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BIO 250/ Diploma Science

System and Maintenance (Animals and Plants)

CHAPTER 12: Angiosperm Reproduction

Sexual and Asexual Reproduction of Angiosperm Sexual: Progeny are different genetically. Some are less adapted than the parents but others are more adapted. Offspring cannot colonize a new site as rapidly because not all progeny are adapted for it, but some can colonize different sites with characeristic not suitable for parents. Changes in habitat may adversely affect some progeny, but others may be adapted to the new conditions. Isolated individuals cannot reproduce Asexual (vegetative reproduction) All progeny are identical genetically to parent and to each other. All are as adapted as parent is, but none is more adapted. Rapid colonization of anew site is possible. All may be adversely affected by even minor changes in the habitat. Even isolated individuals can reproduce.

Mechanisms of Asexual Reproduction Many plants can clone themselves by asexual reproduction. The offspring are mature vegetative fragments from the parent plants, and that is why asexual reproduction in plants is also known as vegetative reproduction. Asexual reproduction in plants involves the production of offspring from single parents and occurs without genetic recombination and resulting in a clone. There are two major natural mechanisms of vegetative reproduction: 1) Apomixis: Seed develop without meiosis and fertilization. A diploid cell in the ovule gives rise to an embryo. The ovules mature into seeds, which are dispersed. An example is dandelion. 2) Fragmentation Involve the separation of a parent plant into parts that develop into whole plants. Fragmentation is the most common form of vegetative reproduction. In some species the root system of a single parent gives rise to many adventitious shoots that become separate shoot systems. There are several types of asexual reproduction in plants. Following are the examples of fragmentation in vegetative reproduction: a. Stolon or runners are horizontal aboveground stems that grow along the surface and are distinguished by long internodes. Buds develop along the stolon, and each bud gives rise to a new shoot that roots in the ground. When the stolon dies, the daughter plants live separately and grow to start off a new plant. Strawberry plants and sweet potato connected by stolons.

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they are. Onions. 2 Ainun Jariah Manaf/UiTM Pahang . Bulb is a modified underground bud in which fleshy storage leaves are attached to a short stem. Fleshy rhizome indicates that it is used for storing food materials such as starch.BIO 250/ Diploma Science System and Maintenance (Animals and Plants) Fig. the parent plant will die and the tuber grows into new separate plants. A bulb is round and covered by paper-like bulb scales that are modified leaves. The ‘eyes’ of potato are axillary buds. Ginger and many grasses are good examples of plants that reproduce asexually by forming rhizome. c. d. 12. When the attachment between a tuber and its parent plant breaks. several types of asexual reproduction in plants b. this is a proof that the tuber is underground stem rather than storage root like carrot and sweet potato. Each bulblets will develop into new separate plants when the parent bulb dies and rots away.1 a. Potato is a good example of plant that produces tubers. buds. Although rhizome looks like root. Tubers are fleshy underground stems enlarged for food storage. Rhizomes are horizontal modified underground stems that may or may not be fleshy where it can give rise to new plants. which develop into bulblets or small daughter bulbs that attached to the bulb. lilies and tulips are some of the plants that produce bulbs in their asexual reproduction. nodes. and internodes. Bulb normally forms axillary buds. actually stem because of the presence of scalelike leaves.

