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How to Do Your Referencing Using the Harvard System
The Harvard System (also called the Author - Date System) is one of several available methods of referencing and is the preferred choice of most departments in the University. However, you should check with your lecturers which system your course requires before you do your first assignment. This help sheet covers the referencing of many different types of material, both printed and electronic. NB There is no officially agreed system of referencing information in any electronic format, so these guidelines are a local interpretation of the Harvard style. Electronic examples have a shaded background.
Authors Blackboard Materials Blogs (Weblogs) Books Citing in your text Conference Papers Date Discussion Lists DVD E-Books/Kindle E-Journals E-mails Edited Books Film Government Reports Illustrations/Art Interviews pp.2-3,4,5 p.11 p.12 pp.4-5 pp.2-3 pp.9 pp.2,4 p.12 p.9 p.6 pp.6-7 p.12 p.5 p.10 pp.7-8 p.10 p.10 Journals Lecture Notes /Handouts Live Performances Newspapers Online Databases –reports Paraphrasing Plagiarism Quoting Reference List RefWorks Secondary referencing Standards Theses Titles Video Web Pages / Documents p.6 p.10 p.10 p.7 p.8 p.3 p.2 p.3 pp.3-12 p.12 p.2 p.9 p.9 p.4 p.9 p.11

What is a “Reference”?
A reference or citation is a description of any document from which you have taken information, e.g. a complete book, a chapter from it, a journal article, a newspaper article, a web page, or DVD etc.

What is “Citing”?
“Citing” a reference is the act of recording it. It is made in two places: 1. a brief entry for each source in the text of your work, which then leads your reader to … 2. your source, in full, at the end of your work, as an alphabetical reference list. As the list is in alphabetical order, it is easy to pick out the required author‟s work.

Why do I need to do it?
It is both a legal requirement and academic practice to provide references to guide your reader to the sources you have used, to support the arguments you are making, to demonstrate the breadth of your research, to credit the established work of others.++

Help sheet | 30 | Page | 2 . How it works There are 2 parts: 1.html. 2008) NB Sometimes these details are not provided so: Where there is no obvious author – for printed works use a brief form of the title. NB This is just one example of a book which happens to have two authors.for an electronic source .What happens if I don‟t? Failure to acknowledge your sources is likely to lead to a suspicion of plagiarism – i. When you compile your reference list you must only cite the work in which you read it.simply cite the URL at the end of your sentence (in brackets) and add the date of the latest update. which is very rare Example: The followers of the Arts and Crafts Movement believed that the Industrial Revolution removed creativity and individuality from society. K. you must make this clear. which was described in some detail (A Writer’s Notebook. Author + Date in your text. (http://wwar.. and Hoehn. Try to avoid this type of reference as you cannot always check the original and are relying on interpretation by others.com/masters/movements/arts_and_crafts_movement.172). separated by a comma. Example: . but no mention of Dunn‟s. only the date needs to be in brackets. Secondary Referencing If you refer to a document which you DID NOT read. p. 1999). normally by author. In your text: …Marieb and Hoehn (2007)… leads to the reference list and finds: Marieb. 1999 p. maybe a corporate author the date it was published. 1998. you need to provide: the authority: usually surname (family name) of the author(s). N. Full reference in the Reference List Whoever you cite in your text has to match your reference list as the list is in alphabetical order. Where there is no obvious author or title . for further examples of different kinds of documents please read on. Examples: Dunn (1988). The page number(s) must be added if a specific part needs to be identified or a direct quote made. trying to pass off someone else‟s work as your own: it is a form of cheating.e.. both the name and date must be in brackets. Example: (Nursing and Midwifery Council. Example: … although other authors have denied this (Hartley. Incomplete or inaccurate referencing also reflects badly on your work. Please consult our Help Sheet 4 on Plagiarism. 2. as cited by Campbell and Muncer (1998). 7th International ed. (cited in Campbell and Muncer. 1946). believed that … or Dunn (1988) revealed that …. Example: …which is described there in detail (Hartley. 2004) If you include the author‟s name as part of the sentence statement. (See below for more on this). Example: … Hartley (1999) declared that … If it is not part of your sentence. (2007) Human anatomy and physiology. but which was cited (referenced) by somebody else whose work you DID read. It must be in alphabetical order e.g. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.. E.226) NB your reference list will include the full details of the Campbell and Muncer work. This is only if you have no other information to provide. How to Put References into the Text of your Essay / Report Author/s and Date For each reference you make in the text of your essay.

