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5 Dimensions of Brand Identity

means that, as a complex perceptual and conceptual construct, the brand evokes an internal neural representation in the minds of consumers, leaving behind certain brand impressions.

This refers to the emotional relationship a consumer should develop with a brand.Heart share is less a matter of a product’s functional utility and more a matter of its symbolic attributes. The buyer of a Ferrari, for instance, will not develop an affection for the car based purely on functional attributes, but rather as a result of the values associated with the brand and the brand environment it operates in.

Brand identity must trigger a buying intention share in consumers. After all, despite the importance of a brand’s mind and heart share, it only makes sense for a supplier to invest in brand identity if consumers will also want to buy the brand.

Brand identity contributes to self share, which means that the brand functions as a manifestation of the self, a tangible expression of self-image within the social environment. In this context, brands serve self-expression and self-design purposes, differentiating the individual within the social group. Brands can easily serve similar ends in the realm of business-to-business, where they bolster self-image in terms of a company and its functions.

Here, the brand shares in the existential search for meaning conducted by a consumer in a world enlightened to the point of meaning-lessness and takes on a virtually religious character. This aspect sheds light on the cultural-sociological proposition that brand management is worshiping the customer. Brands allow consumers to achieve social position or status, to partake of cultural expression, to create mythology and shape meaning, and as a result, to weave themselves into the social and metaphysical fabric of the world. In this context, a loyal customer is a member of a community and an individual loyal to that community not just a customer who makes repeat purchases. A brand is a tool for building a sense of community and belonging, for building the community itself.

Types of Co-branding Co-branding is of two types: Ingredient co-branding and Composite co-branding. such as . This card is beneficial to customers who can avail benefits at specific outlets called MTV Citibank club. The ingredient/constituent brand is subordinate to the primary brand.risk-sharing. If the customers associate any adverse experience with a constituent brand. Example of co-branding . then also composite branding may fail. better product image by association with another renowned brand. The brands which are ingredients are usually the company’s biggest buyers or present suppliers. Co-branding may affect partner brands in adverse manner. The overall synchronization between the brand pair and the new product has to be kept in mind.What is Co-branding Co branding is the utilization of two or more brands to name a new product. greater customer trust on the product. superior promotions. Co-branding may fail when the two products have different market and are entirely different. more access to distribution channel and greater profits. Ingredient co-branding implies using a renowned brand as an element in the production of another renowned brand. But co-branding is not free from limitations. It should either be a major brand or should be protected by a patent. The ingredient brand should be unique. The success of composite branding depends upon the favourability of the ingredient brands and also upon the extent on complementarities between them.Citibank co-branded with MTV to launch a co-branded debit card. technological benefits. then it may damage the total brand equity.Dell computers has co-branding strategy with Intel processors. This deals with creation of brand equity for materials and parts that are contained within other products. wide scope due to joint advertising. more sales income. and greater access to new sources of finance. For instance . The seller of ingredient brand enjoys long-term customer relations. The ingredient brands help each other to achieve their aims. Ingredient co-branding leads to better quality products. Advantages and Disadvantages of Co-branding Co-branding has various advantages. Composite co-branding refers to use of two renowned brand names in a way that they can collectively offer a distinct product/ service that could not be possible individually. If there is difference in visions and missions of the two companies. The brand manufacture can benefit by having a competitive advantage and the retailer can benefit by enjoying a promotional help from ingredient brand. generation of royalty income. .

