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TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF CELLULASE ENZYME AND CAUSTIC TREATMENT ON MOISTURE MANAGEMENT PROPERTIES OF 100% COTTON AND PC BLENDED

FABRIC.
by

Ali Hasnain 07-NTU-109 Muhammad Waqas 07-NTU-135

A Thesis Submitted in the Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Textile Engineering with Specialization in Textile Processing

Department of Textile Processing National Textile University, Faisalabad March 2012
“This copy of the thesis has been supplied on condition that anyone who consults it is understood to recognize that the copyright rests with its author and that no quotation from the thesis and no information derived from it may be published without the prior written consent of the author or of the University (as may be appropriate)”

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Abstract The purpose of this work is to optimize the moisture management properties of 100% cotton and polyester-cotton fabric by using cellulase enzyme and caustic treatment. And the effect of changing different enzyme treatment variables like temperature, concentration, time and PH was also observed. Another objective of this project has been to compare effect of enzyme and caustic treatment on moisture transfer properties. It has been found that by treating 100% cotton and Polyester-cotton with cellulase enzyme their moisture management properties have been improved. On the application of enzyme PC fabric has shown better moisture management properties as compared to 100% cotton. And on the application of caustic the moisture management properties of cotton had further improved but there was a decline in moisture transfer abilities of Polyester-cotton fabric.

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iv .U.H) To our beloved parents and teachers whose hands are always raised to pray for our wellbeing. who guided and showed the right path to his followers THE HOLY PROPHET (P.Dedication We dedicate these humble efforts to the one who is the most merciful and affectionate to human being.B.

Shahzad Raza and Mr. National Textile University. We avail this opportunity to express our deepest sense of gratitude and thankfulness to them. First of all we would like to thank Allah Almighty for everything. Faisalabad. Rashid Masood Chairman Textile Processing Department and enlightened supervision of Mr. Syed Shahzad Hussain Zaidy. The work presented in this manuscript was accomplished under the inspiring guidance of Dr. Irfan Siyal and Mr. Their efforts towards the inculcation of the spirit of constant work and maintenance of professional integrity besides other valuable words of advice encouraged us to keep on fighting against all over whelming odds till success was ensured. Assistant Professor at department of textile processing. Muhammad Waqar Chaudhary for their help and encouragement.Acknowledgement We feel great pleasure in acknowledging our indebtedness to all those who have been of substantial help and support to us during the preparation of this manuscript. Tanveer Hussain. We would also like to thank Mr. Associate Dean of Quality Assurance and Dr. v .

.....................................................2........................................... 1...11.....14................................................ 1.....5...............................12 De-activation of enzymes .9 Cellulase enzymes and Bio polishing .......3 1............... 1...9...............................................................11.........................4....................................................14 Conditions for Mercerization ............................. 1................................5.... 1......4.....1 Importance of Moisture Management ..10.......................................................4 Significance of work ..................................3 Wearer related factors .............................................1 Factor affecting moisture management properties ... 1................................................4 Optimization of moisture management properties .............................2...........................................................................................................1.................................5...................15 Mercerization of Blended Fibre Fabrics ..10 Working conditions ..8.......3 Moisture management properties of polyester ...................................13 Evaluation of bio-polishing.......16 Classification of Mercerization process: ......................................................................1...................... 1..............11... Moisture management properties of cotton..17 Chainless Mercerizing .................................................................10................................. 1....................................3 Fabric related factors ......Table of Contents 1............... 1................................ 1................................14 Mercerization ..................................8 Bio Bleaching ....................................................15......................... 1. 1..........11.......1.....................2.......................................................... 1. 1..........3... 1..10................................................................. 1....................................................................1 1.............................................20 Chapter 2 ........................... 1........................ 1. 1.....13.............1.............................................................. 1.....3.................. 1...................................................................10..........................................................................3......3............................................ 1..............................11.................................. 1...............11........................9 Action of cellulase enzymes on cellulose .. Introduction ....19 Literature review ............ 1.............................................8 Bio Scouring......... 1..13 Parameters of bio-polishing....10............................................4 Specific Objective ...........................16......7.................8 Bio Desizing ......................6.............................. 1.........................................................................15 Changes in the Properties of Cellulose Due to Mercerization ...........................................................................................................................................5 Trends in Bio processing..............................15..........................4.........19 Parameters for Mercerization ...................................17 Chain Mercerizing ......................................................10.......................22 vi ............ 1.......................8 Bio polishing ...................5 Role of Enzymes in Textiles ............................. Moisture Management ...................................................15........................................................................ 1.......................12............2....1.........................................................................................3.................8 Bio Singeing ....................................................... 1........... 1.............2.........................................................................17...............................................................12..1.............

....8... 3.. Materials .......24 2......4............................................. cotton 3. 2............. PC 3.23 2..............................3..................................34 3..1...........4..................................................................7........4......32 Moisture management properties of untreated fabrics ..........................................................................2.......... 3...22 2..5.22 Enzyme (used in study)................... 2..........................................................32 3.....................................................5..............................3.................39 Effect of change of Enzyme PH on moisture management properties of PC ....................2...................................43 Effect of increase in Temperature of enzyme on moisture management properties of 45 Effect of different enzyme treatment parameters on OMMC of cotton ........ 2..24 Equipment used for enzyme application ..................................... 3.......................3........... 2......35 Effect of change of Enzyme concentration on moisture management properties of 35 3................................................................... Chapter 3 ........2............. Effect of change of Enzyme PH on moisture management properties of cotton ...............................25 Enzyme treatment ...............................4..............4.....2............................................................................................................... Effect of change of Enzyme concentration on moisture management properties of Polyester-cotton ...............................................................2.................................... 3........................... Effect of enzyme treatment on moisture management properties ......................3.................4.........1...1......................................29 Equipment used for Moisture Management Testing ......................................1....................................1........... 2..........4....................................3.....1..............48 vii ......................................................24 Method of Enzyme and Caustic Application .........2................32 Moisture Management testing ................ 2.... 3...................................................32 3...... Design of experiment .........................29 Weight loss ......................................6........37 3......24 2........ Results and Discussions .................22 Description of Substrate..............................................................2....4.............................................................................29 AATCC Test Method 1951 .. 3................................ Equipment .....28 2............................4......................31 2......4....41 Effect of increase in Temperature of enzyme on moisture management properties ......................1............1.................................. 2........................4.................1..................................5...............................28 Mercerization ............ Testing Methods........................................................3.................................. Method ................... 2............................3.....2.1....................24 Equipment used for Mercerization: ......... Effect of different parameters on efficiency of Enzyme treatment ........33 Results for untreated cotton samples .............22 Chemicals........2....47 Effect of different enzyme treatment parameters on OMMC of polyester................... 3......................5............1...........1.33 Result for untreated Polyester-cotton samples .......4......2................. 2...............................5................................................ Experimental ....4................2.................................................. 2.....................3.................................................................. 3................

..........10................. sample Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated cotton CC... 4.......12....62 4............ Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated Cotton CB.....62 Implications of the Findings .. (PDCD) 3............ (PFCF) 3...................................16............................................................................7.................... (CD) 3............... Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of fabric already treated with enzyme..62 4............ sample 3..........15.............14................................64 viii .......3..........................................................................................17................................... 3.........1............ Key findings of the Project .........1..62 Future work ....... (CE) 3...49 3...........13....................... 53 Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated cotton 54 Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated PC 55 Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated PC 56 Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated cotton 57 Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated cotton 58 Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated PC 59 Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated PC 60 Comparison of moisture management properties of enzyme and caustic treated cotton 61 Comparison of moisture management properties of enzyme and caustic treated PC 61 Chapter 4 ...................2........................................................................................63 References .52 3.................... ..................................... (CF) 3...... 5..............................................................49 3............. (PCCC) 3....3.................11........................18.................................... Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated cotton (CA)...........6...................8.......... Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated PC (PACA) 51 3........................................... 4...... Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated PC (PBCB)......5........................................ 50 3. Summary and future work ......... (PECE) 3..9...................5.....

...........................................10 Moisture management testing results for P3C3 ................................. 24 Table 2.......................................................................................6 Moisture management testing results for P1C1 ................................................................. 39 Table 3. 37 Table 3....3 Recommended conditions .......................................8 Design of experiment for Mercerization of cotton ...................... 26 Table 2.........List of Tables Table 1.. 43 ix ................................................................................... 24 Table 2............................. 34 Table 3.............. 30 Table 3...1 Effect of different parameters on efficiency of enzyme treatment ......... 33 Table 3............................... 7 Table 2...........................................11 Grading Table ................................................... 42 Table 3...................................... 38 Table 3....................9 Design of experiment for Mercerization of poltester-cotton ........10 Equipment used for Moisture Management Testing ...................... 22 Table 2...........2 Moisture management result for untreated cotton ...... 36 Table 3...... 29 Table 2............................................................. 32 Table 3................................................................................ 22 Table 2......................................3 Moisture management result for untreated PC ................ 27 Table 2...............................................9 Moisture management testing results for C4....................................................... 27 Table 2.....4 Moisture management testing results for C1........1 Role of Enzyme in Textile........................ 23 Table 2.....12 Moisture management testing results for C5 ...............2 Specification of chemicals .................. 40 Table 3...............8 Moisture management testing results for C3.......1 Specification of subtrate ....................................................... 35 Table 3............11 Moisture management testing results for P4C4 .......................................................6 Design of experiment for Enzyme Treatment ................................................ 26 Table 2.........7 Moisture management testing results for P2C2 ..7 Design of experiment for Enzyme Treatment of PC ................................................. 41 Table 3..5 Equipment used for Mercerization ....................................................................................5 Moisture management testing results for C2.....................4 Equipment detail (for enzyme application) ............................................................................

...................... 12 Figure 1.............. 10 Figure 1..................................................................................1 Structure of Enzyme .....................................................5Action of cellobiohydrolase .....................................................8 Chain Mercerizing Range ...3 Action of Endo-glucanase .........................6 Action of Cellulase Enzymes ................................................... 10 Figure 1...................................................................................................................2 Cellulose Structure ............ 17 x ............. 12 Figure 1..................... 11 Figure 1.................................................................................7Action of Cellulase components on Cellulose ..............................................List of Figures Figure 1.............................. 11 Figure 1...............................4 Action of Beta-glucanasse ..................... 13 Figure 1.

