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<** 4






M792 B8 1872



Presented to the

LIBRARY of the





the Author and Publisher trust that will be wel- come to all who take an interest in the first South Indian Languages. 1859. the Basel Mission Press employed Canarese characters in printing. cannot claim perfection. Hymn-Book. Matthew lithographed and published in 1842.PREFATORY NOTE. although of this kind. Liturgy. ex- tending eastward to the foot of the Ghats. and is nearly exactly confined between 12-30 and 13-30 degrees N. Within 1847 the whole of the edition of it New was Testament was issued in finished. cannot boast of any literature in the proper sense of the word. written as this is. Tulu is one of the Dravidian Languages. a modification of the Malayalam alphabet was used. they are well aware that a work under a pressure of professional duties. In offering to the public this first attempt at treating the Tulu Languit age grammatically. and Second . spoken only in the Col- lectorate of South Canara by about 500. the Gospel of St. This precedent has now been almost generally followed.000 people. till In writing. It latitude. and a new typographical this. nor has it a character of its own. is The first book ever printed in Tulu. Besides the following was published at First Mangalore: The Psalms.

. Prayer-Book. but facilitated by a liberal donation towards the cost of printing.. Short Bible Stories. Selection acknowledgment is due to A. Special Congregation-Rules. of Scripture Passages. M. c. who not only took it much interest in the publication of this book. Old and New Testament Bible Stories.IV Catechisms. s. Flattich's Household-Rules. Mangalore. Burnell Esq. \kth September 1872.

m. ah. There are 25 classified and 9 unclassified Conso- nants. viz: . Diphthongal: Indefinite: e * soei(ai). so the latter 2. n. yxra u. in je. Short: S5 a. 3. 1. Dr. which is sounded Of Consonants. There are two Medials. sounded nearly as the French Standard Alphabet represents it by 4. Lepsius in his B. but more recently the Canarese alpha- bet has been adopted both in writing and printing. OHl (-dials. sx$J3 n. Vowels are either short or long. Long: t? a. viz: or n according to position. alphabet there are 15 Vowels. The Tulu language has no alphabet of its own. may now Iii this be considered as the modern Tulu alphabet. and 34 Consonants. ^ -3? i.A GRAMMAR OF THE TULU LANGUAGE I. 2*0. two Medials A. eni n. Of Vowels. o. in 25 on. or diphthongal or indefinite. srio n. to 6. >e. 5. e. u. (as 3 s ). Chapter: Of the Alphabet. i. and 8 C. 1. Those who formerly wrote in Tulu used to employ Malayalain characters. PART: PHONOLOGY.

.2 Classified Consonants.

with a. Consonants.3 7. 59 inherent the Consonants vowel . B.

9 a e?a 53 ka 50D ka sokha kha a) khi Dkhi ?^gi sookhu sojs>khu so^khri so^khri Xga na ACga na ?sgi X^gu 2? Xoagu s^> nu X^gri 83D ni 26 ni nu 8?^ nri 8?^ nn 85^ ca $3t> cha elci e3 chi 83 ji sf^ci &3ocu &fja e^ja Scpjhi 5cppjhi cCpojhu c(pjs>jhu 63 ta fcrata. &3ti K^ti W^tu 63jstu tha 1 5 thi da 5 di dha zp dha ^ & dhi ft^dhi ^odhu raonu ^jsdhu fojanu ^d'hri rs^nri flni ti f^^ni 3? ti qi^ thi > ^ tu <Sxsthu rfj ^tM rf da CD da ^ di * di du ) ni pi ^^ ni ob^pi ^ nu ^jpu jl nu ^^ nri TJ pa ebu pa *: ^ppu 20 8^ irfj ba aroba 83 bi 83^ bl ai^bu eojabu ^jjbri 20^. bn bha ep^bha ~z$ 83bni ^^bhi o^ysmi 0353 yi sp rl ^fcbhu o^J-mu cdoo ^jabhu e^^bhri mri 0^3^ odo>. yri B^rrgbhri ttSo-rgmrl ma js ma ya Siomi cOo yi ^-jsmu odojs odi ya cdjai yu yu d ra CD ra 8 ri ^J ru sDva 'sD >vi S si S)^vi ?>^ si ^/vu ^o su ^vu sa To Cc sa KTS sa ess & si Sshi &^si So phi Tvosu rojssu ha ha 5oohu Sojshu .

bei j ^ppho ^Sos bo ^^pho sSjspbo '^'Sphou e^Sbou ep'Sbhou ptam 200 bam 3fi ^pah ^phah eo^bah p= $bhe ^J?me o5j ye ^S/bhei 6:/ mei ^5-^bho ^jjs^bho ^Sobham bhah & ^jsmo ^Sjspmo ^o'Smou ^oomam odo^ you o'Srou ^osmah odes o5u^ye ^3? re oSo^yei o3^.tah Zj5sthah (p^ thei <5/ ^J^tho vJ>jth6 ^^thou <3j3 dei do oJ3^ do ^Jw3 n'S dou DO dam Tj^o QJ dah ~Q} d dhei oj3 dho dho ^p^ dhou dham ^ <3 dhah nah c^o nam -j pou zlopam vpte vpbe ^5? be y^phei eS.yo o5js^y6 tfjz^io $ re ^ ( r ei is/ ^-^ro "do odooyam ram yah "dSrah ^ve "? se vei sei sei '^/svo 'fjsso ^^vo ^JSOSQ r\js^so >-x'js)o n'Svou rfovam "^c ^58 vah "f^ ^^sou MT^BOQ oj^sou ss'Shou sam ^8sah SA-^SO tic sam ^v sei 5cy hei ^ so ojjs oo^sho "^jslo so rdosam ToSsah Scjs^ho 55oham ^/olam ScShah fie ^?1 ^(Isi fja^lS ^^lou .5 so ei 2o o 06 J ou o am ? ah <y sSkhe s^kbe ?<>khei s5jskho xUi^kho s^Dkhou ?f3 gou <do soo kham soskhah A gah AO gam jjjo * ghou gham 3p-ghah sssiiah E^O i^ne >?ce "$l nei ^cj^no 'S5j)co ^cjs^no tSjspco sJ'Snou ajonam s^-ocam ??? cei ^che ^'j?che a $( chei E^SCOU <^?7)chou cah cpj>cho ^.ra^cho ^ccham ^=chah jhe ^jpHhei ^jsjho <5jk^s^jho o^p^jhou cCpojham 63 te 3ote B/ o tei S^sto 65jpto 10 &^tou ^'Sthou &3otam Gotham ^thah ^odhah reSnah ' 93 zf/dhei rf js dho rif^^dho f2J?>pno tj'Sdhou Rodham rso J^ ne fs^ ne ri/ nei a " J^jsno ^-isto ps'Snou nam & te SP te i} tei ^jspto s'Stou ^otam Z^otham H.


The following

fourteen Consonants are pronounced like

the English letters by which they are represented: 3 ka, rt ga, e3 <$a, fci ja, 3J pa, 20 ba, do ma, o3o ya, d ra, o la, d va, nearly ^
sa, ?o sa,

CQ ha.



The remaining Consonants do not correspond to the of the English alphabet. The following are dental
they must be pronounced with the
teeth: ^


between the front

q$ tha,



of the tongue dha, ^ na.

The following are cerebral letters: y ta, d tha, d da, ^ dha, re na; ^




(Tables showing the alphabet with the combinations of the Vowels and Consonants).




short vowel of every


inherent in the initial or comso that every letter

plete form


capable of being a complete syllable. Thus: ^odoz3 shepherd; sss&rid a-ma-sa-ra, haste; Wdtg ka-du, forest.


a syllable is formed of two or more consonants and one vowel, the vowel is always joined to the


or uppermost consonant, but sounded after the last or

lowest one; thus:







W; o




half letter r



pronounced before the


or syllable which in writing precedes
class; ^^rsS kartave,

thus: ^rtr varga,

Lord; 3oJ3^Foc3



Double Consonants.



Most of the consonants are capable of reduplias with unchanged form of under-written consonants:




c c<3'




changed form of under-written conso5>; t&',

^,; ri: cdv,


?;$; H; v ^ v w

^9 ^



rf; si; o^x; sd .: **











With entirely changed form of under-written consonants:





Chapter: Of Euphony.
occasions the elision, insertion, and per-



mutation of






word ending










u is

followed by an

commencing with

a vowel,


requires elision as follows:





Sometimes c^n


inserted; as,



compound words sometimes changed; as, ^-srlr^sS instead of SD^r^d;
17. In

the consonant
srart oc^


for sra

Remark: In the declensions of nouns and pronouns hard and
consonants are, for the sake of euphony, frequently exchanged;
for ?ro5d; c3)3 for



O&T? for tfosF^ eS3jaUj for




Chapters Of the Formation of Words.



The Tuluvas have adopted many words from languages, they have come in contact with; here we

find in their vocabulary

pure Tulu,


pure Sanscrit,


corrupted Sanscrit, foreign words.



Hindustany and
house; woz3

6 Examples of pure Tulu words: ^o



belly; saDiid patera, word; oiiei yedde, good;




Examples of pure
rtado guru,




love; $53



Examples of corrupted
(slSe^prasna); roJSc^sonne,




z3Je>$$ (23J5$cSe>) bodhane, advice.

Examples of
ment; 3J3^,--^ w 2^"

(pure) Canarese:





envy; 3^0^$=$



(will) glad.

of Hindustany: ^>




HJSrO (SJdro) khasi (khasa),



(SJoS, SJO^)


(khusi, khasi),

Examples of foreign words:


(rosrs^oo) salam (salamu ;


" court; ^ej^iio*

kallakataru, collector.



There are Primitive, Derivative and Compound

Primitive Words.

2. 3.



nambu, believe;

^eJj. kattu,


Nouns: dodmara, tree; ^^kallu, stone;
oJJSc^ yanu,

w nela, ground, etc.







Numerals: ^otS wonji, one;

sis^pattu, ten; sis^ paka,




S5e)^j^. Compound Words. katte.-W^o^o akulu. requires the insertion of the letter c^ nij: sk^cra o3j malpunaye (dj^malpu+^ nu+wo3j aye.-W^ alu. 1. in s?* c) Ending h. 2. Derivative Words. c3o)r{ nambige. presbytery. woman. Other derivatives: a] Ending ^ tva. lover. one that . e5S^) avu) maker or one that makes. ( ^Bd+^ ^ pritida+alu). ^ori^ magalu. b) Ending in rra^gare. 9 _ 3U katta and 3$.ws* alu. S3D3J!03o3dpapaparihara.-S3^) avu). as will be seen from the following examples.-S3^) pntida+akulu). s3j^?3rra3 mosagare. Verbal derivatives: as. citizen. goodness. trust believe). rfrrada mosagaredi. a daughter..papiste. ?3 sthe._ b. Q i. bundle (from 3klx in kattu). ^oJvante. eSj^q^bodhake. tooaSo^^kuddhihinatva. b) Affixing pronouns to the genitive case of nouns: 2^3z3>o3j pntidaju ( S^o pritidaye (^3rf+oi> 3JkJ cjaoSj pritida + aye). a di: as. d?3 vyaparasthe. deceiver. ^^vlcra^o^J pritidakulu alu._S3^j^o Affixing pronouns to participles which. dropsy. ofozS^yoJdetana. a sinner. sa^tajme. 21. as. vyabMcari. patience (from satfo). forgiveness of sin. s&^cJs^o^o malpunakalu (do^malpu+c^ nn+ w^o^o akulu. w^cra oi> battinaye (W^batti+c^ nu+wo3j aye. si) era afimalladige. aye. 20.-SD^j^o eikulu) makers or things that make. oJ 9 stupidity. wise man. a deceitful C. wjadoibuddH^ante. great- ness. ^D* ^o^nirukutta.-w^ c) avu. ^tana. an adulterer. Compound words may be formed by the union of two nouns or by affixing pronouns to the genitive case of nouns and to participles. for the sake of euphony. patnadaye (3Jyrf patnada+ tJo3o eikulu). T a merchant. 'R&iite. a teacher. oJ tfgesas. a) Union of two nouns: 006=5%^ Mrekuta. lovers. a seller.