f.BIO 250/ Diploma Science System and Maintenance (Animals and Plants) e. Protoplast are plant cells which have had their cell walls removed. Tissue culture is often used to regenerate genetically engineered plants. Protoplasts regenerate cell walls and become hybrid plants b. Cuttings may come from stems. 3 Ainun Jariah Manaf/UiTM Pahang . leaves. Another approach combines protoplast fusion with tissue culture methods to invent new plant varieties that can be cloned. researchers fuse protoplasts to from hybrid protoplasts. These may even develop roots while still attached to the parent plant. they drop to the ground. Grafting A twig or bud from one plant can be grafted onto a plant of a closely related species or a different variety of the same species. Each sucker grows additional roots and become an independent plant when the parent dies. The plants providing the root system is the stock. forming roots and grow. Example of plants that form suckers is Banana Vegetative Propagation and Agriculture: Humans have devised various methods for asexual propagation of angiosperms. Clones from Cuttings Clones may be obtained from either shoot or stem cuttings or plant fragments. Budding plantlets perform by several plants they bud off tiny plantlets along the leaf edges that develop into a miniature version of the parent plant. Test-tube cloning and related techniques Plant biotechnologists have adopted in vitro methods to create and clone novel plant varieties. c.1 b. a. Fig. When these plantlets reach certain size. In protoplast fusion. 12. . or specialized storage stems (potatoes). Test-tube cloning makes it possible to culture small explants (pieces of parental tissue) or single parenchyma cells on an artificial medium containing nutrients and hormones. Suckers are above-ground shoots that develop from the roots of the parent plants. Bryophyllum or Mexican Hat plant produces plantlets along leaves. The twig grafted onto the stock is the scion.

BIO 250/ Diploma Science System and Maintenance (Animals and Plants) Reproduction: To Seed or Not to Seed The parasitic plant Rafflesia arnoldii produces enormous flowers that can produce up to 4 million seeds.2 An overview of angiosperm reproduction Sexual Reproduction Sporophyte and gametophyte generations alternate in the life cycles of plants. giving rise to multicellular male and female haploid plants. the dominant sporophyte produces spores that develop within flowers into male gametophytes (pollen grains) and produces female gametophytes (embryo sacs). the gametophytes. 12. Pollination enables gametes to come together within a flower In angiosperms. The life cycles of angiosperms and other plants are characterized by an alternation of generations.The diploid plant. Fig. These spores divide by mitosis. produces haploid spores by meiosis. 4 Ainun Jariah Manaf/UiTM Pahang . in which haploid (n) and diploid (2n) generations take turns producing each other. the sporophyte.

Angiosperm gametophytes are the most reduced of all plants. Ovules develop into seeds. of a sporophyte flower. gametophytes became reduced in size and dependent on their sporophyte parents. In angiosperms. Over the course of seed plant evolution. sperm and eggs. Union of gametes or fertilization takes place within the ovary. Fertilization of sperm and eggs results in diploid zygotes. Pollination by wind. or animals brings a male gametophyte (pollen grain) to a female gametophyte contained in an ovule embedded in the ovary of a flower.BIO 250/ Diploma Science System and Maintenance (Animals and Plants) The gametophytes produce gametes. Male and female gametophytes develop within the anthers and ovules. consisting of only a few cells. Flower Structure Fig. 12. the plant we see is the sporophyte and it is the dominant generation. the flower.3 Floral variations 5 Ainun Jariah Manaf/UiTM Pahang . In angiosperms. water. respectively. the sporophyte produces a unique reproductive structure. which divide by mitosis to form new sporophytes. while the ovary itself develops into the fruit around the seed.

several carpels are fused into a single structure. A carpel has an ovary at the base and a slender neck. In many angiosperms. producing an ovary with two or more chambers. If pollination is successful. which are separated by very short internodes. Sepals and petals are sterile. where spores are produced by meiosis and where gametophytes later develop. respectively. The female gametophytes are egg-producing structures called embryo sacs. the reproductive shoots of the angiosperm sporophyte. Sepals. petals. In others. Some flowers have a single carpel. The pollen sacs produce pollen. 6 Ainun Jariah Manaf/UiTM Pahang . flowers are determinate shoots in that they cease growing once the flower and fruit are formed. The male gametophytes are sperm-producing structures called pollen grains. which enclose and protect the floral bud before it opens.BIO 250/ Diploma Science System and Maintenance (Animals and Plants) Flowers are specialized shoots bearing the reproductive organs of the angiosperm sporophyte. are typically composed of four whorls of highly modified leaves called floral organs. Stamens and carpels are the male and female reproductive organs. which form within the ovules in ovaries. Within the ovary are one or more ovules. Unlike the indeterminate growth of vegetative shoots. Flowers. Pollen develops from microspores within the sporangia of anthers. are usually green and more leaflike in appearance than the other floral organs. The anthers and the ovules bear sporangia. Their site of attachment to the stem is the receptacle. the petals are brightly colored and advertise the flower to insects and other pollinators. stamens. and carpels. pollination is the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma. which grows down into the ovary and discharges sperm near the embryo sac. a pollen grain produces a structure called a pollen tube. each containing one or more ovules. the style. The four kinds of floral organs are the sepals. Gametophyte Development and Pollination In angiosperms. A stamen consists of a stalk or the filament and a terminal anther containing chambers called pollen sacs. which form within the pollen sacs of anthers. At the top of the style is a sticky structure called the stigma that serves as a landing platform for pollen.

