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Lower Quartile Definition of Quartiles Quartiles are values that divide a set of data into four equal parts. More about Quartiles A data set has three quartiles: the lower quartile, the median of the data set, and the upper quartile. Median: The median divides a data set into two equal parts. Lower quartile: Median of the lower half of the data. Upper quartile: Median of the upper half of the data. Examples of Quartiles The owner of a super market recorded the number of customers who came into his store each hour in a day. The results were 12, 8, 10, 7, 15, 3, 6, 7, 12, 8, and 9. The ascending order of the data is 3, 6, 7, 7, 8, 8, 9, 10, 12, 12, 15. Know More A0bout How to Calculate the Standard Deviation Math.Tutorvista.com

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The lower quartile is 7, the median is 8, and the upper quartile is 12. When statistically analyzing lists of numbers, it is often necessary to identify key values. These values include the minimum, maximum, median and the lower and upper quartiles. The lower quartile divides the first 25 percent of the data set from the following 75 percent. The method of determining the lower quartile is quite simple and yet fundamental to statistical understanding. Instructions 1 Arrange your number set from smallest to largest. Determine the minimum or smallest number in the set. Note the minimum. 2 Determine the median or the central number in the set. If there is an odd number of numbers, the one in the center is the median. If there is an even number of numbers, take the 2 central numbers, add them together, and divide them by 2 to find the median. Note the median. 3 Add together the minimum and the median. Divide the result by 2. The result is the lower quartile. When I calculated the quartiles and IQR following the textbook, I got 77" (UQ), 71" (LQ) and 6" (IQR). But when I plugged the values into my calculator (a TI-83), it gave the upper quartile as 76", the lower quartile as 71.5", and the IQR as 4.5". I then tried making an Excel spreadsheet and it gave the upper quartile as 75.5", the lower quartile as 71.75", and the IQR is 3.75". Then I went to the computer lab at school and tried using Minitab. That program gave the upper quartile as 76.5", the lower quartile as 71.25", and the IQR as 5.25". If they just disagreed with my calculations, I'd figure that I made a mistake, or there's some sort of rounding going on, since we're told to take the nearest data point and these programs obviously don't. But they don't even agree with each other. They can't all be right! What's going on? Learn More Box Whisker Plot Math.Tutorvista.com

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Types of Bias

Types of Bias One of the basic problems with transistor amplifiers is establishing and maintaining the proper values of quiescent current and voltage in the circuit. This is accomplished by selecting the proper circuit-biasing conditions and ensuring these conditions are maintained despite variations in ambient (surrounding) temperature, which cause changes in amplification and even distortion (an unwanted change in a signal). Thus a need arises for a method to properly bias the transistor amplifier and at the same time stabilize its dc operating point (the no signal values of collector voltage and collector current). As mentioned earlier, various biasing methods can be used to accomplish both of these functions. Although there are numerous biasing methods, only three basic types will be considered. Base-Current Bias (Fixed Bias) The first biasing method, called BASE CURRENT BIAS or sometimes FIXED BIAS, was used in figure 2-12. As you recall, it consisted basically of a resistor (RB) connected between the collector supply voltage and the base. Unfortunately, this simple arrangement is quite thermally unstable

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If the temperature of the transistor rises for any reason (due to a rise in ambient temperature or due to current flow through it), collector current will increase. This increase in current also causes the dc operating point, sometimes called the quiescent or static point, to move away from its desired position (level). This reaction to temperature is undesirable because it affects amplifier gain (the number of times of amplification) and could result in distortion, as you will see later in this discussion. Self-Bias A better method of biasing is obtained by inserting the bias resistor directly between the base and collector, as shown in figure 2-13. By tying the collector to the base in this manner, feedback voltage can be fed from the collector to the base to develop forward bias. This arrangement is called SELF-BIAS. Now, if an increase of temperature causes an increase in collector current, the collector voltage (VC) will fall because of the increase of voltage produced across the load resistor (RL). This drop in VC will be fed back to the base and will result in a decrease in the base current. The decrease in base current will oppose the original increase in collector current and tend to stabilize it. The exact opposite effect is produced when the collector current decreases. Self-bias has two small drawbacks: (1) It is only partially effective and, therefore, is only used where moderate changes in ambient temperature are expected; (2) it reduces amplification since the signal on the collector also affects the base voltage. This is because the collector and base signals for this particular amplifier configuration are 180 degrees out of phase (opposite in polarity) and the part of the collector signal that is fed back to the base cancels some of the input signal

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