoB to explore the use of on-line social networks for mapping public reactions to cultural heritage. Principal Investigator. (6k award) Virtual Fieldtrips for Teaching Archaeology. UoB teaching development fund initiative to explore the application of internet mapping and computer game technology to provide immersive, interactive three-dimensional virtual landscapes for post-graduate teaching. Principal Investigator. (3k award) Modelling Archaeological Remains in the Light Of Potential Future Climate Change: The Application of Geographical Information Systems. Exploring the use of geographical information systems for predicting the possible implications of future climate change (as suggested by General Circulation Models) on archaeological resources. Principal Investigator. The Historic Environment Two Saints' Way: Pilgrimage, Journeying and the Cloud of Experience. Bid in preparation for AHRC funding, collaborative research with CASA, UCL.. (Anticipated 100k+ funding with commencement in 2012-13). I Remember When: Uniting Story, Heritage and People in Immersive Virtual Experiences. Bid in preparation for Leverhulme Trust funding for collaborative research with York Archaeological Trust to explore the theory and practice of creating engaging, narratively challenging virtual worlds based on conventional archaeological evidence and community created resources, mediated through computer game software. Principal Investigator. (Anticipated 100k + funding with commencement in 2012-2013). Assessing the risk of encountering archaeological deposits in aggregate landscapes. English Heritage (ALSF) funded research developing multi-component predictive models. Principal Investigator. (100k award) Geoarchaeology of the Trent Tributaries. English Heritage (ALSF) funded research investigating the geoarchaeology of the Rivers Idle, Dove, Devon and Doverbeck and their impact on the Trent. Research includes application of lidar, SAR and air-photo analysis, borehole modelling and field mapping and investigation of geoarchaeology. Principal Investigator. (105k award)

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Geoarchaeology of a Confluence Zone. English Heritage (ALSF) funded research investigating the confluence zone of the rivers Trent and Soar at Lockington, Leicestershire. Collaborative research with Prof A.G.Bown (University of Exeter), responsibility for airborne remote sensing and participation in ground-based geophysics (Radar and ERGI). (70k award) Laxton Castle. Four year collaborative fieldschool and community heritage project investigating the archaeology of Nottinghamshires finest motte and bailey castle in conjunction with the School of Education at the University of Nottingham. Principal Investigator. (12k award) Bushehr Peninsular Survey, Iran. CBRL funded research investigation chalcolithic settlement and contacts across the Persian Gulf in antiquity. Remote sensing (Corona and Landsat) landscape analysis and development of GIS for field mapping of survey data. (Led by Dr Robert Carter, UCL). Pleistocene Terrace Chronology of the Middle Euphrates, Syria. CBRL funded research investigating the chronology of the Pleistocene terraces of the middle Euphrates in Syria. Remote sensing landscape analysis using Corona, Landsat and SRTM. (Led by Dr R Westaway, Open University).