^cxarasS ponnubale. ^rsSa 5 =5*00 lords. anubale. tJr^ ana. Number of Substantives. as. Adjective. is The word s^rso ponnu. as. Substantives are of three Genders: Masculine. sheep. five principal parts of 22. yc^WD^ a male infant. OF SUBSTANTIVES. and Neuter. born. There are a child. 2. have two numbers: Singular and Plural. lord. The word sex. Nouns are of three kinds. 27. the people have come. s^So^o tables. fcsi-j bale puttundu. 23. table. ponnupili. a tiger. FIRST SECTION: NOUNS. ^oO^o^o kurikulu. &ras3 is frequently Neuter. female often prefixed to sho\v the female sex. a person or people. as. Chapter: Of Parts of Speech. thus: generally and t^jana. those of women and goddesses Feminine. 25. There are speech viz: Nouns.o* ru' or "**o lu' V O 28. a child s^^-oc^ 5 so^ocs jana battundu. Pronouns. is often prefixed to show the male anupili. Feminine. Gender of Substantives. sheep. animals and inanimate objects are generally Neuter. 24. . male. ^>rw &> erss3 bale. The Plural is formed by adding. batti+c^ ira+e^otfo persons or things that came. viz: Substantive. a. kuri. Substantives or '^o^o kartavera. 29. 1. tJD^&S) 26.10 came. a tigress. kartave. The names of men and gods are Masculine. a female child. kulu' to the singular. Verbs and Particles. to^^s^o^obattinakulu (zo^ eikulu). as. b. =^^rs5 si^Zo meji. and Adverbial. Numerals. is some exceptions to the above rule. mejilu.

. ooe etc. 2. the formation of the Nominative plural has been explained in the preceding paragraph. cases of substantives There are 5 declensions or modes of forming the by adding the above-mentioned affixes. 6. as. declension in ^i. lu. o o' do dudu /->"> O ie4udu S?d leda Communicative Vocative 8. varying principally according to the termination of words in their crude form. 32. declen* sion in srou. Nominative Genitive S3 a. ib tu _. fa 6 tu.. 7. 6? re. declension in n. the remaining cases are formed by adding affixes to the Nominative. C3 5 . } declension in <ze. 1. ^ta. sisters. c. They are therefore conveniently termed a. Of these the Nominative singular is the same as the crude form of the word. . Affixes. Locative Ablative or Instru. do du. ^ du. Declension of Substantives.. riogu. ds* fc^ raddii jana dood raddu mande.11 30. Dative Accusative r^g. thus: and either &<$ or si>od mande to all the other numbers.. O*ru. 4. S3 a. Plural Substantives of relationship terminate in ammadlu. c. Cases. S3 d-3>Jpo. have 8 Cases viz: Nominative. declension in e < a. 33.u dudu. one person. the word w^ jana may be added to ^oto wonji. Accusative. c^nu. ri^JS^ofosc^sahodriyadlu. &. When the cardinal numbers are used in reference to persons. fathers. Singular. or dra* oo2o fci^ wonji jana. Locative. =^oka 6ns regu 6 re. two persons. mental. Communicative and Vocative. dda 6 re.~. Substantives nitive. 31. and e. ^ona 5. 3. S^)u. one. GeAblative or Instru- Dative. x^ku..

from. to a mistress. s^^d jivada. mistress. Vocat. 2. mistress! 35. 8. 2. in a mistress. ^ccu5. Comm. Dat. amma. a . 1. 6. ( ammagu. to life. Declension: IST EXAMPLE. 4. of life. 5. mistress. t3^o^)^o jivodudu. . in life. ammadudu. life. from. e- ammada. Accus. Local. Local. (ren. I. 7. Impersonal nouns Crude form: . Dat. life Singular. to^^c^ jivonu. ^S3e)jiva. to a mistress..ZVonj. Personal noun Crude form: 1. by or through a mistress. by or through life.- 12 34. 2ND EXAMPLE. . of a mistress. Comm. 3. to life- 4. a ammadu. ^^Cojivada. tS^jiva. life. 3. 7. Ablat. . ammanu. i . Focctf. Norn. Genit. 6. t3^5^>^0 jivodu. 3^>rta jivogu. Ablat. 5. 8. life! . 2.

of mistresses.13 Substantive ending in esa. to lives. jivole. mistresses. lives. u. Plural. in lives. siic^^o^rf ammanakulegu. 3f jivolenu.cSeJTfos?^ aminanakuledu. wdo. to mistresses. mistresses. in mistresses. Plural lu. . or through lives. jivolegu. ammanakuledudu. S&jjratfo^ctf ammanakulenu. mistresses! (with the soft consonants). to mistresses. XcSD^OS?^ ammanakuleda. W jlvoledudui from. to lives. le. of lives. from. lives. a mistress. amma. lives! . jlvoledu. by t3^53^c^ jivoleda. le. by or through mistresses. &x$e>tfoc dOj.

f pravadidudu. Crude form: Singular. mara. Norn. tree! 37. Personal nouns i. in a prophet. prophet! 8. pravadi. Norn. pravadinu. tree. from. maronu. 3RD EXAMPLE. a tree. Declension: EXAMPLE. by or through a prophet. tree. a 5. Crude form: dod mara. to a tree. ida. to 7. &. 5. IST II. . pravadi. Comm. pravadiye. a tree Singular. Accus. from. a prophet. of a tree. 4. pravadigu. Focctf. Gen >#. 3. 2. marotu. marata. pravadidu. Allot. 8. Ablat. marodudu. a prophet. 6. 6. 1. Dat. in a tree. by or through a marata. Local. a prophet. a 2.I486. Gen. mara. to a tree.. 7. Comm. S^o maroku. 4. 3. Vocat. 1. of a prophet. Accus. Local. to a prophet.

pravadilegij. to trees. of prophets.- m. prophets. prophets! . of trees. marokuledu. c pravadilenu. prophets. * in trees. marokulegu. marokulenu. pravadileda. trees. Plural. from. to trees. pravadilu. marokuledudu. pravadile. pravadiledu. Plural marokulu. to prophets. in prophets.15 (with the hard consonants). pravadile. trees! Substantive ending in a e. pravadiledudu. marokule. by or through prophets. a prophet. trees. pra^adi. by or through marokuleda. trees. to prophets. marokule. f.

in a 4.16 Crude form: naramani. mejidudu. naramanya man! 38. 2ND EXAMPLE. naramanyadu. ^Wai. i 8. a table. naramanyada. 5* naramanyagu. to a table. Accus.4Wa*. naramani. G. Dat. . mejiye. Nora. man. Dat. Gen. of a man. a man. table! 7. a table. 4. a man. naramanyami. mejida. 7. Vocat. to a table.. from. tf naramanyadudu. Comm. mejida. 6. Crude form: 2. Impersonal nouns Singular. in a table. Gen. naramanya. 5. a. through or by a table. 1. . to a man. Focatf. to a man. a man. meji. mejigu. Locat. 2. Accus. from. by or through a man. 3. Locat. > 2. 8. 5. mejida. 1. 3. Comm. of a table. mejinu.

in tables. from. men. to men. Plural. mejiledii. mejilegu.Plural naramanyeru. men! meji. by or through men. men. * naramanyeredudu. tables. to tables. to tables. tables! . naramanyereda. 5 s to men. mejile. mejilenu. ^ mejiledudu. mejile. mejilu. naramanyerenu. of men. of tables. a table (with soft consonants). naramanyere. f naramanyeregu. through or by tables. naramanyeredu. in men. naramanyere. tables. mejileda. from.

knrita. rfodo guru. kurinu. kuriye. Gen. sheep! 40. by or through a sheep. gurutu. priest! . Dat. Personal noun Crude form: Singular. by or through a priest. 6. . Nom. 7.. 5. a priest. ^Za.18 39. kuridudu. Focatf. from. of a sheep. 8. Focaf. gurunu. Local. HI. in a priest. a sheep 1. rtadosS^ guruve. kuritu. gurududu. of a priest. in a sheep. kuri. 7. kurita. 3. i. guru. a sheep. guruku. to a priest. Local. a sheep. Accus. kuriku. 4. Declension: IST EXAMPLE. 2. to a sheep. to a sheep. Crude form: tfoo torn. 8. 4. Accus. 6. to a priest. 2. SRD EXAMPLE. 3. guruta. guro. 5. Comm. ^Wa. from. Comm. a priest.

sheep. by or through sheep. by or through priests. S* kurikuledudu. from. gurukulu. from. gurukule. guru. priests. gurukuleda. kurikuledu. kurikuleda. in priests. to priests. e. gurukulegu. to sheep. y-aO^CS* gurukuledudu. kurikulenu. sheep! Substantive ending in en) u. Plural. sheep. to priests. ^oO^OS? kurikule. gurukulenu. gurukuledu. priests! . to sheep. in sheep. of sheep. kurikulegu. rtado^OS? gurukule. a priest. of priests. kurikulu. priests. Plural.19 (with hard consonants).

Impersonal nouns Crude form: 1. Vocat. 1. 6. Comm. . Locat. Gen. 3. 4. 5.. 2. 2. SND EXAMPLE.20 41. Norn. a. Dat. Accus. 8. Ablat.

in flowers. bolpule. bolpuledu. bolpulu. Plural. pukuleda. bolpulenu. from. i* 4 pukuledudu. to lights. of flowers. from. light (with soft consonants). bolpuledudu. pukule. flowers. Plural. to lights. * pukulegu. pukuledu. by or through flowers. in lights. u. pukule. lights.21 bolpu. lights! (with hard consonants). bolpulegu. by or through lights. flowers. flowers! . pukulenu. to flowers. lights. bolpuje. of lights. to flowers. bolpuleda.

Impersonal nouns Singular. of a lord. Declension: EXAMPLEi. in work. to work. 6. from. 2ND 2. to a lord. belegu. kartavadu. Dat. kartava. Locat. beledu. kartavanii. lord! 44. kartavagu. work. kartavadudu. Norn. Comm. Gen. ^Wa^. Accus. to work. Vocat. kartavada..22 43. 8. a lord. beledudu. a. * belenu. EXAMPLE. Crude form: 1. Locat. kartave. 7. work. 5. of work. 4. in a lord. beleda. to a lord. IST IV. ^FS3e) kartava. 3. by or through a lord. by or through work. work! . 4. 8. bele. a lord. ABlat. bele. 3. 5. from. 7. Accus. Focaf. 2. Comm. Personal noun Crude form: 1. 6. 2. a.

to lords. e. Plural belelu. to by or through works. to works. kartaverenu.23 Substantive ending in AQ. work. kartave. to lords. works. kartavere. kartavereda. belele. kartavere. in works. Plural * kartaveru. kartaveregu. from. lords. by or through lords. * kartaveredudu. in lords. beleledudu. works. lords! bele. works. of works. of lords. lords. belelenu. works! . from. beleleda. kartaveredu. beleledu. a lord. belelegu.