1999. and if possible the page number (or at least the chapter heading e. Paraphrasing This is if you put the original text into your own words. both to give flavour and to make it more tender (Bender. Listing Your References at the End of Your Work Your list should have both printed and electronic sources in one single alphabetical sequence. within your final work. with your lecturers. and try to indicate the relevance of each within the text. Example: … Anderson et al (2003) concluded that … Multiple references to the same author If you cite different documents by the same author which were published in the same year. clarify what you are being asked to provide. p. different issues of a journal throughout the year.If there are two authors: Example: In the much acclaimed work on the subject by Martin and Frost (2001). b. [NB Page numbers for books are not included in the Reference List] Example: … Jackson (2004. you must include the issue or section number or name. Partial Quotes If you do not need to quote the complete original quotation. Example: … (Williamson. or vinegar and herbs in which meat or fish is soaked before cooking. in lower case after the year. Repeat in the reference list.71) comments that. it is clear … For three authors or more. Any book you borrowed from the library will be in your Reading History in your Library Account. 2001a). Do not use quotations too often or their impact will be reduced. Example: Bender defines a marinade as: a mixture of oil with wine. For electronic sources. which will vary between types of material. … Quotations in the Text If you quote the exact words directly from a text you must use quotation marks to indicate this. It should only contain the details of documents / sources of the quotes you have referred to within the text of your work. if the quote is long it is clearer to indent the text – quotation marks are not required in this example. 2001b) etc.575) declared that “This is the finest example of postmodernism …” If page numbers are in separate sequences and therefore duplicated e. See below for more details. “When MPs had an operational grievance they were encouraged to direct their question … directly to the agency”. you can leave out any section as long as you make this clear by inserting three dots.g. For each reference you need to record various pieces of information. Terminology varies between departments so if necessary. Try to vary the way you introduce a quote into your text. p. c. The author(s) and date must be stated. (Williamson. or quote from them. Tip – It is good practice to take the full details of each source of information as soon as you have read it.250). Help sheet | 30 | Page | 3 . p.g. but should always include the author‟s name.make it clear that the information came from an electronic source and when you accessed it. They should not be a substitute for your own opinion. it is usual to use the Latin et al (meaning “and others”) after the name of the first author. which should contain all the sources you used in your research even if you did not refer to them. lemon juice. the date of publication and the title of the work. Also. You must put it in italics. or sections of a book. etc. before you submit your work. you must also include extra details . in case it is not available later and your reference is incomplete. to distinguish between them add the letters a. but you must still cite the source in full. Example: Flinders (2001. Chapter 6) from which the quote is taken. You may also be asked to compile a bibliography.

