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# Excel Training Manual

The Excel 2010 Window ...................................................................................................................................... 1 Customise the Quick Access Toolbar.(QAT) ........................................................................................................ 2 How to create your own ribbon .......................................................................................................................... 3 Add groups of commands to QAT ....................................................................................................................... 4 Shortcut Menu .................................................................................................................................................... 5 Conditional Formatting ....................................................................................................................................... 6 Split window........................................................................................................................................................ 8 View more than one worksheet on the screen .................................................................................................. 8 Freeze screen ...................................................................................................................................................... 9 Hiding Part or all of the workbook ...................................................................................................................... 9 Functions ........................................................................................................................................................... 11 What the IF function does ................................................................................................................................ 13 Leaving Cells Blank ............................................................................................................................................ 13 Nested IF Functions........................................................................................................................................... 13 How to Trace Precedents and Dependents in Formulas .................................................................................. 15 Understanding precedents and dependents of Excel formulas. ...................................................................... 15 Correct an error value ....................................................................................................................................... 16 Correct common problems in formulas ............................................................................................................ 16 Turn error checking rules on or off ................................................................................................................... 17 Correct common formula errors one at a time ................................................................................................ 17 Mark common formula errors on the worksheet and correct them there ...................................................... 18 Evaluate a nested formula one step at a time .................................................................................................. 18 Watch a formula and its result by using the Watch Window ........................................................................... 19 Add cells to the Watch Window ....................................................................................................................... 19 Remove cells from the Watch Window ............................................................................................................ 20 Goal Seek .......................................................................................................................................................... 20 Use Goal Seek to determine the interest rate .................................................................................................. 20 What if Analysis................................................................................................................................................. 21 Overview ........................................................................................................................................................... 21 Use scenarios to consider many different variables ......................................................................................... 21 Sub totals in a list of data in a worksheet ......................................................................................................... 22 Inserting subtotals ............................................................................................................................................ 22 Remove subtotals ............................................................................................................................................. 23 Charts ................................................................................................................................................................ 24 Secondary Axis .................................................................................................................................................. 24

Add a secondary vertical axis ............................................................................................................................ 24 Add a secondary horizontal axis ....................................................................................................................... 25 Change the chart type of a data series ............................................................................................................. 25 Remove a secondary axis .................................................................................................................................. 25 Change the scale of the vertical (value) axis in a chart ..................................................................................... 25 Trendlines ......................................................................................................................................................... 26 Sparklines .......................................................................................................................................................... 27 Create a Sparkline ............................................................................................................................................. 27 Show and customize axis settings..................................................................................................................... 28 Handle empty cells or zero values .................................................................................................................... 28 Pivot tables/charts ............................................................................................................................................ 29 Sort data by multiple groups ............................................................................................................................ 32 Slicers ................................................................................................................................................................ 33 Using slicers....................................................................................................................................................... 34 Formatting slicers for a consistent look ............................................................................................................ 34 Sharing slicers between PivotTables ................................................................................................................. 34 Create a slicer in an existing PivotTable ........................................................................................................... 35 Create a standalone slicer................................................................................................................................. 35 Format a slicer................................................................................................................................................... 36 Make a slicer available for use in another PivotTable ...................................................................................... 36 Use a slicer from another PivotTable................................................................................................................ 36 Disconnect or delete a slicer ............................................................................................................................. 37 Show Formulas.................................................................................................................................................. 38 Add a Comment ................................................................................................................................................ 38 How to Add a Comment.................................................................................................................................... 38 Edit/Format a Comment ................................................................................................................................... 38 Move or Resize a Comment .............................................................................................................................. 38 Display or hide comments and their indicators ................................................................................................ 39 Review all comments in a workbook ................................................................................................................ 39 Delete a comment............................................................................................................................................. 39 Cell ranges ......................................................................................................................................................... 40 Use of Defined Names ...................................................................................................................................... 41 Navigation ......................................................................................................................................................... 41 Macros .............................................................................................................................................................. 42 Record a macro ................................................................................................................................................. 42 To set the security level temporarily to enable all macros ............................................................................... 42

Assign a macro to an object, graphic, or control .............................................................................................. 43 Assign a macro to the Quick Action Toolbar or to customize the ribbon ......................................................... 43 Delete a macro .................................................................................................................................................. 44 To Compare and Merge Workbooks: ................................................................................................................ 45 Track changes.................................................................................................................................................... 46 How track changes works ................................................................................................................................. 46 Ways to use track changes................................................................................................................................ 46 Turn on track changes for a workbook ............................................................................................................. 47 Settings for Track Changes ................................................................................................................................ 48 Stop highlighting changes ................................................................................................................................. 48 View tracked changes ....................................................................................................................................... 48 Accept and reject changes ................................................................................................................................ 48 View the history worksheet .............................................................................................................................. 49 Turn off change tracking for a workbook ......................................................................................................... 50 Password protection on worksheets/workbooks ............................................................................................. 50 To protect your Worksheet............................................................................................................................... 51 Protect elements in a shared workbook ........................................................................................................... 51 Print Screen (Screen Shot) ................................................................................................................................ 52 General keyboard shortcuts ............................................................................................................................. 53 Accelerating Microsoft Excel............................................................................................................................. 53

## The Excel 2010 Window

Tab Menu Bar Quick access toolbar Ribbon Hide the Ribbon Help files Minimise window Reduces the size of the window Exit

Ribbon Groups

## Cell Reference box

Worksheet name

Zoom bars

Scroll bar

Tab Menu Bar Select on any of the tabs to display ribbons and commands. Quick Access Toolbar Add commands here that you use on a regular basis. Ribbon In Excel, each tab on the ribbon has different buttons and commands that are organized into ribbon groups. Cell Reference box Shows you which cell is selected within the worksheet. Worksheet name Use these tabs to move between worksheets. Zoom bar Use this to increase the size of the view of the worksheet. Scroll bars Use these to move around larger worksheets. Help files Use this to access Microsoft tutorials and help files. Minimise window Minimises spread sheet to the bottom taskbar. Exit Leave Excel.

By adding buttons to this toolbar, you can keep all of your favourite commands visible at all times, even when you switch ribbon tabs. This can be moved below the ribbon if you would rather use it from that position.

Select the drop-down arrow next to the Quick Access Toolbar to turn on or off any of the commands listed on the shortcut menu. Select or deselect as necessary.

If the command you want to add isnt shown in the list, switch to the ribbon tab where the button appears and then right-select over it. On the shortcut menu that appears, select Add to Quick Access Toolbar.

If the command you want to add is not on the ribbon, select the drop down arrow on the quick access toolbar and select More Commands.

Select Commands Not in the Ribbon you can then chose from any on the list.

Once you have selected one select the add button If you need to group them, select a command and use the up/down arrows on the right of the window. Select OK

## How to create your own ribbon

Right click on ribbon area and select customize ribbon option. Now, add a new tab (or group or both) see below for illustration. Add a few commands (or buttons) to your new ribbon Click ok and you have a sparkling new ribbon ready.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Create a new ribbon tab. Add a new group of commands to an existing or new ribbon. Change the name of an existing custom group or tab. Select a group / tab to add items to that group / tab. Choose the type of commands you want to add to your ribbon tab / group. Select the command you want to add to your group Click on Add button. Remove any commands from custom tabs / groups. Move your ribbon tab / group up or down.

## Add groups of commands to QAT

When you select the group on the Quick Access Toolbar it opens up to the group.