each of which develops into a pollen grain. Each one of the microsporangia contains diploid microsporocytes (microspore mother cells). A pollen grain becomes a mature male gametophyte when its generative nucleus divides and forms two sperms. The development of angiosperm gametophyte (embryo sac) consists of the embryo sac along with the surrounding integuments (protective tissue). Three mitotic divisions of the megaspore form the embryo sac. The development of angiosperm gametophyte (pollen grain) gametophyte.4 a. 3. Each microsporocyte divides by meiosis to produce four haploid microspores. The ovule now b. 1. Ainun Jariah Manaf/UiTM Pahang 7 . but in most species only one of these survives as the megaspore. a multicellular female Fig. 12. The megasporocyte divides by meiosis and gives rise to four haploid cells. This usually occurs after a pollen grain lands on the stigma of a carpel and the pollen tube begins to grow. Within the ovule’s megasporangium is a large diploid cell called the megasporocyte (megaspore mother cell) 2. 3. 2.BIO 250/ Diploma Science System and Maintenance (Animals and Plants) 1.

This megaspore divides by mitosis three times without cytokinesis. layers of protective tissue from the sporophyte that will eventually develop into the seed coat. The ovule develops into a seed. 8 Ainun Jariah Manaf/UiTM Pahang . where it releases the sperm cells near the embryo sac. A microspore divides once by mitosis and produces a generative cell and a tube cell. an immature male gametophyte. Fruits carried by wind. each of which will form four haploid microspores through meiosis. forming in one cell with eight haploid nuclei.the embryo sac. each containing a single sporangium. Tube cell later on develop to form pollen tube.BIO 250/ Diploma Science System and Maintenance (Animals and Plants) The male gametophyte begins its development within the sporangia (pollen sacs) of the anther. this occurs after the pollen grain lands on the stigma of the carpel and the pollen tube begins to form. It begins the process by which the male and female gametophytes are brought together so their gametes can unite. the generative cell passes into the tube cell. The tube cell encloses the generative cell. At the other end of the embryo sac are three antipodal cells of unknown function. and resistant wall. Embryo sacs develop from megaspores within ovules. Pollination occurs when wind. Membranes partition this mass into a multicellular female gametophyte. Each pollen grain produces a pollen tube. The generative cell will eventually form sperm. producing four haploid megaspores. This two-celled structure is encased in a thick. form within the chambers of the ovary. fertilizing the egg. distinctive. The zygote gives rise to an embryo. Pollination Pollination is the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma. only one megaspore survives. The pollen tube grows through the long style of the carpel and into the ovary. and the entire ovary develops into a fruit containing one or more seeds. Ovules. which delivers sperm to the egg. which grows down into the ovary via the style and discharges sperm into the embryo sac. During maturation of the male gametophyte. A pollen grain becomes a mature gametophyte when the generative cell divides by mitosis to form two sperm cells. grows and then goes through meiosis. In many angiosperms. the megasporocyte. The ovule now consists of the embryo sac and the surrounding integuments. Within the sporangia are microsporocytes. water. The synergids function in the attraction and guidance of the pollen tube. or animals disperse seeds away from the source plant where the seed germinates. The microspore is now known as a pollen grain. One cell in the sporangium of each ovule. water. ornate. Three cells sit at one end of the embryo sac: two synergid cells flanking the egg cell. or animals carry pollen released from anthers to land on stigma. In most species. Each microspore can give rise to a haploid male gametophyte.