When you first find a quote in a book. before a sub-title. The list is not put in numerical order as that is not how Harvard works.d. Date The date and edition must correspond. Always take the details of the author. The date. 1965 The title (book or journal) Use italics (if typed).g. Example: [no date]. Authors with the same surname If two authors have identical surnames and first initials. The title (chapter or article) These are neither underlined nor italicised. Place of publication This is city or town. Do not confuse an edition with a reprint. Help sheet | 30 | Page | 4 . However. but use the short. Do not use a reprint date. Examples: The following examples show you what should be included for the most common sources. or underlining (if written in long hand). not present in the publication details . If you add information which does not actually appear in the original. make it clear that this is the case. Only include the first one acknowledged. If there is one for the information. usually on the reverse of the title page. This is nothing to do with the publication date. so please ask for advice from staff if necessary.Bibliographic Details: Author. For a book title. but like the book title. must be in alphabetical order.A. check to see if it has an editor. J. but if you have cited. this must be in square brackets. maybe. from the title page of a book (not the front cover). etc. use that. then use lower case for all other title words. Journal of Advanced Nursing Hint: use the library catalogue if in doubt. [n. capitalise the first letter only. by adding this information in square brackets. may be on the back of the title page. has capital first letters for all the major words e. only the first letter of the first word is in upper case. The list of your citations quoted in your text. etc. normally of the author/ corporate author’s name. Books Beware! If a book is edited it may be treated more like a periodical. Date. Place a colon (:) after the short title. Example: Burke. not just the country. a second initial or title will determine the order Example: Smith. A journal title.] or [undated] Example: [no page numbers] Example: [editorial] Example: [Online]. If the date of publication is not clear look for the latest copyright date: ©. Smith. it is not possible to cover all types of resource. Adding information. If you cannot find a date at all. James. death. edition. but is the date of the author‟s birth and. using the brief title. main title (before any colon) in your text. Other systems do use numbers. though. Electronic information often has two dates. one for the information and one for the webpage itself. Title etc. this must be alphabetised as well. to emphasise the title. Do not use the reprint date. J. publisher. NB Any date(s) without brackets after an author‟s name is/are intended to distinguish between authors of the same name. For 2 examples of edited books see next page. title. Where there is no obvious author: List by full title. unless there is a proper name.T.

full stop. (2005) Evidence-based mental health care. Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. colon between short and secondary/sub title. as in the text entry. J. Oxford: Blackwell. Example: Ezra. comma. Help sheet | 30 | Page | 5 or . Butler. S. not the title of the chapter. initial(s). Prentice Hall. it is becoming more usual for the “et al” rule to be used here. K. Hatcher. (2008) Sociology: a global introduction. the full stop will change to a comma If there is only one author. Example: British Broadcasting Corporation (2004) Building public value: renewing the BBC for a digital world. in: Deaux. R. J. 3rd ed. full stop Place of publication (the first city or town) followed by a colon Publisher‟s name. Harlow: Pearson. and Oakley-Browne. full stop A book by two authors Example: Date of Publication Title of book in italics Authors‟ surnames and initial(s) Edition Macionis. Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. and Philogene. Oxford: OUP.) (2004) European Cinema. E. London: Kogan Page. It is the author of the chapter you cite. Corporate author When something is published by an organization or a company there may be no individual author to identify. you need to make this clear by using “in” (followed by a colon). The book title is in italics. A. full stop Year of publication (in brackets) The title (in italics with only the first letter of first word capitalised). (ed. and Plummer. The edition (if other than the first). social representations and beyond. London: BBC. some LSBU departments prefer you to list ALL authors in full. (eds. G. However.) Representations of the social. 4th ed. Examples: Hatcher.The preferred order of presentation within your reference list is: Surname of author(s).) or (eds. You must therefore check with your lecturer first. NB Page numbers are not normally Place of publication (town or city) Publisher required as you will have them in-text.) in place of the author. A chapter from an edited book If you refer to a chapter in a book edited by someone other than the author of the chapter. J. (2003) Attitudes. If the book is edited.J. M. Example: Bradbury. use the name of the editor(s) followed by (ed. et al (2005) Evidence-based mental health care. but if you do. (2006) Successful presentation skills.. If there are three authors or more. Example: Gaskell. S. G.

