You are on page 1of 43


BY RITESH J PATEL (096380319590) Guided by MR.RAJESH RANA Asst.professor

Department of mechanical engineering Parul institute of engineering & technology (DS 2ndshift) (Affiliated to Gujarat technological university) P.O. LIMDA, TA. WAGHODIA, DIST. VADODARA391760. Gujarat, INDIA [2011-2012]

Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift)


This is to certify that MR.RITESH J PATEL. of Diploma 5th Semester in mechanical engineering, Registration No.096380319590 has completed

satisfactorily his project-I entitled ” for the term 201112, He has under gone training at NHB BALL & ROLLER LTD. WORKS From 19/6/11 to 9/7/11


Sign Of Guide

Sign of HOD

Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift)






-----------------------------------INDUSTRY--------------------------NAME ADDRESS CONTACT NO NAME OF INDUSTRIAL ESTATE COMPANY LOGO NHB Ball & Roller Ltd. Andhkeshwar Road, Amalsad – 396310, Dist: Navsari, Gujarat 02634-272255/56 AMALSAD

Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift)




PROBLEM SUMMARY  The problem summery may be a concise description of the industry related technical issues which can state the problem, which the student has found out while visiting the industry. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM  The problem statement has to be well defined in 3-5 pages with detailed facts and figures as and when possible. The description can have figures/inputs from floor persons from industries/ parameters related to specific domain of technology. EXPECTED OUTCOME  The students while interacting with industry persons have to note down the expected out comes (in 1-2 page) from that particular industry due to the proposed innovation either in product or processes. This will gauge the industrial needs and students progress while working on the final year project. OTHER DESCRIPTION (IF ANY)  The students are advised to do some literature research related to the corresponding problem/innovation both before and after visiting the industry/MSME during summer vacation. They have to suggest some suggestions about the issues based on literature research of corresponding problems/projects in feasible cases. The format of documentation may be slightly modified as per the need of specific branch. For example in the documentation of any industrial waste, one may have to state. (Composition of waste, type of waste (Solid, Liquid, Gas, Semi-Solid), quantity of waste etc. The problem/project reports are scouted from Industries have to be submitted to Departmental HODs of corresponding GTU College in softcopy. GTU will evaluate them in August 2011 as a part of Curriculum.

Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift)

 IDENTIFICATION Name:Enrollment no. [2nd shift] Project name:.“Ovality observed in ball bearing” Study center:Parul Institute of Engineering & Technology.:Course:Branch:Semester:- Ritesh J Patel 096380319590 Diploma Engineering Mechanical Engineering 5th SEM. vadodara [Gujarat] Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) .

Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) .  It has been a very good experience for me to prepare this minor project on “ovality observed in ball bearing” I would like to thank my guide RAJESH RANA. who has help us a lot. without whose kind support this project would have been almost impossible.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  Gratitude is an attitude without which any person is incomplete. Hence. I take this space to thank all who involved directly or indirectly in this project. I thank my sir for having given the information about various resources.

including but not limited to public works construction and related…  A project may be a group of related reclamation activities with a common objective within a political subdivision of a state or within a logical.. and that is any of the following: An activity directly undertaken by any public agency. Unique means that the project’s end result is different than the results of other functions of the organization…  “Project” means the whole of an action which has a potential for resulting in a physical change in the environment. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) .WHAT IS PROJECT?  A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique result or change. Temporary means that the project has an end date. directly or ultimately. geographically defined area….

17  True Brinelling……………18  False Brinelling…………..19          Normal Fatigue Failure...15  Excessive Loads…………16  Overheating……………….25 Loose Fits…………………26 Tight Fits………………….24 Misalignment…………….20 Reverse Loading…………21 Contamination……………22 Lubricant Failure…………23 Corrosion…………………..28 Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) ..INDEX    Company profile………………09 Ovality Summary………………………11 Bearing Failure: Causes and Cures……………………………….27 Seizure……………….

....41  Conclusion……………………. Ovality measurement systems…………………26  Laser End Measurement System…………………………….33  AccuScan Measurement System………………………………36  Solution……………………….30  OmniPro Vision Systems.43 Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) .

