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B.

POWER GENERATION

I.

Nuclear power:

1. Generation:
o o A nuclear power plant generates energy in the form of heating. The reactor uses Uranium rods as fuel, and the heat is generated by nuclear fission: neutrons smash into the nucleus of the uranium atoms, which split roughly in half and release energy in the form of heat. Carbon dioxide gas or water is pumped through the reactor to take the heat away, this then heats water to make steam.

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2. The Advantages of Nuclear Energy
o Nuclear reactions release a million times more energy, as compared to hydro or wind energy. Hence, a large amount of electricity can be generated. Presently, 12-18% of the world's electricity is generated through nuclear energy.

The waste produced after fission reactions contains unstable elements and is highly radioactive. Fission reaction of a small amount of uranium generates large amount of energy. It needs professional handling and should be kept isolated from the living environment o o II. and remains so. Though large amount of energy can be produced from a nuclear power plant. it requires large capital cost. Around 15-20 years are required to develop a single plant. to turn turbines and thus drive generators. They are a major threat to the world as they can cause a large-scale devastation. As there is no emission of these gases during nuclear reaction. are expected to last for another 100 years. Water is allowed to flow through tunnels into the dam. Hence. nuclear fuel is inexpensive and easier to transport. the high reserves of uranium found on Earth. o . methane. Hydro power: 1. Currently. Nuclear reactors make use of uranium as fuel. chlorofluorocarbon) during nuclear reaction. for thousands of years. Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy o Nuclear energy can be used for production and proliferation of nuclear weapons. Generation: o A dam is built to trap water. ozone. The greenhouse gases are a major threat in the current scenario. it is not very feasible to build a nuclear power plant. because the pressure of the water increases with depth. It is very dangerous to the environment as well as human health. fusion or combination of both reactions for destructive purposes. as they cause global warming and climate change. Its extinction can again result in a grave problem. Notice that the dam is much thicker at the bottom than at the top. o o 3. High amount of energy can be generated from a single nuclear power plant. Nuclear weapons make use of fission. there is very little effect on the environment.o The biggest advantage of nuclear energy is that there is no release of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide. usually in a valley where there is an existing lake. Also. The nuclear reactors will work only as long as uranium is available.

Disadvantages of hydro power : o o Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a very high standard.2. stopping electricity generation. the building of the Aswan Dam in Egypt has altered the level of the water table. electricity can be produced at a constant rate. Often large dams become tourist attractions in their own right. If electricity is not needed. The high cost of dam construction means that they must operate for many decades to become profitable. The water can be saved for use another time when electricity demand is high. Dams built blocking the progress of a river in one country usually means that the water supply from the same river in the following country is out of their control. They do not pollute the atmosphere. Building a large dam alters the natural water table level. the sluice gates can be shut. Advantages of hydro power: o o Once a dam is constructed. This can lead to serious problems between neighbouring countries. For example. The flooding of large areas of land means that the natural environment is destroyed. o o o . electricity produced by dam systems do not produce green house gases. The lake that forms behind the dam can be used for water sports and leisure / pleasure activities. o o o 3. When in use. This is slowly leading to damage of many of its ancient monuments as salts and destructive minerals are deposited in the stone work from ‘rising damp’ caused by the changing water table level. The lake's water can be used for irrigation purposes.

The heated fluid operates as in conventional power stations directly (if steam or air is used as medium) or indirectly through a heat exchanging steam generator on the turbine unit which then drives the generator 2. Using Existing Industrial Base . Advantages of Solar Thermal Energy o No Fuel Cost . Predictable. in turn.24/7 Power -Solar Thermal Energy can generate power 24 hours a day. receive the concentrated radiation and transfer it thermally to the working medium.III. o o o . Generation: In solar thermal power plants the incoming radiation is tracked by large mirror fields which concentrate the energy towards absorbers.Solar Thermal Energy uses equipment like solar thermal mirrors and turbines which is made in large scale at low cost by the existing Industrial Base and requires no major changes in equipment and materials unlike new technologies such as CIGs Panels.This is made possible as solar thermal power plants store the energy in the form of molten salts etc No Pollution and Global Warming Effects – Solar Thermal Energy does not cause pollution which is one of the biggest advantages . They.Solar Thermal Energy does not require any fuel like most other sources of renewable energy. Solar power: 1.

After it passes through the turbine.This means its not possible to build them in populated areas. Limited Locations and Size Limitations – Solar Thermal Energy can only be built in places which have the high amount of solar radiation. Ecological and Cultural Issues – The Usage of Massive Arrays of Mirrors is noted to heavily impact the Desert Wildlife endangering the endangered species.They can be built in deserts mostly and require a large land area. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fuel sources .This contrasts to Solar PV which is sold in sizes as low as 5 Watts. Water is heated. turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. Thermal power : 1. the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated.3. this is known as a Rankine cycle. o o IV.5/watt and has not declined too much in the last 3-4 years .Solar Thermal Energy also can only be built in large sizes which are at least 50 MW in size to be economical. Disadvantages of Solar Thermal Energy o High Costs – Solar Thermal Energy costs at least Euro 3.California has already seen a massive fight on this issue with Project Developers curtailing the size of their Plants and spending money to move the wildlife. Generation : A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven.

Cost of generation is less than that of diesel power plants. The coal can be transported to the site of the plant by rail or road. Disadvantages of thermal power : o o It pollutes the atmosphere due to production of large amount of smoke and fumes. Advantages of thermal power : o o o The fuel used is quite cheap. It requires less space as compared to Hydro power plants.2. It is costlier in running cost as compared to Hydro electric plants. Less initial cost as compared to other generating plants. It can beinstalled at any place iirespective of the existence of coal. o o 3. .