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS Candidates for potential REF submission indicated by * Edited journal special issues Challis, K. and Howard, A.J. (Ed.) 2006. Remote Sensing and Environmental Modelling in Alluvial Archaeological Landscapes. Special issue of Archaeological Prospection 13 (4), 231-299. Papers in Refereed Journals Shaw, L and Challis, K in prep. "There's an App for that". Building mobile applications to access heritage data. The Historic Environment: Policy and Practice. * Challis, K. Breeze, P., Kincey, M. and Howard, A.J. in prep. Modelling the Buried Archaeology of Aggregate Bearing Landscapes: A Case Study from the Trent Valley, UK. Journal of Archaeological Science. * Challis, K. forthcoming. Immersive visualisation of archaeological survey using computer game software. Journal of Virtual World Research. Challis, K. Forlin, P. and Kincey, M in 2011. A generic toolkit for the archaeological analysis of airborne lidar. Archaeological Prospection. * Challis, K., Carey, C., Kincey, M. and Howard, A.J. 2011. Assessing the Preservation Potential of Temperate, Lowland Alluvial Sediments Using Airborne Lidar Intensity. Journal of Archaeological Science Volume 38, Issue 2. Challis, K., Kincey, M. and Howard, A.J. 2011. Airborne lidar intensity and geoarcheological prospection in river valleys. Archaeological Prospection. * Challis, K., Kincey, M. and Howard, A.J. 2009. Airborne geoarchaeological remote sensing of valley floors using Daedalus ATM and CASI. Archaeological Prospection. Volume 16 Issue 1: 17-33 * Kincey, M. and Challis, K. 2009. Monitoring Fragile Upland Landscapes: The Application of Airborne Lidar. Journal for Nature Conservation. Kincey, M., Challis, K and Howard, A.J. 2008. Modelling Selected Implications of Potential Future Climate Change on the Archaeological Resource of River Catchments: An Application of Geographical Information Systems. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites. Volume 10, number 2: 113-131 Challis, K., Kokalj, Z., Kincey, M., Moscrop, D. and Howard, A.J. 2008. Airborne Lidar and Historic Environment Records. Antiquity 82: 1055-1064. Howard, A.J., Brown, A.G., Carey, C.J., Challis, K., Cooper, L.P., Kincey, M. and Toms, P. 2008. Archaeological Resource Modelling in Temperate River Valleys: A Case Study from the Trent Valley, UK. Antiquity 82: 1040-1054. Howard, A.J., Challis, K., Holden, J., Kincey, M. and Passmore, D.G. 2008. The Impact of Climate Change on Archaeological Resources in Britain: A Catchment Scale Assessment. Climatic Change 91:405-422. Carter, R.A., K. Challis, S.M.N. Priestman And H. Tofighian. 2007. The Bushehr Hinterland: results of the first season of the Iranian-British Archaeological Survey of Bushehr Province, NovemberDecember 2004, Iran, Vol 44.

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Carey, C., Brown, A.G., Challis, K., Howard, A.J. And Cooper, L. 2006 Predictive modelling of multiperiod geoarchaeological resources at a river confluence. Archaeological Prospection 13, 241250. Challis, K and Howard, A.J. 2006. A Review of Trends within Archaeological Remote sensing in Alluvial Environments. Archaeological Prospection. 13, 231240. Challis, K. 2006. Airborne laser altimetry in alluviated landscapes. Archaeological Prospection. 13 Challis, K. 2006. Archaeologys Cold War Windfall: The Corona Programme and Lost Landscapes of the Near East. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. Challis, K. 2005. Airborne LiDAR: A Tool for Geoarchaeological Prospection in Riverine Landscapes. in Stoepker, H. (ed) Archaeological Heritage Management in Riverine Landscapes. Rapporten Archeologische Monumentenzorg, 126. Henderson, J., Challis, K., Ohara, S., Mcloughlin, S., Gardner, A., And Priestnall, G. 2005 Experimentation and Innovation: Early Islamic Industry at Al-Raqqa, Syria. Antiquity 79. Challis, K., Priestnall, G., Gardner, A., Henderson, J. And Ohara, S 2004 Corona Remotely-Sensed Imagery in Dryland Archaeology: The Islamic City of al-Raqqa, Syria Journal of Field Archaeology, 29. Henderson, J., Challis, K., Gardner, A., OHara, S. And Priestnall, G. 2002 The Raqqa Ancient Industry Project. Antiquity, 76.