Locat. 1..24 SRD EXAMPLE. 3. JWa. 1. 8. Crude form: =5^=$ kudike. a fox. 5. &. Focaf. 6. 4. Comm. Gen. 7. 2. .

foxes. kudikerle. in heads. from. tarelenu. foxes! (with the hard consonants). to heads. kudikerle. heads. in foxes. kudikerledu. S? kudikerledudu. kudikerlenu. tareledu. tareleda. tareledudu. heads! . tarelu. heads. tarelegu. of heads. foxes. by or through foxes. kudikerlegu. by or through heads. of foxes. to heads. tarele. tarele. kudikerlu.(with a peculiar plural form "<OF rju) Plural. to foxes. Plural. from. kudikerleda. to foxes.

IST V. i.. 46. Declension: EXAMPLE.26 Most of the Masculine Proper Names are declined according to the 4th Declension. a. Personal nouns Crude form: .

a boy. from. anuleda. gods! . of gods. by or through boys. Cw anuledudu. to gods. anule. to boys. anuledu. gods. dveruledu. from. in boys. boys. boys. gods. by or through gods. of boys. to gods. deverule. boys! dgveru. to boys. Plural anulu. deverulenu. deveruledudu. anu. o deveruln. anulenu. anule. in gods. deveruls. deverulegu. God. d^s3do$<3 deveruleda.27 Substantive ending in 6 u. anulegii.

28 Remark: Though 48. Impersonal noun . a second SRD EXAMPLE. deveru is a plural form. Crude form: 2.

Plural. ammadle. to medicines. and those ending sssSi amme. . &c- to fathers. march. by or through medicines. a father. inardulegu. w^o. medicines. . of fathers. fathers. in medicines. mardule. adlu. marduledudu. medicines. ammadlu. medicines! RELATIONSHIP. of medicines. mardulenu. marduledu. marduleda. mardulu. a medicine. naklu) in the plural. Plural. from. &c. to medicines. (cra^o. In other respects the in a. or <a nouns of the 1st Declension. mardule.29 - plural is formed by affixing <& Ju. rf ammadlegu.

&c. s^^^s^ malpunavu. &c. &c- &c. Gen.. Singular. to the act of doing. of the act of doing. plural. to mothers. Plural. 2. &c. 3. Dat. to a mother. maga. SSSy^zlrs* appead}egu. magaku. of a mother. appe. TJ magadlegu. ^^W^appeadle. Comm. Dat. malpunetu. 1. &c VERBAL NOUNS. Ipuneta. of a son. to the act of doing. Norn. a son. Crude form: ess appe. 7. from. Accus. C9 malpunedudu. mothers. 50. 6. magadle. Locat. a son. Singular. malpuneta. S3c&W^o. in the act of doing. doing. Norn. appeadlu. rf appegu. of sons. 2. Ablat. a mother. Gen. to a son. 1. Crude form: Primage. doing or the act of doing) have no Singular. appe. malpunenu. 4. malpuneku. 5. c.. Plural. &c. by or through the act of doing. or the act of doing. Verbal Nouns ending in S3^) (as. 2. mage. Gen. Dat. &c. . to sons. of mothers. 5 magadlu. Norn. 3. a mother.30 . the act of doing. malpunavu. s 3. 1. sons.

zS^bene. ^^6 s3 Q&S kattale (or uppu) itti *a^ =^J3^cl kattale dark (possessing darkness). z3^j3 Examples of Periphrastic Adjectives: itti. OF ADJECTIVES. in the Tulu 51. (to 52. a dark room. There is nothing in Tulu corresponding to the English terminations er and est (more and most} by which Adjectives could be compared. tS^jS zS^fS OX>3^> ^^ ?jo^d darkness bene uppu sankada. ^^xirporlu. Comparison of Adjectives. a fine child. ^023 dJS^dc^ 2Jja^o^ imbe materedudu buddliivante. =5^ (or uppu) kone. tfoofcJo Examples of Simple Adjectives: s^?oposa. as: & ^ j3dsi5>> ^j^raoSo ! naramanya- ^d^j^c^^ dudu a naramani mallaye. Negative Adjectives: ri3 cj3o mani. as: is also used kinni. have become) and the negative participle who. a painful sickness. and wcks^i aduppuni. Comparison is generally expressed by construing the Adjective with a noun in the Ablative Case. 56. painful. he is the a 9 is man wisest of all. The adjective -S-^kinni. supplied by turning Substantives into Adjectives by affixing to them the participles of the Auxiliary Verbs to &> apini. oi>zi yedde. that bigger than this man. a chicken. good ol>ci sirartr yedde marga. to become. There are very few Simple Adjectives This defect is language. . have not. new ^j3^ posa kun^u. crao-B be danti.31 'J. pain ^^bene bene uppa. fine ^<^OF We>e3 porlu bale. 55. substantively signifying a young. y^d ^-^aneda the young of an elephant. a helpless man. and that. itti ^$3 kattale. which. a good way. 53. ^d^Js)?) gati danti nara- 54. anew cloth. ^j^Od -S-^korida kinni.

rlol^ guttu. . peace secret zsrf samadhana adu.32 57. yester- day. secretly. . today. adu. b. 5 peacefully. ss&sSo^ adimelu. immediately.a$ini. Some Adverbs are declined like nouns in the singu- lar number. ri3 crsoi gati dante. are of three kinds. for a time. wzo guttu adu. gladness ^o^JS^ 5 WS35 santosa adu. or your horse =CTOC$o6 is larger than mine. Adjective and Adverbial. i. r Examples of Simple Adverbs. ^o^kuda. ^rsozt kande. Pronouns. viz: Substantive. your horse the 3. &c. Adverbs. a. again. beauty o^soor wzs porlu ridjsspal?) rio^o. evening. ?osirar^> c^ samadhana. by as: affixing vrf past gerund (of ?& aP ini ) an<^ nrsoJ dante (a negative particle) to Substantives santosa. ?ow oja^ri pokkade. and Adjectives. to my horse your horse (is) a large one. sajja. 60. as: $&?$ kode. gladly. sarta. proper wc^ sama 59. sSUfi pettige. are of two kinds: Simple and Periphrastic. sSjOk baiya. tivF sarta. properly. adu. Comparison may also be expressed by the Dative s3oe> yena- and Locative Cases. like adjectives. turned upside down. straightly. morning. ^>^6 wore. ^o^cldodo^cl kankane marankane. 58. tomorrow. Periphrastic Adverbs are very freely formed adu. ?odo sama. OF ADVERBS. (is) a large one. of. in vain. e. Thus: o3o^ ^oci^rf ^^ tfock6 kuduregu nina kudure malle. straight ?odo ?O^F ez^ sarta adu. straightly. SECOND SECTION: PRONOUNS. ?o^r crookedly. . like nouns. vainly. sira^ =5brfo6to ^^ all 5i>s3 mata kudureledu nina kudure malle. oi>e3yelle. beautifully. or among is horses your horse largest of all. helplessly.

Person. Reflexive. 62. A.1. . 61. SUBSTANTIVE PRONOUNS. Pronouns are either Personal. Substantive Demonstrative. Personal and Demonstrative Pronouns. Interrogative or Indefinite.

"your lordship". any one. In- 66. what? Indefinite Pronouns. what? dadavu. Adjective terrogative or Indefinite. yerla. 64. crs^ dane. This Pronoun is used with reference to some other Noun it. ^Br worti. 65. . oS^os c&eosorieja yerandala. one thing. A. Pronoun 2. toOwori. tootS wonji. etc. yeru.34 Remark: or 1 . who? D. OF ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. Demonstrative. 67. . of rank. one woman. Pronouns are either Demonstrative. PROXIMATE. of the third person preceding The plural is used honorifically in the second person singular in the sense of "your honor". 2. when speaking to a person Interrogative Pronouns. etc. one man.

ADVERBIAL PRONOUNS. 71. Adverbial terrogative or Indefinite.35 3. . Demonstrative. In- 70. PLACE. Pronouns are either Demonstrative. A.

nidupa tembuda not yet. again. wottugu bega. down. once. .. ?o^F sarta. kuda. before.anyhow. mittu up. PLACE. sutta roundabout. yencandala together.36 73. slowly. pidayi around. late. TIME. pira. OcH worme everywhere. crookedly. straight- way. soon behind. tirtu tembudla to 6 wore. in. MODE. outside. wora. mutta hand. yepandala a whenever. wherever. . straightly.. Indefinite. yencala > . near. ulayi out. kadesa . inside. . piravu sSoo mella. suttumuttu . at keitalu. C. &c. wolandala yepala always. in dumbu front. .

37 1 .

38 3 O B T3 g -5 IP *fc TP "> M 13 o 13 o 13 o 13 o 13 13 o a t 2 "TO TP o 13 o 13 o 13 o 13 o 13 o Q 25 a &0 PI > J . a c t '| H a q tz- TS II <j H O -to O Tt> O Tt3 ox ^ CO Q> e^ ex EE ro 0? *-< <P ^* ' > < a c tz. r- H H 5 S !Zi 1 Plura ^d '2 A p -^ I' 3' a - o 02 D ca >-5 5 5 <3^ r _ <3 -= . S) 1 1 W"~ C2 1 TS CLX Q -G of a (3 9 O a Tf CO .






Remark: that the remaining Pronouns are inflected according to the above declensions. Thus: ss^ tanu, like orfjs^ yanu; ^o?5 meru, c3o?5 yeru,
e?5aru, like ^s5 Tru;

G 80^ imbalu, like


molu; osjodo indu, like CADodo


dadavu, like









too are, like

Nouns and Pronouns,


three kinds, viz: Substantive, Adjective and Adverbial.

one (man); 2wBr


08 wori,

one (woman);





two (persons).

yelveru, seven (persons).

muverg, three (persons).

yenma mande, eight persons.

nalveru, four
eiveru, five

o^Oo^ wormba mande, nine persons,
pattu mande, ten

ajveru, six



Remark: From seven upwards

GW mande, people"


to the


Cardinal Numbers.





2 3

5 6


si 3J






paduradu padumuji




15 16

23* c3re>






irvatueinu, etc.

22 23


i ajipa


50 60 70










101 102

no a

nutamuji, etc.


nutapattu, etc.
nutaeiva, etc.





alunudu (^3 e>^ JSrfo nanudu)






coo TOO

150 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

etc.. etc.000 sarataraddu.43 sara saratavonji 0. etc. saratanudu saratairnudu. pattusara . laksa . saratapattu saratairva saratamuppa. etc. pattonjisara.

^J5 3o5>&&ozi oneself.0^) woripu. is The Reflexive or middle form formed by adding for &o?s>o wonn. Remark: There the passive sense ?o5o 55ST?as3sccfo i. to burn. to finish. for oneself. cause to cross (a river) or cause kadapudu. two or different affixes different meanings). dos^S^prso malpavonu. as: do^^rao maltonu. 3JO^) paripu. woriyu. Crisis kadapa. . to the stem of the imperfect tense of the Active or Causative. he is ?o3j aye | one who has been beaten. VOO^) uripu. cause to bring. to keep. to blow. or he has been beaten G?c5o $caoJac33o3j Ci'oSo aye nindisudinaye he is one who was 84. to cause to walk" from "cSdo^) nadapu. to tear. he caused to make a gar- den for himself. to to stride through" and "^ds^o imply send" (here the tarpa. to speak. to ^srao tuvonu. or he was despised. aye. 85. nudiyu. ^ooh^) mugipu. "fd^^r^o cause to walk or to lead" from to walk". ^STOF ^FZ& tarpudu. to remain. as: "^os?^ malpa. wo3j ^^tf oo^ isJS^JSfli si)^ s^jorl aye tanuku wonji totonu malpavonde. 2. 2^. despised.44 82. make". letter DJJJ yu. "^dsa) nadapa. There are three principal Tenses. to preserve. to cease. fii^^) nudipu. is is no passive form for verbs in Tulu whenever to be expressed it is done in the following way: hakudinaye aye. viz: the Present. he had a garden made for himself. The Causative is formed by affixing t? a (some- times z& du) to the stem of the present tense of the Active form. to see for make oneself. "^3^ nadapu. TENSES OF THE VERB. . A number of Intransitive Verbs become transitive as: by changing the terminating mugiyu. cause to make" from "s&s^ malpu. to make it tear. uriyu. tjofo ^^ 3e>< aye tananu tane hakonde. to walk". to tear. into ^ pu. pariyu. e. 83. cause to make he beat himself. to sound. to give sound.