.....5Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of P1C1 ................................................ 49 Graph 3................. 46 Graph 3.................. 44 Graph 3.................. 58 Graph 3.................................................................................................25Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of CE..............9Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of P3C3 .................................... 61 Graph 3..21Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of CC............................ 35 Graph 3....... 60 Graph 3............................ 39 Graph 3...........................12Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of C6 ... 34 Graph 3............16Enzyme parameters and OMMC of PC .........19Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of PACA..........20Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of PBCB................................... 50 Graph 3..........23Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of PCCC .........27Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of PECE ........... 43 Graph 3...........1OMMC of Enzyme and caustic treated cotton ....13Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of P5C5 .. 55 Graph 3.......10Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of P4C4 .. 41 Graph 3......24Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of PDCD ........................................................................................................................................1 Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of untreated cotton ....... 53 Graph 3................. 48 Graph 3...........26Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of CF................ 61 xi ....... 51 Graph 3........... 52 Graph 3....................................... 57 Graph 3..........................15Enzyme parameters and OMMC of cotton ...............6Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of P2C2 ............................. 37 Graph 3......................................... 47 Graph 3............ 42 Graph 3.28Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of PFCF ................ 33 Graph 3.......2 Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of untreated PC............................. 54 Graph 3...... 56 Graph 3................................................4 Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of C2 ..List of Graphs Graph 3..............18Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of CB ... 45 Graph 3............................................. 38 Graph 3..........7Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of C3 .8Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of C4 ........3Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of C1 ..................... 40 Graph 3............17 Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of CA ................ 36 Graph 3..........11Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of C5 ..2 OMMC of Enzyme and caustic treated PC ....... 59 Graph 3.............14 Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of P6C6 ................22Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of CD ................................................

and thus not interfering with the temperature regulation of the body [1. the blood circulation increases in an attempt to release surplus heat.from cold. An important feature of any fabric is how it transports this water out of the body surface so as to make the wearer feel comfortable. Clothing is supposed to protect humans – in accordance with their environment . If the body warms up. The human body has different ways of trying to maintain its temperature. the warmth surplus is consumed – in this way the body cools down again. from which it then evaporates. Every human being sweats during different kinds of activities. During perspiration water (containing salt and other substances) is transmitted through the pores of the skin. blood circulation in the arms and legs is reduced. Introduction 1.1.CHAPTER 1 1. wind and weather. and its temperature is re-adjusted. and we start to sweat. heat. in a cold environment. If the humidity remains in the fabric and is not transported to the surface for evaporation.2. in order to minimize heat exchange with the surrounding atmosphere. to transport it from the inside of a textile to the outer surface and to release it into the surrounding air. it should fulfill this function without inhibiting the evaporation of humidity caused by perspiration (good moisture management). Moisture Management Moisture management is the ability of a textile to absorb vapors or liquid humidity from the skin. our body humidity is more or less absorbed by the textile we are wearing. If possible. 2]. The body warms up and even more sweat is produced causing discomfort. cooling cannot occur. 1. When we start to sweat. For example. Through the cold which is generated during evaporation. which decides the comfort level of that fabric. Importance of Moisture Management Moisture management property is an important aspect of any fabric meant for apparels. Moisture management can be 1 .

store and dispose liquid water and moisture from the surface of the skin to the atmosphere through the fabric. have made a big way for sophisticated textiles and apparel. In textile structures. Hence. The mechanism by which moisture is transported in textiles is similar to the wicking of a liquid in capillaries.referred as its ability to transport. greater the ability of the textile to wick moisture Fabric constructions. wicking and dimensional stability than normal denier fiber woven fabrics thus ensuring excellent mechanical and comfort properties. Hydrophilic fibres have a high surface energy and consequently. Hydrophobic fibres. Capillary action is determined by two fundamental properties of the capillary such as its diameter and surface energy of its inside face. The surface energy in a textile structure is determined largely by the chemical structure of the exposed surface of the fibre. Micro fibers have found their way into varied applications conceivable as their novel properties offer huge potential in terms of both function and aesthetics. The smaller the diameter or greater the surface energy. the spaces between the fibres effectively form capillaries. they pick up moisture more readily than hydrophobic fibres. especially micro fiber development. In recent years there has been a trend towards finer filaments as fineness of fiber is very important in determining the aesthetic properties of fabric. medical and allied applications. which effectively form narrow capillaries. major fibre producers have gone for more value added products with improved properties. Synthetic fibers. pick up moisture easily. the narrower the spaces between these fibres. which are packed closely together. However. Such constructions include fabrics made from micro fibres. 2 . The hairiness of the micro fiber yarns are very low and this in turn creates a low lint shedding propensity and it will generate lesser fly during knitting. less research in this field and want of expertise to handle these new fibers hinders its growth [3]. have low surface energy and repel moisture. Micro denier fibers have excellent flexibility and yarns with better regularity and elongation contribute for perfect knit ability ensuring woven fabrics with better softness. During the last few years. drape. the high cost. by contrast. lack of experimentation. greater will be the tendency of a liquid to move up the capillary.

season and heat-flow conditions as well as physical conditions existing next to the skin surface [4.3. even before silk which has a tendency to feel cooler. When looking at product labels of clothing. adaptation. Moisture management properties of cotton Cotton. Cotton. the cotton yarn has the ability to take away moisture from the skin 3 .4. is often associated to the softness of our childhood and remains an everlasting feeling of comfort t. It is so natural that when woven into textile. 1. it is always reassuring to see a percentage of cotton in its fiber content. Wearer related factors There are numerous factors regarding conditions of thermal comfort. Highly hydrophilic.1.1. Factor affecting moisture management properties Fabric related factors  Fibre type  Hydrophilic content  Weave and yarn density  Yarn structure  Porosity  Wet ability and wick ability of fabric  Fabric GSM  Fabric thickness  Fabric cover factor 1.3. our first pair of pajamas.2. 5]. 1.3. the fiber used for our very first blanket at birth. the cotton seeds are still apparent and can only be removed through a special process. a natural fiber still widely used today because no man-made fiber has ever been able to replace it. The exceptional properties of cotton in relation to moisture management make it the most comfortable fabric to wear next to the skin. sex. such as age.

Accordingly.6. Moisture management properties of polyester Polyester fibres have excellent wicking and moisture transfer properties. And by selecting suitable blend ratio between hydrophobic and hydrophilic content of yarn [9]. Additionally. meaning that it has surface bonding sites for water. Cotton fibre as hydrophilic in nature. The absorption capacity of cotton being 8%. The higher wick ability is due to large pore size of polyester fibre [7]. so it has poor moisture release and transport properties [7]. Microfiber blended fabrics gives excellent moisture handling capabilities. 1. The coefficient of friction increases and geometrical roughness decreases with increase in polyester content. 1. 1.7. a property require for fabric comfort. finishing treatments also play a valuable 4 . Optimization of moisture management properties Moisture management performance can be enhanced by using hydrophilic finishes on the surface of fabric and by blending hygroscopic fibres in the yarn. Increased polyester content in fabric cause quick drying and more water vapor permeability of the fabric. this is sufficient to keep human skin dry in normal wear and weather conditions. Therefore water tends to be retained in it. The thermal insulation increases with increase in polyester content [8]. This dryness is thus associated with a comfort feeling enhanced by the softness of the yarn structure. Moisture management performance can be enhanced by using fabric with the yarns of low density and using plain or sartin weave instead of twill weave [10]. Blending small proportion of hydrophobic fibre like micro-polyester with hydrophilic fibres like microlyocell enhances the wickability and drying characteristics [11]. Significance of work Comfort is an important aspect in today‟s terms as both consumer and industry are focusing more on the comfort aspect of clothing materials. a proper selection of fibre and yarn engineering should lead to realization of specific comfort properties of the fabric in much economic and scientific way.5. the result of millions of loose fibers which are themselves soft and malleable [6].leaving it dryer than any other yarn.

8. alkaline or acidic pH. Today enzymes have become an integral part of the textile processing. enzymes are the obvious choice because enzymes are biodegradable and they work under mild conditions saving the precious energy. Enzymes are gaining an increasingly important role as a tool in various wet textile pretreatment and finishing processes. Enzymes are secretions of living organisms. To determine the optimum conditions for enzyme application. the transportation impact is lower. To determine the best possible route for enzyme application. animals and microorganism such as bacteria of fungi. This research work is focused on checking the effect of cellulase enzyme treatment on mercerization and moisture transfer properties of 100% cotton and PV fabric. Conventional wet textile pretreatment and finishing 5 . only in recent years the application has widened with new products introduced. Enzymes are very specific catalysts. and high temperature. which catalyze biochemical reactions. Enzymes being biocatalysts and very specific are used in small amounts and have a direct consequence of lesser packing material used.     1. Enzymes are biocatalysts without which no life in plant or animal kingdom can be sustained.9. mild temperatures and often at a neutral pH.insight into fibre selection and yarn engineering s as to achieve comfort properties specific to end use requirement. Though enzyme in desizing application was established decades ago. Enzymes are gaining an increasingly important role as a tool in various wet textile pretreatment and finishing processes. With the increase in awareness and regulation about environment concerns. Specific Objective To enhance the Moisture management capabilities of fabric by the application of enzyme and caustic. To compare the moisture management properties of alone enzyme treated and both enzyme and caustic treated samples. 1. Conventionally wet textile pretreatment and finishing procedures applied in the textile industry are often characterized by high concentrations of chemicals. Role of Enzymes in Textiles Enzymes are large protein molecules made up of long chain amino acids which are produced by living cells in plants. they operate best at ambient pressures.

and high temperatures with consequent high consumption of energy. the enzyme and substrate characteristics.procedures applied in the textile industry are often characterized by high concentrations of chemicals. are quite different in laboratory-scale equipment than in industrial batch and semi-continuous equipment.. This is partially caused by the fact that mass transfer and shear. However. Process parameters need to be related to cloth properties such as the porosity and the density of the fabric in order to introduce efficient and economic enzymatic treatments. In the scientific literature a lot of detailed information can be found on the different reactions catalyzed by enzymes that are relevant to the textile industry. 6 . alkaline or acidic pH. they operate best at ambient pressures. mild temperatures and often at a neutral pH. Most studies described in scientific literature focus on aspects that are directly related to enzymatic incubation. Most information relevant for the design and development of industrial processes comes from companies producing enzymes or companies that develop formulations and applications for the textile industry and some from scientific or more technical publications that are dedicated to industrial enzymatic wet textile pretreatment or finishing processes. within 5 to 10 years. the relationship between substrate and enzyme. such as desizing. optimal temperature and pH etc. wet textile production processing will be shifted substantially towards sustainable processes. It is to be expected that. bio-stoning and more recently bio-scouring. bio polishing. Biocatalysis has proven to be a flexible and reliable tool in wet textile processing and a promising technology for fulfilling expected future requirements. apart from reaction mechanisms. these studies often do not focus on parameters necessary for the design of true full-scale industrial processes. because of increasing governmental and environmental restrictions and the decreasing availability of fresh water. Enzymes are very specific catalysts. the amount of shear or agitation. for example.