Chapters in Books and Monographs * Challis, K. in prep. Immersive visualisation of terrestrial and airborne laser scanning: the case for using computer game engines. in Cowley, D. and Opitz, R. (eds) Interpreting archaeological topography airborne laser scanning, aerial photographs and ground observation. * Challis, K. and Howard, A.J. in prep. The Role of Lidar Intensity Data in Interpreting Archaeological Landscapes. in Cowley, D. and Opitz, R. (eds) Interpreting archaeological topography airborne laser scanning, aerial photographs and ground observation. F. Bhat, M. Oussalah, K. Challis and T. Schnier. 2011. A Software System for Data Mining with Twitter. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems Challis, K. and Howard. A.J. 2011. Preservation and prospection of alluvial archaeological remains: a case study from the Trent Valley, UK in Meylemans, E. (Ed). The Erosion of Archaeology and the Archaeology of Erosion. Flemish Heritage Institute Press. Howard, A.J., Whyman, M.H., Challis, K. and McManus, K. 2009. Studying and managing archaeological resources on a regional scale: the Vale of York Visibility Project. In McManamon, F.P., Stout, A. and Barnes, J. (ed.). Managing Archaeological Resources. Left Coast Press, California. Howard, A.J., Whyman, M., Challis, K. and McManus, K.B. 2008. Recent work on the geomorphological and archaeological landscape of the Vale of York. In Atherden, M. and Milsom, T. (eds) Yorkshire Landscapes Past and Present. PLACE, York. 69-76. Challis, K. et al. 2006. Using Airborne Lidar Intensity to Predict the Organic Preservation of nd Waterlogged Deposits. From Space to Place: Proceedings of the 2 International Workshop on Remote Sensing in Archaeology, CNR, Rome, Italy, Dec 4-7, 2006. British Archaeological Reports, International series 1568. Challis, K. And Howard, A.J. 2003 GIS-based modelling of sub-surface deposits for archaeological prospection in alluvial landscapes in Howard, A.J. and Passmore, D. (eds) The Alluvial Archaeology of Europe. Balkema, Rotterdam. Howard, A.J., Challis, K. And Macklin, M. 2001 Archaeological resources, preservation and prospection in the Trent Valley: The application of Geographical Information Systems to Holocene Fluvial Environments. In Maddy, D., Macklin, M.G. and Woodward, J.C. (eds): River Basin Sediment Systems - Archives Of Environmental Change. Balkema. Rotterdam Challis, K. 1997 Rescue excavation of a Medieval monastic iron smelting site at Stanley Grange, Derbyshire in Crew, P. and Crew, S., (eds) Early Iron Working in Europe; Archaeology and Experiment. Professional Monographs McCaffrey, C., Challis, K., Cranstone, D., Trueman, M., And Nathanail, C.P. 2005. Guidance on Assessing the Risk Posed by Land Contamination and its Remediation on Archaeological Resource Management. Environment Agency. London.

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Papers in Other Journals Challis, K. 2005. Drowned in a whyrlepytte: Nottingham Coroners inquests and the late medieval River Trent. Transactions of the Thoroton Society of Nottinghamshire 108. Beswick, P. And Challis, K. 2004. Pottery from the medieval iron smelting site at Stanley Grange, Derbyshire Derbyshire Archaeological Journal, 124. Challis, K. 2003 Settlement Morphology and Medieval Village Planning: A Case Study at Laxton, Nottinghamshire Transactions of the Thoroton Society of Nottinghamshire, 106. Challis, K. 1999 'Excavation of a medieval structure at Hemp Croft, Thurvaston, Derbyshire' Derbyshire Archaeological Journal, 119. Bishop, M. And Challis, K. 1998 'Village Earthwork Survey in Nottinghamshire' Medieval Settlement Research Group Annual Report, 13. Guilbert, G. And Challis, K. 1993 'Excavations across the supposed line of "The Street" Roman road, southeast of Buxton 1991.' Derbyshire Archaeological Journal, 113. Convened Conference Sessions Engaging with the Virtual World? Approaches to Using Computer Games to Represent Heritage. Session convener, Visualisation in Archaeology. University of Southampton. April 2011. Remote Sensing and Environmental Modelling in Alluvial Landscapes. Session convener. European Association of Archaeologists. Cork, September 2005. Contributions to Conferences A Software System for Data Mining with Twitter. IEEE International Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems. Quingdo, China, September 2011 Lasers, Landscapes and Muddy Boots. Applications of Immersive Visualistion of Airborne Lidar. Technological Advances in Landscape and Heritage Management Recording. University Collge Dublin. August 2011 Extracting information from Lidar Intensity Images. International Workshop in the Training and research in the archaeological interpretation of LiDAR (TRAIL) Bibracte European Archaeological Centre - Glux-en-Glenne, France 1416 March 2011 "Goodness Me Archaeology is Boring" The Internet, micro-blogging and what we really think about the past. Computer Application and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2011. University of Birmingham. April 2011 "I Remember When..." Exploring landscape, narrative and time using computer games Visualisation in Archaeology. University of Southampton. April 2011. Top Sight or clouded vision, developing tools to predict the archaeological potential of Britain's alluvial landscapes. The Past Changing the Future; nine years of ALSF funding in the Historic Environment. Society of Antiquaries, London. October 2010. Second Site: Immersive visualisation of archaeological landscapes using computer games. Universitas 21 Digital Humanities Workshop, University of Birmingham. September 2010 Prospection, prediction and management of archaeological sites in alluvial landscape. Universitas 21 Digital Humanities Workshop, University of Birmingham. September 2010 Preservation and prospection of alluvial archaeological remains: a case study from the Trent Valley, UK. The Archaeology of Erosion/the Erosion of Archaeology Conference. The Flemish Heritage Institute (VIOE), in collaboration with the Flemish Land Agency (VLM) and the Universities of Leuven and Ghent. Brussels, Belgium, 28-30th April 2008 Impacts of climate change on archaeological resources in river catchments. Institute of Field Archaeology 2008 Annual Conference University of Swansea March 2008 Using Airborne Lidar Intensity to Predict the Organic Preservation of Waterlogged Deposits. From nd Space to Place: 2 International Workshop on Remote Sensing in Archaeology, CNR, Rome, Italy, December 2006 Using Airborne Lidar Intensity to Predict Waterlogged Deposit Preservation Geoarchaeology 2006, University Of Exeter, September 2006. Archaeologys Cold War Windfall: The Corona Programme and Lost Landscapes of the Near East. Archaeology for Space Symposium, British Interplanetary Society, London, May 2006. Extending the Remote Sensing Record: Using Declassified Intelligence Satellite Imagery for Landscape Reconstruction in the Middle East. Forensic Remote Sensing and Geophysics Conference Joint EIGG (Environmental & Industrial Geophysics Group) and RSPSoc Meeting (The Remote Sensing & Photogrammetry Society) Geological Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London December 2004