Petals often release scent and nectaries secrete nectar. which stick firmly to the insects easily carried by wind 4. Dichogamy: Some species that have stamens and carpels mature at different times. and often lines or other marks to needed to protect the flower before guide the insect in pollinating. Self-pollination Pollination that occurs within the same flower or between different flowers on the same plant b. Large petals with colors that is 1. collect pollen. called S-genes. a. Cross pollination Pollination that occurs between flowers of different individual plants of the same species Insect-pollinated flowers Wind-pollinated flowers 1. to increase the where it can collect pollen as insects chance of catching pollen from the brush past wind 5. to attract and reward insects Table 1: Differences in insect-pollinated flowers and wind-pollinated flowers Mechanism That Prevent Self-Fertilization Many angiosperms have mechanisms that make it difficult or impossible for a flower to fertilize itself. Larger amounts of small. 2. No scent or nectar 5. 9 Ainun Jariah Manaf/UiTM Pahang . Small petals or equivalent structures with green or dull coloration only visible to the pollinating insects. Sturdy filaments hold the anthers in 2. Relatively small numbers of large. Long thin filaments hold the anthers loosely outside the rest of the flower. smooth spiky pollen grains are produced. Self-incompatibility: Recognition of “self” pollen is based on genes for self-incompatibility. b. It involve the ability of a plant to reject its own pollen and sometimes the pollen of closely related individuals. with dozens of different alleles in a population. 3. Large feathery stigmas protrude from precise position inside the flower the rest of the flower. Sturdy style holds the stigma in a 4. It is anti-selfing mechanism in flowering plants. 3. a precise position inside the flower where pollen can be shaken off by where insects brush past and the wind.BIO 250/ Diploma Science System and Maintenance (Animals and Plants) There are two types of pollination: a. it opens. pollen grains. with low density.

5 “Pin” and “thrum” flower types reduce self-fertilization 10 Ainun Jariah Manaf/UiTM Pahang . Dioecious plants: Male and Female flowers are born on different plants. Alternatively. Relative positions of stamens and stigmas. such as papaya. d. 12. Diagram of a pin-eyed flower cut from top to bottom (longitudinal cross section) Diagram of a thrum-eyed flower cut from top to bottom (longitudinal cross section) Fig.BIO 250/ Diploma Science System and Maintenance (Animals and Plants) c. they may be arranged in such a way that it is mechanically unlikely that an animal pollinator could transfer pollen from the anthers to the stigma of the same flower.

giving rise to the food-storing endosperm.6 Growth of the pollen tube and double fertilization 11 Ainun Jariah Manaf/UiTM Pahang . 12. Fig.BIO 250/ Diploma Science System and Maintenance (Animals and Plants) Double Fertilization After landing on a receptive stigma. which then undergo double fertilization: One sperm fertilizes the egg and the other sperm combines with the polar nuclei. The pollen tube then discharges two sperm into the embryo sac. a pollen grain germinates and produces a pollen tube that extends down between the cells of the style toward the ovary.