Conditional. Imperfect and Perfect. viz: Indicative. MOODS OF THE VERB. past and future tenses of the Indicative. There are two principal conjugations. Compare the following table: ss . Potential and Subjunctive. Imperative. which the participle of the present tense terminates in CAJU. the characteristic differences of which appear in the present. 4. from which all remaining forms may be said to be derived. 88. Each of these two classes has three sub-divisions. 1st and 2nd Future. CONJUGATION OF THE VERB. Each of the Past and Future Tenses has two forms. each of which has a positive and negative form.45 Past and Future. viz: those in 87. 3. and those in which it terminates in & pi. 86. Accordingly there are 6 conjugations. Infinitive. There are six Moods.

46 J* cd S PH .

<o o !-a 1 1 12 * . S. - o . co "*^*~I3 "*~^ ro *""2 c5 Cd CH k Ts> (^J .47 to 'O H3 a a o *. co s | -^ :& H^ "^ i < s : ^P c3 *"5" rS *"3* CO TO -( -i a I S.- * . ^ a a to )o a ^j 9? a SM OJ S in cJ f TJ S T) ? GV? ^ syj f T5 O 73 O 73 O 73 O 73 O 73 O 73 1 ^1 O O 73 ^ O 1 ^1 O 73 73 73 . S- g <&> 2? cJ S.2 S S G ba T3 cj ^ 4S a T3 S .12 So ^3 ce c a a a o CD o. " ". a a t) a 73 bo a T! a 73 9 D T! T! 7! 73 Q | EH rt bJO a S CQ 1-1 a (M b CO .

s jrj o .48 p.

49 .

50 .

51 .

52 <s c3 s a "O ^ -*-= c o C a g Ja I <D f o? TS E3 g 13 o a c3 X a PLI a t a fe -a- ? 13 a o ns T2 o T& ft jd c3 a c8 60 PH a- P a a fe c a v- a CK\ a fe s PM C <N CO .

53 1 a a 2 o a 2 o 2 "a 2 "3 OS c3 "* J .-H* g 1 H C3 a a f a T3 T! T3 CS a \* a \t) D K> f a ~ r T! a Tl o O -a EH a &H ^ ^ cl S 1 cS *j GO i-l R T3 3 M Q T3 CO <M . ~* 3 . S t. o a a * a I a a a t> b b a O T3 Q 8 ^ T3 Tl Tl I % <0 ^d 3 a ^d e] a S t I -"^-103 I s c3 g o .

54 *. $ o W o "' CO 72 re t-^ H . aj 18 s o ~o a 'G > ^ & % 3 1 1 a.

55 .

Singular ^ 1=1 a T d [1 (O a d .56 do ha S3 ?5i 4J ic3 K ^ PH Q O {3-< o3 "oS* pS O cG o cO o "17 02 W H iy IS> C1 H fe S I s S << V* hH | CO PERFECT.

2 CD to fi <u ^ 1 "c CD -t-j O O o h .57 .

a 73 o? C-J 'I g 73 b b ^ T3 23 a 73 23 73 eyy t-J b 23 7l 53 a ft ft T3 CO ^ c3 a PJ c3 P* ci 3' a 73 73 a "VO a "^> a T? tl a 73 73 b b b a ft a 73 -ft a 73 73 t) $ 73 ft "ft VI VI -ft O-i *j CD T-I Q <M l-< CO .58 3 a -M c6 E S 73 f O ** ' 1 "S cS C3 ? a 3 a 73 23 1 73 23 a 73 I ^.









00 03








i a





^ O.











I o












1 1












^ 8


w H ^











Jd t)














62 e ? -r j3 _o3 5 i-al kt* *"C3 r o (O 103 Z ICD 105 ^> 8 fe p 23 23 23 "8 <G 23 (O t8 Ts Tg S 1 ^ ^ 09 -O SH " 2 03 s ~ O J3 cS ITS' 53. 53. a103 a103 a- D TS o .

^ To ICj (O to' <G 1C? Ico to <O ICP 'Co W EH O c3 ^3 <a & +a * o? 3 . fl- po fl- 1 <O ml 13 Tsfl X5 Tg <1S <ti> d3 (Q (Q Tg Q^ TP ^ Tg ax Tg ax Tg Tg IP O CO D^ ** 03 ^ C (M as C 50 rH rH .63 a TS -~ -pi o3 -p? Si I po 23 1 103 23 H 03 55 E" d3 v> IG> 1C.-e | p.

3 O o? 1 c3 o? & ^ P t* s? PI- 1 so P5 kenaya 13 w H r^ OX 8 ox 8 ox O ox O IP IP IP IP a P 5 & 'eS 03 ** M 105 OX ox 8 o IP ^ o H^ CD i-C3 a o PH P- 1 * 03 C3 T3 & Pi- uduppa rW ij ^ -3 WJ o Ts ax Ts O Ts OX O Tg Q^- t5 IP ox O & O IP ox IP IP IP P-l PL| .64 J ^ ^ "" o P! O C ^.

. JS 3Ex .' s-j ^ ^ 8 M .u-\ 2 <D 03 f pj.2 PH ^ - O ns 8 PI PM 2 <D 13 o I QX 8 T3 o T3 ' 13 o 13 o 8 QX IP 8 QX IP 8 QX IP QX 8 IP -^" S - P I a- $ ) 1 I Te .M 8 'Q fe IP c (M .

GG TJ OS P! O a A3 & <D T3 rt PI- TJ ps.1^ >^ MOOD >NDITIONAL . Pl- n3 -30 Pl- n=! PI- g: % o s r^ ^ .

67 fcO o W) tfl C fcO a CO K M cu oi s PI- 8 13 o I 6 M H 03 ti <o (O o 8 IP 8 Q cc Q ss 01 1 H 60 SB C C fcO C -S oQ E3 pi- ts o fe o 9* .

68 a o T3 A d .

e- I cs r^ o c5 r^* o3 & T3 T3 T3 T3 t3 T3 8 8 ox ox 03 1f> ^ fe P-l .o CS CO g' ^ ^ Q T3 83 4i TS T3 23 t> 23 Cj 23 o o 8 8 ox ox gra ox ox H > H H g D H ^ S B * 3 p i -I f .S .

M !' M Id) 13 13 D **> _S n a TS ex **> is t) o 13 13 ex o 13 ex o oa i-l C (M .70 I 4 CS O> i~ '/? ^ -w o -C 'o ' c ^ 3 -5 3 O J3 I T3 ^ t3 S >* <T3 rc3 - 03 :s> Hj' ?^ p|.

71 be B PI S3 I 5 & g pr 1 pi- & S3 pQ GJ 18 ox Q W O Z ti) O O & C! .

s S5 FO I I O2 H H s 525 S "S If .72 g c rfl ndIg 1 E ex H CO H H H cc ^ CH .

73 I i O o 'TS rrt ~3 O C T3 M O O ?3 (D 23 O 4 I 5S c IP! S o PI O -_> PH Pi c (M a !M 10 .

I CQ .3 cd '5? f *8 33 1 1 23 23 ^2 id 23 c -3 23 03 <G 3 a s EH .74 s 3 o 05 *~^ e o3 3S ^ g "o o c3 a .

75 a rf O 3 !3 i ? i g t> *3 1 C ^ ^3 i 73 8 JH g =8 ^ i .

76 3 .

fcJO * 3 <D r-j ^ .9 ^a T: .S uar 19 s -3 ^ .77 < TJ i 3 O c 3 O c3 c3 3 8 3 13 o "** Tj |3 - H Q "O -3 c -S 3 M H S o .

78 o TO .

79 os ^ce eS o &C 108 ^ ^ 5 >=l JSf c3 fl g e IS ^ I IS S iS IS ^2 <G o o X) (O o X) X) a a a 25 P F b a Q (O o (Q o (Q o X) X) X) S =3 O - J= ^ O to ^ Z OJ .= t> fcO " c 5 *> rt S s 'I * ^ I IS r 1 S f IS S H IS 3 o >= I <D 3 3 3 6 d T3> -3 j> .

.80 S. G O ~rZl TV (O o <O o X) TO ^ ^3 rfl ci i 1 18 & (O 3 [5 si .6 rs ' d ^ J2 rS <D P.

81 TS * ^ T3 * J ^ 23 ^ ^ < & o 14 H HQ O O t I - ^Q I S ^ ^ TS T3 -3 13 a t-t <M U .

82 s .

83 to a to e 03 bO e3 * EH Q H D S5 EH to vo 1 c QQ O o EM c3 to p! <-a cS OF fcO ^2 13 * .

- 84 -r - a. J-H bJD .

85 a P-. IS -<-" t> 23 23 23 83 <O o ^ o 23 o (O G? o o ? o ^^ GE? "|S) "jiS) 1Q PI- c3 IS PH IS D 5 TO TO 5 o S I co .

a S D-i . ^ 85 PL.86 o T3 * 23 t) 23 i ^ s TO fe 83 "?3 tftf) 23 6$) 83 tftf) 23 tftf) < TO *** c3 <n O f-^ O iS r-r (^^ b 5" IP ts % % TO o S ^ r k.

c CO C] CO . 9. -I-! -r-H r^ 10 10 -S r^ 10 n? OJ rQ 10 *)"> 10 T> CJ s c-J t> *s* t> CT}? c>J t> <T?? 97 -J 5 (Q <5 cJ )! ^ cJ (O (O cO (O M f 10 g~ g ^ !g T>) -4-3 n3 ifi s 5 !3 n? |jj -[wj |y "TO TS) cG cQ <s "TO (Q % Q ?.87 -3 a o & 10 +^ y. I BH PH J fe.

1 I K if .

13 o 13 13 13 PH PH P PH Pi PH PH P! r of p! n3 s t> t> ig S ># -8 "TO 13 *a 13 I PH * I <M CO CO 12 .89 s ^ ~ o <S" r^ I c3 PH p! PH 9 PH & c3 c3 o3 1 'il > c3 c3 IP! 10 id I S t3 IP t> t> t) % % % .

^ 73 P a 5 .B 9 73 TO TO r&j 13 5 (<> TO S :- R P-i cS c (M - CO CO 07 .90 r-4 p ~ cS c3 c3 PH g* CD 1^ PH U3 PH o O * O >> r& S .5 PH PH I _2 3 t> !!=! c3 r c|- * 13 O t> O O -3 7-2 'B "6 'B "S T# ># 1 t! 73 73 o o T3 13 73 r-S S ^ ~ 03 &= hH PH PH PH PH 3 O PH PH 3 fe 3 3 S 7.

91 .

s E-i 5 2 g ~ S 2 a o a -= IS) T3 .e JS SS <s> o 73 UTURE o 72 <a o T3 H co 1 'H .

seen. .93 or not. or having having . . that not seen. being not Negative. has been. S. has not seen.

.94 &D * m a O B a h1 ^ ~ "S PH 3 & J" 3 O fa Q W tD 25 i i EH O O jz.