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Airborne Laser Altimetry in Alluviated Landscapes. BGS/RSPSoc Meeting Laser Scanning of the Environment Using Both Airborne and Terrestrial Techniques, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham. November 2004. Airborne LiDAR: A Tool for Geoarchaeological Prospection in Riverine Landscapes. European Association of Archaeologists. Lyon. September 2004. Floodplain Archaeology in Three Dimensions. Using LiDAR and Boreholes Records to Map and Model the Geoarchaeology of the River Trent. Trent Valley GeoArchaeology. British Geilogical Survey. March 2004. Airborne Scanning Laser Altimetry (LiDAR) and Geographical Information Science (GIS) Some Thoughts on Applications for ALSF Project. English Heritage ALSF Technical Meeting. British Geological Survey. October 2003. Wetlands at River Margins: Archaeological Preservation and Potential in Alluvial Environments. European Association of Archaeologists. St Petersburg. September 2003. Mapping Floodplain Geoarchaeology using Airborne Laser Altimetry. World Archaeological Congress 5. Washington DC. June 2003. GIS-based modelling of sub-surface deposits for archaeological prospection in alluvial landscapes. The Alluvial Archaeology of Europe and the Mediterranean. University of Leeds, December 2000.

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing Andy J. Howard BSc (CNAA), PhD (CNAA) Appointments Sept 2004 Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity, University of Birmingham July 2002-Aug 2004 Senior Research Associate, University of Newcastle Jan. 1998-June 2002 Research Fellow, School of Geography, University of Leeds. Jan. 1997-Jan. 1998 Temporary lecturer, School of Geography, University of Leeds. Jan. 1993-Dec. 1996 Geomorphologist/geoarchaeologist. Trent and Peak Archaeological Unit, Department of Archaeology, University of Nottingham. Jan. 1989-Dec. 1991 Research Assistant. Department of Geology, University of Derby June 1988-Dec. 1988 Water Resources Officer. Lee Valley Water Company, Harlow, Essex. Key Research Areas The location, preservation, prospection and interpretation of archaeological resources in Holocene temperate and semi-arid alluvial landscapes. Deciphering climatic and cultural signals of environmental change in temperate and semi-arid alluvial basins. Pleistocene landscape development of eastern and northern Britain and the environmental setting of Palaeolithic communities. Publication Record I Books and Monographs Knight, D. and Howard, A.J. (2004). Trent Valley Landscapes. Heritage Marketing and Publications Ltd, Kings Lynn. Howard, A.J., Macklin, M.G. and Passmore, D.G. (2003) (eds) Alluvial Archaeology in Europe. Swets, Rotterdam Howard, A.J. and Macklin, M.G. (1998) (eds) The Quaternary of the Eastern Yorkshire Dales. Field Guide. The Holocene Alluvial Record. Quaternary Research Association, London. Knight, D. and Howard, A.J. (1995) Archaeology and Alluvium in the Trent Valley: An Archaeological Assessment of the Floodplain and Gravel Terraces. Trent and Peak Archaeological Unit, University of Nottingham. II Chapters in Books and Monographs (Selected) Howard, A.J., Whyman, M., Challis, K. and McManus, K.B. (Submitted). The prospection and management of regional archaeological resources in the alluvial Vale of York, UK: the impact of the Aggregates Levy Sustainability Fund. World Archaeological Congress 5, Conference Series. Routledge. Macklin, M.G., Howard, A.J. and Passmore, D.G. (2003). The condition of Holocene alluvial archaeology in the UK: constraints and opportunities. In Howard, A.J., Macklin, M.G. and Passmore, D.G. (eds) Alluvial Archaeology in Europe. Swets, Rotterdam. 3-14.