US$2.70% US$1 Million .200 People Trade & Market North America Main Markets: South America Eastern Europe Western Europe Main Customers: SKF.meters): Factory Location: QA/QC: Number of Production Lines: Number of R&D Staff: Number of QC Staff: 5.000 square meters GUJARAT In House Above 10 5 .Company Profile Company logo: Basic Information Company Name: Business Type: Product/Service (We Sell): Product/Service (We Buy): Brands: Number of Employees: NHB BALL AND ROLLER LTD Manufacturer Steel Ball Wire NHB 101 .5 Million Export Percentage: Total Annual Purchase Volume: 61% .FAG Total Annual Sales Volume: US$1 Million .US$2.000-10.10 People Management Certification: ISO/TS 16949 Contract Manufacturing: OEM Service Offered Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) .10 People 5 .5 Million Factory Information Factory Size (Sq.

The domestic automobile sales revived. the automobile industry has come back in the top gear. albeit at a slower pace. The prospects of the bearing industry are directly linked to the performance of automotive and industrial sector. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . Automotive Industry After the road-block of global economic recession.Industry Review The bearing industry comprises mainly ball and roller bearings. Exports too have recovered. registering stupendous growth in 2009-10.

Of all the machines in the process the grinder has the largest impact on ovality. Ovality is a term to used to measure "out of roundness".OVALITY SUMMARYOvality observed in ball bearing. Ovality designates how close to a perfect circle a bar is at the point being measured. The grinder fine tunes the product but the turning machine has to get it right first. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . The pre-straightening machine is also important as the straighter the bar going into the turner the more consistent the roundness and finish coming out.

the more the reduction. The rougher the grit. There is an obvious trade of between quality and production costs in both the turning machine and the grinder. the bar moves horizontally thru the turner while carbide cutting tools rotate around the bar on a spindle peeling the bar which leaves a spiral mark which in the industry are called barber poles. Two wraps per inch gives a rounder better finished bar than one wrap. A commodity bar will have the least number of wraps possible whereas. a customengineered bar will have the optimum number of wraps.In the peeling process. All things being equal the more the passes in the grinder the better the finish and the better the ovality. The amount of reduction in a grinder is a function of the grit in the grinding wheel. The tools in the peeler. When there is no overlap the bar receives one wrap or one peel per inch of length. but the rougher the finish. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . peels the rusty surface from the bar similar to the way a knife is used to peel an apple. The more the wraps the better the quality of the bar produced. If the grinder takes one pass to remove a certain amount of material the finish will not be as good as if it takes two passes. One has to decrease the thru put speed to get more wraps which means the cost of production increases.

 Bearing Failure: Causes and Cures Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) .

• The solution is to reduce the load or redesign using a bearing with greater capacity. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . Excessive Loads • Excessive loads usually cause premature fatigue. brinelling and improper preloading can also bring about early fatigue failure. Tight fits.

and cages from gold to blue. • Temperature in excess of 400F can anneal the ring and ball materials. balls. Overheating • Symptoms are discoloration of the rings. balls and rings will deform. The temperature rise can also degrade or destroy lubricant. • In extreme cases. • The resulting loss in hardness reduces the bearing capacity causing early failure. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) .

Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . • Brinell marks show as indentations in the raceways which increase bearing vibration (noise). • Any static overload or severe impact can cause brinelling. True Brinelling • Brinelling occurs when loads exceed the elastic limit of the ring material.

• Correct by isolating bearings from external vibration.elliptical wear marks in an axial direction at each ball position with a bright finish and sharp demarcation. often surrounded by a ring of brown debris . and using greases containing antiwear additives.indicates excessive external vibration. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . False Brinelling • False brinelling .

Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) .is a fracture of the running surfaces and subsequent removal of small discrete particles of material. Normal Fatigue Failure • Fatigue failure . or balls. outer ring. • The remedy is to replace the bearing or consider redesigning to use a bearing having a greater calculated fatigue life.usually referred to as spalling . It will always be accompanied by a marked increase in vibration. • This type of failure is progressive and once initiated will spread as a result of further operation. • Spalling can occur on the inner ring.

• The result is excessive stress and an increase in temperature. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . • Corrective action is to simply install the bearing correctly. • When loaded in the opposite direction. Reverse Loading • Angular contact bearings are designed to accept an axial load in one direction only. followed by increased vibration and early failure. the elliptical contact area on the outer ring is truncated by the low shoulder on that side of the outer ring.

Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . tools. • Contamination symptoms are denting of the bearing raceways and balls resulting in high vibration and wear. • Keep grinding operations away from bearing assembly areas and keep bearings in their original packaging until you are ready to install them. • Clean work areas. Contamination • Contamination is one of the leading causes of bearing failure. fixtures. and hands help reduce contamination failures.

 Lubricant Failure • Discolored (blue/brown) ball tracks and balls are symptoms of lubricant failure. and balls. • Failures are typically caused by restricted lubricant flow or excessive temperatures that degrade the lubricant’s properties. Excessive wear of balls. resulting in overheating and subsequent catastrophic failure. bearing rings. and between the cage. • Ball bearings depend on the continuous presence of a very thin -millionths of an inch . of lubricant between balls and races. and cages will follow. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) .

corrosion can initiate early fatigue failures. or bands of ball bearings are symptoms of corrosion. Corrosion • Red/brown areas on balls. • Correct by diverting corrosive fluids away from bearing areas and use integrally sealed bearings whenever possible. cages. race-way. • In extreme cases. • This condition results from exposing bearings to corrosive fluids or a corrosive atmosphere. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) .

and using precision grade locknuts./in you can expect an abnormal temperature rise in the bearing and/or housing and heavy wear in the cage ball-pockets. • If misalignment exceeds 0.001 in. Misalignment • Misalignment can be detected on the raceway of the nonrotating ring by a ball wear path that is not parallel to the raceways edges. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . • Appropriate corrective action includes: inspecting shafts and housings for runout of shoulders and bearing seats. use of single point-turned or ground threads on non hardened shafts and ground threads only on hardened shafts.

If the relative motion between mating parts is slight but continuous. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . Loose Fits • Loose fits can cause relative motion between mating parts. fretting occurs. If the looseness is enough to allow considerable movement of the inner or outer ring. leaving a distinctive brown color. the mounting surfaces will wear and heat. This material is abrasive and will aggravate the looseness. causing noise and runout problems. • Fretting is the generation of fine metal particles which oxidize.

the balls will become excessively loaded. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . • Where interference fits exceed the radial clearance at operating temperature. • Continued operation can lead to rapid wear and fatigue. Tight Fits • A heavy ball wear path in the bottom of the raceway around the entire circumference of the inner ring and outer ring indicates a tight fit. This will result in a rapid temperature rise accompanied by high torque. • Corrective action includes a decrease in total interference.

 Seizure Meaning= to bind or fasten together Results: Discoloration. and welding of raceway surface. rolling contact surfaces Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) .

Excessive load (or pre-load). Installation error.  Solutions     Improper dissipation of heat from bearing Prevention of misalignment Improvement in clearance Selection of suitable lubricant and determination of optimum lubricant feeding rate Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . Smaller Clearance. Causes: Poor heat dissipation     Poor lubrication or improper lubrication.

 Ovality measurement systems  Laser End Measurement System  OmniPro Vision Systems  AccuScan Measurement System Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) .

wall thickness. Laser End Measurement System Laser End Measurement System. a full geometrical assessment of pipe ends enables a more efficient alignment prior to welding. For line pipe subject to high dynamic loads. Market Situation Increasingly. external and internal ovality and eccentricity. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . the offshore industry demands tighter dimensional tolerances on pipe ends in order to reduce installation cycle time. such as Steel Catenary Risers and fatigue sensitive flowlines. which measures external and internal diameters.

Process Laser End Measurement System utilizes laser optical displacement sensors. • Additional services that can be offered to simplify welding operations are: . evaluating the best fit that can be achieved with pipes accurately aligned on ID axis. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . which measure the distance between the sensor’s measuring head and the surface of the tube with great accuracy. ID and WT max.Identification of pipes with families of tolerances .Identification of pipes sequences and the rotation angles for all the pipes that comply with the max Hi/Lo required. Applications • Replaces manual inspection and provides 100% automated process control. • Provides information about each pipe end (OD. The sequences are calculated by Tenaris Best Match software using Laser End Measurement System data. average and min).