Right-click display a shortcut menu that gives you quick access to many of the most commonly used features. If an arrow appears next to your selection, you can click to see more options. For example, rightclicking an Excel document displays Paste Options, insert, delete, formatting, and other options.

Key Tips are built-in keyboard shortcuts available in Excel. To display a letter or number by each Ribbon tab or Quick Access Toolbar command after you press a letter or number, you get new Key Tips letters and numbers to access each command in the location you selected.

Conditional Formatting
Using Conditional Formatting in a cell allows you to automatically format a cell depending on its contents. You might need to format cells using: A two/three colour scale higher or lower values are highlighted in a sliding scale of colour. Data bars Icon sets Cells that contain text, number or date or time values Top or bottom ranked numbers Values that are above or below average Unique or duplicate numbers A formula to determine cell formatting

Select the cells you need to format and on the Home tab and in the Styles group select the conditional formatting command and either select from the list for specific formatting or select Manage Rules to make changes or delete a previous rule.

## Select New Rule

From the list select the most suitable format required for the cells.

Depending on the option you select from the list, the rule description will change. Fill this is accordingly and change the formatting you require for the cell when the condition is achieved.

Split window
You can use Split Screens to display two/four different parts of the same worksheet at the same time. Windows can be split both horizontally and vertically. This can be done by selecting the View tab and selecting Split from the Window group. The view will then split into four sections. Reduce this to two by selecting and dragging the dividing bar to the right (for horizontal View) or Down (for vertical view) You can only have four/two views from the same worksheet; you cannot use it to view different worksheets or workbooks To remove the Split Pane de-select the Split command by clicking it.

## View more than one worksheet on the screen

To enable you to view more than one worksheet of the workbook, you can open the workbook into a new window (depending on how many worksheets you need to see). On the View tab and in the Window group select the Arrange All command which opens the Arrange Windows dialogue box, select the layout you require and click OK. If you only require the active workbook worksheets select the Windows of Active Workbook tick box. To enable you to view more than one work book at once select Arrange All command in the Window group of the View tab.

To view two worksheets at once select Side by Side command in the Windows group on the View tab. All worksheets viewed in the pane can be scrolled together by selecting the Synchronous Scrolling and all can be reset to cell A1 by selecting Reset Window Position on the same tab/group.

Freeze screen
Freezing the panes of the workbook will allow you to view row and column/row headings even though you are scrolling down/across the workbook. On the view Tab and in the windows group select the Freeze Frames command; you are given the options of freezing the top row, first column or at a custom point in the worksheet. To customise the point to freeze the frames select the point you want to freeze at and select the Freeze Frames from the drop down list. The point that the worksheet will be frozen will be at the top left hand corner of the cell that is selected.

## Hiding Part or all of the workbook

Hiding a part of the workbook or all of it can ensure some privacy and make worksheets easier to work on. Workbooks can be hidden by selecting the relevant workbook and on the view tab, in the Window group select the Hide command. Likewise select Unhide to view the workbook and select the workbook to unhide from the list and select OK.

When the workbook is hidden it cannot be viewed on the task bar at the bottom of the screen. Worksheets can be hidden by right selecting on the worksheet tab and selecting Hide, likewise right select on any worksheet and select Unhide and select from the list and select OK to make the worksheet visible again.

Columns and Rows can be hidden by selecting the relevant rows or columns and right clicking on one of the selected segments and selecting Hide. To unhide, highlight the columns or rows on either side of the hidden section and right click and select Unhide. To select non adjacent columns or rows place the pointer on the coloured bar at the top/beginning of the column/row and using the control key select on the relevant sectors.

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Functions
Excel has a lot of inbuilt functions that are used in the manipulation of data. They are broken down into Database, Date and Time, Engineering, Financial, Information, Logical, Lookup and Reference, Maths and Trigonometry, Statistical, Text and External functions. They can either be typed into the formula bar following the screen tips or using the function wizard which you can access via the Formulas tab and the Insert

## NETWORKDAYS.INTL NOW TIME TODAY WEEKDAY WORKDAY WORKDAY.INTL

Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days Returns the serial number of the current date and time Returns the serial number of a particular time Returns the serial number of today's date Converts a serial number to a day of the week Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days Converts a serial number to a year Converts a number from one measurement system to another Returns TRUE if the value is blank Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE Specifies a logical test to perform Reverses the logic of its argument Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE
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## YEAR CONVERT ISBLANK AND IF NOT OR

TRUE HLOOKUP HYPERLINK LOOKUP MATCH TRANSPOSE VLOOKUP ROUND ROUNDDOWN ROUNDUP AVERAGEIF meet COUNT COUNTA COUNTBLANK COUNTIF COUNTIFS MIN CHAR CONCATENATE DOLLAR LEFT, LEFTB IFERROR

Returns the logical value TRUE Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet Looks up values in a vector or array Looks up values in a reference or array Now in Paste Special Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell Rounds a number to a specified number of digits Rounds a number down, toward zero Rounds a number up, away from zero Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that a given criteria Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments Counts how many values are in the list of arguments Counts the number of blank cells within a range Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments Returns the character specified by the code number Joins several text items into one text item Converts a number to text, using the \$ (dollar) currency format Returns the leftmost characters from a text value Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula

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## What the IF function does

Functions can be nested together to achieve the desired effect, with the IF function being one of Excels most useful and most used functions. Basically, it tests to see whether a certain condition is true or false. If the condition is true, the function will do one thing, if the condition is false, the function will do something else. The basic form of the function is: =IF(logic test, value if true, value if false) The logic test is always a comparison between two values. Comparison operators are used, for example, to see if the first value is greater than or less than the second, or equal to it. While the logic test section is limited to answering a true or false question, you have greater flexibility in what you place in the last two arguments.

## Leaving Cells Blank

Having an IF function return a blank cell is similar to having it return words or a text statement. You use quotation marks as with text, but just dont put anything between them. =IF(A5 > 5000,Too High, ) In this example, the IF function acts as a flag. If the value in cell A5 goes above 5,000, the warning Too High is displayed in the cell. If A5 is not above 5,000, there is no need for a warning so the cell remains blank. Note: there is no comma separator in 5,000 in the above example. This is because the IF function uses the comma to separate the three sections of the IF function contained within the round brackets Excel will then give you an error message saying you have too many arguments in your function.

Nested IF Functions
A Nested IF function is when a second IF function is placed inside the first in order to test additional conditions. "Nesting" IF functions increase the flexibility of the function by increasing the number of possible outcomes. For example, deductions from an employees income usually depend on employee income. The higher the income, the higher the deduction rate. We can use an IF function to determine what the deduction rate will be.

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## For this example, if employee income is:

less than \$29,701, the deduction rate is 15% greater than or equal to \$29,701, but less than \$71,950, the deduction rate is 25% greater than or equal to \$71,950, the deduction rate is 28%

The first deduction rate is handled by the logic test and the value if true argument of the first IF function. To do this, we write the beginning of the IF function as: =IF(A5 < 29701, A5*15%, To add the second and third deduction levels, we nest one IF function inside another. For example: =IF(A5<29701,A5*15%,IF(A5<71950,A5*25%,A5*28%)) The logic test of the Nested IF function, checks to see if an employees income is greater than or equal to \$29,701, but less than \$71,950. If it is, the deduction rate is 25%. If the income is greater than or equal to \$71,950, the deduction rate is 28%. Additional rate changes could be added another nested IF functions inside the existing function.

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## How to Trace Precedents and Dependents in Formulas

Excel 2010 formulas may contain precedents and may serve as dependents to other formulas.

