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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Have you ever-wondered how slow plant grows? Have you ever watched plants grow during its whole duration of growing period? How about looking forward to the day of harvest but the day is yet to come? Have you ever thought of no plants growing at all around you? If there were no plants, most living organisms would die. Plants provide food for all sizes of animals, from tiny ones to elephants. According to Rayburn, E. (1993) the growth and development of plants have a major effect on how plants respond to harvest quality. Plant growth is the process by which a plant increases in the number and size of leaves and stems. Plant development is the process of a plant changing from one growth stage to another. This study mainly aims to determine which among the different frequencies of white light, when subdivided, positively affects the growth of plants. The aim of the study covers how the different frequencies and intensities of light affect the growth of Glycine max, famously known as soybeans. Soybeans belong to the legume family and are native to East Asia. They have been an important protein source in the Orient for over five thousand years. Soybeans have only been introduced to the Western world since the 20th century. Soybeans grow on a variety of soils and a wide range of climates, ranging form tropical Brazil to the snowy island Hokkaido in the north of Japan. As soybeans mature in the pod, they ripen into hard, dry beans. Although most soybeans are yellow, there are also rare varieties which are black, brown or green colored. A given area of land planted

2 with soybeans can produce much more protein than land planted with other crops, or if the land were used to raise cattle. Glycine max has many uses that strikes both economy and scientifically. The uses of soybeans are so great like: Soy processors take the raw soybeans and separate the oil from the meal. The oil may be refined for cooking and other edible uses, or sold for biodiesel production or industrial uses. The processors bake the high-protein fiber that is left after the oil is removed and sell it for animal feed. Soybean oil is used in cooking and frying foods. Margarine is a product made from soybean oil. Salad dressings and mayonnaises are made with soybean oil. Some foods are packed in soybean oil (tuna, sardines, etc.) Baked breads, crackers, cakes, cookies and pies usually have soybean oil in them. Soybean oil, with simple processing, produce a fuel for diesel engines. Soy biodiesel is cleaner burning than petroleum-based diesel oil. Its use reduces particulate emissions, and its non-toxic, renewable and environmentally friendly. Soy oil produces an environmentally friendly solvent that safely and rapidly removes oil from creeks, streams and shorelines without harming people, animals and the environment. Soy is an ingredient in many industrial lubricants, solvents, cleaners and paints. Soy ink is superior to petroleum-based inks because soy ink is not toxic, renewable and environmentally friendly, and it cleans up easily.

they are non-toxic. it will be divided into . but can withstand higher heat. It also states that the light that organisms interact with is in the form of white light. Soy-based foams are currently being developed for use in coolers. One of these is the Light Spectrum. Sir Isaac Newton discovered that when this specific light is shone through a prism. It is also known as the optical spectrum of light. With the proponents of being high school students they would want to develop a solution to the said problem by applying the expertise they have acquired especially in the field of physics and botany. If the study proves that a specific frequency of light will help a plant grow more efficiently than its usual growth period. refrigerators. automotive interiors and even footwear. There are so much uses that its extends to the making of Biobased Solutions. Soy-based hydraulic fluid and rail flange lubricants are among the more recent products developed with check-off funds. the economy is being tugged on as well. And because of the many industrial benefits of soybeans. The field of physics covers so many topics. the visible light spectrum is the section of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum that is visible to the human eye. Ford Mustangs rolled off the production line with soy flexible foam in the seats. More importantly. renewable and environmentally friendly. It ranges in wavelength from approximately 400 nm (4 x 10-7 m) to 700 nm (7 x 10-7 m). Beginning in October 2007. then a larger number of harvests will be expected in a period of time from soybean crops. According to Jones (nd).3 Soy-based lubricants are as good as petroleum-based lubricants.