95 GO ^ ci 00 *-> P" *j OT 3 ^5 rs <=> r 3 I Q^ p-| 23 .

96 .

97 a" a PH a 003 PH PH a pi- Q 8 s ^ .

a k H H <j O s *7 H f-\ . -.98 <D r-J GO O r> G ^e <^<< Q c -a f fl 1-2 r- I t .

99 u 12 . U <O ^ 12 12 12 12 a o <u PU 13* . t. -M C > J o P.

100 " 'E .

101 .

102 .

103 .

104 .

t: +3 - rt H t.-5 3S ^s) ! +5 is)! _-j n^l ifl to 6 Jp 1 isfl g5 [5 8 ^ p-l I g <s O-i P^ . "23 s 23 23 85 .105 b y -= ^ .2 ^3 Q ^ ^ M B H ^a I 1 | ."S .

13 ^ ^ r^ S 4 e- <D O.106 to ^a (O .a QJ ^ ji *'. J !Z "* i_j i a . Pn P-i t> ^ III 05 R ^ T-f <M CO .

- 107 .S .0 "o .

108 Ja g) .5 ts A3 S f PH oaijjyandi 09 23 3 I "13 a d 3 =13 o .

109 o CD to P .

S h o ^ f? S t."t. .j :p P a to -J f : 3 "8 (O Q[?"~ 3 <23 F 8 S "8 (D o? o <C & a 5.2 rrl i eg . E3 .2s &o S "8 >> -I- ^3 "S P p a &o .110 so T3 a 04 8 I" . cO C? <C (C o H c .-r ^ '" -" o c =!=..

above. formerly. <s3=lekka. CONJUNCTIONS. mittu. sj^^rf pagategu. con- cerning. g^Dd* case: prakara. lekkane. hortande. &. V&ji tS^od attuda. $^& keitalu. * As 3 sJiSstf prakara is a noun. besides. 3^rtirtg. Sj^tid a prakara. attande.rfo ottugu. along with. be so. like. besides. bokka. agreeing with. before. 3oJ5^jF hortu. 3^. besides. as. 1. do in this way. hortande. behind. that way. Governing three cases. as: eofczlo^ayadoppa (^cdj^ayada+a^oppa).. >^oi> visaya. tobut always in connection gether. ? it is often used without the case. 98. near. Tfo^ 3. . viz: cjoosoo The Genitive. viz: Genitive case of nouns and pronouns: i. namely. or. in front. in front suttumutta. Governing two cases. Remark: 2j~\" is never used separately. i prakara. without (&c. 2. may follow ^d^ piravu. dooajso^ through. e3js= dumbu. of. POSTPOSITIONS. oiiz^tf yedura.. as: i. cases. viz: The Genitive and Dative of. andunda. & 33|5 prakara malpula. instead The Communicative U e^ oppa. below.{3 [oi>do visayodu.Ill FIFTH SECTION: INDECLINABLE. afterwards. this way. mukhantra. Governing one case. round. besides. Oo^. inside. with the Communicative case.St. viz. &olb. 2. a. ^O^^^B roundabout. but. at hand. with him. with. like. en)^oS:> ulayi. if it is. Dative and Ablative cases. 99. that andanda. any case). as. 3J3^roc3 except. about.

o la w ijji. yet. bodadu. anda.112 an6ayineddavara. also. avadu. notwithstanding. besides. for the sake saha. appa danappa) . also. of. either. but. supposing it be so. -^ ayyappa oppa vappa ah aha Expressions of surprise. bokka. afterwards. though. a. INTERJECTIONS. without. o3joJSod57S 273 la. ayyo ur5 si ulappa Expressions of sorrow and pain. because. nor. therefore. 3. after. if. and. od CO j * ijjida. eikadu. admioho S^ hehe ration. more. however. lekka. but. yencandala. P od ijjyande. or. jest or reproach. at least. but. or. that. nanala. neither. andala. even. 57S 653^ la attu. pleasure. like. still. and. therefore. 100.

Structure of Sentences. Chapter: On the SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. do^Os)? maltara. the sea is large. is a garden? shall I come? is cra^danna (^"3^ dane+c3e> na). The Predicate asserts what the Subject does. . did yon make? this do^. and com- monly placed as: pinaye. didst thou make? viodo Jjs^y wxjodo ^3od3e>? undu nltiya. the king rules. era na. A sentence is a complete thought expressed in words. right or not. as: or the king rules. also. denote question or interrogation as . denotes doubt. if (see Remark 3 011 page 57). particle denoting affirmation.113 S3 o Cos anda S inda lie 0! oh! O* is cici 6hichi 101. PART: SYNTAX. uudu totana. Every sentence consists of a Subject and a Predi- cate. I after the word with the interrogative particle. is this c5e>? righteousness? eo6jsrl^. as: 15 . as: t9d?oj w^osS. y a. ^de/ si>3 ydoo^o. oi e 4. III. even. 1. PARTICLES. 103. tijdsf ^)^o3j undu yeddena danna yanu it is SAioCta o3os>^e) C3"3^"S> do not know whether and. 104. (-gsoi) lye) an emphatic dda. 102. what it is.=ra? maltana. : e? a. ia e.

and the queen came. &. 3rd 55 . s . 3 the boys do. made. the verb regularly put in the singular number even though the subject has the plural form. 2nd Plural. treat me kindly. is king. we made. or how it is. the hand . turns. a great many houses were burnt. . as: e^ejs W^D*..114 Rama large. the verb must be put in the plural form. the cows feed. the girl plays. by one verb only. 2. Singular. s^osi}. Exceptions to this rule are the following: The honorific pronoun of the third person is fre- quently construed with the predicate in the second person. as: ud ^oo^o s^Oo^ 3. you are a great man. as doriejs 20 la^'. 2nd them sawest . The verb must agree with as: I its subject in gender. you speak. father and son came. 1st Person . 1st Person . the sea is 105. 1. 106. the rule is as follows: there are several nominatives in the singular as: number. number and person.. wd^ When there are several nominatives of different gene3d?3oejs> ders the verb must agree with the last one. the king. o3j^^ doSjskb ^^^)doo3. as: ^zizf rfod ^doodo. When the subject expresses a is number of inanimate things. 3rd . as: ^=3^0 doejso"". the elephant. When When a sentence contains several nominatives which are followed a.

oiJSc^ae) as: -gssjs soi>a) zo^tf. the wick- ed men will receive punishment. rally. he went to church. thou and he came. as: ^^33. In vivid narration is frequently used instead of s the past tense. it is passing at the time in which s3. eo^d o&e)c3* s^sS. man has a soul. is When the nominative In the same way. sdo^ou.. wherec. as: tjo3o eosSr. then I was there. he come(s) it I (shall) go. wrlrt cdrac3 ff w ?o^ooi>ci> &>rirloz33 &tfo s>or(^J3rforb ! w to w^)^o ero^. If the subject consists of as the verb is put in the plural. in certain sentences the verb is omitted. as: ^dsira^^ w^(enio^o).115 two or more personal pronouns. sJ&tfrf do 108. Present Tense. and the second has the precedence of the third. 109. do it (thou). 3tfo (enio^o). the person being implied by the form of the verb. at that time the Coorgs si came Mangalore. we took our meal. it is often omitted. the first person has the precedence of the second and third. I live. rfosldrf 3 (w^jodo). mentioned. I and thou came. 3. past events genee^srsoaSjsrb s^o3o. as: sSrc^. 110. i. otosesf eorfo^osS. (I) go. Past Tense. a personal pronoun. USES OF THE INFLECTED VERBAL FORMS. I (shall if surely) come tomorrow. Sometimes it expresses certainty with 15* . -^as wa^. birds have wings. 107. It is used to express determination with regard to a *$ future action. i. B. 2. as: The Imperfect describes enicsptf do^. as: aira^ kck 1 read. The present tense chiefly denotes an action. A.

i. as: ^jsodor dojsdo^ri oira^ o^a^. The negative form of the future tense is often used to express resolution or emphasis. THE IMPERATIVE MOOD. when the sun rose.I shall never do it. it expresses probability. 3. he was gone. Future Tense. wo3j 3JS>oi>. s when he comes. as: c&rscS* O X 112. person of the Imperative mood is used to express intent with regard to an action. prior to a former action. I have left the house. he will never say it. let us pray. j$5& oq^q$F?> sktfo^rl. . i. priority to a former action The Pluperfect expresses already completed. . I came to the house. ^JS^cfcs* ero^o*. o3ys$ Iq^ckA. 111. ZO^F zodosf it will not . as: jo3o todosS. we > shall all die: eo^r will rain. The future perfect sometimes expresses priority of an action with regard to a future action. 2. as: ^s3o siraJtrs <r> it 3^. I had risen. as: so^oS they (have come=) do come immediately. as: o3Js)^5* The <&& rf 3ookfo. as: 'aeg^ &w^ (zoodo^). he will probably come. is to take place immediately. let me see (I will see). sometimes doubt with regard to a past action. as: 53 cd) tOe|prl c&rs^ dosp^d^. when 3. Perfect represents an action as entirely comor as pleted. it may be have laughed. they are likely in the room.116 regard to an action that ejtfosk 2.?3ri wo3o o^^J. rain. as: o&s)^ do^o3o. I I shall have done it. The first ' r. The simple Sometimes future denotes what is to happen in future.

117 2. as: oira^ ^^s36 $. of Added to as: the past gerund. to become. to be. sjo&^ci). w^ (it will take place=). as: ^^6 ero^. of. v ' . used to express assent. &<D (the negative of the affix ao . ^o^o come yon. be or may become so. a. do give us a present. Added to the present gerund. w&$. rather The third person (do^c^. etc. Added to the in- finitive. 4. am reading. or to the expression of a wish. (Its use as a Conjunction will be treated hereafter. as: s^okSrf s^rfo S3D ^JSoci) 200. en^. though also used imperatively. or I am it in the habit of reading. to be. I en>o^d (or ew^. cannot do (it). The it third person singular will (neuter) of the future tense (ws. as: ^o^o ^6jsdo. s^o^c/ have done. sodc^. o.) denotes inability. as: esozi^ y^cs*.. they may do that work. you must come.) is an optative. may they be (or do) well. in do&J^O. I denotes completion an action. etc. to. sj^y. mandments. go thou.). very is it The third person of the Imperative it so. urgency or necessity of an action. it is ^fcrfcsf. voo&>.3 oJ I cannot go. erodes*. w> he co' . as: w 23$s3 shall or sk^cs*.) 114. The form ^o^do. it ex- presses continuancy as: Ldjsrao or habit with regard an action. 113. to 115. it signifies intention or readiness with regard to an action. I am about to go. become or be) is very generally used in answer bazar and bring some well! a command. The second person as: -ds is used to order. etc. go to the to rice. signifies USES OF THE AUXILIARY VERBS. or give comeos3.