Precedents are cells or ranges that affect the active cell's value. Dependents are cells or ranges affected by the active cell. Use the Trace Precedents and Trace Dependents buttons in the Formula Auditing group of the Formulas tab to locate precedents or dependents for a cell that contains a formula. A cell often serves as both a precedent and a dependent Cells B2:B7 are precedents of B8, but at the same time, cell B8 is dependent on all the cells in B2:B7. Cells B11:B16 are precedents of B17, but at the same time cell B17 is dependent on all the cells in B11:B16. Cells B8 and B17 are precedents of E9, but at the same time cell E9 is dependent on cells B8 and B17. Cell E9 is not a precedent for any other cell.

## Understanding precedents and dependents of Excel formulas.

To see what other cells are referenced in the active cell's formula, select the Trace Precedents button. To see which other cells contain a reference to the active cell, select the Trace Dependents button. If you keep selecting the button, Excel will continue to go back (for precedents) or forward (for dependents) one more reference. For instance, the first time you select Trace Precedents, Excel shows you the direct precedents, those cells that are referenced by name in the formula. Select the button again and Excel reveals the precedents of those precedents. Keep selecting, and Excel keeps showing you how the cells are connected until you hit a range that contains values instead of formulas. The Remove Arrows drop-down menu has three choices:

## Correct an error value

If a formula cannot correctly evaluate a result, Excel displays an error value (see table below), each error type has different causes, and different solutions. The following table contains links to articles that describe these errors in detail, and a brief description to get you started.
DESCRIPTION HOW TO CORRECT

##### #DIV/0!

Excel displays this error when a column is not wide enough to display all the characters in a cell, or a cell contains negative date or time values. Excel displays this error when a number is divided either by zero (0) or by a cell that contains no value. Excel displays this error when a value is not available to a function or formula. This error is displayed when Excel does not recognize text in a formula. For example, a range name or the name of a function may be spelled incorrectly. Excel displays this error when you specify an intersection of two areas that do not intersect (cross). The intersection operator is a space character that separates references in a formula. Excel displays this error when a formula or function contains invalid numeric values. Excel displays this error when a cell reference is not valid. For example, you may have deleted cells that were referred to by other formulas, or you may have pasted cells that you moved on top of cells that were referred to by other formulas. Excel can display this error if your formula includes cells that contain different data types. If error checking for formulas is enabled, the ScreenTip displays "A value used in the formula is of the wrong data type." You can typically fix this problem by making minor changes to your formula.

#N/A #NAME?

#NULL!

#NUM!

#REF!

#VALUE!

## Correct common problems in formulas

You can implement certain rules to check for errors in formulas. These rules act like a spelling checker that checks for errors in data that you enter in cells. These rules do not guarantee that your worksheet is error free, but they can go a long way toward finding common mistakes. You can turn any of these rules on or off individually. Errors can be marked and corrected in two ways: one error at a time (like a spelling checker), or immediately when they occur on the worksheet as you enter data. Either way, a triangle appears in the top-left corner of the cell when an error is found.

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## Cells with a formula error

You can resolve an error by using the options that Excel displays, or you can ignore the error by clicking Ignore Error. If you ignore an error in a particular cell, the error in that cell does not appear in further error checks. However, you can reset all previously ignored errors so that they appear again.

## Turn error checking rules on or off

Click the File tab, click Options, and then click the Formulas category, under Error checking rules, select or clear the check boxes of any of the following rules: If the references that are used in a formula are not consistent with those in the adjacent formulas, Excel displays an error.

## Correct common formula errors one at a time

Select the worksheet that you want to check for errors. If the worksheet is manually calculated, press F9 to recalculate now. On the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Error Checking in-group button. The Error Checking dialog box is displayed when errors are found.

If you have ignored the errors once, Excel will not check for them when error checking is run unless you reset the error. This can be reset by clicking on the Error Checking command on the Formula Auditing group of the Formulas tab. Select Options on the Error Checking dialogue box and click on Reset Ignored Errors on the Options dialogue box. Click Next. If there are no further errors to be highlighted on the worksheet you can reset the Error Checking by selecting the file tab and selecting formulas in the Excel Options dialogue box. Continue until the error check is complete.

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Mark common formula errors on the worksheet and correct them there
To correct an error in a worksheet, select a cell with a triangle in the top-left corner of a cell, next to the cell, click the Error Checking button that appears, and then click

the option that you want. The available commands differ for each type of error, and the first entry describes the error. To edit or evaluate the formula click on Show Calculation Steps

If the underlined part of the formula is a reference to another formula, click Step In to display the other formula in the Evaluation box. Click Step Out to go back to the previous cell and formula. The Step In button is not available for a reference the second time the reference appears in the formula, or if the formula refers to a cell in a separate workbook. Continue until each part of the formula has been evaluated and to see the evaluation again, click Restart. To end the evaluation, click Close. Some parts of formulas that use the IF and CHOOSE functions are not evaluated in these cases, #N/A is displayed in the Evaluation box. If a reference is blank, a zero value (0) is displayed in the Evaluation box.

## Evaluate a nested formula one step at a time

Sometimes, understanding how a nested formula calculates the final result is difficult because there are several intermediate calculations and logical tests. However, by using the Evaluate Formula dialog box, you can see the different parts of a nested formula evaluated in the order that the formula is calculated. For example, the formula =IF(AVERAGE(F2:F5)>50,SUM(G2:G5),0) is easier to understand when you can see the following intermediate results:

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=IF(AVERAGE(F2:F5)>50,SUM(G2:G5),0)

The nested formula is initially displayed. The AVERAGE function and the SUM function are nested within the IF function. The cell range F2:F5 contains the values 55, 35, 45, and 25, and so the result of the AVERAGE(F2:F5) function is 40. Because 40 is not greater than 50, the expression in the first argument of the IF function (the logical_test argument) is False. The IF function returns the value of the third argument (the value_if_false argument). The SUM function is not evaluated because it is the second argument to the IF function (value_if_true argument), and it is returned only when the expression is True.

=IF(40>50,SUM(G2:G5),0)

=IF(False,SUM(G2:G5),0)

## Watch a formula and its result by using the Watch Window

When cells are not visible on a worksheet, you can watch those cells and their formula in the Watch Window. The Watch Window makes it convenient to inspect, audit, or confirm formula calculations and results in large worksheets. By using the Watch Window, you don't need to repeatedly scroll or go to different parts of your worksheet. This toolbar can be moved or docked like any other toolbar. For example, you can dock it on the bottom of the window. The toolbar keeps track of the following properties of a cell: workbook, sheet, name, cell, value, and formula. You can have only one watch per cell.

## Add cells to the Watch Window

On the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click on the Watch Window command. Click Add Watch and enter the cell reference or click on cell and Click Add. Move the Watch Window toolbar to the top, bottom, left, or right side of the window. To display the cell that an entry in Watch Window toolbar refers to, double-click the entry. Note Cells that have external referencesto other workbooks are displayed in the Watch Window toolbar only when the other workbooks are open.

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## Remove cells from the Watch Window

Open the Watch Window and select the cells that you want to remove. To select multiple cells, press CTRL and then click the cells. Click Delete Watch .

Goal Seek
If you know the result that you want from a formula, but are not sure what input value the formula needs to get that result, use the Goal Seek feature. For example, suppose that you need to borrow some money. You know how much money you want, how long you want to take to pay off the loan, and how much you can afford to pay each month. You can use Goal Seek to determine what interest rate you will need to secure in order to meet your loan goal. Goal Seek works only with one variable input value. If you want to accept more than one input value; for example, both the loan amount and the monthly payment amount for a loan, you use the Solver add-in.