Analyze the effect of the different light frequencies and intensities on the plants exposed through studying the graph made 5. Specifically aimed to: 1. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The general objective of the study is to determine the light frequency and intensity appropriate for the germination of Glycine max by exposing it to various light frequencies and intensities in fifty (50) days’ time to help in the cultivation of indoor plant crops. Six of these light frequencies namely: red. green.4 seven different light frequencies. using the different frequencies of light found in the spectrum the proponents are able to discover a specific light frequency that will help plants grow faster. blue and violet. Thus. Identify which among the tested light frequencies and how much luminosity positively affected the plants the most SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY . will be used in observing the Glycine max. Identify the number of soybeans produced per set-up 2. Construct a graph showing the effects of the various light frequencies on plants by using the data gathered 4. orange. yellow. Measure the average length and girth of the products in the various set-ups 3.

even scientists can now grow plant samples faster and more efficiently. With the result of this study. green. Each set-up will receive either one (1). It will save time and it might save more energy. This study is to observe the effects of each light frequency to the growth of the plant. This study is also limited to observing one kind of plant which is the Glycine max. three (3) or five (5) light bulbs each. . orange. SCOPES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The study covers the effect of the different frequencies of visible light to the growth of Glycine max. The observation period is limited to only fifty (50) days. blue. It will also be able to help locations that are affected too much by UV light that it hinders the production of plants. thus. and the average length of the products. These frequencies are embodied by red. This study is limited to only exposing the plant to six frequencies of light. yellow. These light frequencies are embodied by different colors. The observation is mostly centered on the: length of the plant. it may benefit astronauts that are trying to grow plants in outer space. The said plant is exposed to six different frequencies of visible light. violet. astronauts.5 This study will basically help in the cultivation of indoor plant crops or plants grown in greenhouses. After the study is done. farmers. with respect to their frequency level. Samples of each frequency level will be limited to have 3 varying intensities which will depend on the number of lights used per set-up. number of products. affecting the economy of a certain place. Limiting only planting and exposing only two seeds each frequency sample.

Electromagnetic Spectrum. © 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation. It refers to a discrete bundle of light energy. The complete range of electromagnetic radiation from the shortest waves gamma rays to the longest radio waves. Photon. It is the range of radiation. the photosynthetic machinery transforms light energy into a stable form that can last for hundreds of millions of years. Intensity.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS Light. © 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft® Encarta® 2008. The photosynthetic process depends on a set of complex protein molecules that are located in and around a highly organized membrane. It is defined as the physicochemical process by which photosynthetic organisms use light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds. . Through a series of energy transducing reactions.998 x 108 m/s. All rights reserved. It is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength that is visible to the naked eye. All rights reserved. Microsoft® Encarta® 2008. It magnitude of the source of energy such as light. it has a constant speed of light at c = 2. It is in a range from about three hundred eighty or four hundred nanometers to about seven hundred sixty to seven hundred eighty nm. It is always in motion and in a vacuum. Photosynthesis.

Auxin. Chloroplast. surrounded by a double membrane. All rights reserved. A natural plant hormone or synthetic substance that affects the growth and development of all plant parts. © 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Each consists of interconnected stacks of disk-shaped membranes in fluid.7 Frequency. While plant cells contain numerous chloroplasts. a wavelength on which a radio or television signal is broadcast and to which a receiving set can be tuned. algal cells often have just one. A part of a cell containing chlorophyll. Also. Microsoft® Encarta® 2008. a membranous sac plastid that contains chlorophyll and other pigments and is the place where photosynthesis occurs within the cells of plants and algae. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE . © 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft® Encarta® 2008. It is the wavelength for broadcasting. Microsoft® Encarta® 2008. © 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation.

it is the process whereby plants . Without the presence of sun. Use of not only light but also carbon dioxide and water has a great impact in the plant growth processes to manufacture food for the plant’s use. light plays to be a component in the production of the actual food for the plant. which can vary according to color and the actual strength of the light. So the presence of light can have a direct bearing on a plant’s rate of growth. While soil nutrients help in fortifying plant structures. sunlight will not be produced therefore plants would not be able to survive. Photosynthesis According to Jeanty. Growth as stated by Rayburn. (1993) is the process by which a plant increases in the number and size of leaves and stems.8 Plant Growth According to Kirk. This increase in the number and size of leaves and stems can be the basis of increase in production too. In the experiment. according to the Texas A&M University Agricultural Extension Service. the variation of the color ranges red-orange-yellow-green-blue-violet. Plant growth relies on a series of interactions that involves the presence of light. light has a variety of effects on plant growth. Light intensity has to do with the amount of light energy made available to a plant. E. red having the least energy and violet having the highest energy. (nd). J (2010) photosynthesis enables plant metabolism processes to take place and provides the energy that fuels these processes. violet will have the highest light frequency and red having the lowest. B. And since visible light energy is directly proportional to its frequency.