splitting the fertilized egg into a basal cell and a terminal cell 12 Ainun Jariah Manaf/UiTM Pahang . In most monocots and some eudicots. the tip of the pollen tube enters the ovary. The first cellular event after gamete fusion is an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels. and discharges two sperms within the embryo sac. the endosperm stores nutrients that can be used by the seedling after germination In other eudicot the food reserves of the endosperm are completely exported to the cotyledons Embryo Development The first mitotic division of the zygote is transverse. possibly calcium. Both sperm fuse with nuclei in the embryo sac. this may be through evidence of cell wall material that mechanically block the sperm. but recently. a food-storing tissue of the seed. ovules develop into seeds and ovaries into fruits From Ovule to Seed After double fertilization each ovule develops into a seed. The germinated pollen grain thus contains the mature male gametophyte. the male gametes. In maize. Directed by a chemical attractant. the pollen grain absorbs moisture and germinates. After fertilization. In plants. plants establish a block to polyspermy. In another similarity to animals. Double fertilization ensures that the endosperm will develop only in ovules where the egg has been fertilized. One sperm fertilizes the egg to form the zygote. Normally nonreproductive tissues surrounding the embryo have prevented researchers from visualizing fertilization in plants. Endosperm development usually occur before embryo development. The other sperm combines with the two polar nuclei to form a triploid nucleus in the central cell. This prevents angiosperms from wasting the nutrients. The ovary develops into a fruit enclosing the seed(s). producing a pollen tube that extends down the style toward the ovary. probes through the micropyle (a gap in the integuments of the ovule). this barrier is established within 45 seconds after the initial sperm fusion with the egg. which also occurs during animal gamete fusion. scientists have been able to isolate sperm cells and eggs and observe fertilization in vitro. the fertilization of an egg by more than one sperm cell. The union of two sperm cells with different nuclei of the embryo sac is termed double fertilization. The nucleus of the generative cell divides by mitosis to produce two sperms.BIO 250/ Diploma Science System and Maintenance (Animals and Plants) After landing on a receptive stigma. This large cell will give rise to the endosperm.

12.BIO 250/ Diploma Science System and Maintenance (Animals and Plants) Fig.7 The development of eudicot plant embryo 13 Ainun Jariah Manaf/UiTM Pahang .

such as castor beans have similar structures. a eudicot with thick cotyledons. The narrow. a eudicot. radicle. 12. In a common garden bean. and thick cotyledons. Fig. 12. the embryo consists of the hypocotyl. The seeds of other eudicots.BIO 250/ Diploma Science System and Maintenance (Animals and Plants) Structure of the Mature Seed The embryo and its food supply are enclosed by a hard. protective seed coat. The fleshy cotyledons store food absorbed from the endosperm before the seed germinates.8 b Seed structure 14 Ainun Jariah Manaf/UiTM Pahang . a eudicot with thin cotyledons. Fig.8 a Seed structure (b) Castor bean. membranous cotyledons (shown in edge and flat views) absorb food from the endosperm when the seed germinates. but with thin cotyledons (a) Common garden bean.

the hypocotyl straightens. maize has only one cotyledon. The rudimentary shoot is sheathed in a structure called the coleoptile. 12. raising the cotyledons and epicotyl. Stimulated by light. Epigeal: A hook forms in the hypocotyl. and a coleorhiza. thus allow delicate shoot and bulky cotyledon to be pulled upward through the abrasive soil. Fig. a monocot. for example.BIO 250/ Diploma Science System and Maintenance (Animals and Plants) The embryo of a monocot has a single cotyledon. Epigeal germination occur in many eudicots. (c) Maize. elongation of the hypocotyl and growth pushes the hook (shoot apex and cotyledon) above ground. There are types of seed germination: a. 12. beans: Phaseolus vulgaris Fig. a coleoptile.9 Epigeal germination in common garden bean 15 Ainun Jariah Manaf/UiTM Pahang .8 c Seed structure Germination Process Differ Among Plants The radicle iIs the first organ to emerge from the germinating seed. Maize and other grasses have a large cotyledon called a scutellum. Like all monocots. and the coleorhiza covers the young root. The seed has small cotyledon.