 Preparing enzyme-compatible dyestuff formulations.In an overall consideration enzymes are the wonder products. act on Proteins.1 Role of Enzyme in Textile Type Amylases Action To decompose starches in sizing preparations Act on Hydrogen Peroxide to decompose it into water and oxygen When combined. Research and development in this sector is primarily concentrating on:  Optimizing and making routine the use of technical enzymes in processes that are already established in the textile industry today. Different uses of enzymes in textile wet processing are listed below in Table 1. particularly from extremeophile micro-organisms. lipases and Pectinase Cellulases Research and development is still going on and new horizons are opened in the field of textile wet processing. Pectins and natural waxes to effect scouring Decompose indigo molecules for wash-down Laccases effect on denim Break down Cellulosic chains to remove protruding fibers by degradation & create wash down effect by surface etching on Denims etc.  Replacing established conventional processes with the aid of new types of enzymes. 7 . Catalases Protease. under stringent conditions.1. textile auxiliary agents and chemical mixtures. Now the use of biocatalyst has become state of the art in the textile industry. Table 1.

the reaction which took place at higher temperature and severe conditions could be carried out at relatively lower temperatures and milder conditions. The advantages are environment friendly application 8 . desizing was carried out by steeping the fabric with mineral acid. this would become an important enzyme in future. Pectins. A treatment with an enzyme. 1. Earlier denim was bleached with chlorine to get lighter denim or wash down effect.3. Lipase combination is used successfully and if this could be extended to other colors.2. Bio Bleaching Bio-bleaching has been adapted for denim. Indigo specific lipases are used to bleach indigo. Thus. which affected the cellulose as well as the color. 1. improves absorbency and softness. 1. extent of cotton weight loss. The lone disadvantage is that the cotton motes were not removed. less damage since it is specific to pectin and waxes and not cellulose besides increased softness.  Providing biotechnological dyes and textile auxiliary agents.e. Trends in Bio processing Major applications of enzymes in textile wet processing are listed below along with their brief detail. 1. At the enzymesubstrate complex level. the food consumed by human body was digested due to secretion of the enzyme. Bio Singeing This mode of finishing has been specifically developed to achieve clearer pile on terry towel goods. which is a powerful cellulase composition.10.10.1. 1. Bio Desizing Earlier.10. which warranted peroxide bleaching. which are suitable for industrial use [12]. Use of enzymes led to reaction with the starch only and thus they assumed considerable significance. Bio Scouring The enzymes help in removal of waxes. Producing new or improved textile product properties by enzymatic treatment. sizes and other impurities on the surface of the fabric. the concentration of the reactants became large and accelerated the reaction while reducing the activation energy barrier. Explaining the action of enzymes.10. lower alteration of cotton morphology i. Advantages of bio-scouring are the alkaline media of water. gives clearer look to the pile.10.4.

biofinishing can reduce or eliminate abrasive stones and the aggressive chlorine chemistry. significantly reduces pilling. especially for knitwear and as a pretreatment for printing. softens fabric hand and provides a smooth fabric appearance. is a finishing process applied to cellulosic textiles that produces permanent effects by the use of enzymes.and cellulose is not affected. especially for knitwear and as a pretreatment for printing. 1. Bio polishing Bio-finishing removes protruding fibers and slubs from fabrics. Enzymes are high molecular weight proteins produced by living organisms to catalyze the chemical reactions essential for the organism‟s survival. The enzyme and substrate form a „lock and key‟ complex that requires the enzyme to have a specific molecular alignment in order to act as a catalyst. which has to be removed thoroughly. Bio-finishing removes protruding fibers and slubs from fabrics. extreme pH values or chemical solvents. The disadvantages of bio-polishing are the formation of fiber dust. loss of tear strength. improved color retention is achieved after multiple launderings.11. the reproducibility of the effect and in the worst case. In denim processing. 9 . Chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes can typically be carried out as is most usual in nature under mild aqueous conditions without the need for high temperatures. achieving the desired „worn‟ looks. A bio-bleaching or lipase treatment on denim gives an authentic wash resulting in an excellent look. significantly reduces pilling. Second rate articles can obtain the high value eye appeal of first rate ones. By incorporating enzymes into detergents to remove protruding surface fibers.5. Cellulase enzymes and Bio polishing Bio-finishing. Bio-finishing is not only useful for cotton but also for regenerated cellulose fabrics. softens fabric hand and provides a smooth fabric appearance. Cellulases are used for this mode of finishing [13]. These naturally occurring molecules provide a high degree of catalytic specificity unmatched by man-made catalysts. 1.10. also called bio-polishing. especially for lyocell and microfiber articles. They have complex threedimensional structures composed of long chains of amino acids with molecular weights ranging from 10000 to about 150000 and occasionally to more than 1000000.

At least four components have been identified as being important in providing efficient glucose production. followed by extraction of the enzyme.2 Cellulose Structure 10 . The β (1–4) linkages between adjacent repeat units in the cellulose polymer chain are the sites that are vulnerable to catalytic hydrolysis by Cellulases.Figure 1. These enzymes are thus able to provide a food source for the organisms by producing glucose from cellulose. Endoglucanases hydrolyze cellulose at random locations along the polymer chain. Industrial production of Cellulases involves large scale growth of fungal populations.11.1 Structure of Enzyme 1.2 shows cellulose structure.1. The extracted enzymes contain multiple components that work together to yield glucose from a cellulose polymer chain. Figure 1. Action of cellulase enzymes on cellulose Enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose are found in nature in both Trichoderma and Humicola fungi. Figure 1.

3 Action of Endo-glucanase Figure 1. Cellobiohydrolases produce cellobiose (the glucose dimer) from polymer chains. Figure 1. and cellobiose convert cellobiose into glucose. The generally accepted mechanism is adsorption of the endo-glucanase.Beta-glucanases hydrolyze cellulose polymers from the non-reducing end producing glucose and leaving a polymer chain with one less repeat unit. the enzyme desorbs and is available for further adsorption and reaction.4 Action of Beta-glucanasse 11 . Endo-glucanase effectively opens up more of the fiber structure to attack by beta-glucanases and Cellobiohydrolases. After hydrolysis of the β (1–4) bond. betaglucanases or Cellobiohydrolases components onto the fiber surface followed by complex formation with the cellulose polymer chain and water. These two components in turn produce water-soluble fragments from the exposed area. Numerous studies of the mechanism of cellulase interactions with cellulose have been reported. These components and their points of attack on cellulose polymer chains are shown schematically in diagram below. This synergistic action allows for rapid reduction in fiber strength [11].

6Action of Cellulase Enzymes 1.5Action of cellobiohydrolase Figure 1. the reaction rate is slower than desired. Working conditions More than with other chemical reactions. temperature.11.5. the hydrolysis reaction will continue until either the reaction conditions change or the cellulose is physically removed from the reaction mixture. Mechanical agitation is important in order for the 12 . The optimal pH for a particular cellulase depends upon its origin. but very high temperatures can deactivate the enzyme by providing enough energy to alter its molecular alignments and thereby destroy its catalytic ability.2. Since enzymes are true catalysts and are not consumed during the chemical reaction. The reaction temperature is also critical since at low temperatures.5–6.Figure 1. whereas Cellulases from Humicola (Neutral Cellulases) are more effective at pH 6–6. time and agitation. the enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose is strongly influenced by factors such as pH. Trichoderma-based products (Acid Cellulases) work best at pH 4.

high pH ( >10) and high electrolyte content as well as enzyme poisons can serve to terminate the reaction by distorting the enzyme‟s molecular shape.11. an effective method of ending the hydrolysis must be employed to prevent excessive fiber loss. The adsorption–desorption mechanism of enzyme action depends on agitation to remove hydrolysis by-products and expose new fiber areas to attack. Recent work has demonstrated that the kinetics of the reaction is controlled by mass transfer effects [21].hydrolysis reaction to proceed efficiently. De-activation of enzymes Because the enzyme‟s catalytic action is not reduced during the reaction.7Action of Cellulase components on Cellulose 1.11.4.3. Figure 1. Parameters of bio-polishing Following parameters are vital for the bio polishing:  Temperature (operate in optimum temperature conditions)  pH (narrow pH range. 1. High temperatures (> 70°C or 160 °F for at least 20min or short drying at 120°C or 248 °F). which depends upon nature of the enzyme)  Time (longer treatment times cause damage)  Agitation ( necessary for cellulase proper activity) 13 .

but the evaluation of Cellulases is more complex and can vary from supplier to supplier. A standard test exists for amylases (AATCC Test Method 103)14. Evaluation of bio-polishing The removal of cellulosic fibers to improve pilling performance. strength and smoothness.12. For example. laboratory evaluations of bio-finished goods can only produce relative rather than absolute results. Mercerization Mercerization is the treatment of pure cotton fabrics or yarn with a strong caustic soda solution (usually 280-300 gpl) to improve strength.  Improved luster  Increased ability to absorb dye  Improved reactions with a variety of chemicals  Improved stability of form  Improved strength/elongation  Improved smoothness The mercerizing process consists in treatment of cellulosic materials with concentrated solutions of caustic soda at a temperature of 15 to 18°C. One common method is to measure the degradation of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solutions. a product which from the chemical point of view is identical to the original 14 .. dye substantivity.5. and create an abraded appearance requires not only enzymatic hydrolysis but also mechanical action to carry away reaction by-products physically. is determined by: HD = (m0 – m)/m0 Wherem0 and m are the weight of the test material before and after bio-finishing [14] 1. Therefore. i. because the mechanical conditions of the technical application are different to the laboratory ones. HD. Mercerized cellulose is hydrated cellulose. Another is to determine the weight or strength loss of standard cotton fabrics under laboratory conditions where there is a correlation problem. the hydrolysis degree.e. soften hand. Enzyme suppliers determine the activity of their products by measuring the extent of the catalyzed reaction under carefully controlled conditions.11. The final results from the hydrolysis with respect to appearance and hand are affected just as much by the mechanical components of the process as by the chemical components.1.

physico-chemical and structural modifications on treatment with caustic soda solution. Chemical reactions lead to the formation of alkali cellulose. washing-off of the traces of alkali from the treated fibres.  Swelling and shrinkage of cellulose  Structural modification  Increased luster  Gain in strength  Increased moisture absorption  Increased dye adsorption  Increased reactivity  Removal of immature cotton  Physical compactness 15 . The effects of mercerization are.1. Conditions for Mercerization Mercerization is defined as the treatment of cotton textiles with a concentrated solution of alkali consisting of the following conditions: (a) Application of caustic soda solution around 55-60oTWat a temperature of 15 to 18C0 (b) A dwell period of 55 sec on an average. so as to permit diffusion of alkali into the fibre. Changes in the Properties of Cellulose Due to Mercerization Cellulose undergoes chemical. This method was patented in 1850 by the English calico printer John Mercer and hence forth this process has been called as mercerization. (d) Finally. Under the action of concentrated alkaline solutions chemical. but differing from it in physical properties.13. physical reactions. Chemical reactions lead to the formations of alkali cellulose. 1. physical reactions. 1. physicochemical and structural modifications of cellulose take place.cellulose. to a change in arrangement of units of cellulose.12. to intensive swelling of fibers and structural reactions. to a change in the arrangement of units in the cellulose macromolecule. (c) Warp tension during alkali treatment and stretching the weft (width) of the Fabric during washing is necessary to prevent shrinkage.

the hydrated ion pairs scan penetrate the amorphous as well as crystalline regions. The loss in strength of viscose fibre. (iv) Application of electrolyte into the mercerizing liquor is also possible. 420 Tw along with penetrating agent. (ii) If possible. Under the mercerizing conditions cotton component in the blend undergoes physical and chemical changes. resulting in surface hydrolysis. but during the washing-out process. The following approaches can be adopted to minimize the degradation of viscose in the blends: (i) Alkali should be quickly removed from the fabric after mercerization with a good flow of water. hot mercerization can also be adopted to minimize degradation.g. the alkali becomes diluted and at a concentration of about 9-10% (by wt. The fabric after mercerizing is neutralized and made slightly acidic (pH 6) with acetic acid.e. and in particular the viscose fibres show higher alkali solubility than cotton fibres. Maximum swelling and solubility of viscose fibres occur at room temperature for NaOH concentration on the order of 9-10% by weight (100 .). Mercerization of Blended Fibre Fabrics Mercerization of blended fabrics containing polyester and cotton is done to improve the low luster of cotton as compared to polyester and also to secure a more solid dyeing. are also recommended. thus.110 g/l). Actually.14. Hot mercerization has been found to give more uniform results. 16 . Other protective agents such as sucrose and glycerin etc. is not during mercerization step. but using caustic soda of lesser concentration i. (iii) Addition of electrolyte (e. Fabrics containing mixtures of cotton and rayon require special precautions as the regenerated fibres. NaCl) in the rinsing bath diminishes the proportion of dissolved viscose. Generally. viscose rayon withstands the action of alkali of mercerizing strength. This leads to a reduction in strength proportional to the weight loss of the polyester component. whereas polyester component undergoes a topochemical changes. For such blends the mercerization process is generally carried out in the same way as 100% cotton. the blends containing polyester/viscose or polyester/polynosic components are not mercerized. causing an unlimited swelling and the fibres are degraded. The solubility of viscose is less marked at higher temperature. but during washing with water.1.