On the other hand. Chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight emitted by the sun and. On the other hand. Photosynthesis is the process where green pigment in the present in plant's leaf called chlorophyll. producing oxygen and glucose (simple sugars). When chlorophyll absorbs light. using this energy. convert it into chemical based energy. (1993). quality and duration of light according to Theo. to make cellulose and hemicellulose for cell walls or with nitrogen. Sugar molecules can then be manufactured from the energy provided by the hydrogen atoms. to make proteins which very important components needed in plant development. The plant then uses these sugars to make more complex sugars and starches for storage as energy reserves. according to Rayburn. The more intense the light. and water. which causes it to split into its component parts. Chlorophyll materials respond to different intensities of light.9 take light energy from the sun or another source. its energy excites an electron attached to a chlorophyll molecule. B. Photosynthesis is dependant on the quantity. carbon dioxide. which are directly related to a plant’s ability to grow. hydrogen and oxygen. which comes across in the different colors absorbed. Light Frequencies The color of light represents the different light energy frequencies that are contained within the visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. the more the plant will be able to use photosynthesis to grow. J (2010) stated that light intensity levels can have a significant effect on photosynthesis rates. The electron then transfers its energy to a water molecule. E. and then use this energy to survive. Jeanty. According to the University of .

The visible violet light has a wavelength of about 400 nm. plants deficiency of water may happen and as to the decrease of light intensity. ( 2007). while those toward the blue-violet end carry the highest frequencies. Related Studies on Varying Light Frequencies and intensities on Glycine max . As the intensity increase. different plant types also have different requirements in light intensity. The visible orange light has a wavelength of about 590 nm. And the visible red light has a wavelength of about 650 nm. Green is the only color that is reflected. A sudden change in the light intensity may have a great impact in the plant growth that may lead to its abnormality in growing rates. According to Jeanty. may hinder plants growth. This is according to Deyanda Flint (2009). while blue light helps to regulate growth rates within the leaves. The visible green light has a wavelength of about 510 nm. The visible yellow light has a wavelength of about 570 nm. for example. J. Light Intensity According to Jeanty. As there is a direct relationship between light intensities and growth rate-rate of growth increases with the gradual increase of light intensities of light intensity up to a certain limit. red colors always the one responsible in carrying the lowest energy frequencies. J (2010). it appears green because all of the colors in the visible part of the spectrum are absorbed into the leaves of the grass except green. According to Kusterer. In grasses. stems and flowers. J (2010) the energy intensity provided by red light stimulates overall growth throughout the plant body. therefore grass appears green.10 Missouri Extension. In effect. The visible blue light has a wavelength of about 475 nm. light intensity can vary depending on the type of color used as well as the wattage amount contained in a bulb used.

This is how light affects the growth of a plant. in combination with cytokinins in tissue culture • • Stimulates differentiation of phloem and xylem Stimulates root initiation on stem cuttings and lateral root development in tissue culture . Plants get energy from light through a process called photosynthesis. One source of energy we gain is from comes from the food we eat. (1991). Auxin According to tutorVista(2010) plant hormones are organic compounds which are capable of modification. The plant hormones are also known as growth factors. for which each wavelength has the same effect on plants regardless of the source. Sylvania (2000) also stated that the only difference between daylight and electric light is the amount of energy emitted at each wavelength. growth hormones. Raven. growth regulators or phytohormones. Salisbury and Ross. (1992). promotion or inhibition of growth. 1995. Its major function according to Davies. The light energy itself is fundamentally the same. growth substances. Without light. in young leaves or even in the meristems of apical buds. a plant would not be able to produce the energy it needs to grow. Auxin is a plant hormone that is regulating many physiological processes in addition to phototropism. The most biologically active auxin is indole-3-acetic acid-IAA. Auxins are found in the embryo of seeds. (1992) is as follows: • • Stimulation of cell elongation Stimulates cell division in the cambium and. Mauseth.11 According to Gardening know How (2010) all things require energy for it to be able to grow.