118 SUPPLEMENTAL VERBS. rao To is s^sS. he died. ^jo^Era^o^ zli^sraoi). agaJradtf feated the French. 118. wo3o o^ri do&%es)j tJsSr. pletion. the fish is living iiithe water. a final verb added to the gerund of the reflexive verb. as: esd?oo w^osS. used to Frequently the past gerund with a final verb is represent an action in its successive steps of comesoh(5* and put it away. as: cS^cs* srocs*^. THE VERBAL FORMS. The as: reflexive middle voice) used when the subject is doing something for its generally own ad- vantage. it requires be completed in one or more of the following ways: i. . 121. take off the coat. as: ssdrfo Oe>sBJ3oci) w^osS. as: isSs^aoSj). is 120. 1 1 9. 117. e^o^o titft? ^loO*. o&e)^ fcooto Wr^c^ rfo&olfcozi. he comes singing. tso3o ^s^cs* (or 3^} spo3o. socf^JSrso W)o3) o^o. express a continued action. $55^^ form t&ritf sjs-^osodod sSsj^oi^or the father had his son called (or by his servant. the king rules. I acquired property for myself. or he went astray. William de- . they came drunk. Chapter: Of the Complemental Parts of Speech. the king rules the empire. as: 116. By an object. 2. (VOICES. he lost the way and went on.) itself In the active form the subject appears as acting. 1 go reading. When the verb by itself does not suffice to to convey the entire meaning of some action. The causative form represents the subject as caus- ing another to act.

etc. CO O admonish the p^o God.. as: JS^F. the army was victorious. 123. & rUi^zi ^oco5 ^ .. place.. I Place live at Manga- lore. he eats thrice a day. By words Time TsW that express circumstances of time. the queen adopted her as her daughter. the eye has been made for seeing. esoc^c^ ^^DDS^O^^.. ws* do&^eo^ o c. To express the w^d^rf evil-doer: object which the action directed. 2o^n ^.119 2. . sjs^^6^ God makes sinners righteous people. the ship sails for Bombay. the wall is made of mud. as: jS^sStf >7#oa*. tf^o* &oWe>c&>rs* ^js^o^o. oiracs* s&orttfjscfczk S3)?o s&tf^sS. give to the poor.he came yesterday. 6. t?c&> W3o^ ri wck#. a^js^o dojsz3 erofj. oira^ zod^do hunger. Manner ^og^ fi)??o d. as: c^sStf 5 D . manner. God spoke. Instrumentor cause ycrfj^ ^j^Ttf ^Oo3o ?3^. saDdood). USES OF THE COMPLEMENTAL CASES. subject i.. Nominative Case. -r she came from Mercara. a. they killed 3tn> 6 him with a sword. as: wo3j ^JS^zS w4. The nominative case commonly represents the and precedes the verb. they made him Hng. I die of s . cause. 5 . 2. 122. rf ^^okrf fear tooa 3Jra. ^. is srsJooi). Dative Case. he is ill since a long time. he acted from anger.. to The dative case is is used: i. It also used to express the factative object. the horse runs swiftly.

ACCUSATIVE CASE. as: dov^dorio s^ol>. as: zjod^n* SOSJF. as: Ojjjsd o3^?fo? To express >. is a grief to many. The accusative case is used with transitive verbs 5 to express the direct object. likeness. thrice a day. as: e3d?oort> ). Bangalore To signify relationship. To denote measure. 5. he is my younger brother. To show 2030^ difference. towards the 9. denote intention or purpose. the king has power. To To signify time. he went to Mysore. an elephant and a mouse. as: soditf ?ooiJ3^. there is a great difference between . O&D^* wodocS ^J333. sitting for alms. . price or worth. thirty rupees. the rivers flow sea. or distance. that bungalow may be sold Scltevo ^ojsz3 for thousand rupees. that signify pleasure or displeasure.120 2. as: ?i3r W^F. they will start at 2 o'clock. ^ocS^o^o ^ds^rf ^a^ozii. 124. s . we shall come this evening. s ts^^d eniodo. Cain killed Abel. t?o3o express motion to a place. he was 4. as: WrSrfeTs Jcr oi>^o) 5^ ^d^o. he comes 7. To denote possession or authority. 1 see him. ridrs^ra eworio. Judas sold Jesus for . fytfrf s^odi**. singing is pleasant to him. 6. man To has a soul. is far from Madras. 3. as: . as: yc&> oSjo^ 5 sSoz ^ soJSdosS. ^odrs With words death ossj. dc^ ^okSrv* ljc3e)^odD 8. c^s36r\ God is almighty. sSort^JSdj skcra^Tf-rfJSd. as: oi> tp^rf <?* 3\><Joi>. she went for milk. 10.

yp5 e* d^rU>do ^^0*2^ ^s^odo^*. Remark: The crude form of the noun accusative case. 125. the mouth: 900 . O 4. Many verbs govern two accusatives. show mercy on us. To denote the material of which a thing is composed.^ the largest of all the beasts. I was beaten by him. the fruit falls from the tree. 3. express the passive voice. es36533Tj^t& the children read the Bible. God gives S^rsre. she died of that 4. they To were deceived by that fellow. . as: w a<3jslb e?o3o && ^>!^oi>. as: &$ sira^ the elephant do^rLoto Sjoe. as: . It expresses time. he died on that day. we speak with the mind. 126. &s?3dso. 2. Locative Case. Ablative Case. as: the schoolmaster kac&>6 sks^sS. we understand with 2. The ablative case is used: To o express the cause or instrument of an action. makes is often used instead of the life. It is used to express the superlative degree of is adjectives. as: i3?^5 s2?3 ^jssSr. w^o^o ^oz^ ^ja^rf SJ^^O^D*. as: it is in the house. 3. To express motion from. situation. as: illness. Lord. man was made as: =cfsc>o of dust. i. It denotes cause.121 2. as: wodoz^ sSkf. . as: (3dsira> dJS^odo eroocssoi). The locative case signifies: i.

. $tfori ^raosS. I will think about this matter. i. you. come sin. ^s?*. as: . against him. -d> ^^ wd^^<3 sii^sS. come! USES OF THE POSTPOSITIONS. I <a am on good terms with him. as: essij^. as: inquire of them. wsSa^V). Concern (>^oi>. ^sSa^S. . The relations expressed by them are chiefly the fol- beseech God. as: tsojod O-J ' . To express beginning or origin. The vocative usually commences help me! sentences. 200. as: riodrf on the mountain there is a temple. as: =5*0^ ^cs* doe3. The communicative case is With verbs like sir^a. 128. I speak to them. o^o^ roooaol) do^o. I told him. Locality (03^.122 5. To show comparison. Ca concerning the bottom of the sea we do s^Dldrf not know much. used: siozl. I have nothing Vocative Case. through 6. 127. zS^sSd?. as: tj^o^d os^idjd. Postpositions are used to express 129. O father. To show relation as: 0^0=0* wcdod <^d wodo. I ask' . the horse is bigger than the Communicative Case. >2^35[ >^). as: d>^6d ^&. 1. as: T^oogrf rtoo&rf DsstoSjsdo ^0=5' rU>o3fcj. more definitely the relation implied by the simple cases. O God. So f sSjs^otfri ^)t5DD?jo^. . 2. ass. 2. as: sjs^js^o dodra eos^o^. tsoJo^ <0o^ CJ^STS 'Sto. 7 i. . death has <r from the beginning.

Agreement (g'Sfsd. Intention. as: zS^sStf ds^JBjii d ^ooia^oj vuodo rfj^. eos3.sBj3^rod. as: wrf^sJrtJn* 20^. ^& - ddi^j ^ Q 4. j. Direction ^odsradrf (wzSn^^zSn'jrfoo^. he will judge with righteousness.. as: I shall in the afternoon. erusd) s&^ he ran as far as the village. it make 8. you should not him (or near him). ^> tracted with the communicative case . 00 ' come after me. sroOoi). ^c^ 10. the son came instead of his father. Time come (z3J3^.. instead of love. 5&is3j3&>). 7. purpose (eSj^cSe)^). &b. he showed enmity. ^s: ^^a t? s3. as: e^cjcljs^(or tjodo ^yo. Measure (skoU). without me you cannot do sit any thing. $tfos? sj^zSrf zo^. to as: ^ ?o^ must forgive up e. 123 that book (will be) must be with him. he went came to you. wodo &ok3o. instead). 9. with Instrument (sijoujso^d. according to that pattern. God created the world by Interchange (sjrfjA*. s. I ? CTSSTS went with him.r1o) ^p^aSo. seventy times seven. I came on account of this I to the riverside. as: . ^odclo^o doozoo . <fc^tf d . ^^). wcte/nf. without. 16* . riooeoo).3)ck). f350&. o3 ^^6 w. Sos^. labour for the kingdom of ^o^d w^oc/. they set out after midnight. 3. repent before death. follow me. Communion (fc^with construed and always con. 553^ His word.

). now the rain. S^OOF &zf sli^o . Sos'Lcso 20rjFQ) zojsdoo^o. 5^33. PARTICIPLE AND GERUND. who has come? oSoo^o^o eo^^. >d crookedly.etc. etc. 'a^ now. 130. USES OP THE INFINITIVE. to denote the place. Adverbs of mode or manner (e^ri quickly. since yesterday I have headache. . etc. *aot. God keep us to the end. come quickly.). or it is construed with the postposition until here (till till skol^. Remark: To show is commencement of an action or condition. he gave glad- ly. as: will be done. 131. they sang nicely. it walk slowly. he did not come now. . o^o yvio^o. afterwards there will be heat. &&&$ to see as: frequently used for the inflected verbal forms. (here) today will start ^Ij. 3. dJ3o20o. To express the point of time at which any thing ends or CQ$J\ finished. go'doocij. we have come. where is Bombay? !3Vo. o4>. dot) slowly. to the last. now). moment.). in from below. Bombay is here (in this direction).) is The first infinitive (rfotf^ to make. is 2. eo?oF tSj^^. 1. as: & tSjeS today that skoi^. Madras o> s ei is there (in that direction): '' 3J><$je> 2o?oFrf =5^s3j5ci> 3>&r&f Q s3o x 5 >doodo. time manner 1. <od as: tomorrow. Adverbs are used or cause of actions. ^os^s-scj* Oe>ri 6 =^J50o3o. eszS until there. and dew 2. etc. the adverb takes the form of the dative case. will shall I wait so long? c3?>5 Fido^ ^zS ^OJ^. o^sS. o3o ooe3 the rainy season mist is rising and rain are falling from above. Adverbs denoting place (to^o. osjd rfjou. as: sS^ri too.124 * USES OF THE ADVERBS. as: (TW& /fid work <i 3tf de^ en^orij. Adverbs signifying time (^^ today. as: zlfSowsoSo 'sxo^ . frequently the adverb or\ #js?zSfto8a construed with the instrumental case. there is ^ ^^^s tomorrow. r$ skoUj. he who was this &&& afterwards. ^^j^.

: O / ^^o * ^iscfto dod. mode how an they willingly told a 3. To express the reason or cause of actions. the fruit of >. we came to it. 135. 133. down through O 203^^ wt3 the blow- ing of the wind. they are afraid of dying. shame. six years since I came to this place. as: yo3o do^0kt5?3. as: be came laughing. Participial and verbal nouns are treated like other nouns. uO^ object to a transitive verb: as: W^O^TS* 200^053-3^6 wodo his desire is to deliver them. his work. this boy was ruined by not learning. To denote Q tJoSo JOJjarso 2oJ0" 05 performed. o^. as: to receive si)s?j3 something. went do it. rose and 2. it is To express time. she asked for drink (lit. I sometimes added ^peoSj.125 132. w sdDo3j6 ^oc^. as: =3^0^ 3^0* L> 3iloi>. The participle has frequently the meaning of an adjective or a relative sentence. as: (S&F?^ ^^ wdood). express actions in their ' succession: as: oO^d) vBosfc^. as: also the dative affix K to frequently added to the supine without alter- ^pcOoSoTS is ?5 20^ . *J The second infinitive (supine) is used as the essS^T?. what may be .ns J7 Seises Q Sjjseoi). ?3v 3d>3jv$. ej^os& said about their doings? i. is doing. as: -d? snodorta d^F tJoc^. the tree ' we have seen. the work he 134. drinking). is Remark: The gerund ing the moaning. to . 4. The gerund went away. the fruits fell SJOC^'F eoJSD^ocs5 . Esau ate. abusing abusing is is a sin. the is used i. ts^o^o io O 01 action is lie.