Polynosic fibres are more stable than the ordinary viscose fibres in alkaline medium and thus cotton/polynosic blended fabrics can be mercerized without taking any special precautions. High wet-modulus (HWM) fibre induces a higher strength loss and thus mechanical degradation can be minimized by applying sufficient tension [21]. Classification of Mercerization process: Mercerization process can be classified into two types as:  Chain mercerizing  Chainless mercerizing 1.8 Chain Mercerizing Range caustic level.15. Acetic acid is in one of the last boxes to complete the neutralization of caustic.5.(v) Use of KOH or mixture of KOH and NaOH in the similar proportion (ratio) to that of blended fibres in the fabrics is useful. 17 . However. 1.15. fresh water cascades onto the fabric to remove the caustic soda as it is held tensioned in the stenter frame. The range consists of a pad mangle followed by a set of timing cans and then a clip stenter frame.1. The length of the frame must match the range speed and assure that the caustic level is reduced below 3% before tensions are released. As shown in Figure 1. Mercerizing with KOH alone can be done in a solution of 55-60 ° Tw at 15-18~ with dwelltime of 90 sec but is expensive. The stenter frame is followed by a series of open-width wash boxes which further reduces the Figure 1. rinsing process with hot water is also advisable. Chain Mercerizing Chain mercerizing is done on a range equipped with stenter chains for tension control.

This width loss is impossible to recover later. Neutralize with acetic acid in the next to last wash box and rinse with fresh water in the last. that the alkalinity remains consistent throughout all production. Pass fabric over timing cans. there is a noticeable decrease in luster of the Mercerized goods. Below 700 F.  Proper framing during the washing step is crucial. Procedure Apply 22 to 25 % (48 .  Wet pickup must be at least 100 %. ii.54° Tw) caustic at the pad mangle at 100% wet pickup.  For piece goods. the Mercerized fabric will have poor luster and appearance. in down-stream processing. The number of cans must correspond to the range speed and provide at least one minute dwell time. goods should be dry entering the liquid caustic impregnation unit. 18 . to further reduce the caustic. Run fabric under cascade washers to remove caustic. It is important to control these steps because it is important.  The tensioned width must be maintained throughout the caustic removal operations otherwise the fabric shrinks and luster is lost.  Caustic solution and impregnated fabric temperatures should be controlled between 70 – 1000F. The goods must be maintained at greige width to one inch over greige for maximum luster. Need to get uniform and even caustic pick-up throughout the fabric.I. Important points  For best results.540 Tw should be maintained. Caustic stronger than 540 Tw does not add to Mercerized properties whereas below 480 Tw.  Above 1100 F. Keep under tension until caustic level is less than 3% otherwise fabric will shrink in filling direction. a caustic concentration between 48 . Clip fabric onto stenter chains and stretch filling-wise while maintaining warp tension. Release tension and continue washing in open-width wash boxes. there is no noticeable improvement. A certain amount of liquid caustic must surround each fiber to provide proper lubrication so that the fibers can be deformed.

19 . and a reaction between the alkali and the micelle occurs. however. however the Elongation at break decreases [15].2. Parameters for Mercerization Following are some important parameters regarding mercerization:  Concentration of caustic solution  Time  Tension  Temperature After swelling reaches its greatest point.16. These observations cannot be disregarded as baseless occurrences. It is important to bear in mind that tension plays a key role which brings out not only luster. 1. Chainless Mercerizing is used on fabrics that cannot be handled on a clip frame such as knits. From 18-22°Bé. In the USA. Specialized equipment has been developed for Mercerizing tubular knit goods. NaOH thoroughly penetrates the interior of the micelle. the range displaying the greatest degree of swelling. The tension on the fabric depends on the friction between the cloth and the surface of the drum. the cotton hair first contracts momentarily. This results in good control of length but limited control of width.5°Bé).15. completing the generation of alkali cellulose I. but also increases the Tenacity and Young‟s modulus. Bowed rollers are sometimes used to stretch the width but they are much less effective when compared with the clips of the chain Mercerized. There are some knit goods made from mercerized yarns. The concentration at which yarn showed the greatest degree of swelling was determined to be 20% NaOH (26. and at 24°Bé or above a second swelling peak was observed. very little if any knit goods Mercerization are in evidence. and then swells again. One arrangement is based on a spreader mechanism that resembles a floating cigar. to around 24°Bé.1. Chainless Mercerizing Chainless mercerizing is practiced on a range where the cloth is maintained in contact with rotating drums virtually throughout the entire process.

Farr studied that Knitted fabric is more suitable than a woven fabric for its selection as a liquid cooling garment.17.  Karthik Aruniuger. The weight loss and hydrolysis degree was much less for bleached cotton sample [14]. and CBD-free mono-component endo-glucanase solution and compared the results with similarly treated raw de-waxed cotton and concluded that bleached cotton was more resistant to hydrolytic process.  G K Tyagi. Porosity change is small as compared to weight and strength loss respectively [13]. semra Pesoz. Jinhee Nam and Cheryl A. G Krishna. SK PUNJ & K N Chatterjee found that fabrics with higher polyester content give higher total hand value and higher thermal insulation. S Bhattachary & P Kumar have studied that composition of fibre –mix and yarn structure are prime factors in controlling comfort characteristics of woven fabrics.Barson.  Chenghongli.Ladisch and others in a study concluded that cellulase hydrolysis decreased the volume and surface area of pores of cotton.  Huantian Cao. Jet spun yarn fabric show higher absorbency and higher air and water permeability than the ring spun yarn fabrics [6]. Also knitted fabric has better stretch properties which allow tighter skin fit and thereby reducing the air gap between fabric and skin [4]. Knitted fabric has better wicking and water transport properties.  Shinjung Yoo and RogerL.  R K NAYAK.but lower air permeability and lower moisture vapour transfer properties [5].1. 20 . Suetlana Verenich and others treated bleached cotton with Cellusoft L. and thus better liquid water transport capability. Literature review  Is has been found that water vapour permeability and moisture spreading of material increases with increase in number of hydrophilic groups and dry ability of material increase with the increase in micro-polyester proportion [3].. Chrisit M.Barker have founded that fabric hydrophilicity depend on surface energy it can be changed by using hydrophilic finish and by using blend of hygroscopic fibres [11]. Donna H.

which was easured in terms of frictional properties [16]. 21 .  Ramkum and Gus Abdalah reported that cellulase enzyme treatment significantly improved fabric smoothness. Ueda M and others reported that mercerized fabrics subjected to cellulase enzymes treatments were found to increase rate of hydrolysis due to increased available adsorption sites. but synthetic fabric thus tends not to get wet and have good moisture transfer and release properties [20].  The study has showed that the thermal comfort in steady state was mainly influenced by the relative porosity and moisture regain which affect the first thermal contact feeling and thermal conductivities [19].  Koo H. Further cellulase treatments resulted in higher strength loss in mercerized fabrics as compared to un-mercerized fabrics [18]. Marie Alice and others studied the effect of time of cellulase on supra-molecular structure of cotton and concluded that cellulase treatments caused damage primarily to the primary walls of cotton polymer system [15].  It has been found by Ching-Luan Su and its coworkers that natural fibres have poor moisture transportation and release.  Joao and others reported that dimensional stability of cotton woven and knitted fabrics improved on cellulase treatments [17].

2.2 Description of chemicals Sr. # Fabric content Fabric design Ends per inch 1 100% cotton 1×1 plain weave 2 65% polyester and 35% cotton 1×1 plain weave 20 20 100 70 234 20×18 inches 16 Picks per inch 20 108 56 240 20×18 inches Warp density Weft density GSM Sample size 2.Chapter 2 2. 2. Chemicals The chemicals which we have used during our work are given below in the table Table 2. . Experimental 2.1 Description of subtrate Sr. Table 2. # 1 Name of chemical Cellosoft L (cellulase enzyme) 2 Caustic Soda 99 % pure app.1. 3 Acetic Acid 50 % strength 22 Nature Acid enzyme Manufacturer Chemtech Sitara Chemicals PVT LTD Pakistan Scientific Store. having the parameters as shown in Table 2.1 throughout this study.1. Faisalabad. Materials Description of Substrate In this study we have used Singed. desized and commercially bleached. 100% cotton and Polyester-cotton blended woven fabric.1.1.

Bio-blasting is a process that modifies the surface of cotton and other cellulosic in the presence of a cellulase enzyme.3. as well as aqueous fabric tumblers. For optimum results.2. Table 2.5 Jet or winch 23 . ii.3 Recommended conditions Product Temp.5-5. Usage The bio-blasting process ensures that the loose fibers on the fabric are dislodged. Suitable equipment includes jet dyeing machines. Benefits include:  Gentle on fabrics  Improves fabric quality  Prevents hairy fabrics  Bio-blasted fabrics prevent pilling in garments after repeated washes  Garments made from bio-blasted fabrics look newer. it is therefore important that equipment with high agitation is used to remove the loose fibers from the fabric. (°C) pH Application Cellosoft L 40-55 4. Benefits Bio-blasting is an environmentally friendly way of improving the quality of fabrics. and last longer  Environmentally friendly  Easy and safe to us iii.1. Enzyme (used in study) Cellosoft® L i.

Commercially bleached fabric Moisture Management testing 24 .2. Equipment used for Mercerization: For mercerization fabric is fixed on a rectangular frame with pins to fix the fabric to avoid shrinkage and this frame with fabric was dipped in Rectangular tank to apply caustic. Table 2.3. Method Method of Enzyme and Caustic Application In this work we have applied enzyme by two different process routes and then treated the fabric with caustic.1.2.2.1. Japan Model EK-610i 2 3 4 Digital pH meter Drying oven Thermometer Hanna instruments WTC binder - HI 83141 973549 - 2. 2.2. Processing equipment used for the research work is given with model and manufacturer in table below.5 Equipment used for Mercerization 1 2 3 Rectangular tank with open top. Baume meter 2. # 1 Machine name Electronic weighing balance Manufacturer A&D company Ltd. Square steel device having pins for stretching of fabric.3. Equipment Equipmentwhich was used during project are given below: 2.4 Equipment detail (for enzyme application) Sr.2. Equipment used for enzyme application For application of Enzyme In this work we have used a closed tub to apply enzyme. Following equipment and apparatus were used for mercerization Table 2.