It sets the brand attitude.e. Hewlett Packard brand represents accomplishment. When brand image or brand identity is expressed in terms of human traits. in sense that. A brand is expressed either as a personality who embodies these personality traits (For instance . while brand image denote the tangible (physical and functional) benefits and attributes of a brand. Brand personality develops brand equity. For instance . Brand personality differentiates among brands specifically when they are alike in many attributes. Brand personality is the result of all the consumer’s experiences with the brand.Sony versus Panasonic. i. gender or class and psychographic features. Brand personality must be differentiated from brand image. This will influence consumers’ purchase decision and also create brand loyalty. Brand personality indicates the kind of relationship a customer has with the brand. acceptability and optimism towards the brand. Trustworthy celebrity ensures immediate awareness. brand personality is that aspect of comprehensive brand which generates it’s emotional character and associations in consumers’ mind. Brand personality and celebrity should supplement each other. Infosys represents uniqueness. It means assigning human personality traits/characteristics to a brand so as to achieve differentiation. If brand image is comprehensive brand according to consumers’ opinion. . competency and influence). Personality traits are what the brand exists for. Brand personality not only includes the personality features/characteristics.Brand personality is the way a brand speaks and behaves. brand personality indicates emotional associations of the brand. Brand personality is used to make the brand strategy lively. John Abraham and Castrol) or distinct personality traits (For instance . It is unique and long lasting. feminist and optimist. For instance . but also the demographic features like age. packaging. etc. It helps in gaining thorough knowledge of customers feelings about the brand.Hampstead. These characteristics signify brand behaviour through both individuals representing the brand (i.Shahrukh Khan and Airtel. and intellectualism. to implement brand strategy. It is a means by which a customer communicates his own identity.Bollywood actress Priyanka Chopra is brand ambassador for J. For instance . it’s employees) as well as through advertising.Allen Solley brand speaks the personality and makes the individual who wears it stand apart from the crowd. international line of premium shirts.e. Brand personality is nothing but personification of brand.Dove as honest. value. It is a key input into the look and feel of any communication or marketing activity by the brand. it is called brand personality.

the brand loyal consumer will stick to his brand. Similarly in Finland. less marketing and advertising costs. The consumers remain loyal to a specific brand as long as it is available.friendly menu system used by Nokia phones. Brand loyalty is always developed post purchase. price or quality. provide customer satisfaction. Brand loyalty is the extent to which a consumer constantly buys the same brand within a product category. Brand loyal customers remain committed to the brand. Also. and they will minutely consider any other alternative brand as a replacement. It also restrains new competitors in the market. Brand loyalty exists when the consumer feels that the brand consists of right product characteristics and quality at right price. and best pricing. commitment. Examples of brand loyalty can be seen in US where true Apple customers have the brand's logo tattooed onto their bodies. continuous improvement. an organization should know their niche market. They do not buy from other suppliers within the product category. repetitive buying. wide distribution network. etc. bring constant innovation in their product and offer schemes on their product so as to ensure that customers repeatedly purchase the product. brand trust. target them. This is because the brand loyal customers are less reluctant to shift to other brands. price sensitivity. respond less to price changes and self. As brand loyalty increases. support their product. customer satisfaction. are willing to pay higher price for that brand. It is measured through methods like word of mouth publicity. ensuring quality products. To develop brand loyalty. Greater loyalty levels lead to less marketing expenditure because the brand loyal customers promote the brand positively. etc. customers will respond less to competitive moves and actions. Nokia customers remained loyal to Nokia because they admired the design of the handsets or because of user. it acts as a means of launching and introducing more products that are targeted at same customers at less expenditure. Brand loyal consumers are the foundation of an organization. Brand loyalty is a key component of brand equity. A company having brand loyal customers will have greater sales. Even if the other brands are available at cheaper price or superior quality. Brand loyalty can be developed through various measures such as quick service.promote the brand as they perceive that their brand have unique value which is not provided by other competitive brands. . ensure easy access of their product. and will promote their brand always. Brand loyalty can be defined as relative possibility of customer shifting to another brand in case there is a change in product’s features. When consumers are brand loyal they love “you” for being “you”.Brand Loyalty is a scenario where the consumer fears purchasing and consuming product from another brand which he does not trust.