Such a<sf such a house. 140. Chapter: Of the Attributive Parts of Speech. S3i> Interrogative. subject always precedes the predicate. f e5s3o^ eo5o d^sSo*. a nice cloth. is often affixed to nouns and and the compound . so so much gold as stone. some rupees. ' /) Numeral wz3 5&oz3. partiples. doocS. as: many men 5 so many minds. 8o&<| &&$. Tors co Qualitative attributes. atoe^Je^ a?i j standing. is then used attributively. this 7 LJ 1 ) an umbrella. what kind of horse? Demonstrative. The as particle ws?. the animal called lion. sis^ dosraoSo. esdTfo t?o5o naO^n 5 the . Chapter: Construction.126 3. the world is large. as: starf oizi ^ooUo. the young man who killed the tiger. 4. the boy who had no underM 9 eooa wc^. as: . ORDER OF WORDS. which man? oio^^ =& way. 136. v 139. / God ^^ c^dsjsra^i. 3 ' that cow: S3ot&&n r attributes. another fowl. as: ^dd:ra>. & 137. a small tree: 9 $?&. The . dod. the distance he went. I . 2o the third chapter. as: -^ Troa. as: l^>^ 6 o w^c^. Participial attributes. king David (or David who had become king). six persons. 2oo3o ^^ ^ri. do^ doo^. clean water. =&J^O. Pronominal attributes. the man named Jacob. / 2. the father: woa s^oa w?^. . i. 1. the king rules. ?ooa. eo^^Ds5 jc&> many men as have come ^oSo^s rfjsd. the tiger which was killed by the young man. &^o ^Q Sj. 138. as: 141. an intelligent boy.

his three sons. as: the king rules the kingdom. Words which form the completion of the verb as esd?oo objects. the affix by which the case form- ed is only added e3e>. Sometimes different co-ordinate . one day a boy wrote a letter with a quill for 3. every one is responsible for himself. e33 =5^ the .127 2. examination at school. o3. and then- wives. there are CJ V villages. 142. attributes. the water of the boy's father's well I read a nice story. etc. of words is employed: its To represent a collective notion in constituent parts. tosd^ doo =5\>do6. he gives to every one according to his deeds. rra-^U)^ e5a^0^o w&o"".ac3o 2o5 8oS 33 33 a^eoonstf. good. a -very big horse. a good man. these eight persons were spared in the deluge. When several co-ordinate words are used to in a senis tence in the same case. precede the verb. the king rules the cs* 2oz3 'surfed zodofo. words are joined together by a demonstrative pronoun as: . oiis^ ^z3 ^>^or 3$ff Lao3o. must precede these. or words necessary to complete the subject or object. towns and 143. his wife. wra esrio^ iJS^rf riosS^d is >etf ^c| eruoci). ed?oo OetfBj^i-S} s kingdom with wisdom. Remark: Repetition 1. CONNECTION OF CO-ORDINATE WORDS. <>3|. officers in districts. as: O'ojja cdj t^cSas? SJJSSTJ f&ssSr. Noah. . ' oo the last one. and this has the plural form: as: erusdo. adverbs. as: <^d c3drfjs>. In the same way.o ^ S3D =5s)dc|jsdo ^ozoo^oS f r what reason do the wicked not O r^ srseSc^ sJO^A6 s3^sj> believe in God? 2^0^ a&flkJo too3 .

USES OF CONJUNCTIONS. sometimes is generally used after a final a or . ^eSd. going from house 2. gqra^i 553^. love and grace are God's nature. fSeqo tf^ootfo vessels arc sailing to a very far country. me a red one or a white one: gruel or rice. what he told oi. come in the morning or the evening. sra^^6n* &$ ss^od ^dz&ft <2T) w^jodo. as: deti dri 3rfc S. of any thing that is is in heaven above or that under the it. Disjunctive conjunctions (ss^^o as: 3^odand wo. (<275. USES OF SOME PARTICLES. roving from village to to village.123 beggar is travelling from country to country. sinners w ill r get dp>6 53^0 ^JS^OF of e3^i ?^^o "u shame besides punishment. esd^o cdowdjs^. Copulative conjunctions jsdo. I . we gave him milk and . sS?. I told him until I became tired. / co =$00^4 rioe3 bring. 145. cS^) "^)" is generally used after a final vuor t?o3oo&c34 ^^. was a lie: " ^6 e ro dorftfois* even the house tumbled down. besides the word >=9 w God we have no other sacred scripture. r. sjsc^ =&J30odo. as: o3j?. 144. come you too. am going. Emphatic particle (. Zi 'atraorf). 7^6 sugar. sra?o ^o^ ^t3. 146. cv . ?2eOo ci>. house. very large To denote intensity. is in the earth beneath or that in the water earth tliou shalt not make an I shall idol nor bow before =s^od in &3& zSjpfcg ^8* ^F. not the minister but the king is master.

to generally used after a final as: rbdosS^ soj^. the sun is shining. is it oJ * a lie? &c. More frequently. afterwards he learns to walk. 147. Interrogative particles (w. used when the answer do not come. s/x>. gave "s3d" me was is a book. i. however. ^.129 after c&>^. as: vti-vff 2o6j3ci). have you seen is it? come? ^O^DD. and after some time begins to rfodo 17 . woi>c^ wdc3% he himself eru. as: ^JSQ^ ^ot3 s^^c^ is what he come. Euphonically these are treated like the emphatic particles. (and) from its heat the rocks are heated.. its^ beams are falling on the earth. cS^. exalts a nation. shall I come? EO&O& iff . "c^is generally used after a woi> oSoo^ some- times after <0. and ">" or "c3^ expected to be a negation of what has been asked. when man is born he is not able to sit. they are joined to- gether by the use of conjunctions. as: o&s)^ zodod^. as: ^3o&e>. oi\"cra w With regard have you done it? is to their signification w in simple questions. ora. Co-ordinate sentences are sometimes put together without formal connexion. explained in the previous is it paragraph. and & s3^). it is righteousness that final 55. as: what God delights in is love. 5. CO-ORDINATE SENTENCES. Chapter: Connexion of Sentences. the priest has come. are used love? w6oi3e). shall. as: dj^sS. is it a wall? 7fove>. I ^J3oi>cS"3. 533. ' 149. as: 148.

he is tired. because men have sinned (therefore) they suffer. !^237)o3j. men have fallen into sin. wo^. is as: otos^ 6 the tree which I see Jj>cS* Q high. Adjectival sentences qualify . for he has come from a great distance. ZO&FC^ rfootoo wo3o ^^oSo. ej he was punished he woSo LcSjs^io ^4? ne was -' o reading until they Place: came.130 speak. after became wise. . 1. as long as otoScS* Dharmaraja was ruling. Sjzi^raodo*. oa Sos^ wtfotfo sooa ws^oc^. where the stone struck there a hole was made. 150. =3^ awso^sk ^^. 6. sense. creofortotfod wo3o djsd ^1. d. therefore they are suffering so much. like adverbs. Cause: ^dto^tf sje)^ ^o^fSc^ ^^> e5G*o$O^>tf. manner or cause. SUBORDINATE SENTENCES.. many people know (have) good means. Adverbial sentences. eruodo. WOOF dooeJ. yoi> so^ori w^o^o ^"slD^jthey were waiting until he arrived. but they are not able to employ them. cs*. so^ t3j3$Se>ztf ws* =5^. Incomplete subordinate sentences (which are formed by the use of the uninflected verbal forms) are either adjectival or adverbial. c. before I came he went sSkf. qualify verbs and express time. the man that did this work displayed much 2. as: 7dos3j3li5 ( Time: qSsJortre^ w&orao eros^^rt g^^o s^ oC3*. nouns.. ^dsira&tf sro^pri) toJ3Qoi>o*.. vfattrf c&>6 ofozS i A}33s>o> rU)o^oodo. a.. place. away. w^o^nf TrasfcqSgF az3. the people lived happily. Mode: ^^ ^^ sidd^^jsdo w5j d^ ^JS^orf 3o^ w^ thy will be done in earth as it is in heaven.

t?o3o if 1J he had been here. as. Direct sentences are either adjectival or substantival. they would judge themselves. theft. Conditional sentences are joined to their principal sentences by the affix "d".. &oo if you learn well. Adjectival direct sentences are joined to their principal a. the eagles will be gathered where the carcass 2. as: . 1. 17* . he who commits sin will eat the fruit of it. sentences djsosl by the use of the verbal form ^oa o^o^ 20^0^ dossj '"s^". as: . as: >tf sissj s&tf^sSora oofo ff so^ 3Jo ?3 3^023. all know that God is almighy. conditional. all say that God is seeing. you . this mis- fortune would not have befallen me. sssS^ as parents are. but few only believe it. but they do not admit that He if is holy. will be their children. so s3^ oio^^ora^o^a) yios&^cra^o^o tTssS^o. 3. ^sirac^ ^exjjdd . in the case of quotations. Complete subordinate sentences are either re- lative. >^* if there be rain. he has committed Substantival direct sentences are joined to their prin- cipal sentences by the use of the verbal nouns "^^^4" or. they did so. is. by the gerund "esotf^".^F ws^od cdre^ ^js^oSo. I shall not go. s^rs to^o STOCKS) ess^o ^do^o^o. Relative sentences are connected with their principal sentence by the use of the relative and demonstrative pronouns and the particle "ts" or "^ ". am much grieved to hear that ft. or direct.131 151.. I c&> ^o a^ ^JS^ro^o. because they know that. will get a present.

enough. and the is plural dU>e#o#o. 533^^ leppuni.132 APPENDIX. ^oi>ri jeyegu. sii^^i malpuni. T bodci. nnpu. Specimens of the dialect of the Tulu Brahmins. dayegu. dane. 1. malpuve. plough. srasj^ papanu. ti'^Qfi dappuni. what? ^"S^jala. ponnu. malpe. to dinner. sJoo^)^ mampuna. bokka. &c. in the heart. lyavu. of different expressions for the I. I make. hrudayogu. . ^^7^0=5^ unasunku. ^JSra mani. used for child in general by the Holeyas. ^OosS mampe. nnasudu. 20^7^ battege. 20^=^6 battekere (or ^D (to) 5 kera). ^ps5^^ voleppuna. same thing: a. afterwards. unasugij. meal. doo^)d mompuve. sl)o J mante. 2. (to) call. *2J3o$ jovu. it is said he came. malte. eSs^ bettu. lyandu. not ~> v s wanted. SoNdoSJSo^O hrudayoiiku. botri. Examples Tulu. hrudayodu. to the heart. boy. girl. 3o\rfo5J5oi]o hrudayontu. I made. why? tSJS^vl. &z5^<fj adappuna. A. any thing. Words with changed Consonants: SADo^) umpu. is also ZKFSrfofcf unasuntii. dala. not enough. (to) make. Common ami. I shall make. ro Brahmins' Dialect. ^ t^cSjane. &c. 33>5J) papu. children" common to all. at dinner.

Tulu Poetry to metrical rules. Tulu. 1. According (Tula Brahmin's Dialect.) ? ^ o 2.) (Common rirtd A s^orra .133 B. Folksong.

