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1. LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of this experiment , the student should be able to : 1.1. Understanding of Linear Motion Theory. 1.2.

Investigate the relationship between velocity and acceleration. 1.3. Verify the Newton Second Law.

2. APPARATUS / EQUIPMENT 2.1. LS-12083 Linear motion apparatus 2.2. Carriage 2.3. Brass weight and Hanger.

3. SAFETY AND HEALTH 3.1. Do not touch the lens photoelectric sensor. 3.2. Do not over turn the pulley. 3.3. Do not try to adjust the meter, it have been calibrate.

4. THEORY Second law : A body of mass m subject to a net force F undergoes an acceleration a that has the same direction as the force and a magnitude that is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass, i.e., F = ma. Alternatively, the total force applied on a body is equal to the time derivative of linear momentum of the body.

The second law states the net force on a particle is equal to the time rate of change of its linear momentum p in an inertial reference frame:

F=

=

and solve for v as a function of. Velocity-Time The relation between velocity and time is a simple one during constantly accelerated. If after a time velocity increases by a certain amount. expand the ∆ v term. If an object already started with a certain velocity. the greater the change in velocity. Thus. ã= = v = vo + a . Thus. F =m = ma where F is the net force applied. and a is the body’s acceleration. Constant acceleration implies a uniform rate of change in the velocity. then its new velocity would be the old velocity plus this change. straight-line motion. Start from the definition of acceleration. Change in velocity is directly proportional to time when acceleration is constant. the mass can be taken outside the differentiation operator by the constant factor rule in differentiation. A different equation is necessary for variable-mass systems. the net force applied to a body produces a proportional acceleration. This is the easiest of three equation to derive formally. m is the mass of the body. Any mass that is gained or lost by the system will cause a change in momentum that is not the result of an external force. after twice that time it should increase by twice that amount. The longer the acceleration.where. since the law is valid only for constant-mass system.

5. A weight of 0.2N/0. this equation can also be derived using calculus. a= dv = adt ∫ =∫ v – vo = a∆ t v = vo + a∆ t 5. PROCEDURES 5.5. integrate acceleration to find velocity. then the weight hanger was placed on the ring.Since acceleration is also the first derivative of velocity with respect to time. 5.2N/0. A ring come at the end of the string. this is quite easy. The process of adding 0.2N) 5. The string was pulled passed over the pulley from the carriage. .4.7. Just reverse the action of the definition. The velocity was taken as the carriage was moving (shown on the speed meter). 5. Adding weight was repeated to get different values of F. Since acceleration is assumed constant. 5. 5. Instead of differentiating velocity to find acceleration. Notes are taken for those weight + hanger as F.2.5N is placed if the carriage doesn’t slide or move.3.1.6.5N weight was repeated to slide the specimen along the guide way. The weight hanger was placed with a weight (0.