Introduction stage of PLC The need for immediate profit is not a pressure. Sales grow at a decreasing rate and then stabilise. Advertising differentiates the product. Limited numbers of product are available in few channels of distribution. The product is promoted to create awareness. Maturity stage of PLC Those products that survive the earlier stages tend to spend longest in this phase. Decline stage of PLC At this point there is a downturn in the market. Defensive advertising or for revitalization. There is intense price-cutting and many more products are withdrawn from the market. If the product has no or few competitors. . Advertising puts price ahead of the competition. Promotion becomes more widespread and use a greater variety of media. For example more innovative products areintroduced or consumer tastes have changed. Profits can be improved by reducing marketing spend and cost cutting. Price wars and intense competition occur. a skimming price strategy is employed. Market share tends to stabilise. Products become more profitable and companies form alliances. Advertising spend is high and focuses upon building brand. Producers attempt to differentiate products and brands are key to this. At this point the market reaches saturation. joint ventures and take each other over. Producers begin to leave the market due to poor margins. Advertising establishes participation with the marketplace. Print ad of a Printer giving details about its specifications Growth stage of PLC Competitors are attracted into the market with very similar offerings.

The screeners should ask several questions:       Will the customer in the target market benefit from the product? What is the size and growth forecasts of the market segment/target market? What is the current or expected competitive pressure for the product idea? What are the industry sales and market trends the product idea is based on? Is it technically feasible to manufacture the product? Will the product be profitable when manufactured and delivered to the customer at the target price? 3. Concept Development and Testing  Develop the marketing and engineering details   Investigate intellectual property issues and search patent data bases Who is the target market and who is the decision maker in the purchasing process? What product features must the product incorporate? What benefits will the product provide? How will consumers react to the product? How will the product be produced most cost effectively? Prove feasibility through virtual computer aided rendering. employees. Idea Screening   The object is to eliminate unsound concepts prior to devoting resources to them. company's R&D department. focus groups. The ideas use to generate in many forms and their generating places are also various. or Ethnographic discovery methods (searching for user patterns and habits) may also be used to get an insight into new product lines or product features. competitors. salespeople. Market and consumer trends.  Idea Generation or Brainstorming of new product. Out of these ideas many ideas are being implemented.1. and rapid prototyping What will it cost to produce it?       . Idea Generation is often called the "fuzzy front end" of the NPD process  Ideas for new products can be obtained from basic research using a SWOT analysis (Strengths. service. Weaknesses. trade shows. corporate spies. or store concepts idea generation techniques can begin when you have done your OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS to support your ideas in the Idea Screening Phase (shown in the next development step). 2.  Lots of ideas are being generated about the new product. Opportunities & Threats). Many reasons are responsible for generation of an idea.

 Testing the Concept by asking a sample of prospective customers what they think of the idea. Beta Testing and Market Testing      6. New Product Pricing     . Commercialization (often considered post-NPD)     8. value. 4.what-if planning Launch the product Produce and place advertisements and other promotions Fill the distribution pipeline with product Critical path analysis is most useful at this stage Impact of new product on the entire product portfolio Value Analysis (internal & external) Competition and alternative competitive technologies Differing value segments (price. Business Analysis   Estimate likely selling price based upon competition and customer feedback Estimate sales volume based upon size of market and such tools as the FourtWoodlock equation Estimate profitability and break-even point Produce a physical prototype or mock-up Test the product (and its packaging) in typical usage situations Conduct focus group customer interviews or introduce at trade show Make adjustments where necessary Produce an initial run of the product and sell it in a test market area to determine customer acceptance  5. Technical Implementation             New program initiation Finalize Quality management system Resource estimation Requirement publication Publish technical communications such as data sheets Engineering operations planning Department scheduling Supplier collaboration Logistics plan Resource plan publication Program review and monitoring Contingencies . Usually via Choice Modelling. and need) 7.