PH and concentration of enzyme . In the second route we have done the enzyme treatment and vary the different factors like temperature.4.sample which is commercially bleached and no treatment is done on it.65% polyester and 35% cotton blended fabric sample.Commercially bleached fabric testing Commercially bleached fabric Management testing Enzyme treatment Moisture Management Enzyme treatment Mercerization Moisture In first route we have simply done the moisture management testing of untreated samples of 100% cotton and PC. In the third route after enzyme treatment we have also done mercerization and in the end Moisture Management testing was done. P0 C0 .sample which is commercially bleached and no treatment is done on it. C0 . Then mercerization of these samples was done to check and compare the effect of caustic on moisture management properties.After that Moisture Management testing was done. 2. 25 . Design of experiment C-100% cotton PC .

RunOrder

Sample code

Concentration

pH

Time

Temperature

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

100% cotton C C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6

% of the weight of fabric 2 3 2 2 2 2

5 5 4.5 6 5 5

minutes 30 30 30 30 30 30

°C 40 40 40 40 45 55

Table 2.6 Design of experiment for Enzyme Treatment RunOrder Sample code Concentration pH Time Temperature

-

PC

% of the weight of fabric 2 3 2 2 2 2

-

minutes

°C

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

P0 C0 P1C1 P2C2 P3C3 P4C4 P5C5 P6C6

5 5 4.5 6 5 5

30 30 30 30 30 30

40 40 40 40 45 55

Table 2.7 Design of experiment for Enzyme Treatment of PC

26

Table 2.8 Design of experiment for Mercerization of cotton Sample code Run-Order For enzyme treatment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 100% cotton C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 For Mercerization 100% cotton CA CB CC CD CE CF

Table 2.9 Design of experiment for Mercerization of poltester-cotton Sample code Run-Order For enzyme treatment Polyester-cotton 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 P0 C0 P1C1 P2C2 P3C3 P4C4 P5C5 P6C6 For Mercerization Polyester-cotton PACA PBCB PCCC PDCD PECE PFCF

The sample P1C1which is initially treated with enzyme is then treated with caustic and is labeled as PACA same coding method is applied on the rest of samples.

27

2.4.1.

Enzyme treatment

Step wise detail is give below regarding the enzyme application carried out on both cotton and PC fabrics.  Treatment with cellulase enzyme was carried out by exhaust method in a closed tub which provided sufficient agitation to the samples under treatment to provide winch like conditions.  Samples were cut and conditioned for weighing.  Individual weights were determined on digital balance up to two decimal places.  Recipes were made according to the individual weights of the fabrics.  PH of the solution was adjusted before the addition of enzymes.  Samples were then run according to the conditions designed in the experiment table which is given above.  After the treatment, samples were unloaded and washed with tab water first, followed by de-activation of enzymes by hot washing.  The samples were dried in oven.  Individual weights of treated samples were then determined.
2.4.2.

Mercerization

 Mercerization was carried out as follows;  A rectangular tank with open top was used for this process.  Caustic soda was used for making the solution of concentration of 26® Be.  The reaction was exothermic and solution was allowed to cool down to a temperature around 15C0.  The cellulase enzyme treated samples were then placed on pins of square steel made holder to avoid the shrinkage.  The samples were then immersed in caustic solution one by one.  Dwell time of one minute was given to each sample.  After immersion, sample were washed out in stretched form under tap water running at high pressure which ensured that residual alkali was minimum in the treated samples.  The samples were then neutralized in 2% acetic acid solution followed by plain rinsing by tap water.  The samples were then air dried.
28

Absorption rate top and bottom surface (ARt& ARb) 29 .2. including the fabric‟s geometric and internal structure and the wicking characteristics of yarn and fibre. A test specimen. movement through the specimen from top to bottom surface.5. Testing Methods Equipment used for Moisture Management Testing For the measurement of moisture management properties we have used AATCC test method 195 and by using MMT. a fabric piece of 8×8. The test method produces objective measurement of liquid moisture management properties of textile fabrics. The summary of the results used to grade the liquid moisture management properties of fabric. The electrical resistance readings are used to calculate fabric liquid moisture content changes that quantify dynamic liquid moisture transport behaviors in multiple directions. evaluation and classification of liquid moisture management properties of textiles. was placed between two horizontal sensors (upper and lower) with each with seven concentric pins. The results obtained with this test method are based on water resistance. Different factors which are used to grade the moisture management properties are 1.2. Details of the equipment used are given below. 2. Table 2. AATCC Test Method 1951 This test method is for the measurement.1. water repellency and water absorption characteristics of the fabric structure. The test solution was free to move in three directions: radial spreading on the top surface. # Equipment name Manufacturer Atlas 1 Moisture management tester Model M290 MMT 2.9% sodium chloride solution) was dropped on the fabric and change in electric conductivity was measured with the help of software. A predetermined amount of test solution (0.5.10 Equipment used for Moisture Management Testing Sr.5. and radial spreading on the bottom surface of specimen.

9 0. 5.9 1. Overall moisture management capability (OMMC) An index of overall capability of a fabric to transport liquid moisture calculated by combining three measured attributes of performance: the liquid moisture rate on the bottom surface.9 <50 2 20-119 20-119 10-29 10-29 8-12 8-12 1.59 0.40-0. Maximum wetted radius of top and bottom surface (MWRt& MWRb) The greatest ring radius measured on top and bottom surface.0-0.0-1.000. Table 2.11 Grading Table Index 1 Wetting time(s) Absorption rate(%/sec) Max.9 100-199 4 3-5 3-5 50-100 50-100 18-22 18-22 3-4 3-4 200-400 5 <3 <3 >100 >100 >22 >22 >4 >4 >400 One way transport capability OMMC 0.0-2.The average speed of liquid moisture absorption of top and bottom surfaces of the specimen 2. 3.40-0.80 30 . and the maximum liquid spreading speed on the bottom surface. One way transport capability(R) The difference between the areas of moisture management curves of the top and bottom surface. wetted radius(mm) Spreading speed(mm/s) Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom ≥120 ≥120 0-9 0-9 0-7 0-7 0. the one way liquid moisture absorption capability.20-0.59 >0.19 0.39 0.0-0.0-2. Wetting time of top and bottom surface (WTt& WTb) The time in seconds when the top and bottom surfaces of the specimen begin to be wetted after the test is started.9 2.9 50-99 Grade 3 5-19 5-19 30-49 30-49 13-17 13-17 2. 4.0-1.

3. Samples were first conditioned in oven and weights after enzyme treatment were determined. As the weights prior to treatment were also determined before.5.2.W = Weight after treatment 31 . the weight loss was determined for each sample by the formula. Weight Loss % Where Wo ( ) = Weight before treatment. Weight loss To check the efficiency of enzyme treatment weight loss of the samples are calculated as.

PH. 32 . and concentrations are applied. So optimized conditions for enzyme treatment are temperature.9 2.3 As it is clear from the above table maximum weight loss value achieved when moderate conditions of temperature.6 2 1.Chapter 3 3. Results and Discussions 3. 45Co.2. concentration.8 1.4 3. 2% owf. PH. Effect of different parameters on efficiency of Enzyme treatment The effect of different parameters on the efficiency of enzyme treatment was checked by the estimation of fabric weight loss.8 8 7.01 6. Moisture Management testing First of all moisture management testing of untreated cotton and PC samples were done. Table 3.5 6 5 5 30 30 30 30 30 30 40 40 40 40 45 55 Cotton PC 7 7.1 Effect of different parameters on efficiency of enzyme treatment RunOrder Concentration of enzyme % on the weight of fabric pH Time Temperature Weight loss of fabric % minutes °C 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 3 2 2 2 2 5 5 4.1.4 5.8 2. Then samples which were treated with enzyme at different conditions were checked for moisture management properties by using Moisture Management tester. 5 and 30 minutes time 3. And then same samples treated with caustic were checked for moisture management properties.

4742 CV 0.199 8. 3.1.9851 9.3383 F-2 5.6906 0.8868 0.5001 8.153 0.4802 4.1495 0.9637 2.392 5. Moisture management properties of untreated fabrics Results for untreated cotton samples Moisture management testing results for C0 sample which is commercially bleached and tested for its moisture management Table 3.1472 0.262 2.8028 0.2507 0.0988 OMMC 0.0839 0.2941 Graph 3.6667 2.6233 F-3 4.0375 4.318 9.6749 20 15 3.8009 S.597 5.8237 0.0872 0.1Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of untreated cotton Wetting time of untreated cotton is very low and its absorption rate is very poor with good wetting radius butoverall untreated cotton hasshowed poor moisture management properties.3.8868 2. But due to retention of moisture its absorption rate is poor.1732 0.1838 0.7694 2.3.2826 15 15 2.7429 0.9973 5.2608 0.441 Mean 4.1575 0.596 9. Due to hydrophilic in nature cotton has showed quick absorption.1973 0.1181 2.6366 4.2Moisture management result for untreated cotton Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec) Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed one-way transport Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 4.7646 0.058 0.Deviation 0.546 20 20 3. 33 .5111 3.879 6.3333 16.8602 9.516 4.1678 18.371 9.2619 0.3.4485 9.

6729 OMMC 0.5107 Graph 3.9129 0.0711 2.3.3Moisture management result for untreated PC Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec) Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed one-way transport Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 119.0719 0.914 0.2052 0.7343 F-2 4.2612 20 20 3.558 5.2945 0.2 Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of untreated PC Wetting time of untreated PC is high as compared to untreated cotton andits absorption rate is very poor with good wetting radius but overall untreated PC had showed fair moisture management properties.478 11.0082 8.799 0 5.3691 29.4714 0. Result for untreated Polyester-cotton samples Moisture management testing results forP0C0 sample which is commercially bleached and tested for its moisture management Table 3.2428 8.195 CV 1.6274 0.3759 Mean 50.1186 0.9559 20 20 3.2689 2.597 4.8832 7.6303 3.Deviation 63.9857 0 5 0 0.9188 0.757 10.5691 13. Due to high hydrophobic content PC fabric has showed poor absorption but its spreading speedis very good due to excellent wicking properties of polyester.356 4.2968 0.3547 5.7803 6.5154 F-3 119.6196 0.5619 1.356 9.0537 8.8005 3.5649 10.6933 10.2506 12 15 2.3487 20 20 3.796 7.0648 F-4 5.0173 10.3353 14.952 14.1087 0.2392 0.6637 S.0737 1.953 5.053 4.7013 0 10 0 1. 34 .612 9.0282 6.9139 3.2128 0.2.2821 0.3.6281 F-5 4.751 0 7.9545 7.

3Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of C1 This shows that on the application of enzyme overall moisture management properties have improved from poor to fair.8126 230.3.4475 0.9788 S.0186 F-2 0.4607 143. 35 .916 16.3504 10.408 0.4Moisture management testing results for C1 Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec) Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed one-way transport Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 15.0084 7.4898 0.599 17.6427 0.4152 0.5134 0.572 0. Absorption rate has increased on the application of enzyme on cotton fabric.6026 10 10 0.5 4.2857 1.0606 10 10 0.9624 5 5 0.4929 194.Deviation 6. Table 3.3849 0.438 3.0242 10.8868 2.95 20.4602 0.2635 81.9603 8.3265 0.4302 0.43 12.264 6.1244 0.1994 89.43 18.79 6.093 0.4188 Mean 10.22 0.9659 F-4 13.4.4792 2.9386 9.5 8.6757 0.0217 4.0351 0.152 24.1571 0.4226 Graph 3. 3.786 15. Enzyme treatment has removed protruding and loose fibres also this treatment has removed remaining motes and impurities which have skipped from previous processes.4.5639 OMMC 0.3116 0.8687 4.2867 0. Effect of enzyme treatment on moisture management properties Effect of change of Enzyme concentration on moisture management properties of cotton  Moisture management testing results for C1sample which was treated at 2% enzyme concentration.0958 14.75 2.1.8305 16.512 F-3 13.1834 CV 0.4082 5 10 8. And also it has removed dead cellulose.3378 61. All these factors have added in improvement of absorption rate and to some extent overall moisture management capabilities.

6861 0.5Moisture management testing results for C2 Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Top(sec) Bottom(sec) Absorption Rate(%/sec) F-1 17.355 14. Moisture management testing results for C2 sample which was treated at 3% enzyme Table 3.316 11.102 14.5075 19.8868 0.4682 2.957 18.7767 16.8868 2.6834 15 15 0.6167 56.716 26.6972 15 15 1.8856 9.4441 Moisture management testing results for C2 Graph 3.Deviation 3.491 1.4214 F-3 10.3333 13.But no remarkable effect on OMMC 36 .6366 0.1959 0.0486 F-2 11.3408 0.7991 9.3603 OMMC 0.452 0.0775 0.7002 1.2165 0.5543 0.1975 0.0415 19.5925 -0.8807 41.3333 0.3349 CV 0.1353 0.955 2.511 36.4 Finger Print of Moisture Management properties ofC2 By increasing the enzyme concentration wetting radius and absorption rate further improved which mean there is increase in absorption abilities.7599 10 10 0.673 5.8599 0.1542 S.3438 concentration Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed one-way transport Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) 18.728 27.2165 0.0601 0.635 17.5421 106.131 0.9927 Mean 13.3019 0.0468 13.6447 0.

467 7.4714 0.5Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of P1C1 As clear from the graph on the application of enzyme to PC fabric its spreading speed and wetted radius improved and showed fair OMM.854 6.314 3.3066 0.6177 F-4 12.4.5192 1.0346 7.3953 7.4178 15 16 2.6418 -43.0703 0.1711 0.1927 4.314 7.3292 20 20 4.555 8.3.689 -7.6Moisture management testing results for P1C1 Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec) Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed one-way transport Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 8.0863 -1.716 8.3796 Mean 6.5219 0.2.0588 0.9255 20.913 9.5731 F-5 3.0598 0.555 3.3141 10 15 0.5854 8.019 4.6043 S.519 2.0711 6.138 3.0302 0.5511 0.8791 F-2 3.3957 7.766 Graph 3.1091 7.203 CV 0.9528 1. 37 .3038 0.474 5.9455 18.6746 2.Deviation 4.151 0.4106 15.3093 0.6653 0.0071 0.7161 2.2926 5 5 0.994 47.4075 0.197 20 20 4. Effect of change of Enzyme concentration on moisture management properties of Polyester-cotton  Moisture management testing results for P1C1 sample which was treated at 2% enzyme concentration Table 3.9564 20 20 4.3023 5.1971 0.5217 7.8023 1.9104 F-3 3.As this is blended fabric with up to 35% cotton content so on the application of cellulase enzyme due to surface modification and removal of protruding and loose fibres wetting and absorption rate has improved remarkably as compared to untreated fabric.918 16.635 3.0882 4.6568 OMMC 0.7301 0.

7311 5 10 0.9396 CV 0.7576 0.9583 16.68 27.1865 7.5747 0.6722 337.Deviation 5.409 2.5124 350.5455 0.7706 3.1864 Graph 3.2557 8.8223 F-2 5.7048 8.6681 320.7806 20 20 3.3535 10 10 1.7566 405.8288 7. 38 .5551 7.8739 0.7089 5.276 4.3114 20 20 3.9215 F-3 15.4615 0.9657 3.4456 36.5442 13.7735 1.6778 0.6329 1.5 5.4023 353.5631 0.473 20.1071 0.757 15.719 8.6536 0.6Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of P2C2 By increasing the enzyme concentration for PC its moisture management properties improve from fair to very-good.6434 3.677 14.6547 0. Its absorption rate and one way transport capability has improved and it has showed very good OMMC. Moisture management testing results for P2C2sample which was treated at 2% enzyme concentration Table 3.3198 0.75 15 2.7Moisture management testing results for P2C2 Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec) Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed one-way transport Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 4.6017 0.9023 1.3766 15.8231 Mean 7.158 5.116 4.4973 7.1044 OMMC 0.9219 7.3849 0.607 0.4275 0.441 F-4 4.752 S.

At PH 4.5 results are fair but no remarkable improvement on decreasing PH.Deviation 6.9217 46. Table 3.6158 0 0.7Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of C3 At low PH OMM properties are fair.0412 0. 39 .116 8.2586 F-4 20.6597 0.0938 11.3175 177.592 4.7236 109.1667 0.3371 0 -147.4899 1.8273 Graph 3.8Moisture management testing results for C3 Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Top(sec) Bottom(sec) Absorption Rate(%/sec) F-1 12.2658 0 0.3367 0. Effect of change of Enzyme PH on moisture management properties of cotton Moisture management testing results for C3 sample which has been treated at PH 4.2418 0.5856 F-6 19.671 119.3.4.7159 6.1265 5 5 0.558 3.4877 25.5 with enzyme.2829 0.5608 Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed one-way transport Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) 10.0922 OMMC 0.8874 5 5 0.1267 Mean 14.957 5.0959 4.6435 F-2 14.5406 158.5025 6.4778 1.395 25.2536 1.1768 0 0.6283 8.9621 CV 0.8779 0.952 22.8688 5 4.635 6.4474 1.4875 5 5 0.1965 F-3 1.7152 19.76 26.1347 0 5 0 0.4065 222.546 S.2667 5 5 2.4447 5 5 0.7319 2.873 3.4126 188.7386 75.2296 0 2.7996 0.4046 0.5713 -96.3308 0.177 0.2776 10.1527 0.592 31.1465 0.3.51 6.198 11.2736 0.4654 F-5 18.

8083 5 5 0.853 0.6963 0.675 15.6645 0.8914 5 5 0.5575 8.4665 140.1163 F-5 13.6513 5 5 0. Table 3.6159 4.0781 3.9511 8.2295 0.632 7.8463 0.6289 248.7776 0.791 47. It means optimum PH range for good moisture management properties is between 4.3166 0.7299 1.0105 0.2147 0. Moisture management testing results for C4 sample which was treated at PH 6 with enzyme.7304 Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed one-way transport Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) 11.4721 11.87 10.4017 F-2 0.3564 0.8Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of C4 On increasing PH OMM properties of cotton are poor.1025 15 15 0.9Moisture management testing results for C4 Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Top(sec) Bottom(sec) Absorption Rate(%/sec) F-1 6.0423 S.279 51.9457 37.7542 Graph 3.5699 0.9667 13.916 3.Deviation 6.3273 18.7237 4.5592 Mean 9.6389 2.6389 0.2212 3.797 17.7039 F-3 15.5-5.4614 83.4347 0.4721 4.3322 0.1001 7 7 5.4305 F-4 11.178 0.4522 0.047 5 5 26.111 24.025 17.2986 24.5595 CV 0.5 40 .0533 OMMC 0.0971 -8.3405 148.314 36.5218 21.1484 0.717 11.1994 341.0518 0.1619 0.1063 0.

3391 8. As there is small proportion of cotton in this sample so no remarkable effect of change of PH of cellulase enzyme which only attack cellulose.4.2079 F-2 19.952 119.5144 1.474 3.4.315 0 305.6276 1.2588 0.6732 4.7274 20 20 3.5 with enzyme Table 3.7195 Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed one-way transport Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) 8.8548 65.6114 5.953 24.917 16.157 17.3947 0.012 0. Effect of change of Enzyme PH on moisture management properties of PC  Moisture management testing results for P3C3which was treated at PH 4.6404 3.6543 16. 41 .5 6.597 4.1912 CV 1.1547 1.3.6669 5 5 0.9434 S.1268 0.7858 F-4 119.7797 F-3 15.2335 OMMC 0.328 0.2608 0 0 0 0 0 426.2785 245.9Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of P3C3 At low PH of enzyme treatment OMM result for PC are fair to good.713 119.9583 0.2756 Graph 3.3489 0.5986 7.4602 0.9183 12.8095 0.5847 1.4648 1.5148 317.7584 62.716 75.952 0 Mean 39.9483 323.1805 0 5 0 0.6471 1.25 1.10Moisture management testing results for P3C3 Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Top(sec) Bottom(sec) Absorption Rate(%/sec) F-1 4.2058 1.5 0.795 26.6603 9.Deviation 53.618 0.

3287 14.172 0.433 0.6667 13.5993 1.445 0.076 9.6241 3. 42 .1584 7.4563 10 10 1.8285 361.4302 0.11Moisture management testing results for P4C4 Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Top(sec) Bottom(sec) Absorption Rate(%/sec) F-1 11.4006 22.1935 2.5797 5.714 17.7342 11.7235 0.4573 0.7361 7.7155 5 10 0.0583 OMMC 0.7735 1.2168 1.2022 Graph 3.0309 20 20 3.833 Mean 7.Deviation 3.1713 0.2318 Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed one-way transport Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) 7.559 0.4685 404.038 9.10Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of P4C4 There is no remarkable change on OMM properties of PC on increasing PH of enzyme.0049 F-3 5.3347 6.8274 0.9329 1.7295 1.714 F-2 6. Table 3.113 0.6807 0.558 14.4237 8.714 11.3657 CV 0.6376 5.2881 0.5173 S. As there is small proportion of cotton in this sample so no remarkable effect of change of PH of cellulase enzyme which only attack cellulose. Moisture management testing results for P4C4sample which was treated at PH 6 with enzyme.9357 380.3333 1.157 5.539 0.6547 0.3995 3.5102 374.

0904 0.3586 1.2368 0.7479 5 5 0. Effect of increase in Temperature of enzyme on moisture management properties  Moisture management testing results for C5 Table 3.0186 0.4563 23. As enzyme always require a specific temperature usually in low range to perform optimal.2854 0.453 5 5 0.1082 -33.8423 5.261 1.1271 471.2548 F-3 18.2683 0.0331 2.4.7535 218.881 4.2592 0.5147 31.2618 0 0 0.4429 19.5396 255.7378 5.4455 5 5 0.2639 403.522 0.94 Graph 3.5285 4.276 19.475 4.5106 0.554 28.7161 1.1581 1.3628 F-4 18.9646 CV 0.277 9.9042 5 5 0.036 18.Deviation 7.3465 0.998 5.271 46.959 27.2988 0.3.462 4.5708 1.0774 0.3049 Mean 20.1729 OMMC 0.12Moisture management testing results for C5 Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec) Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed one-way transport Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 31.1657 0 0 0.5.7143 5 5 0.4828 F-2 14.11Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of C5 At low temperature moisture management properties of cotton are fair.2058 0.7553 16.2239 S.2712 0. 43 .

