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Other volumes in this series:

Other volumes in this series:
Volume 1 Volume 4 Volume 7 Volume 8 Volume 10 Volume 11 Volume 13 Volume 14 Volume 15 Volume 16 Volume 18 Volume 19 Volume 21 Volume 22

Power circuit breaker theory and design C.H. Flurscheim (Editor) Industrial microwave heating A.C. Metaxas and R.J. Meredith Insulators for high voltages J.S.T. Looms Variable frequency AC motor drive systems D. Finney SF6 switchgear H.M. Ryan and G.R. Jones Conduction and induction heating E.J. Davies Statistical techniques for high voltage engineering W. Hauschild and W. Mosch Uninterruptible power supplies J. Platts and J.D. St Aubyn (Editors) Digital protection for power systems A.T. Johns and S.K. Salman Electricity economics and planning T.W. Berrie Vacuum switchgear A. Greenwood Electrical safety: a guide to causes and prevention of hazards J. Maxwell Adams

Electricity distribution network design, 2nd edition K. Lakervi and E.J. Holmes Artificial intelligence techniques in power systems E. Warwick, A.O. Ekwue and R. Aggarwal (Editors) Volume 24 Power system commissioning and maintenance practice K. Harker Volume 25 Engineers’ handbook of industrial microwave heating R.J. Meredith Volume 26 Small electric motors H. Moczala et al. Volume 27 AC-DC power system analysis J. Arrillaga and B.C. Smith Volume 29 High voltage direct current transmission, 2nd edition J. Arrillaga Volume 30 Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) Y-H. Song (Editor) Volume 31 Embedded generation N. Jenkins et al. Volume 32 High voltage engineering and testing, 2nd edition H.M. Ryan (Editor) Volume 33 Overvoltage protection of low-voltage systems, revised edition P. Hasse Volume 34 The lightning flash V. Cooray Volume 35 Control techniques drives and controls handbook W. Drury (Editor) Volume 36 Voltage quality in electrical power systems J. Schlabbach ( ,- ). Volume 37 Electrical steels for rotating machines P. Beckley Volume 38 The electric car: development and future of battery, hybrid and fuel-cell cars M. Westbrook Volume 39 Power systems electromagnetic transients simulation J. Arrillaga and N. Watson Volume 40 Advances in high voltage engineering M. Haddad and D. Warne Volume 41 Electrical operation of electrostatic precipitators K. Parker Volume 43 Thermal power plant simulation and control D. Flynn Volume 44 Economic evaluation of projects in the electricity supply industry H. Khatib Volume 45 Propulsion systems for hybrid vehicles J. Miller Volume 46 Distribution switchgear S. Stewart Volume 47 Protection of electricity distribution networks, 2nd edition J. Gers and E. Holmes Volume 48 Wood pole overhead lines B. Wareing Volume 49 Electric fuses, 3rd edition A. Wright and G. Newbery Volume 50 Wind power integration: connection and system operational aspects B. Fox ( ,- ). Volume 51 Short circuit currents J. Schlabbach Volume 52 Nuclear power J. Wood Volume 53 Condition assessment of high voltage insulation in power system equipment R.E. James and Q. Su Volume 55 Local energy: distributed generation of heat and power J. Wood Volume 56 Condition monitoring of rotating electrical machines P. Tavner, L. Ran, J. Penman and H. Sedding Volume 905 Power system protection, 4 volumes

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The Drives and Controls Control Techniques Handbook
2nd Edition
Bill Drury

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The Institution of Engineering and Technology

Published by The Institution of Engineering and Technology, London, United Kingdom
# #

2001 The Institution of Electrical Engineers

2009 The Institution of Engineering and Technology First published 2001 (0 85296 793 4) Second edition 2009 This publication is copyright under the Berne Convention and the Universal Copyright Convention. All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned address: The Institution of Engineering and Technology Michael Faraday House Six Hills Way, Stevenage Herts SG1 2AY, United Kingdom www.theiet.org While the author and publisher believe that the information and guidance given in this work are correct, all parties must rely upon their own skill and judgement when making use of them. Neither the author nor publisher assumes any liability to anyone for any loss or damage caused by any error or omission in the work, whether such an error or omission is the result of negligence or any other cause. Any and all such liability is disclaimed. The moral rights of the author to be identified as author of this work have been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this product is available from the British Library ISBN 978-1-84919-013-8 (hardback) ISBN 978-1-84919-101-2 (PDF)

Typeset in India by Techset Composition Ltd, Chennai Printed in the UK by Athenaeum Press Ltd, Gateshead, Tyne & Wear

Contents

Preface Acknowledgements PART A A1 DRIVE TYPES AND CORE TECHNOLOGY

xxv xxxix 1 11 11 11 16 16

Industrial motors A1.1 Introduction and basic electromagnetic principles A1.1.1 Magnetic circuits A1.1.2 Electromechanical energy conversion A1.1.2.1 The alignment of magnetic force/flux lines A1.1.2.2 The interaction between a magnetic field and a current-carrying conductor A1.2 D.C. motors A1.2.1 General A1.2.2 Operating principles

18 20 20 21 25 25 29 30 30 31 32 32 33 34 34 35 36 36 36 37 38

A1.2.3

A1.2.4 A1.2.5

Fundamental equations of steady-state performance A1.2.3.1 The separately excited d.c. motor A1.2.3.2 The series d.c. motor A1.2.3.3 The shunt d.c. motor A1.2.3.4 The compound d.c. motor Permanent magnet d.c. motor Construction of the d.c. motor A1.2.5.1 D.C. motor frame

A1.3

A1.2.5.2 D.C. motor armature A1.2.5.3 Brush gear A1.2.5.4 Degree of protection and mounting A1.2.5.5 DCPM design A.C. induction motors A1.3.1 General A1.3.2 Operating principles A1.3.2.1 Rotating magnetic field A1.3.2.2 Torque production

vi

Contents

A1.3.3

A1.4

Fundamental equations of steady-state performance A1.3.3.1 Direct on line (DOL) starting current and torque A1.3.3.2 Starting current and torque when the motor is connected to a variable-frequency and/or variable-voltage supply A1.3.4 Voltage – frequency relationship A1.3.5 Slip-ring induction motor A1.3.6 Speed-changing motors A1.3.7 A.C. induction motor construction A.C. synchronous motors A1.4.1 General A1.4.2 Operating principles A1.4.3 Fundamental equations of steady-state performance A1.4.3.1 General A1.4.3.2 Brushless PM servo motor A1.4.4 Limits of operation A1.4.5 Synchronous motor construction A1.4.5.1 Permanent-magnet servo motors A1.4.5.2 Permanent-magnet industrial motors A1.4.5.3 Wound-rotor synchronous motors A1.4.6 Starting of synchronous motors Reluctance motors A.C. commutator motors Motors for special applications A1.7.1 Geared motors A1.7.2 Brake motors A1.7.3 Torque motors Motors for hazardous locations A1.8.1 General A1.8.2 CENELEC A1.8.3 North American standards A1.8.4 Testing authorities

43 43

45 45 48 50 50 52 52 53 54 54 55 57 58 58 60 61 61 62 63 64 64 64 64 65 65 65 69 69

A1.5 A1.6 A1.7

A1.8

A2

Drive converter circuit topologies A2.1 Introduction A2.2 A.C. to d.c. power conversion A2.2.1 General A2.2.2 Converters for connection to a single-phase supply A2.2.2.1 Uncontrolled converters A2.2.2.2 Controlled converters A2.2.2.3 Sine-wave input converters A2.2.2.4 Summary of characteristics

71 71 72 72 73 73 74 76 76

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