Available from: (i. 19 (26).if available) followed by a colon(:) Publisher‟s name. Available from: http://www. issue or part number (in brackets). Business Source Premier. Example 1: White. or add extra features. comma Title of the JOURNAL (in italics). Title of book (and any subtitle) . Example: Joint Formulary Committee (2010) Antihistamines. through the LSBU Catalogue. Business Source Premier) URL for the full text. pp. 184-188. Title of journal in italics or underlined. 33-37. page numbers (pp.g. in italics). [e-book reader]. Sometimes the online published date for an article will be different to the printed version. full stop Year of publication in brackets Title of the ARTICLE ( only first word with capitalised initial letter. [editorial]) Title of the journal in italics or underlined. part or issue number (in brackets). Example 2 – from an e-reader: Aristotle (2005) Ethics. (2005) How computers work. URL Help sheet | 30 | Page | 6 . Indianapolis: Que. plus page range). See example for e-reader below.E-books (Electronic Books) As above examples. [Online]. [Online]. R. in square brackets. and Jack. comma Volume number. Title of article in plain text. K. comma.g. initial(s). details are normally on the contents page and usually at the top or bottom of every page of each article.” Example: Only first word with a capital first letter. Only initial letter capitalised. http://0-proquest. A. You need to include: Surname of the author(s). comma First and last pages of the article separated by a hyphen and indicated by the abbreviation “pp. Nursing Standard. [Online]. Edition (other than the first) Place of publication (of printed original .com [Accessed: 16 August 2007].amazon. except for certain additions. if an editorial. All main words have capital first letter. Available from: (the database provider.safaribooksonline. E-Journal article obtained using a full-text database or journal collection. pp. (2005) Reflective practice: a meaningful task for students. T. indicate this in square brackets after the title e. and Downs. You will need to provide the following: Author (or editor) surname and initials Year of publication (original print version or online version) (in brackets) Title of article (only first letter of first word capitalised.italics or underlined. British National Formulary. (59).e. URL (web address) (Date accessed). Electronic Journal Articles Make it clear how you accessed each article as online journals sometimes omit sections found in the printed version. the e-book service you used).co. You need to include: Author (or editor) surname and initials Year (in brackets). If you access the journal from a full-text collection e.uk [Accessed: 5 May 2011]. Date (month or season) Volume number (if any). Smith. unless proper name).g. Always use the publication date of the version being used.g. E. Available from: Safari Tech Books Online. Journal Articles For journals. 8th ed. e. Kindle version. you need to cite the resource provider‟s (e. not italics.

(2004) ECB warns finance ministers it will retain sole control of euro.g. [Accessed: 9 May 2011]. but follow the OSCOLA form e. et al (2011) Mental health problems common in women with fear of childbirth. Details of volume and issue numbers are not required as you must have the specific date. (2010) “The crush starts here”. July. reference the article precisely as given on the screen. Acts of Parliament (Statutes) Example: Housing Act 1996 (c. 8 June 2010. e.com [Accessed 25 January 2005]. need to indicate if your reference is from any particular section or edition of the paper. E-Journal article directly from a web site You will need exactly the same information as for the example above.umi. and Schieritz. and Jutting. e. M. The Guardian (Education Supplement).com [Accessed 31 July 2005]. Example with DOI for a prepublication article: Rouhe. [preprint] 13 Apr 2011 [Online]. World Development. London: HMSO. the Guardian if you used a direct link. Example: Morrison. Legal material – case reports This referencing is often different from Harvard. (2005) Women‟s discrimination in developing countries: a new data set for better policies. You do.x. Financial Times. as usual. e.g. L.g. [Online]. 1065-1081.[Date accessed xx xxxxxxxx xxxx]. please see: How to do your Referencing: the OSCOLA System (Law Resources) (HS 29) For individual legal reports. sometimes a running number within the “volume”. 33 (7). An Article from a Newspaper The same rules apply as for a journal reference. the URL of the ProQuest Newspapers or LexisNexis services. – the actual date you viewed the article.14710528. C. R.52). your reader will be clear which version you are identifying if there have been revisions. Available from: ScienceDirect. p. To be published in BJOG. However.02967. Whatever the practice. http://sciencedirect.52. alphabetically. but the article title should be in quotation marks. Government Publications (Reports. Consultation Papers) There are a variety of these and below are some examples The publisher is usually The Stationery Office (TSO) (formerly HMSO). c. Help sheet | 30 | Page | 7 . Sometimes page numbers will be given. 1. please note in addition: Editorials rarely have an attributable author The section of the newspaper is helpful if relevant (in brackets) Specific editions of many newspapers are indexed Example: Atkins. square brackets for date. H. Each act is given a running number or “chapter” during the year. Article in an Electronic Newspaper You need to give similar information as for a journal article from a database.1111/j. except that in the „Available from‟ statement you should give the precise URL or DOI (digital object identifier) for the article. 27 September 2004. [Online]. J. pp. include them with the Harvard citations in the Reference List. DOI: 10. By giving the date of access.2011. Available from: http://0-proquest.g. Example: Tobin. or the specific URL of the individual newspaper.