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing Challis, K. and Howard, A.J. (2003). GIS based modelling of sub-surface deposits for archaeological prospection in alluvial landscapes. In Howard, A.J., Macklin, M.G. and Passmore, D.G. (eds) Alluvial Archaeology in Europe. Swets, Rotterdam. 263-275. Howard, A.J., Challis, K. and Macklin, M.G. (2001) Archaeological resources, preservation and prospection in the Trent Valley: The application of Geographical Information Systems to Holocene Fluvial Environments. In Maddy, D., Macklin, M.G. and Woodward, J.C. (eds) River Basin Sediment Systems: Archives of Environmental Change. Balkema, Rotterdam. 405-419. Howard, A.J., Smith, D.N., Garton, D., Hilliam, J. and Pearce, M. (1999) Middle to Late Holocene Environments in the Middle to Lower Trent Valley. In Brown, A.G. and Quine, T. (eds) Fluvial Processes and Environmental Change. Wiley, Chichester. 165-178. III Papers in Refereed Journals (selected) Howard, A.J., Whyman, M., Macklin, M.G., Challis, K., Coulthard, T. and McManus, K.B. (Submitted) Archaeological prospection and preservation in large alluvial basins: a case study from the Vale of York, UK. Geoarchaeology. Howard, A.J. (In Press) The contribution of geoarchaeology to understanding the environmental history of the Trent Valley, UK. Geoarchaeology. Smith, D.N. and Howard, A.J. (2004) Identifying changing fluvial conditions in low gradient alluvial archaeological landscapes: can Coleoptera provide insights into changing discharge rates and floodplain evolution? Journal of Archaeological Science 31, 109-120. Howard, A.J., Macklin. M.G., Bailey, D.W., Mills, S and Andreescu, R. (2004) Late Glacial and Holocene river development in the Teleorman Valley on the southern Romanian Plain. Journal of Quaternary Science. Bailey, D.W., Andreescu, R., Howard, A.J., Macklin, M.G. and Mills, S. (2002). Alluvial landscapes in the temperate Balkan Neolithic: transitions to tells. Antiquity 76: 349-355. Howard, A.J., Macklin, M.G., Black, S. and Hudson-Edwards, K.A. (1999). Holocene river development and environmental change in Upper Wharfedale, Yorkshire Dales, England. Journal of Quaternary Science 15 (3), 239-252. Howard, A.J. and Macklin, M.G. (1999) A generic geomorphological approach to archaeological interpretation and prospection in British river valleys: a guide for archaeologists investigating Holocene landscapes. Antiquity 73 (281), 527-541. Conference Convening Knight, D. and Howard, A.J. (1995) Man and environment in the Trent Valley since 10,000 BC. University of Nottingham and Trent and Peak Archaeological Unit, Nottingham. Howard, A.J. and Macklin, M.G. (1998) Holocene Alluvial Systems in the eastern Yorkshire Dales. Quaternary Research Association Short Field Meeting. Howard, A.J., Macklin, M.G. and Passmore, D.G. (2000) The Alluvial Archaeology of North-West Europe and the Mediterranean. University of Leeds. Membership of Professional Research Organisation Executive Committees

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2001-2004 2001-2004 2001-2003 2002-2003

Member of Executive Committee, Quaternary Research Association. Publications Secretary for the Quaternary Research Association. Member of Executive Committee, Association of Environmental Archaeologists. Member (Geoarchaeology) of the Scientific Advisory Committee for York Archaeological Trust and City of York.