## Use Goal Seek to determine the interest rate

On the Data tab, in the Data Tools group, click What-If Analysis, and then click Goal Seek. In the Set cell box, enter the reference for the cell that contains the formula that you want to resolve. In the example, this reference is cell B4. In the To value box, type the formula result that you want. In the example, this is -900. Note that this number is negative because it represents a payment. In the By changing cell box, enter the reference for the cell that contains the value that you want to adjust. In the example, this reference is cell B3. The cell that Goal Seek changes must be referenced by the formula in the cell that you specified in the Set cell box, Click OK. Goal Seek runs and produces a result, as shown in the following illustration.

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Finally, format the target cell (B3) so that it displays the result as a percentage. On the Home tab, in the Number group, click Percentage. Click Increase Decimal or Decrease Decimal to set the number of decimal places

## What if Analysis Overview

What-if analysis is the process of changing the values in cells to see how those changes will affect the outcome of formulas on the worksheet. Three kinds of what-if analysis tools come with Excel: scenarios, data tables, and Goal Seek. Scenarios and data tables take sets of input values and determine possible results. A data table works only with one or two variables, but it can accept many different values for those variables. A scenario can have multiple variables, but it can accommodate only up to 32 values. Goal Seek works differently from scenarios and data tables in that it takes a result and determines possible input values that produce that result. In addition to these three tools, you can install add-ins that help you perform what-if analysis, such as the Solver add-in.

## Use scenarios to consider many different variables

A scenario is a set of values that Excel saves and can substitute automatically in cells on a worksheet. You can create and save different groups of values on a worksheet and then switch to any of these new scenarios to view different results. For example, suppose you have two budget scenarios: a worst case and a best case. You can use the Scenario Manager to create both scenarios on the same worksheet, and then switch between them. For each scenario, you specify the cells that change and the values to use for that scenario. When you switch between scenarios, the result cell changes to reflect the different changing cell values. Worst case scenario

Changing cells
Result cell

## Changing cells Result cell

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If several people have specific information in separate workbooks that you want to use in scenarios, you can collect those workbooks and merge their scenarios. After you have created or gathered all the scenarios that you need, you can create a scenario summary report that incorporates information from those scenarios. A scenario report displays all the scenario information in one table on a new worksheet.

## Sub totals in a list of data in a worksheet

You can automatically calculate subtotals and grand totals in a list for a column by using the Subtotal command. When you insert subtotals they are calculated with a summary, such as Sum or Average, by using the SUBTOTAL function. You can display more than one type of summary function for each column. Grand totals are derived from detail data not from the values in the subtotals. For example, if you use the Average summary function, the grand total row displays an average of all of the detail rows in the list, not an average of the values in the subtotal rows. If the workbook is set to automatically calculate formulas, the Subtotal command recalculates subtotal and grand total values automatically as you edit the detail data. The Subtotal command also outlines the list so that you can display and hide the detail rows for each subtotal. If you filter data that contains subtotals, your subtotals may appear hidden. To display them again, clear all filters.

Inserting subtotals
Make sure that each column in a range of data for which you want to calculate subtotals has a label in the first row, contains similar facts in each column, and that the range does not include any blank rows or columns. Select a cell in the range. And either insert one level of subtotals or nested levels of subtotals, To insert a sub total On the Data tab, in the Outline group, click Subtotal.

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The Subtotal dialog box is displayed. In the At each change in box, click the column for the subtotals. In the Use function box, click the summary function that you want to use to calculate the subtotals. In the Add subtotal to box, select the check box for each column that contains values that you want to subtotal. If you need to replace all current subtotals select the Replace current subtotals but remember that all sub totals will be replaced. Otherwise leave clear to retain all other subtotals. If you want an automatic page break following each subtotal, select the Page break between groups check box. To specify a summary row above the details row, clear the Summary below data check box. To specify a summary row below the details row, select the Summary below data check boxOptionally, you can use the Subtotals command again by repeating these steps to add more subtotals with different summary functions. To display a summary of just the subtotals and grand totals, click the outline symbols next to the row numbers. Use the and symbols to display or hide the detail rows for individual subtotals.

Remove subtotals
Select a cell in the range that contains subtotals and on the Data tab, in the Outline group, click Subtotal and in the Subtotal dialog box, click Remove All.

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## Charts Secondary Axis

When the values in a 2-D chart vary widely from data series to data series (secondary axes are not supported in 3-D charts), or when you have mixed types of data, you can plot one or more data series on a secondary vertical axis. The scale of the secondary vertical axis reflects the values for the associated data series. After you add a secondary vertical axis to a 2-D chart, you can also add a secondary horizontal axis, which may be useful in a scatter chart or bubble chart. To help distinguish the data series that are plotted on the secondary axis, you can change their chart type. For example, in a column chart, you could change the data series on the secondary axis to a line chart. To complete the following procedures, you must have an existing 2-D chart.

## Add a secondary vertical axis

You can plot data on a secondary vertical axis one data series at a time. To plot more than one data series on the secondary vertical axis, repeat this procedure for each data series that you want to display on the secondary vertical axis. In a chart, select the data series that you want to plot on the secondary vertical axis. Select the Chart Tools Layout tab and in the Current Selection group, select Format Selection. On the Series Options choice, under Plot Series On, select Secondary Axis and then select Close.

A secondary vertical axis is displayed in the chart. To change the display of the secondary vertical axis, on the Layout tab, in the Axes group, select Axes. Select Secondary Vertical Axis, and then select the display option that you want. To change the axis options of the secondary vertical axis, do the following: Right-click the secondary vertical axis and then select Format Axis. Under Axis Options, select the options that you want to use. 24

## Add a secondary horizontal axis

To complete this procedure, you must have a chart that displays a secondary vertical axis. Select a chart that displays a secondary vertical axis. On the Layout tab, in the Axes group, select Axes. Select Secondary Horizontal Axis, and then select the display option that you want.

## Change the chart type of a data series

In a chart, select the data series that you want to change. You can right-click the data series, select Change Series Chart Type or on the Design tab, in the Type group, select Change Chart Type. In the Change Chart Type dialog box, select a chart type that you want to use. The first box shows a list of chart type categories, and the second box shows the available chart types for each chart type category. You can change the chart type of only one data series at a time. To change the chart type of more than one data series in the chart, repeat the steps of this procedure for each data series that you want to change.

## Remove a secondary axis

Select the chart that displays the secondary axis that you want to remove. On the Layout tab, in the Axes group, select Axes, select Secondary Vertical Axis or Secondary Horizontal Axis, and then select None. You can also select the secondary axis that you want to delete, and then press DELETE, or right-select the secondary axis, and then select Delete.