12 • Mediates the tropistic response of bending in response to gravity and light • • • The auxin supply from the apical bud suppresses growth of lateral buds Delays leaf senescence Can inhibit or promote (via ethylene stimulation) leaf and fruit abscission • • Can induce fruit setting and growth in some plants Involved in assimilate movement toward auxin possibly by an effect on phloem transport • • • • • Delays fruit ripening Promotes flowering in Bromeliads Stimulates growth of flower parts Promotes (via ethylene production) femaleness in dioecious flowers Stimulates the production of ethylene at high concentrations Soybean Soybean or scientifically known as Glycine max(FAO). (Albert. considering that there are more than 10.000 soybean cultivars. And as an advantage.) They have been an important protein source in the Orient for over five thousand years. as a whole. Soybeans belong to the legume family and are native to East Asia. (About Soya. Soybeans grow on a variety of soils and a wide range of climates. ranging form tropical Brazil to the snowy island Hokkaido in the north of Japan. S. soybean. On of which is reen-seed cultivars that are considered to be the tenderest and best flavored. Soybeans are tender warm-weather legumes.be). Soybeans have different varieties. soybeans are considered to be an excellent source of protein and dietary fibre. Another is the black- .

kidneys and eyes that follow. It is also a good in the protection against bone loss. And the protein present in soybean has all the essential amino acids that are adequate for human health. The benefits are as follows: • • Soybean is an excellent food for diabetes. soybeans are also good protector against heart diseases. folic acid and iron. The soluble fiber found in soybeans helps in the regulation of blood sugar levels and lower bad cholesterol. protein. According to Michael Madson(2009). on the other hand has many benefits.13 seeded beans are used for drying. They may also promote the production of HDL or "good" cholesterol. fat. Considering that it contains carbohydrate. minerals like calcium. It is easily digested and is one of the most nourishing and body building foods in the world. (Hubpages). insoluble fiber forms a thick gel. Soybean is also a good source of soluble and insoluble fiber. since soybeans can reduce LDL or "bad" cholesterol levels as well as the stickiness of platelets in the blood stream. A soybean. Because of these and other qualities. • It has been claimed that lecithin lowers blood cholesterol thru emulsification of fats and is valuable against the development and hardening of the arteries and all the complications of the heart. a tonic and energizer. Because of . soybeans may reduce the risk of heart disease to occur. which causes feelings of fullness and consequently promotes weight loss. brain. • • Lecithin is a brain food. In the stomach and intestines. yellow-seed beans are used to make soy milk and flour. Soybean has high lecithin content and is therefore excellent for mental fatigue and for protection against cholesterol deposits. • • It is especially good for growing children to aid growth and development. Also. It has been reported that diabetic patients were successfully treated with lecithin. vitamins.

soluble fiber increases the absorption of nutrients into the blood stream.14 the rapid decrease in the digestive process. Chapter 3 .

fifty-four E26 standard base sockets. The materials needed for the compartments comprised of 25 W colored incandescent light bulbs. eighteen 8 in deep pots and approximately 54 L of loam soil already induced with necessary fertilizers and nutrients. 54 m of electrical wiring and twenty 2. These materials were used to construct the compartments for the seedlings of Glycine max. nin e for each light frequency range.5 mm 4 by 8 feet plywood. The materials were bought within Davao City.15 METHODOLOGY Gathering of Materials The set-ups that were established for the observation of the reactions of Glycine max under different light frequencies and intensities were composed of two components: the compartments which would house the seedlings and hold the electrical wiring for the lights to be used and the seedlings themselves. The materials needed for the preparation of the seedlings of Glycine max consists of Glycine max seeds. Construction of Compartments . These materials were bought within the vicinity of Davao City.

16 Each compartment was made by constructing and isolating sections of a room wherein a light source and a seedling would be placed in such a way that the designated light source is the only light source that should be within the seedling’s boundaries all throughout its developing periods. Sections were constructed by placing plywood boards between two set-ups so as to separate them from one another. The lights are connected to a single timer switch so as to increase the efficiency on simulating night and day to the seedlings. The lights were situated and installed at the topmost portion of each . Connection and Installation of Light Sources The light sources were connected as a parallel circuit. This prevents the disruption of the other set-ups in case one malfunctions during the experimentation period. Conceptual design of experimentation area The colored circles represent the type of light color found within that compartment. The construction of the compartments was supervised by selected individuals capable of making this said design. The conceptual design of the location wherein the specimens were to be observed is found below: Figure 1.