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APPENDIX 2: HEALTH AND SAFETY STATEMENT

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing POLICY AND IMPLEMENTATION The Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity follows the University of Birmingham, follows the requirements of the Universitys Safety Policy Statement. This concerns general policy and principals, and is supplemented by codes of practice and guidance notes relating to specific activities. These include, of particular relevance to archaeology, Rules and Guidance for the Safe Conduct of Fieldwork, Expeditions and Outdoor Activities and Health and Safety Guidance when Working Overseas. For further guidance on health and safety issues specific to archaeology the manual Health and Safety in Field Archaeology (Standing Conference of Archaeological Unit Managers, 1999) is used. This Health and Safety policy is implemented and monitored according to the attached hierarchy of responsibilities. Each fieldwork project is co-ordinated by the Project Manager, who is responsible for the preparation of a risk assessment in compliance with the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1992 and the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994, as appropriate. Supervisory staff are required to be familiar with these and the four documents listed in the paragraph above, and in addition are issued with a summary of their duties and responsibilities (BUFAU Health and Safety Responsibilities of Supervisors July 1998). They are responsible for maintaining health and safety standards during fieldwork. Site assistants and other staff in non-supervisory positions are issued with separate brief guidelines on safety standards, including instructions on what action to take in the event of any concern which may arise over safety procedures (Birmingham Archaeology Health and Safety Guidelines for Employees). Overall responsibility for monitoring the implementation of health and safety policy in the field lies with the Manager, with day-to-day responsibility delegated to the Health and Safety Co-ordinator. In situations where professional advice is required, inspections are undertaken by appropriate officers of the Universitys Safety Unit. The monitoring of safe working practices on Birmingham Archaeologys premises on the University Campus is the responsibility of the Health and Safety Co-ordinator, the Trade Union representative, and appropriate officers of the Universitys Safety Unit. Training in health and safety issues is undertaken through the Universitys various training programmes. Field staff undergo training and examination in First Aid through the St. John Ambulance organisation. Training in safety awareness for staff using dumper trucks or other light plant is undertaken through the Construction Industry Training Board. RELEVANT UNIVERSITY HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY DOCUMENTS Health and Safety Policy Statement/Organisation and Arrangements: UHSP/0/97 (revised 1997) Management of Health and Safety within Budget Centres: UHSP/1/MHSCBC/94 Risk Assessment: UHSP/3/RA/94 (incl. Assessment Form) Fire Safety: UHSP/4/FS/94 (incl. Fire Report Form, Induction Fire Training Checklist) Checking, Inspection and Testing of Electrical Equipment (Equipment Rated up to 240 volts): UHSP/5/CITEE/95 Manual Handling Operations: UHSP/6/MHO/95 (incl. Assessment Form) Display Screen Equipment Use: UHSP/7/DSE/96 Safety Footwear - Policy and Procedures: USP/90/SF/17 Rules and Guidance for the Safe Conduct of Fieldwork: USP/90/FW/18 Arrangements for COSHH Assessments: USP/91/ACA/20

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PN 6060: High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing Accident/Incident Report Form: USP/92/AI/21 Guidance on Equipment Provided for Use at Work: GUIDANCE/1/EPUW/97 Guidance on Health and Safety Responsibilities: Undergraduate and Postgraduate Project Work: GUIDANCE/4/HSRUPP/98 Work Station Design: GUIDANCE/5/WD/98 Guidance for Work Experience Placements for Young Persons at The University: GUIDANCE/6/WEPYPU/98 Guidance on Risk Assessment in Offices: GUIDANCE/7/RAO/98 Guidance on Safe Work in Confined Spaces: GUIDANCE/8/SWCS/98 Health and Safety, General Guidance: GUIDANCE/9/HSGG/98

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