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1.2. Investigate the relationship between velocity and acceleration. 1.3. Verify the Newton Second Law.

2. APPARATUS / EQUIPMENT 2.1. LS-12083 Linear motion apparatus 2.2. Carriage 2.3. Brass weight and Hanger.

3. SAFETY AND HEALTH 3.1. Do not touch the lens photoelectric sensor. 3.2. Do not over turn the pulley. 3.3. Do not try to adjust the meter, it have been calibrate.

4. THEORY Second law : A body of mass m subject to a net force F undergoes an acceleration a that has the same direction as the force and a magnitude that is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass, i.e., F = ma. Alternatively, the total force applied on a body is equal to the time derivative of linear momentum of the body.

The second law states the net force on a particle is equal to the time rate of change of its linear momentum p in an inertial reference frame:

F=

where, since the law is valid only for constant-mass system, the mass can be taken outside the differentiation operator by the constant factor rule in differentiation. Thus,

F =m

= ma

where F is the net force applied, m is the mass of the body, and a is the bodys acceleration. Thus, the net force applied to a body produces a proportional acceleration.

Any mass that is gained or lost by the system will cause a change in momentum that is not the result of an external force. A different equation is necessary for variable-mass systems.

Velocity-Time

The relation between velocity and time is a simple one during constantly accelerated, straight-line motion. Constant acceleration implies a uniform rate of change in the velocity. The longer the acceleration, the greater the change in velocity. If after a time velocity increases by a certain amount, after twice that time it should increase by twice that amount. Change in velocity is directly proportional to time when acceleration is constant. If an object already started with a certain velocity, then its new velocity would be the old velocity plus this change. This is the easiest of three equation to derive formally. Start from the definition of acceleration, expand the v term, and solve for v as a function of.

v = vo + a

Since acceleration is also the first derivative of velocity with respect to time, this equation can also be derived using calculus. Just reverse the action of the definition. Instead of differentiating velocity to find acceleration, integrate acceleration to find velocity. Since acceleration is assumed constant, this is quite easy.

a= dv = adt =

v vo = a t v = vo + a t

5. PROCEDURES 5.1. The string was pulled passed over the pulley from the carriage. 5.2. A ring come at the end of the string, then the weight hanger was placed on the ring. 5.3. The weight hanger was placed with a weight (0.2N) 5.4. A weight of 0.2N/0.5N is placed if the carriage doesnt slide or move. 5.5. The process of adding 0.2N/0.5N weight was repeated to slide the specimen along the guide way. Notes are taken for those weight + hanger as F. 5.6. The velocity was taken as the carriage was moving (shown on the speed meter). 5.7. Adding weight was repeated to get different values of F.

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