## Change the scale of the vertical (value) axis in a chart

By default, Excel determines the minimum and maximum scale values of the y axis, when you create a chart. However, you can customize the scale to better meet your needs. In a chart, select the value axis that you want to change, on the Format tab, in the Current Selection group, select Format Selection. In the Format Axis dialog box, select Axis Options, and then do one or more of the following: To change the number at which the vertical (value) axis starts or ends, for the Minimum or Maximum option, select Fixed and then type a different number in the Minimum box or the Maximum box. To change the interval of tick marks for the Major unit or Minor unit option, select Fixed and then type a different number in the Major unit box or Minor unit box. 25

To reverse the order of the values, select the Values in reverse order check box. When you change the order of the values on the vertical axis from bottom to top, the category labels on the horizontal axis flip from the bottom to the top of the chart. To change the display units on the value axis, in the Display units list, select the units that you want. To show a label that describes the units, select the Show display units label on chart check box. Changing the display unit is useful when the chart values are large numbers that you want to appear shorter and more readable on the axis. To change the placement of the axis tick marks and labels, select any of the options that you want in the Major tick mark type, Minor tick mark type, and Axis labels boxes. To change the point where you want the horizontal axis to cross the vertical axis, under Horizontal Axis Crosses, select Axis value, and then type the number that you want in the text box, or select Maximum axis value to specify that the horizontal axis crosses the vertical axis at the highest value on the axis. When you select Maximum axis value, the category labels are moved to the opposite side of the chart. Scatter charts and bubble charts show values on both the horizontal axis and the vertical axis, while line charts show values on only the vertical axis. This difference is an important factor in deciding which chart type to use. Because the scale of the line chart's horizontal axis cannot be changed as much as the scale of the vertical axis that is used in the scatter chart, you might consider using a scatter chart instead of a line chart if you have to change the scaling of that axis or display it as a logarithmic scale. After changing the scale of the axis, you may also want to change the way that the axis is formatted.

Trendlines
Trendlines are used to graphically display trends in data and to analyze problems of prediction. Such analysis is also called regression analysis by using this; you can extend a trendline in a chart beyond the actual data to predict future values. For example, the following chart uses a simple linear trendline that is forecast ahead four quarters to clearly show a trend toward rising revenue:

Moving Average You can also create a moving average smoothes out fluctuations in data and shows the pattern or trend more clearly. Chart types that support trendlines You can add trendlines to data series in unstacked 2-D area, bar, column, line, stock, scatter, and bubble charts. You cannot add trendlines to data series in 3-D, stacked, radar, pie, surface, or doughnut charts. If you change a chart or data series so that it can no longer support the associated trendline you lose the Trendlines.

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Sparklines
Data presented in a row or column is useful, but patterns can be hard to spot at a glance. The context for these numbers can be provided by inserting Sparklines next to the data. Taking up a small amount of room, a Sparkline can display a trend based on adjacent data in a clear and compact graphical representation. Although it's not mandatory for a Sparkline cell to be directly next to its underlying data, it is a good practice. You can quickly see the relationship between a Sparkline and its underlying data, and when your data changes you can see the change in the Sparkline immediately. In addition to creating a single Sparkline for a row or column of data, you can create several Sparklines at the same time by selecting multiple cells that correspond to underlying data, as shown in the following example. You can also create Sparklines for rows of data that you add later by using the fill handle on an adjacent cell that contains a Sparkline. These Sparklines use values from cells A6 through E6. In cell F2 is a columns Sparkline and in cell F3 is a line Sparkline and in cell F6 a win/loss Sparkline.

Because a Sparkline is a tiny chart embedded in a cell, you can enter text in a cell and use a Sparkline as its background, as shown in the following picture.

In this Sparkline, the high value marker is green, and the low value marker is orange. All other markers are shown in black.

You can apply a colour scheme to your Sparklines by choosing a built-in format from the Style gallery which can be found on the Sparkline Tools Design tab. You can use the Sparkline Colour or Marker Colour commands to choose a colour for the high, low, first, and last values.

Create a Sparkline
Select an empty cell or group of empty cells in which you want to insert one or more Sparklines and on the Insert tab, in the Sparklines group, click the type of Sparkline that you want to create: Line, Column, or Win/Loss.

In the Data box, type the range of the cells, or click and select cells that contain the data on which you want to base the Sparklines.

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## Show and customize axis settings

You can select Date Axis Type (in the Group group, click Axis) to format the shape of the chart in a Sparkline to reflect any irregular time periods in the underlying data. In a line Sparkline, applying the Date Axis type can change the slope of a plotted line and the position of its data points in relation to each other. In a column Sparkline, applying the Data Axis type can change the width of and increase or decrease the distance between the columns, as shown in the following image. In the example shown here, there are two column Sparklines that use data from the same range. The Sparkline with the Trend label uses the General Axis type, and the Sparkline with the Trend (Data Axis Type) label uses the Date Axis type. In each Sparkline, the first two data points are separated by two months, and the second and third are separated by seven months. By applying the Date Axis type, the space between the three columns changes proportionally to reflect the irregular time periods. You can also use these Axis options to set minimum and maximum values for the vertical axis of a Sparkline or Sparkline group. Setting these values explicitly helps you control the scale so that the relationship between values is shown in a more meaningful way. With the Sparkline or Sparkline group selected, in the Group group, click Axis. Under Vertical Axis Minimum Value Options or Vertical Axis Minimum Value Options, click Custom Value. Set minimum or maximum values that you feel will best emphasize the values in the Sparklines. You can increase the height of the row that contains the Sparkline to more dramatically emphasize the difference in data values if some are very small and some are very large. You can also use the Plot Data Right-to-Left option to change the direction in which data is plotted in a Sparkline or Sparkline group.

## Handle empty cells or zero values

You can control how a Sparkline handles empty cells in a range (and thus how the Sparkline is displayed) by using the Hidden and Empty Cell Settings dialog 28

box. This can be found in the Sparkline Tools Design tab and in the Sparkline group, select the Edit Data command and from the drop down box select Hidden and Empty cells. Change settings as necessary.

Pivot tables/charts
Pivot Tables and charts allow you to manipulate the data to compare different data within the table. The layout and comparisons can be set and changed accordingly. Before selecting data to produce the pivot tables make sure there are no gaps in the data. Select the data and on the Insert tab and in the tables group select the Pivot Table command.

Create Pivot table window will appear. The selected cells will appear in the Table/Range box. You can then decide where you will need the table to be placed and select OK.

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This will then enable you to use the Pivot Table Field List that opens on the right hand side of the screen.

## If you want to populate in a different way, just change the sequence.

In order to summarize data by showing Month field first and then other fields. Enable Month field first and then other fields.

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For more filtering options, select on Row Labels drop-down button, you will see different options available to filter down and summarize it in better way.

For creating a chart from a pivot table, go to Insert tab, select Column select an appropriate chart type. In this example we will create a simple 3-D Column chart.

Excel will create chart out of your data. Now resize it for a better view. Chart content can be changed by using the options at the bottom-left of its area.

If we want to view software apps developed only in .NET platform, simply select Platform button, and select .NET from the its options and then Select Ok

Pivot Table and Chart will only show software and month in which .NET platform is used for development.

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## Sort data by multiple groups

Sometimes it is necessary to customise the sort within your worksheet. On the Home Tab in the Editing group, select the Sort and filter command this will give you a drop down list where you will need to select the custom sort command.

This will open the Sort dialogue box. In the Column column select the column you need to sort by first, then required values and the order you need it to be sorted. If you need to add levels to your sort, select the Add level button at the top of the dialogue box and add the different levels as required. 32

If you need to sort by rows, select the options button and change to Sort left to right. At this point you can select for the data to be case sensitive sorted

Slicers
What are slicers? Slicers are easy-to-use filtering components that contain a set of buttons that enable you to quickly filter the data in a PivotTable report, without the need to open drop-down lists to find the items that you want to filter. When you use a regular PivotTable report filter to filter on multiple items, the filter indicates only that multiple items are filtered, and you have to open a drop-down list to find the filtering details. However, a slicer clearly labels the filter that is applied and provides details so that you can easily understand the data that is displayed in the filtered PivotTable report. Slicers are typically associated with the PivotTable in which they are created. However, you can also create stand-alone slicers that are referenced from Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) Cube functions, or that can be associated with any PivotTable at a later time. A slicer typically displays the following elements: 1. A slicer header indicates the category of the items in the slicer. 2. A filtering button that is not selected indicates that the item is not included in the filter. 3. A filtering button that is selected indicates that the item is included in the filter. 4. A Clear Filter button removes the filter by selecting all items in the slicer. 5. A scroll bar enables scrolling when there are more items than are currently visible in the slicer. 6. Border moving and resizing controls allow you to change the size and location of the slicer.