453 1.5396 0.13Moisture management testing results for C6 Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max (mm) 5 5 5 5 5 0 0 Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec)Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed transport one-way OMMC Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) F-1 F-2 F-3 F-4 Mean CV 29 12.511 0.5133 0.3628 403.2368 4.3486 5.4429 Graph 3.2239 255.09 0.2622 0.2618 5 5 5 5 5 0 0 (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) 0.036 8.4455 5.554 6.261 0.2853 0.1729 0.7261 471.1382 0.0331 28.2222 0.93 S.5285 5.4828 -33.4563 16.5708 0.Deviation 5.5147 1.998 14.1988 1.3049 218.0774 0.7479 2.7378 23.181 0.2058 19.2548 31.277 16.2592 0.8423 1.881 27.7143 4.1657 0. Moisture management testing results for C6 sample which was treated at 55co with enzyme.959 16.7553 0.276 43.6535 0.9646 1.462 18. 44 .9042 4.12Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of C6 By increasing temperature in small range there is no remarkable effect on OMM properties of cotton.271 18.1271 0.2539 0.365 0. Table 3.0185 0.

5434 3.6275 0.6198 0.14Moisture management testing results for P5C5 Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec) Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed one-way transport Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 6. Effect of increase in Temperature of enzyme on moisture management properties of PC  Moisture management testing results for P5C5sample which was treated at 45cowith enzyme.1667 9.248 15 20 2.0788 0.6069 0.0407 0 0.359 16.0042 F-2 5.76 7.0852 Mean 6.5436 15 20 2.374 0 2.311 17.703 17.9313 363.439 17.0653 6.13Finger Print of Moisture Management properties ofP5C5 At low temperature moisture management properties of PC are between good to very good 45 .5281 0.331 0.1302 0.6966 0.5661 0.0195 OMMC 0.Deviation 0.0563 CV 0.4.9191 3.3026 8.2944 2.1045 Graph 3.4166 2.4169 S.6942 7.4237 9.798 6.6.1974 15 18.8007 15 15 2. Table 3.7738 9.3926 355.638 6.3333 2.0656 0.7701 369.0314 362.0399 0.229 0.8868 0.1575 0.1001 0.3.1612 F-3 5.6852 0.

812 3.7073 7.2146 0.23 1.8677 7.2969 0.395 8.5488 0.2091 OMMC 0 0.2353 4.0368 3. Moisture management testing results for P6C6 sample which was treated at 55co with enzyme.9443 1.3198 F-5 3.2558 F-2 3.795 7.8843 0.308 S.4169 0.1352 0.0953 7.2418 0.3047 0.9748 0.0919 20 20 4.715 7.1173 CV 1.4721 8.8986 F-4 3.635 3.1129 -0.1555 4.1946 -26.7796 F-3 3.5582 18 16 3.4918 0.3036 0.0838 20 20 4.715 8.891 8. 46 .Deviation 9.559 0.15Moisture management testing results for P6C6 Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec) Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed one-way transport Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 24.4147 0 -130.0576 0.9476 20 20 3.835 8.2927 6.14Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of P6C6 At high temperature of enzyme treatment spreading speed of PC increased but no remarkable effect on OMM properties.811 11.638 1.0009 -1.7231 Mean 7. Table 3.3308 3.8966 6.5887 20 20 4.6075 18.4071 4.996 44.395 3.635 3.3038 0.394 3.5596 2.5592 Graph 3.2485 0.7877 58.8968 4.4778 1.0792 10 0 0.

2 O M 0. 47 . PH and temperature there is only a slight increase or decrease in moisture management properties of cotton fabrics.15Enzyme parameters and OMMC of cotton As clear from this graph on varying enzyme treatment parameters like concentration.25 0.3 0. Effect of different enzyme treatment parameters on OMMC of cotton 0. By increasing PH moisture management properties are not improved same is true for PH by increasing temperature in small rangebetween 45-55oC no change occurred but on very high temperature enzymes deactivate.3.1 0.4.15 M C 0.5 Concentration 6 pH 45°C 55°C Temperature Graph 3.7.05 0 2% 3% Enzyme 4.

3.4 0. 48 .1 0 2% 3% Enzyme concentration 4. Effect of different enzyme treatment parameters on OMMC of polyester 0.2 0.3 0.5 6 PH 45◦C 55◦C temperature Graph 3.6 0. PH and temperature there is remarkable improvement in OMMC on increasing concentration of enzyme for enzyme treatment.7 0.8.5 0.4. By increasing PH also there is improvement in OMMC of PC fabric.16Enzyme parameters and OMMC of PC As clear from this graph on varying enzyme treatment parameters like concentration.

2357 0.2128 Table 3.4191 0.1703 0.9523 3.2575 7.234 10.2014 20 20 3.5.3741 F-3 4.5397 75.0383 58.2062 15 17 2.665 80.5392 2.17 Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of CA On the application of caustic after enzyme treatment the OMM has improved from fair to good.4721 0.0679 CV 0.876 9.439 4.5129 6.Deviation 1.5418 8.9934 3.6394 0.3673 F-4 6.8449 1.875 3.5355 4.995 15 15 3.1347 0.3082 4.5603 94.116 4.2819 0.0036 9.0142 0. Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of fabric already treated with enzyme.1446 76.16Moisture management testing results for CA Graph 3.2143 0. 3.6118 6.9109 15 20 3.876 10.2369 0. 49 .041 3.9403 10 10 1.9834 15 20 2.0923 3.5794 0.7266 13.2311 0.5.436 11.2128 F-5 3.0124 0.555 3.127 0.7644 0.1.2088 0.3.7896 3.9154 3.6741 0.2631 0.6994 0.3192 S.2907 Mean 4.6364 7. Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated cotton (CA) Moisture management testing results for CA sample which is already treated with enzyme at 2% enzyme concentration Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec)Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed transport one-way OMMC Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 3.596 6.9195 72.258 5.556 3.351 F-2 3.4383 0.

0415 0.5925 -0.0486 18.4682 2.17Moisture management testing results for CB Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec)Absorption AbsorptionWetted Radius Radius Wetted Spreading Speed Spreading Speed transportOMMC one-way Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 17.673 0.3438 0.8807 41. 50 .1975 F-2 11. On the application of causticto enzyme treated sample its OMMC has further improved.3603 0.3019 0.6.0601 CV 0.6972 15 15 1.1353 S.7991 0.131 F-3 10.9927 9.5075 19.511 36.491 1.6167 56.355 14.3333 13.0775 Mean 13.8599 0.452 0.6834 15 15 0.4214 19.3349 5.2165 0.6366 0.1959 0.2165 0.8868 0.6447 0.8856 9.6861 0.0468 13. Moisture management testing results for CB sample which is already treated with enzyme at 3% enzyme concentration Table 3.716 26.957 18.635 17.728 27. Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated Cotton CB.316 11.5543 0.7002 1.3408 0.955 2.3.5421 106.8868 2.Deviation 3.7599 10 10 0.4441 Graph 3.102 14.18Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of CB The OMM properties have improved from poor to fair on the application of caustic after enzyme treatment.7767 0.1542 16.3333 0.

3613 8.896 20 20 4.476 4.8465 -20.3465 0.5116 0.475 24.0404 F-4 15.515 11.3082 F-2 17.19Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of PACA No remarkable effect on moisture management properties on the application of caustic after enzyme treatment.655 -12.4112 20.3.2545 0.8388 0.6744 9. wettability and air permeability. Table 3.8187 1.6023 -6.7296 1.635 19.5684 6.9676 20 15 1.4918 6.8841 -21.5355 1.1012 S.4028 16 15 1. Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated PC (PACA) Moisture management testing results for PACAsample which is already treated with enzyme at 2% enzyme concentration.7799 12.354 2.2357 0.0297 0.589 0.1167 CV 0.546 15 15 0.8552 2.1899 15 15 0.875 17.8199 0.0351 F-5 10.674 17.8775 7.6204 1.1526 Graph 3.6478 4.9766 0.3905 0.9884 11.274 7.5128 0.6902 13.3286 -15.2615 0.237 27.1852 0.1833 3.7.0742 Mean 12.4144 10 10 0.0482 F-3 17.0117 0.1085 10.6134 2.9369 1.595 0.18Moisture management testing results for PACA Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec)Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed transport one-way OMMC Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 2. Although absorption rate has increased 51 .8443 12.3906 0.2572 0. In this case as fabric is first treated with enzyme and then with caustic so in this case no further improvement in wickability.396 22.Deviation 6.9242 1.072 16.

6778 0.7311 5 10 0.1864 Graph 3.6722 337.75 15 2.3.473 20.757 15.7806 20 20 3.4456 36.2557 8.1071 CV 0.158 5.719 8.6681 320. Moisture management testing results for PBCBsample which is already treated with enzyme at 3% enzyme concentration Table 3.3114 20 20 3.8288 7.4973 7.7706 3.3535 10 10 1.8223 0.1044 0.5455 0. 52 .8231 0.5124 350.19Moisture management testing results for PBCB Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec)Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed transportOMMC one-way Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 4.9396 0.3849 0.276 4.4275 F-4 4.5 5.7089 5.607 0.9219 7.5442 13.6434 3. Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated PC (PBCB).409 2.752 0.7735 1.116 4.9023 1.5631 F-3 15.6329 1.9215 0.20Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of PBCB No remarkable effect on OMM properties on the application of caustic after enzyme treatment.Deviation 5.68 27.8.3766 15.6017 0.5747 S.677 14.1865 7.9583 16.8739 0.4615 0.4023 353.5551 7.6536 Mean 7.7048 8.7576 0.3198 0.441 0.9657 3.6547 F-2 5.7566 405.

5192 7.8171 35.958 6.0894 5.1526 8.2211 S.1691 0.20Moisture management testing results for CC Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec)Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed transport one-way OMMC Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 4. Table 3.7812 1.2708 14 15 2.036 4.082 3.3.2655 0.6869 5 5 0.0711 1.4714 0.3156 0.0795 CV 1.1348 9.5431 3.5671 0.2117 0.6766 7.6611 6.Deviation 8.356 0.276 9.876 4.7908 1.21Finger Print of Moisture Management properties of CC After the application of caustic after enzyme treatment the OMM has improved from fair to good.1296 7.2278 0.9.1433 33.676 4.3594 Graph 3.2242 0.0264 2.3622 17.0624 8.2198 0.6121 25.2716 F-5 22.917 5.4657 0.0954 Mean 7.196 9.819 7.2701 F-4 4.077 15 20 3.9908 0.4811 2.811 4.512 5.3937 22.8335 0.1886 F-2 3. Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated cotton CC.0529 0.1538 0.5345 3.2797 F-3 3.036 9.407 1.3444 17.2764 0. 53 .4344 0.0132 0.9707 20 20 3.1311 20 20 3.955 4.1181 6.4884 10 10 2.