• Inside diameter larger than 110 mm. based on customer requirements. • Performs the inspection offline/online so that the information is available as soon as the material is ready for shipment.000 measurements). logistics and costs. reducing time. • Sorts information by families or best sequence for welding. • Reduces the chance for human error.000 measurements per turn. • Takes up to 1.Advantages • Offers the capability to record 100% of the data. Capabilities • Outside Diameter Range from 5 1/2” to 16”. which can be customized and saved on a CD. • Provides a full dimensional scan of pipe ends with very detailed information (up to 1. • Data output tailored to customer requirements and recorded on CD. If requested. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . • Measures in a section whose position can be set up to 120 mm from the pipe end. additional measurements can be agreed.

 OmniPro Vision Systems Inspection system for ovality measurement Cross section profile measurement by light section methods Over 1000 profile measuring points Continuous inline measurement and product roundness control Different gauge heads depending on accuracy demands Reject reduction by process optimization Fast integration in the production process Advantages Complete contour image Trend display No abrasive wear Maintenance free Easy to calibrate Fast and easy integration in production lines Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) .

Data for reliable production quality adjustment Product quality optimization Results ovality measurement Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) .

minimum. ovality etc.Application range Cable. tubes and inner tubes Features Contactless roundness measurement Gauge heads with variable resolution Display of all relevant dimensions. Acceptable tolerance monitoring and alarm function Measurement data logging for continuous process quality documentation Seamless PC-integration in an available Windows network Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . maximum and average radius/Diameter. e.g. wire and bearings Round steel bars and other round profiles Pipes.

Using laser scanning technology. AccuScan Measurement System AccuScan systems from Beta LaserMike provide online precision measurements of the diameter and ovality of cables. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . AccuScan systems are able to perform diameter measurements in an intelligent gauge head during production and communicate those measurements to a host system or controller.

Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . DeviceNet. Increase up-time and reduce maintenance cost with built-in air purge system that keeps lenses free of dust and debris.The AccuScan Advantage Increase measurement accuracy with uniquely designed and crafted optics. Increase durability with rugged construction sealed to IP 65 (NEMA 4) standards. Increase measurement repeatability with intelligent Digital Signal Processor (DSP). Flexible communication integration with RS232. and Profibus protocol support.

Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) .

AccuScan gauges employ this laser scanning measurement principle. Laser Scanning Measurement Principle In 1972. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . the founders of Beta LaserMike introduced the world’s first laser scanning micrometer (the “LaserMike”). which uses a low-power helium-neon laser that is scanned at high speed through a measurement window and across the cable.

The voltage drops when the light is blocked by the cable and rises again when the light reaches the photocell. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . the light hits the photocell and the voltage rises. The change in time ( t) that the light is blocked by the cable is proportional to the cable’s outside diameter.When the laser first scans across to the receiver.

# Reduce requirement for use of special low trailers. Supply standard coil lengths at smaller dimensions # Reduce transport costs by increasing the number of coils per truck. minimising coil failure during storage and risk of coil rejection by customer.SOLUTION  Three ways to benefit from use of Low Ovality Technology 1. # Improves coil stability. # Enables easier jointing and improves joint integrity. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . 2. Reduce ovality of coiled pipe (by up to 60%) # Eliminates need for re-rounding on site.

Bars are randomly in-line tested for straightness as they exit the #2 post straightener.Quality Bar mandates the following qualitycontrol steps in its manufacturing process: 1. Bars are continually monitored via a digital readout for ovality during grinding. Incoming hot rolled raw bundles are inspected for split ends and serious surface defects. 7. 100% of the TG&P bars are inspected after grinding. 4. 2. Bars are randomly tested for ovality as they exit the turner. Bars throughout the process are randomly tested off line for straightness. 5. 8. 3. Every bundle of TGP bars is tested for finish and ovality by the packer before packaging and their results are saved with the order. 6. Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . 9. Every bundle of TP bars is tested for finish and ovality before packaging with the test results being saved with the order. Bars are visually inspected when exiting the # 1 prestraightener.

– Needs crack propagation theory (-ies) Parul institute of engineering and technology (DS 2nd shift) . Bearing Condition Monitoring – Detect crack size. 2.45 mm2 (0. – Few bearings breakdown earlier than their life. – Unnecessary replacement of few perfectly good condition bearings.Conclusion Bearing Maintenance 1.01 in2). Statistical Method (bearing life estimation) – Probabilistic rolling contact fatigue. – Warns if crack area > 6.