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Using slicers
There are several ways to create slicers to filter your PivotTable data. In an existing PivotTable, you can:

Create a slicer that is associated with the PivotTable. Create a copy of a slicer that is associated with the PivotTable. Use an existing slicer that is associated with another PivotTable. In addition to or instead of creating slicers in an existing PivotTable, you can also create a stand-alone slicer that can be referenced by Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) Cube functions or that you can associate with any PivotTable at a later time. Because each slicer that you create is designed to filter on a specific PivotTable field, it is likely that you will create more than one slicer to filter a PivotTable report. After you create a slicer, it appears on the worksheet alongside the PivotTable, in a layered display if you have more than one slicer. You can move a slicer to another location on the worksheet, and resize it as needed.

To filter the PivotTable data, you simply click one or more of the buttons in the slicer.

## Formatting slicers for a consistent look

To create professional looking reports or simply to match the format of a slicer to the format of the associated PivotTable report, you can apply slicer styles for a consistent look. By applying one of the various predefined styles that are available for slicers, you can closely match the colour theme that is applied to a PivotTable. For a custom look, you can even create your own slicer styles, just as you create custom PivotTable styles.

## Sharing slicers between PivotTables

When you have many different PivotTables in one report, such as a Business Intelligence (BI) report that you are working with, it is likely that you will want to apply the same filter to some or all of those PivotTables. You can share a slicer that you created in one PivotTable with other PivotTables. No need to duplicate the filter for each PivotTable!

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When you share a slicer, you are creating a connection to another PivotTable that contains the slicer that you want to use. Any changes that you make to a shared slicer are immediately reflected in all PivotTables that are connected to that slicer. For example, if you use a Country slicer in PivotTable1 to filter data for a specific country, PivotTable2 that also uses that slicer will display data for the same country. Slicers that are connected to and used in more than one PivotTable are called shared slicers. Slicers that are used in one PivotTable only are called local slicers. A PivotTable can have both local and shared slicers.

## Create a slicer in an existing PivotTable

Click anywhere in the PivotTable report for which you want to create a slicer. This displays the PivotTable Tools. On the Options tab, in the Sort & Filter group, click Insert Slicer.

In the Insert Slicers dialog box, select the check box of the PivotTable fields for which you want to create a slicer and click OK. A slicer is displayed for every field that you selected.

In each slicer, click the items on which you want to filter. To select more than one item, hold down CTRL, and then click the items on which you want to filter.

## Create a standalone slicer

On the Insert tab, in the Filter group, click Slicer.

2. In the Existing Connections dialog box, in the Show box, either click All Connections to display all connections OR click Connections in this Workbook. To display only the recently used list of connections. OR click Connection files on this computer To display only the connections that are available on your computer. 35

To display only the connections that are available from a connection file that is accessed from the network, click Connection files on the Network. If you do not see the connection that you want, you can create a connection. Click Browse for More, and then in the Select Data Source dialog box, click New Source to start the Data Connection Wizard so that you can select the data source that you want to connect to. If you select a connection from the Connection files on the network or Connection files on this computer categories, the connection file is copied into the workbook as a new workbook connection, and is then used as the new connection information. Under Select a Connection, click the connection that you want, and then click Open. Then in the Insert Slicer dialog box, click the check box of the fields for which you want to create a slicer and click OK. A slicer is created for every field that you selected.

Format a slicer
Click the slicer that you want to format, this displays the Slicer Tools, adding an Options tab. On the Options tab, in the Slicer Styles group, click the style that you want.

## Make a slicer available for use in another PivotTable

Click the slicer that you want to share in another PivotTable, this displays the Slicer Tools, adding an Options tab. On the Options tab, in the Slicer group, click PivotTable Connections and in the PivotTable Connections dialog box, select the check box of the PivotTables in which you want the slicer to be available.

## Use a slicer from another PivotTable

Create a connection to the PivotTable that contains the slicer that you want to share by on the Data tab, in the Get External Data group, click Existing Connections

In the Existing Connections dialog box, in the Show box, make sure that All Connections is selected. If you do not
see the connection that you want, you can create a connection by clicking Browse for More, and then in the Select Data Source dialog box, click New Source to start the Data Connection Wizard so that you can select the data source that you want to connect to. Select the connection that you want, and then click Open. In the Import Data dialog box, under Select how you want to view this data in your workbook, click PivotTable Report. Then click anywhere in the PivotTable report for which you want to insert a slicer from another PivotTable. This displays the PivotTable Tools, adding an Options and a Design tab. On the Options tab, in the Sort & Filter group, click the Insert Slicer arrow, and then click Slicer Connections.

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In the Slicer Connections dialog box, select the check box of the slicers that you want to use. Click OK. In each slicer, click the items on which you want to filter. To select more than one item, hold down CTRL, and then click the items that you want to filter. All PivotTables that share the slicer will instantly display the same filtering state.

## Disconnect or delete a slicer

If you no longer need a slicer, you can disconnect it from the PivotTable report, or you can delete it. To disconnect a slicer click anywhere in the PivotTable report for which you want to disconnect a slicer. This displays the PivotTable Tools, adding an Options and a Design tab. On the Options tab, in the Sort & Filter group, click the Insert Slicer arrow, and then click Slicer Connections.

In the Slicer Connections dialog box, clear the check box of any PivotTable fields for which you want to disconnect a slicer. Delete a slicer either click the slicer, and then press delete then rightclick the slicer, and then click Remove <Name of slicer>.

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Show Formulas
If you need to view numerous formulas at once you can select the Ctl and ` (key to the left of 1). You will need to change the size of the column width. To change back to normal view use the same combination of keys. Worksheets can be printed showing the formulas

You can add comments to a worksheet cell to remind users and provide certain instructions, the comment then pops up when the mouse cursor moves over the relevant cell. A cell with a comment has a red triangle in the top right corner.

## How to Add a Comment

Select the cell that you want to add a comment to and on the Review tab, in the Comments group, select New Comment. A new comment is created, and the pointer moves to the comment. An indicator appears in the corner of the cell. In the body of the comment, type the comment text, select outside the comment box and the comment box disappears, but the comment indicator remains. To keep the comment visible, select the cell and in the Comments group, on the Review tab, select Show/Hide Comment or Show All Comments When you sort data in a worksheet, comments are sorted together with the data. However, in PivotTable reports, comments do not move with the cell when you change the layout of the report.

Edit/Format a Comment
Text in comments uses a default font which cannot be changed, but the text in each comment can be formatted. You can also change the shape of a comment; for example, you can use an oval callout instead of a rectangular comment. Select the cell that contains the comment that you want to edit and on the Review tab, in the Comments group, select Edit Comment (if the cell that you select does not have a comment this command will not be available) To change the comment double-click the text in the comment, and then in the comment text box, edit the comment text. To format the text select Edit Comment and highlight the narrative that you want to format and change it using the method for any other text.