House Of Lords. Series information . 6677.g. (HC 247) NB Your in-text citation would be: (Great Britain.com. Major reports are known by the name of the chair of the committee which produced them. annual return‟. [Online]. Available at: https://fame2. Example (Financial reports): Bureau van Dijk (2011) „Kobalt Computers Ltd. Parliament. London: TSO. Check dates and “versions” carefully. (13)). House of Lords (2009) Consumer emissions (climate change) Bill London: TSO (Bills 2009-10. more choice for parents and pupil. Department for Education and Skills. Cm. Home Office.g. Command Papers incl.pdf [Accessed 25 November 2005]. Parliament. FAME [Online]. Departmental Reports Example: Great Britain. London: The Stationery Office. Available at: http://0-academic. [Accessed: 10 May 2011]. unlike that for the House of Commons Electronic Government Documents Many government publications are now only available electronically and their updating is often problematic.com/ [Accessed: 10 May 2011]. 1. (Home Office Statistical Bulletin 15/05).uk/rds/pdfs05/hosb1505. even if lengthy e. NB The session number for the House of Lords is in brackets. Name of Department or Committee [Online].bvdep.Bills Example: Great Britain. London: TSO. Department of Health (2004) Choosing health: making healthy choices easier. House of Commons (2003) Return to an address of the Honourable the House of Commons dated 28th January 2004 for the report of the inquiry into the circumstances surrounding the death of Dr David Kelly C. Reports from Online Databases Example (Market Research reports): Mintel (2011) „BMW unveils electric car‟.M. Available from: http://www. Help sheet | 30 | Page | 8 .G. Mintel oxygen reports platform [Online]. Session 2009-10. the Hutton Report.mintel. (2005) Higher standards. they must be referenced from the exact information on the title page. Science And Technology Committee (2009) Nanotechnologies and food: v. House of Commons. Parliament. Year of publication (in brackets) Available from: URL Title of the document in italics or underlined [Date accessed] Publisher Example: Great Britain.if any.homeoffice.gov. by Lord Hutton. Home Office (2005) Sentencing Statistics 2004. London: TSO. House of Commons Papers Example: Great Britain. better schools for all. (HL 2009-2010 (1)). e. especially when departments merge or change name. What you must include: Country. Parliament. Green (consultation papers) and White (policy statements) Papers Example: Great Britain. 2003) House of Lords Papers Example: Great Britain.

Athens.uk. MSc Estate Management. C. [Accessed: date]. what level award it was.uk/theses/SGOSOL. Speech. the date approved. Available from: URL of the source of the full text or DOI [Date Accessed]. et al. date. the year.lsbu. [Online]. Greece. London: Polytechnic of the South Bank. Include the location of the institution if it is not clear from the name alone Example: Edwards. 117-122. Available from: URL.lisa. pp. It should include: Author surname and initial Date (of publication) Title of the paper in italics or underlined Where and when it was presented. Digitised Thesis / Dissertation You need to provide the following: Author surname and initial Available from: the URL of the online service Date (in brackets) [Date accessed]. Leuven. Title – in italics or underlined Level of thesis.ac. Help sheet | 30 | Page | 9 . S.lsbu.D thesis. (2003) The future of women surveyors. London: BSI.F. Ph. Turkey.Conference Papers The title. Thesis / Dissertation You should indicate whether the research is published or not. and publisher. Example: British Standards Institution (2005) BS 7000-6: 2005: Guide to managing inclusive design. awarding University. Available from: http://0-www. Electronic Conference Papers This illustrates the referencing of a single paper from a conference. plus the name and author of the actual paper. R. and the publisher and place of publication. [Online]. Example: Cereti. (2004) An Italian survey of pitches for soccer. June 2003. Example: Gosal.ieee.org. and location of the conference need to be identified. in: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Turfgrass Management and Science for Sports Fields. For electronic references remember to add: [Online]. Belgium: ISHS. (1991) Degrees of differences: family and education in the lives of mature motherstudents. Paper presented at the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics. Istanbul. Example: Leshem. [Accessed 17 September 2003]. (2000) On the finite sample behavior of the constant modules cost.lispac. Available from: http://0-ieeexplore. and the name and location of the awarding institution.pdf [Accessed 5 August 2005]. A. and Signal Processing. South Bank University. [Online]. [Online]. give the editor‟s name if available. any specific part indicated. Standards You should cite the standard number plus.ac. the precise pages within the proceedings in which the paper appears. title.