after preparation. They were subjected to typical night and day scenarios wherein they were exposed to light for only eight hours per day and then were subjected to darkness all throughout that day. A total of eighteen pots filled with the seedlings and the soil mixture were to be utilized.17 compartment. were placed in one container. The seedlings. were already settled in pots holding approximately 3L of loam soil mixed with fertilizers needed by the plant. prepared and installed with the aid of certain individuals capable of doing the said task to be done. This would ensure that there would be not much competition in getting light energy. The seedlings were . switches and power sources were connected. Preparation of Glycine max seedlings Glycine max seeds were soaked in water overnight in order for the seeds to start sprouting. when placed. The two seedlings were placed at least two inches apart one another. This is done by setting the timer switch of the lights in such a way that it would turn off after 8 hours of usage per day. were subjected to different light frequencies and intensities by placing one seedling per compartment. This location of the bulbs would lessen the transpiration rates of the seedling in case the bulbs would emit increasing levels of heat. The sprouting seeds were then the ones placed in the pots filled with approximately 3L of soil and fertilizer mixture. Maintenance of Glycine max seedlings The seedlings. Two of the seedlings. The seedlings were then monitored day by day. The light sources.

data was gathered from every sample all throughout the experimentation period. Gathering Data Every twenty-four hours. Each day they were to be given 200 mL of water per day. the data gathered were placed on a graph. Other than physical data.18 given their daily provision of water so as to promote maximum growth by giving appropriate amounts of water. This was obtained by attaining one leaf sample per specimen per day. they were sprayed by water in order to keep the specimens hydrated and well. each day the samples were tested for their indole-3-acetyle acid levels. Every five days. This graph was made in order to aid in the analysis of the results gathered from the study performed. Length and Girth of Glycine max samples over 50-day period under different light frequencies and intensities Date Light Frequency Intensity Length of Girth of specimen (cm) specimen (cm) These were recorded by measuring each plant with a measuring tape. The leaf . ruler or meter stick. Each developing seedling was measured for length and girths then their individual measurements were placed on a table: Table 1. After the said time of fifty (50) days.

htm .wvu. BIBILOGRAPHY Rayburn. Retrieved from http://www.edu/~forage/growth. These levels were indicated on a table and later plotted on a graph. (1993). Plant Growth and Development as the Basis of Forage Management.caf. E.19 samples were tested in a lab in Davao City for each samples’ auxin levels.

gardeningknowhow.sylvania.nasa. Retrieved from http://www. How Light Affects The Growth Of A Plant & Problems With Too Little Light.soya. Functions of Auxins. Salisbury and Ross. retreived from http://www.htm About Soya.fao. retrieved from http://hubpages. Retrieved from http://www.html FAO.ehow.htm Sylvania (2000).be(2010). The Effect of Light Intensity on Plant Growth.info/auxins. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.gov/EDDOCS/Wavelengths_for_Colors.pdf Davies(1995).20 Flint.tutorvista. (1992).org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/gbase/data/soybean.com/about_6671823_effect-light-intensity-plant-growth. (2007) What Wavelength Goes With a Color? Retrieved from http://eosweb. (2009).com/assets/documents/faq0040-0800. Retrieved from http://assets.php Kusterer. Retrieved from http://www.com/problems/howlight-affects-the-growth-of-a-plant-problems-with-too-little-light. http://www. Mauseth(1991). What are soybeans?. Raven(1992). Retrieved from http://www. Glycine max L. D.(2010) How to Grow Soybean. Auxin.html hubpages(2010) Health Benefits of Soybean.com/2009/05/how_to_grow_soybean.480a953a-d61f-4776-a71e75418b551e6a.be/soybeans.html tutorVista(2010). S. J.harvestwizard. Light and Plants.larc. (2010).php Albert. J.html Jeanty.html Gardening know How (2010).com/hub/Health_Benefits_of_Soybean .plant-hormones.com/facts_5627183_relationship-plant-growth-light-intensity. retreived from http://www.com/content/biology/biology-iv/plant-growth-movements/growthregulators. Relationship Between Plant Growth & Light Intensity.

21 Michael Madson(2009) What Are the Benefits of Soybeans?. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_5189189_benefits-soybeans_.html .