## Move or Resize a Comment

Select the comment and resize using the sizing handles on the corners and side and move comment as you would a shape or textbox.

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## Display or hide comments and their indicators

Excel displays an indicator only when a cell contains a comment (red triangle), which can be hidden by selecting Excel Options, Advanced.

## Review all comments in a workbook

On the worksheet, select the first cell that contains a comment that you want to review. To review each comment, on the Review tab, in the Comments group, select Next view comments in sequence or reverse order. or Previous to

Delete a comment
Select the cell that contains the comment that you want to delete and click delete in the Review tab and in the Comments group.

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Cell ranges
Naming areas of the worksheet will enable you to use the defined names as part of functions and as navigation through the worksheet On the Formulas tab and in the Defined names group select the Manage Name command.

Select on New

Type in a suitable name for the area and indicate the scope of the workbook (specific sheets or whole workbook) and comment on the area. Check that the name will refer to the correct area and select ok. All defined names will appear on the Name Manager Dialogue box that are applicable.

A named range can be edited by selecting the relevant range in the Names Manager dialogue box and selecting Edit.

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## This area has been named as Marks.

In the Total Marks cell the function will add up the total of all values in the marks named area. The defined name is used instead of the cell reference D2:D10

Name Box Once you have defined the names, you are able to use them to navigate around large work books. Select on the dropdown arrow on the Name Box and select from the list of named areas. This will navigate you to the area selected.

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Macros
To automate a repetitive task, you can quickly record a macro in Excel. After you create a macro, you can assign it to an object (such as a toolbar button, graphic, or control) so that you can run it by selecting the object.

Record a macro
When you record a macro, the macro recorder records all the steps required to complete the actions that you want your macro to perform. Navigation on the Ribbon is not included in the recorded steps. If the Developer tab is not available, Select the File tab and select Options and select Customize Ribbon. In the Customize Ribbon category, in the Main Tabs list, select the Developer check box, and then select OK.

## To set the security level temporarily to enable all macros

On the Developer tab, in the Code group, select Macro Security. Under Macro Settings, select Enable all macros (not recommended, potentially dangerous code can run), and then select OK. If you do not have the Developer tab available contact the IT Department. To help prevent potentially dangerous code from running, you are recommended to return to any one of the settings that disable all macros after you finish working with macros. On the Developer tab, in the Code group, select Record Macro or select the Record Macro button at the bottom of the screen. In the Macro name box, enter a name for the macro. 42

The first character of the macro name must be a letter. Subsequent characters can be letters, numbers, or underscore characters. Spaces cannot be used in a macro name; an underscore character works well as a word separator. If you use a macro name that is also a cell reference, you may get an error message that the macro name is not valid. In the Description box, type a description of the macro and select OK to start recording. Perform the actions that you want to record and on the Developer tab, in the Code group, select Stop Recording . You can also select Stop Recording on the left side of the status bar.

## Assign a macro to an object, graphic, or control

On a worksheet, right-click the object, graphic, or control to which you want to assign an existing macro, and then select Assign Macro. In the Macro name box, select the macro that you want to assign.

## Assign a macro to the Quick Action Toolbar or to customize the ribbon

The Ribbon or Quick Access Toolbar can be customised in the normal way (See Page 2) and in the Choose Commands From box select Macros. Select the destination in the Customise the ribbon box .

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You can further customise the button in the Quick Action Toolbar by selecting Modify on the Excel Options dialogue box and selecting from the available icons in the Modify Buttons dialogue box.

Delete a macro
To delete the macro you can either, on the Developer tab, in the Code group, select Macros and in the Macros list, select the workbook that contains the macro that you want to delete. OR in the Macro name box, select the name of the macro that you want to delete and select Delete. When saving a workbook that contains a macro change the Save As Type in the Save As dialogue box.

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## To Compare and Merge Workbooks:

Add the Compare and Merge Workbooks command to the Quick Access Toolbar (See page 2), as it is not available on the ribbon. Open a copy of the shared workbook. On the Quick Access Toolbar, select the Compare and Merge Workbooks command. If prompted, allow Excel to save your workbook.

The Select Files to Merge into Current Workbook dialog box will appear. Select another copy of the same shared workbook that you want to merge.

## Selecting files to merge into the current workbook Select OK.

The changes from each copy of the shared workbook will be merged into a single copy. All changes and comments can now be addressed at the same time. Each colour represents changes from a different user, so you can tell at a glance who made the change

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Track changes
You can use track changes to log details about workbook changes every time that you save a workbook. This change history can help you identify any changes that were made to the data in the workbook, and you can then accept or reject those changes. Track changes is especially useful when several users edit a workbook. It is also useful when you submit a workbook to reviewers for comments, and then want to merge the input that you receive into one copy of that workbook, incorporating the changes and comments that you want to keep.

## How track changes works

Change tracking is available only in shared workbooks. In fact, when you turn on track changes, the workbook automatically becomes a shared workbook. Although a shared workbook is typically stored in a location where other users can access it, you can also track changes in a local copy of a shared workbook ie save it to your H drive.. When changes are made in the shared workbook, you can view the change history directly on the worksheet or on a separate, either way, you can instantly review the details of each change. For example, you can see who made the change, what type of change was made, when it was made, what cells were affected, and what data was added or deleted. When you use track changes, you should consider:

Track changes differs from undo and backup, unfortunately, you cannot use the change history to back out of changes but the history worksheet includes a record of all deleted data so that you can copy that data back to the worksheet, you should therefore continue to back up workbooks that have track changes in effect. Some types of changes are not tracked, changes that you make to cell contents are tracked, but other changes, such as formatting changes, are not tracked. Some Microsoft Excel features are unavailable in shared workbooks, and therefore cannot be tracked. See page 47 for list When you turn on track changes, the change history is kept for 30 days to keep the size of the workbook manageable. However, you can increase or decrease the number of days of change history that you want to keep as needed. To keep the change history indefinitely, you can specify a large number of days. You can also make periodic copies of the history information. Any data that is passed the number of days stated will be deleted on closure of the workbook and when you turn off change tracking or stop sharing the workbook, all change history is permanently deleted.

## Ways to use track changes

Onscreen highlighting Excel can outline changed areas in a different colour for each user and display the basic details as a comment when you rest the pointer over each changed cell. Onscreen highlighting is useful when a workbook does not have many changes, or you want to see at a glance what has changed. History tracking Excel can display a separate history worksheet that provides a printable list of change details on which you can filterto find changes of interest. The history worksheet is useful when a workbook has many changes or you want to investigate what occurred in a series of changes. Reviewing of changes Excel can step you through the changes in sequence so that you can decide whether to accept or reject each change. This method is useful when you are evaluating comments from other users.

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## UNTRACKED CHANGES Changed sheet names

ALTERNATIVES Sheet name changes are not highlighted on the sheet tabs, but are tracked in the history worksheet. Changes that are made to a worksheet after it is inserted are tracked, but the insertion itself is tracked only in the history worksheet. None. None. None. To find cells that change due to recalculation, you can use the auditing tools on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group. You can highlight changes as they are made, but the changes appear in the history worksheet only after they are saved.

## Inserted or deleted worksheets

Formatted cells or data Hiding or unhiding of rows or columns Additional or changed comments Cells that change because a formula calculates a new value

Unsaved changes

## Turn on track changes for a workbook

On the Review tab, in the Changes group, click Share Workbook, in the dialogue box on the Editing tab select the Allow changes by more than one user at the same time check box.