1363 0.796 8.5291 0.635 11.281 0.5617 2.4613 0.22Finger Print of Moisture Management properties ofCD On the application of caustic after enzyme treatment OMM moisture management properties have improve from poor to fair.3781 0.118 16 17 3. Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated cotton (CD) Table 3.0912 10.1046 15 20 3.2831 F-3 3.5169 5.715 3.1546 Graph 3.0378 CV 0.Deviation 0.516 4.9552 12.8588 15 15 2.6684 0.5118 21.2361 2.1611 0.2392 Mean 3.3.5735 3.6134 9.757 4.635 3.1673 0.0119 3.4104 0.7386 0.2839 F-5 3.715 11.0899 11.635 8.0965 9.3003 0. 54 .205 F-2 3.2356 0.4795 2.1227 0.7426 15 20 3.0984 0.9336 8.715 3.636 3.1398 0.6399 10.0866 7.8434 3.0387 3.2115 F-4 3.9238 6.52 0.3897 15 15 2.4943 20 15 3.21Moisture management testing results for CD Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec)Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed transport one-way OMMC Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 4.2445 S.7321 2.9269 2.9076 9.3827 0.4258 2.0949 3.5789 7.9482 0.10.598 9.1093 0.

Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated PC (PCCC) Table 3.1703 0.6532 5.952 9.931 6.1368 CV 1.592 6.153 0 7.5601 0.2844 0.7618 4.22Moisture management testing results for PCCC Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec)Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed transport one-way OMMC Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 3.767 0.6935 0.1427 2.5369 5.2085 S.6591 0.2915 1.7954 14 15 3.2204 9.6188 0.994 10.2212 0 5 0 0.234 3.5534 4.359 5.6302 4.4775 0.11.6621 7.1684 20 25 4.9443 9.7292 0.7348 0.8294 0.5726 1.6389 0.575 10 5 1.3.8831 8.3095 F-4 119.656 Graph 3.7077 2.914 2.5764 4.432 0.428 6.075 3.7754 0.3083 Mean 27.558 0.2489 3. 55 .1226 0.0613 F-5 2.075 8.3076 F-2 8.6236 0.8766 0.2257 2.23Finger Print of Moisture Management properties ofPCCC Overall moisture management properties become worse on the application of caustic after enzyme treatment.074 8.7789 7.0561 F-3 3.9556 8.0909 20 20 4.Deviation 51.1226 0.0288 3.9216 20 20 4.5879 2.3541 2.

7082 8.Deviation 2.9677 8.6209 0.559 0.4921 -0.3946 0.5233 0 -3.2548 S.24Finger Print of Moisture Management properties ofPDCD Overall moisture management properties become worse on the application of caustic after enzyme treatment.4465 Graph 3.3081 F-3 3.2544 0.6485 3.23Moisture management testing results for PDCD Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec)Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed transport one-way OMMC Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 9.5991 1.963 2.154 3.5953 7.5635 0.3062 F-5 3.2826 0.5686 6.1979 4.953 5.715 8.3.1634 6.6475 3.635 3.0139 20 20 4.2233 20 20 4.7226 8.7004 0.3711 17 16 3.9443 1.5777 2.7534 1.067 8.0513 F-2 2.395 8.6046 20 20 4.4807 0.1138 CV 0.1177 1.3038 Mean 4.4569 -1.8382 0.6356 4.4122 4.2019 0.2991 0.0136 20 20 4.12.9548 8.4683 4.3045 F-4 3.026 0.3998 -0.5601 0.6758 52. 56 .9754 0.994 3.5621 3. Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated PC (PDCD) Table 3.2319 0 5 0 0.4662 26.9503 0.314 3.235 8.234 119.315 9.

6612 0.262 F-2 4.953 119.0664 0.837 5.1151 0 5 0 0.24Moisture management testing results for CE Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec)Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed transport one-way OMMC Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 3.2703 63.1521 S.3463 4.4548 1.2528 0.555 8.6501 5.6184 10.6101 1. Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated cotton (CE) Table 3.0544 Mean 28.077 8.9356 1.2498 20 15 3.3541 1.199 F-4 119.953 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.7283 2.7569 0.13.6169 2.8102 1.6111 Graph 3.4213 0.3.25Finger Print of Moisture Management properties ofCE 57 .1254 9.0797 0.5369 0 -1.7195 0.6344 2.5258 3.0556 F-5 9.3928 5.0929 CV 1.116 4.9843 1.5365 4.9354 0.276 10.153 119.2245 2.3228 50.3291 0.8114 0.952 3.Deviation 51.083 9.5626 6.1896 F-3 4.555 3.6192 8.9232 0.3368 0.114 20 20 3.1751 9.3958 15 15 2.5519 12 10 1.1056 5.7624 0.

733 20 20 4.098 20 20 4.9768 2.Deviation 4.469 0.7082 6.3946 0.3101 5.7271 management testing results for CF 1.3946 0.315 3.4731 0.25Moisture1.7082 1.5601 4.2967 4.461 1.3458 4.9941 7.1782 7.306 F-4 13.2589 0.4387 0.0606 F-5 3.315 9.8486 0.5511 0. Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated cotton (CF) Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec)Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed transport one-way OMMC Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 3.3068 F-2 3.2572 S.3346 0.2045 0.4272 Graph 3.14.6352 4.4516 17 17 3.14 0.234 3.71 7.1099 CV 0.8747 0.1071 8.1118 5 5 0.0694 6.393 0.7694 0.26Finger Print of Moisture Management properties ofCF On the application of caustic on enzyme treated cotton overall moisture management properties have improve from fair to good.879 8.155 3.3199 1.34 4.3776 1.4751 0.3.6353 3.395 8.1483 20 20 4.6071 1.315 3.3065 F-3 3.6628 1.1771 0. No remarkable effect of caustic treatment on OMM properties of PC fabric.4285 4.315 9.1666 20 20 4.711 4.5991 7.306 Mean 5.3813 0.2494 0.6762 Table 3.5818 0. 58 .155 8.0755 8.

5818 0.7082 6.3068 F-2 3.6762 1.1099 CV 0. 59 .6352 4.306 F-4 13.27Finger Print of Moisture Management properties ofPECE Overall moisture management properties of enzyme treated PC become worse on the application of caustic.3776 1.395 8.2572 S.234 3.7271 1.15.0755 8.155 8.4731 0.3065 F-3 3.155 3.461 1.6071 1.8747 0.315 3.2045 0.3101 5.5991 7.4516 17 17 3.4272 Graph 3.315 9.3458 4.733 20 20 4.469 0.1483 20 20 4.3946 0.2494 0.14 0.3346 0.34 4.3199 6.1771 0.8486 0.2967 4.Deviation 4.3813 0. Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated PC (PECE)  Moisture management testing results for PECE was treated at 45Cotemperature Table 3.1118 5 5 0.711 4.6353 3.7082 1.315 9.9768 2.6628 1.1071 8.4751 0.3946 0.879 8.5511 0.2589 0.26Moisture management testing results for PECE Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec)Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed transport one-way OMMC Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 3.4285 4.315 3.5601 4.1666 20 20 4.3.7694 0.0694 1.393 0.098 20 20 4.71 7.9941 7.4387 0.0606 F-5 3.1782 7.306 Mean 5.

0391 20 20 1.3712 0.2863 20 20 2.2005 F-2 6.9918 0.8587 -4.4772 1.83 17.119 6.5201 -6.4748 15.5029 17 19 2.4489 2.6106 18.5733 0.3119 0.9446 0.953 4.8072 -3.6658 0.352 21.2014 11.518 12.6779 3.7354 21.4273 10.4661 3.24 14.432 8.0645 25 25 2.0998 0.0273 4.3718 0.7549 9.2883 0.1034 Mean 31.835 10.9429 20 20 4.6156 5.437 0 6.2534 F-5 119.4755 1.3218 -11.2832 9.381 Graph 3.7652 0.5764 2.0799 CV 1.0174 16.217 -10.5668 0.7468 5.3.2161 2.1819 0 10 0 1.236 0.6056 0.1759 F-4 10. 60 .16.28Finger Print of Moisture Management properties ofPFCF Overall moisture management properties become worse on the application of caustic on enzyme treated PC.996 22.438 31.2096 S. Effect of Mercerization on moisture management properties of enzyme treated PC (PFCF)  Moisture management testing results for PFCFsample which was treated at 55Co Table 3.27 Moisture management testing results for PFCF Wetting Time Wetting Time Top Bottom Top Max Bottom Max Top Bottom Accumulative Top(sec) Bottom(sec)Absorption Absorption Wetted Radius Wetted Radius Spreading Speed Spreading Speed transport one-way OMMC Rate(%/sec) Rate(%/sec) (mm) (mm) (mm/sec) (mm/sec) index(%) F-1 8.6287 0.0542 0.5714 8.799 2.3149 F-3 12.3811 19.Deviation 49.

Comparison of moisture management properties of enzyme and caustic treated PC sample 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.30OMMC of Enzyme and caustic treated PC This graph clearly shows that when caustic treatment of already enzyme treated PC samples was done there was 61 .15 0.29OMMC of Enzyme and caustic treated cotton This graph clearly shows that when caustic treatment of already enzyme treated cotton samples was done there was increase in OMMC of 100% cotton. 3. Comparison of moisture management properties of enzyme and caustic treated cotton sample 0.5 0.18.7 0.2 0.17.35 0.1 0.3.05 0 C1 CA C2 CB C3 Cc C4 CD C5 CE C6 CF OMMC of Enzyme treated cotton Graph 3.4 0.6 0.25 0.1 0 P1C1 PACB P2C2 PBCB P3C3 PCCCP4C4 PDCD P5C5 PECE P6C6 PFCF OMMC of enzyme treated PC OMMC of enzyme and caustic treated PC Graph 3.3 0.

On the application of same concentration of enzyme Polyester-cotton blend has showed better moisture management properties than 100% cotton.1. temperature. PH and concentration of enzyme were changed and it was found that Cellosoft L gives optimum results for moisture management at 45co temperature.Chapter 4 4. 5 PH and at 3% of enzyme (O. Up to one grade decrease in moisture management properties of PC occurred on the application of caustic on the enzyme treated PC samples. On the other hand there was a decline in moisture management properties of Polyester-cotton. Moreover enzymes are eco-friendly there is no problem with effluent. There is no need to use of additional moisture management finishes in order to improve moisture management properties. Experiments carried out show that there was an increase in moisture management capabilities of 100% cotton and PC on the application of enzyme. After the enzyme treatment of the samples mercerization was done and the results of moisture management were noted. Summary and future work 4. During the application of enzyme on cotton and polyester parameters of enzyme. 62 .F) for 30 minutes. Implications of the Findings The results of this research work can be used in textile processing industry for the production of work wear fabric with better comfort properties.2. 4.W. Moreover enzyme applications also reduce the hairiness of the fabric and give newer look to the fabric. Key findings of the Project In this work an effort was made to enhance the Moisture management capabilities of fabric by the application of “Cellosoft L” enzyme and caustic treatment. It was found that on the application of caustic moisture management properties of 100% cotton have showed remarkable improvement in moisture management properties up to one grade improvement had occurred in moisture management properties.

3. It could also be checked how the moisture management properties of these fabrics behave after dyeing. Future work In this work it has been tried to increase the moisture management properties of 100% and Polyester-cotton. 63 . In the future same work could be done on the polyester-viscose blended fabric. A comparative study of effect of Cellosoft L enzyme and moisture management finish could be done on cotton.4. In the future work could also be done on knitted fabrics to check the effect of enzyme treatment on moisture management properties.

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