ensuring enough water to complete development. Some seed germinate as soon as they reach a suitable environment. use a different method for breaking ground when they germinate. seeds of many desert plants germinate only after a substantial rainfall. a condition of extremely low metabolic rate and a suspension of growth and development. it dehydrates and enters a dormancy phase. which was interrupted when the embryo become inactive or dormant at seed maturation. a. 12. Others need a specific environmental signal before they will break dormancy. Maize and other grasses. cotyledon which is big remains behind underground. Where natural fires are common. Seed dormancy increases the chances that germination will occur at a time and place most advantageous to the seedling. In the case of maize. allowing them to take advantage 16 Ainun Jariah Manaf/UiTM Pahang . the sheath enclosing and protecting the embryonic shoot. which are monocots.10 Hypogeal germination in maize Evolutionary adaptations of seed germination contribute to seedling survival. many seeds require intense heat to break dormancy. Seed germination represents the continuation of growth and development. The shoot tip then grows straight up through the tunnel provided by the tubular coleoptile. Hypogeal Hypogeal germination involves elongation of the epicotyl and straightening of the hook. pushes upward through the soil and into the air. For example. Seed dormancy As a seed matures. the coleoptile. Fig. Conditions required to break dormancy and resume growth and development vary between species.BIO 250/ Diploma Science System and Maintenance (Animals and Plants) b.

Stimulated by light. wind. The tough seed gives rise to a fragile seedling that will be exposed to predators. parasites. After the cotyledons have transferred all their nutrients to the developing plant. and the nutrients are transferred to the growing regions of the embryo. plants must produce large numbers of seeds to compensate for low individual survival. The length of time that a dormant seed remains viable and capable of germinating varies from a few days to decades or longer. the embryonic root. This causes the expanding seed to rupture its seed coat and triggers metabolic changes in the embryo that enable it to resume growth. become green. Most seeds are durable enough to last for a year or two until conditions are favorable for germination. pushes upward through the soil and into the air. This is one reason vegetation reappears so rapidly after a fire. and other hazards. or some other environmental disruption. flood. The shoot tip then grows straight up through the tunnel provided by the tubular coleoptile. Fruits are classified into several types depending on their developmental origin. and growth pushes it aboveground. the sheath enclosing and protecting the embryonic shoot. seeds may require extended exposure to cold. This foliage leaves expand. Other seeds require a chemical attack or physical abrasion as they pass through an animal’s digestive tract before they can germinate. Because only a small fraction of seedlings endures long enough to become parents. It depends on the species and on environmental conditions. Enzymes begin digesting the storage materials of endosperm or cotyledons. the hypocotyl straightens. the epicotyl spreads its first foliage leaves (true leaves). However. the shoot tip must break through the soil surface. a hook forms in the hypocotyl. Small seeds such as lettuce require light for germination and break dormancy only if they are buried near the surface. raising the cotyledons and epicotyl. they shrivel and fall off the seedling. As it rises into the air.BIO 250/ Diploma Science System and Maintenance (Animals and Plants) of new opportunities and open space. From Ovary to Fruit A fruit develops from the ovary to protect the enclosed seeds and aids in the dispersal of seeds by wind or animals. drought. Thus. the soil has a pool of nongerminated seeds that may have accumulated for several years. and begin making food by photosynthesis. Next. b. Where winters are harsh. the uptake of water due to the low water potential of the dry seed. The first organ to emerge from the germinating seed is the radicle. The coleoptile. 17 Ainun Jariah Manaf/UiTM Pahang . In garden beans and many other dicots. flowering and fruiting in sexual reproduction is an expensive way of plant propagation in terms of the resources consumed. From seed to seedling Germination of seeds depends on imbibition. Monocots use a different method for breaking ground when they germinate.

Aggregate fruit. Simple fruit. blackberry.BIO 250/ Diploma Science System and Maintenance (Animals and Plants) a). strawberry). c). lemon. A simple fruit develops from a single carpel (or several fused carpels) of one flower (examples: pea.11 Developmental origin of fruits 18 Ainun Jariah Manaf/UiTM Pahang . 12. b). A multiple fruit develops from many carpels of many flowers (examples: pineapple. Multiple fruit. peanut).) Fig. An aggregate fruit develops from many separate carpels of one flower (examples: raspberry.