Click the Advanced tab and under Track changes, click Keep change history for (defaulted at 30 days) and, in the days box, type the number of days of change history that you want to keep. Click OK and, if you are prompted to save the workbook, click OK to save the workbook.

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## Settings for Track Changes

When you highlight changes as you work, they are marked with a highlighting colour. On the Review tab, in the Changes group, click Track Changes, and then click Highlight Changes. In the Highlight Changes dialog box, select the Track changes while editing check box. Selecting this check box shares the workbook and highlights changes that you or other users make. Under Highlight which changes, select the When check box and then, in the When list, click the option that you want. To specify the users for whom you want to highlight changes, select the Who check box and then, in the Who list, click the option that you want. To specify the worksheet area where you want changes to be highlighted, select the Where check box and then, in the Where box, type the cell reference of the worksheet range. Make sure that the Highlight changes on screen check box is selected. Click OK. If you need the changes highlighted on screen select the check box and if you need the changes listed on a new sheet check that one.

## Stop highlighting changes

On the Review tab, in the Changes group, click Track Changes, and then click Highlight Changes. In the Highlight Changes dialog box, clear the Track changes while editing check box. You can also turn off change tracking to stop and remove change highlighting. For more information, see the section Turn off change tracking for a workbook.

## View tracked changes

To view the changes that have been made since switching track changes on, follow the instructions for highlight changes as you work

## Accept and reject changes

On the Review tab, in the Changes group, click Track Changes, and then click Accept or Reject Changes, if prompted to save the workbook, click OK. Select from the dialogue box which changes to accept or reject by activating the When, Who and When commands accordingly.

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Click OK, and then review the information about each change in the Accept or Reject Changes dialog box, the information includes other changes that are affected by the action that you take for a change. The history worksheet records a rejection with "Undo" or "Result of rejected action" in the Action Type column. If prompted to select a value for a cell, click the value that you want, and then click Accept, this must be completed prior to advancing to the next change. All further changes can be accepted or rejected by selecting Accept All or Reject All.

## View the history worksheet

When setting up your track changes in the dialogue box select the List changes on a new sheet check box and Click OK. In the history worksheet, click the filter arrows next to the column labels to find the information that you want. Saving the workbook hides the history worksheet. To view the history worksheet after saving, you must display it again by selecting the List changes on a new sheet check box in the Highlight Changes dialog box.

Track changing records changes that you make to cell contents, including changes that are caused by moving and copying of data. Row and column insertions and deletions are also included. However, Excel does not keep track of the following types of changes:

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## Turn off change tracking for a workbook

Turning off change tracking deletes the change history. To keep a copy of this information, on the Review tab, in the Changes group, click Track Changes, and then click Highlight Changes. Under Highlight which changes, select the When check box, and All from the check list. Clear the Who and Where check boxes and select the List changes on a new sheet check box, click OK. You can then either Print the History or copy the history to another worksheet.

Worksheet and workbook element protection should not be confused with workbook-level password security. Element protection cannot protect a workbook from users who have malicious intent. For an additional layer of security, you should help protect your whole workbook file by using a password. This allows only authorized users to view or modify data in the workbook. To prevent a user from accidentally or deliberately changing, moving, or deleting important data from a worksheet or workbook, you can protect certain worksheet or workbook elements, with or without a password, you can remove the protection from a worksheet as needed. When you share a workbook with other users, you may want to protect data in specific worksheet or workbook elements to help prevent it from being changed. By default, when you protect a worksheet, all the cells on the worksheet are locked, and users cannot make any changes to a locked cell. However, you can specify which elements users will be able to change when you protect the worksheet. Before you protect a worksheet, you can unlock the ranges that you want users to be able to change or enter data in. You can unlock cells for all users or for specific users. Select the cells you need to remain unlocked when the workbook is protected and on the Home tab, in the Font group, click the Format Cell Font dialog box launcher. On the Protection tab, clear the Locked check box, and then click OK.

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In the Review tab and in the Changes group select Protect Sheet

In the Allow all users of this worksheet to list, select the elements that you want users to be able to change and insert your password and click OK. You will be prompted to confirm your password and click OK.

Once you have protected the sheet/workbook the command changes. To unprotect the worksheet/book, click on the command to unprotect and enter the password when prompted.

## Protect elements in a shared workbook

If the workbook is already shared, and you want to assign a password to protect the sharing, you must unshare the workbook. Firstly have all other users save and close the shared workbook to avoid losing their work. Then open the workbook and select Protect and Share Workbook.

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## Print Screen (Screen Shot)

Click the worksheet that you want to add the screenshot to. On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Screenshot. Either add the whole window by clicking the thumbnail in the Available Windows gallery. To add part of the window, click Screen Clipping, and when the pointer becomes a cross, press and hold the left mouse button to select the area of your screen that you want to capture. If you have multiple windows open, click the window you want to clip from before clicking Screen Clipping. When you click Screen Clipping, the program you are working in is minimized and only the window behind it is available for clipping. The screenshot can be modified by using the Picture Tools tab to edit and enhance the screenshot.

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## General keyboard shortcuts

Use this shortcut Press F1. Press Ctrl+A. box Press F3. Select the file or folder, press F2, Select the file, and then press Alt+Enter. Press Ctrl+Esc. Press Ctrl+Z. Press Ctrl+Y. Press F7. Press Alt+Print Screen paste Ctrl+Alt+Delete. Lock the computer, switch users, log off the computer, change a password, start Task Manager Press the Windows logo key+L. Press Alt+F4. Press Ctrl+Home Press Ctrl+End Lock the computer Quit program Select the first cell in the worksheet Select the last working cell of the worksheet Search for a file or folder Rename a file or folder Find out when the file or folder was created, by whom, and how big it is Display the Start menu Undo an action Redo an action Check the spelling of titles or words in any Office application with the Spelling & Grammar checker Capture a screen shot select paste position and To... Open Help Select all content in a document, window, or text

## Accelerating Microsoft Excel

Use this shortcut Press Ctrl+N. Press Tab, or press the Right Arrow key. Press Shift+Tab, or press the Left Arrow key. Press Enter, or press the Down Arrow key. Press Shift+Enter, or press the Up Arrow key. Press Ctrl+Shift+Down Arrow or Up Arrow. empty cell Arrow or Left Arrow.Move to the last empty or non-empty cell to the right or left Erase data in the current cell Press Alt+Enter. Press HOME. Ctrl+Page Down Insert a return within a cell Return to the beginning of the row Advance to the next worksheet 53 To... Open a new workbook Move left to right, cell by cell Move right to left, cell by cell Move down, cell by cell Move up, cell by cell Move down or up to the last empty or non-

Ctrl+Page Up Press Ctrl+Semicolon (;). Press Ctrl+Shift+Colon (:). Press Alt+Apostrophe (). Press Ctrl+1. Press Ctrl+Shift+Tilde (~). Press Ctrl+Shift+Dollar Sign (\$). Press Ctrl+Shift+Percent (%). Press Ctrl+Shift+Ampersand (&). Press Ctrl+Shift+ underscore (_). Press Ctrl+0 (zero). Press Ctrl+9. Press Ctrl+Shift+opening parenthesis.

Go to the previous worksheet Enter the date Enter the time Find out about the style within the cell Display the Format Cells dialog box Apply the general number format Apply the currency number format Apply the percentage number format Apply a border Remove a border Hide the selected columns Hide the selected rows Unhide hidden rows within a selection

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