Tr. tied up. in's Wer den Teufel Germ. prov. to ask the price of the cow? Engl. of the cow. Wer A sagt muss auch B sagen.. He who ate salt will drink water. prov. he that came. v^tf so^cs-sc&rf Lit. muss ihn auch iiber's Meer fahren. the Of a it vessel the mouth may be tied up.134 . . True being to a word reply is not. water will drink. A son brought up by the grandmother will become unfit for anything. For buttermilk. . Mean. What business has he who came for buttermilk. S32 A Truth makes right answer turns free. Lit. 3. son. Salt. for the performing obsequies will not Mean. of the mouth can be tied up? but can a man's Meaning: The mouth of a vessel may be tongue be kept quiet? 2. 4. eros^ Boac3>o3o Lit. w The grandmother brought up be fit. Literal Translation: throat. w Tr. oisSorrf gcd) JSDC&H*? price Tr. Tr. he who ate. ^o* ^sSr. Tula Proverbs. Mean. Cd Lit. away all obstacles. Boot geladen hat. the why? Mean. Meddle not with that you have nothing to do withal! 5. e5osroc&> srai&orta ?3oc3i>ak Qtf.

11. prov. God gives us hands. ^33 ?3oztfz3 f 23^o s s&jfcl esh o&ri. let go. ^kJ train? 20^0 Lit. Man muss des Guten nicht zu viel thun. for the country suitable the language. language. Mean. gefallen. Where the is forest is fat let prospering you must > you must put the goat. but does not build bridges for us. the root until do not eat. Tr. Mean. 7. for drinking. prov. ^otooF Lit. For the time suitable the game. where the is fat the goat you must Konkanas you must let go. SO f\ Tr. His expectations were not Germ. Lit. Lit. 9. sweet.135 6. 8. The forest it is where fat it village. Engl. Draught 10. what was born a fulfilled. the Holeya. To his forehead his hand. girl it is was. 3s)3. is Mean. ist in's Wasser Berge kreisen Lit. Mean. Because the sugarcane Germ. where a village the Konkanas go in. He has no help but his own. the Brahmin's earning on ceremonies. cattle want beating. Tr. or: a girl. for ceremonial balls. for the drum suitable the dancing. The Bant. having said. What ho expected dust it became. Tr. what he does. what he has done. prov. the Holeya's on drink. you must not eat its root also. what was born. Mean. the Mean. Tr. cattle. The Bant's earning is spent on law-suits. Tr. the beating stick. Lit. According to the time must be the is its feast (or game) of the demon. Sugarcane sweet. . Seine Hoffnung und gebaren Mause. Z/zY. for fine. Tr. To draught Mean. according to the music 12. the Brahmin. according to the country must be the dance. what he has done.

ck sjdofo* ^oSo. feet. he must do it Engl. he caught young frogs. prov. ff 3e>c3 Tr. Tr.17. If He himself a thief. Of the dog the tail become? Mean. c?z>03od Lit. 18. Sitting in the pit. Germ. prov. jLzY. Lit. he himself is a thief. SS 3 ? ^^ 5J3C3*od ?jSi> in a tube if WTO? you put. To dance. Lit. Der Dieb meint sie stehlen alle. Every one measures other people's corn by his own bushel . sat. 14. . but what the servant does done badly. . heissen zur Halft. prov. Zzi. Mean. soil man williglich leiden. Selbst thuts ganz. If a himself. Tr. to him that does not know. Was man nicht kann meiden. bad. prov. Tr. Mean. as far as to the it is. Mean. prov. 2V. Germ. mat you must stretch your die Ftisse nach der Man muss Decke strecken. prov. und Bitten gar nicht. the best. the floor is uneven they say. Germ. tail become is straight by putting it into a tube? A bargain a bargain. the son what he did. or^ =&tfo. the cooly what he did. man will have his business well done. According Germ.136 13. the feet one must stretch. >t to dance says the floor is uneven. Lit. What one does himself well done. Engl. what the son does is is not so well done. Will a dog's Engl. is Mean. He himself what he did. he think the whole village to be full of thieves. if (he) is the village a thief be. In the pit having young frogs he caught. The mat. He who does not know 16. straight will it Tr. middling. Mean. prov. 15.

Tr. but the mind 21. prov. quarrel. sfcrt. Bei grossen Herren muss man gerad sein lassen. Mean. 20JSO 33fcjf. 230^ LzY. Mean.137 Germ. there 23. ^^^ eroretf in the house. What business has the ant with the blacksmith's work? 20. die Sclmcckcn auf die Schwantze damit sie 19. the poor hope to tell is not allowed. a dinner if there is. siraari Lit. prov. t3e)dpdo. envy! is bitter. prov. to the Brah- min what? Mean. Do not blame the rich. & Lit. The blows given on the back. Tr. Germ. profit has a Brahmin of a dinner in a cobbler's house? zhv CO Mean. Tr. where they come> it quarrel will not fail. Tr. fish The Bants. The words are sweet. fiinf Germ. The rich man reproach to tell is not allowed. Tr. fcTSofco 5 Lit. What 25. CO A heavy load you must put down slowly. where the madenji fish is. to the iron put water will it return? Mean.0e> 323j3Ffio "&30 fallen ^tfOe) &d 20&S3S)? 2V. o)c3 sSos. Lit. Sie schlagen nicht shreien. and make not the poor hope. On the back blows. Of the cobbler. Mean. darling! in the belly envy. 24. Where Bants are there is silt. madenji where comes silt will not is fail. 18 . darling. Diese niramt ihm kein Jude mehr ab- 22. and the water put on hot iron in order to harden it can never be taken back. For the ants why iron work? Mean. Z(zY. In the mouth.

If children of seven years are foolish. the pain of the buffalo? Having eaten the yeri fish. &3. a For money no . *J . for the cow no rent. fcj The 27. I shall tease you. TT is In clearing up the account there no grief. he sold the bullock. tuft of the tenant is in the hand of his landlord. so are people of seventy years. 'ao^cre^o^A* &OOEOF The sick one has only one sickness. oats In daylight he A fell into the well which he saw at night. 39. t e It is as if you gave a ruby . The 38. 37.. Does the crow understand. a' -* interest. he drinks the water.138 26. to a monkey.. 35. As 31. . 28. d/e^ftn* s^o^^ ?^o^^. 34. vessel broken by the mother-in-law did cost nothing. for a boat he scratched so much that it cannot be used even for . but the inmates of his house have nine.. c&^ you tease me. or feel. 36. ?U>rto dossj SJ -323 64 &. A tree fit a bolt. Will the dog which took away bread ask for ghee? Having washed the bread.

"CT" you gave the discus to a coward. ti fool will not be ruined. 43. The plague which was wandering on 46. ?rad milk. So enough to drive them away). 3li there is the town. 7^ t&Gf ^^FOC3* ^JSlb ^3^0^. w woa^*? co Where the headman is. Cd What 41. after death grief. aS^a It is as if ^ > ^ocra. rjs&rs* ojs^vB sdos)0c5* ^fi ^^o sj'sd^o^. -D- After ruin one gets understanding. one ear heard is secret. To 49.crfjorf O td 3^s XT ^^. ^ (is For a thousand crows one bow 48. 18* .139 40. 45. nS%& Truth is ri3. t3s)rl 50. w tr 9 . 44. dd Co A s>lic^ W eoD^^4 man *sz3. virtue victory. is support. the road he took upon himself. what two ears heard is public. fyStir? ^js| a^3j. rifej. Truth cannot be drowned nor burnt. 42. qjrfor^ ^odo. the village-god live-coals must represent the lamp. The dead cow had given much 47. *a33. a wise will not prosper.

.. 1. 3. CHAPTER: a.j Double Consonants Of Euphony . 2 2 Vowels Consonants Syllables . b. . 8 8 9 9 9 9 Primitive Derivative 1.. Words according Words according Words Words to their to their Form . c.. CHAPTER: a... b.. Page 1. b.INDEX.. 3 6 6 7 d... PART: PHONOLOGY.. Compound Words Of Parts of Speech 2.1 1 Of Vowels Of Mediate Of Consonants Of Pronunciation .. CHAPTER: 10 10 First Section: Nouns . . CHAPTER: a. * I. PART: ETYMOLOGY. Elision Insertion 7 7 7 Permutation II. c.. Other Derivatives c...1 1 2. Of the Alphabet . b.... Origin 8 8 Distinction of Distinction of a. Verbal Derivatives 2.j c. CHAPTER- Of the Formation of Words .

C. Substantive Pronouns a. 41 Substantive Numerals 2. Adverbial Pronouns a. 33 Personal and Demonstrative Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns . . b.. b.. 30 . Of Substantives a... Interrogative Pronouns Indefinite ^4 ^4 d. 10 Gender of Substantives Number of Substantives . Tenses of the Verb 44 45 3. Adverbial Numerals Fourth Section: Verbs 1 . Adjective Numerals a..... C.. Of Adjectives Comparison of Adjectives 31 3.. Demonstrative Interrogative Indefinite ^ 34 34 35 * 3. Demonstrative Interrogative Indefinite ... Adjective Pronouns a. Pronouns 2. 35 36 37 Declension of Pronouns Third Section: Numerals 1..II Page 1.. 4. C. Declension of Substantives Nouns of Relationship Verbal Nouns 2. .... Of Adverbs 32 32 Second Section: Pronouns 1. Moods of the Verb Conjugation of the Verb .. Forms of the Verb 2.. 33 33 C..) b. b. 45 Fifth Section: Indeclinables H* . b. Cardinal numbers Ordinal numbers 4o 3.

.. . Present Tense . Infinitive. (Voices) . Postpositions Ill Ill 112 2. Interjections 4. Future Tense The Imperative Mood Uses of the Auxiliary Verbs Supplemental Verbs 118 118 The Verbal Forms 2. CHAPTER: Of the Complental Parts of Speech Nominative Case Dative Case Accusative Case Locative Case Ablative Case . PART: SYNTAX.. 1. 118 119 Uses of the Complemental Cases 119 . Particles 113 III. . of Sentences ... 115 t Past Tense 115 116 116 117 '. Conjunctions 3. 6.Ill Page 1. . CHAPTER: On the Structure . .. Uses of the 3.. . . c. 113 113 115 Subject and Predicate Uses of the Inflected Verbal Forms a. .. Participle 124 126 CHAPTER: Of the Attributive Parts of Speech Pronominal Attributes . 126 126 127 128 128 Order Words Connexion of Co-ordinate Words Uses of Conjunctions Uses of some Particles . 119 120 121 121 Communicative Case Vocative Case 122 122 122 Uses of the Postpositions Uses of the Adverbs 124 and Gerund .. CHAPTER: Construction of .126 126 126 126 Numeral Attributes Qualitative Attributes Participial Attributes 4..

.. c. 132 132 133 Specimens of the Dialect of the Tulu Brahmins Tula Poetry Tulu Proverbs . CHAPTER: Connexion of Sentences 129 129 Co-ordinate Sentences Subordinate Sentences 130 .. . b.VI Page 5. . APPENDIX a. 134 .

"tbat" after remark to be omitted. P. L. 33. L. 21: "21" 21: Put 23: 24: be omitted. (The lines are counted from the top to the bottom. P. 14: Put a (*95^)" to behind 9. L. Line 11: Put "Table showing the alphabet with the combinations of vowels and consonants" at the head of tbe 4th page. L. P. 11. P. P. L. 19: Read 7: rsiaP' instead of "< fr 124. L.) Page 6. P. 120. L. 81. 3: Add Add to 3o<fy5" s" to "think". of "Conditional P. $K" behind 35 P. 25: 11: 1: ^ avu. 40. L. L. 8. P. L. 125. P. L. "that" instead of "this". 27: Put "1" behind "124". P. L. 113. 4: Put. P. 5: Put "Subjunctive Mood" instead Form". 20: Read <e" instead of w". 4-7: Behind tbese words put "Expressions of disgust''. P.CORRIGENDA. *% "33" L. P. L. Ill. 136. "The" before "Genitive case". P. L. L. P. .




A x. .