It can be derived from the object attributes. Hero Cycles Ltd. or the characteristics of the product class. application. economy or reliability etc. Why? Basically because of perception. some on power. competition.Quality Approach or Positioning by Price-Quality – Lets take an example and understand this approach just suppose you have to go and buy a pair ofjeans. most toothpaste insists on ‘freshness’ and ‘cavity fighter’ as the product characteristics. You would have seen this in the case of toothpaste market. as soon as you enter in the shop you will find different price rage jeans in the showroom say price ranging from 350 rupees to 2000 rupees. looks and others stress on their durability. As soon as look at the jeans of 350 Rupees you say that it is not good in quality. emphasizing durability and style for its cycle. positions first. and profit Positioning strategies can be conceived and developed in a variety of ways. At time even you would have noticed that a product is positioned along two or more product characteristics at the same time. For example if I say Imported items it basically tell or illustrate a variety of product characteristics such as durability.  Product Costs (fixed & variable) Forecast of unit volumes. There are seven approaches to positioning strategies: (1) Using Product characteristics or Customer Benefits as a positioningstrategy This strategy basically focuses upon the characteristics of the product or customer benefits. as it is frustrating to have some good characteristics that are not communicated. It is always tempting to try to position along several product characteristics. as most of us perceive that if a product is expensive will be a . revenue. All these attributes represent a different approach in developing positioning strategies. (2) Pricing as a positioning strategy . even though all of them have the common objective of projecting a favorable image in the minds of the consumers or audience. Lets take an example of motorbikes some are emphasizing on fuel economy. the types of consumers involved.

If you are introducing new uses of the product that will automatically expand the brand’s market. Lets not forget that Johnson and Johnson repositioned its shampoo from one used for babies to one used by people who wash their hair frequently and therefore need a mild people who wash their hair frequently and therefore need a mild shampoo. partly to cover higher costs and partly to let the consumers believe that the product is. features or performance. Basically this type of positioning-by-use represents a second or third position for the brand. freeze dried coffee needed to positions itself with respect to regular and instant coffee and similarly in case of dried milk makers came out with instant breakfast positioned as a breakfast substitute and virtually identical product positioned as a dietary meal substitute. (6) Positioning strategy based on Cultural Symbols . They charge more. (3) Positioning strategy based on Use or Application – Lets understand this with the help of an example like Nescafe Coffee for many years positioned it self as a winter product and advertised mainly in winter but the introduction of cold coffee has developed a positioning strategy for the summer months also. If we look at this Price – quality approach it is important and is largely used in product positioning. The essential task is to . (4) Positioning strategy based on Product Process – Another positioning approach is to associate the product with its users or a class of users. (5) Positioning strategy based on Product Class .In today’s world many advertisers are using deeply entrenched cultural symbols to differentiate their brands from that of competitors. there are brands that deliberately attempt to offer more in terms of service. such type of positioning is done deliberately to expand the brand’s market. In this case the expectation is that the model or personality will influence the product’s image by reflecting the characteristics and image of the model or personality communicated as a product user. certainly of higher quality.quality product where as product that is cheap is lower in quality. This repositioning resulted in a market share. In many product categories. Makes of casual clothing like jeans have introduced ‘designer labels’ to develop a fashion image.In some product class we have to make sure critical positioning decisions For example.

identify something that is very meaningful to people that other competitors are not using and associate this brand with that symbol. A good example of this would be Colgate and Pepsodent. Using and popularizing trademarks generally follow this type of positioning. Air India uses maharaja as its logo. an implicit or explicit frame of reference is one or more competitors. Colgate changed its focus from family protection to kids teeth protection which was a positioning strategy adopted because of competition . (7) Positioning strategy based on Competitors . the firm either uses the same of similar positioning strategies as used by the competitors or the advertiser uses a new strategy taking the competitors’ strategy as the base. by this they are trying to show that we welcome guest and give them royal treatment with lot of respect and it also highlights Indian tradition.In this type of positioning strategies. Colgate when entered into the market focused on to family protection but when Pepsodent entered into the market with focus on 24 hour protection and basically for kids. In some cases. reference competitor(s) can be the dominant aspect of the positioning strategies of the firm.