Indicate the subject matter (in brackets) and the interview date(s). Example: Patterson.Recorded (broadcast) material This is unlikely to have an “author” so put the title first. Hollywood: Universal Studios. A. Illustrations in books/journals etc.Provide the name of the director or producer. It does not matter whether the author is the illustrator or not. NB If you reproduce any part of an illustration you need permission. are referenced as you would a normal book/journal etc. Format / medium in square brackets […]. if not year of lecture Help sheet | 30 | Page | 10 . add details of the specific version you used. Example: To Kill a Mockingbird (1962) [Film drama] directed by Robert Mulligan. giving the date and distributor. Give the year of the original broadcast in round brackets. If they do not mind you must include: Author surname and initial Year of handout (in brackets) if given.DVD / Video . and finally the actual date of the recording. etc. the name of the broadcasting company. you reference the artist. 10. Example: Fragonard. in square brackets.5) shows a young girl leaving the village … If you viewed an illustration/artwork. Example: In text: … Barker‟s illustration (1998. Live Performances (theatre. Interviews Keep notes and transcripts ready to produce on demand. Cite the surname and initials of the person interviewed using the title “Personal Interview”. London] Illustrations/Artwork Make it clear whether you viewed the original in location or from a reproduction in a book. Lecture Notes/Handouts Warning! Some lecturers do not wish to have their notes regurgitated back to them – ask first. Example: The 50 years war: Israel and the Arabs Part 2 (2005) [DVD] London: BBC 4. Where titles are available on DVD or video. The type of illustration should be noted in the text citation. part or whole. Jean-Honore (1766) The swing. [Oil on canvas] The Wallace Collection. (see examples on previous pages). then the format. Recorded off-air 27/09/2005. If you view online include: [Online. p176 fig. 14 May.) You need to identify the playwright or choreographer. If part of a series. Year in brackets. I. if known. Example: Miller. or list them as appendices. National Theatre. Available at: URL [Accessed: date]. ballet. London. Film Title in italics. catalogue or webpage. (1955) A View from the Bridge [performance viewed 12 February 1987. the location and name of the production company responsible. then the programme title (in italics). state this first. the date of the premiere performance. (2003) Personal Interview (memories of Southwark during the Second World War). the title of the work and details of where and when it was seen. it is the author you reference not the artist.

Available from: http://www. e. Title of Module Example: Watmough. Culture and Identity 3. Ask your lecturers whether you should be quoting from their notes.lsbu.g. [Handout]. indicate such omissions or cite the main web site and indicate how to link from it. (1997) Carbohydrates? They aren’t that simple.J. [Online]. Web pages / Web documents (including pdf documents) NB Downloaded images should always be acknowledged even if it is „free‟ clip art. Author/editor (if available) or name of organisation Name of publisher (if available). Race. Year of publication or last update (in brackets) [Online]. Tutor‟s or author‟s surname and initials [Online]. Where there is no obvious author Example: Every little hurts: why Tesco needs to be tamed [MPs Briefing] (2004) Friends of the Earth. Blackboard Materials Make it clear what you are referencing. Culture and Identity. Academic misconduct: plagiarism.co. D. Department [Handout].sportsci. Available from: http://www. Havering. HSC. Check with your lecturers the types of web sites from which you should not be quoting. lecturer‟s notes or course documents.foe. Available from: http://www. L. [Accessed 14 February 2001]. Location Title of lecture notes – italics or underlined Date of lecture. (2010) Referencing/citing: including plagiarism/copyright. [Online].ac. Individuals in Society. [Online]. lacking date or author). Available from: http://blackboard. Title of the web document – in italics Available from: URL (in FULL) Edition – usually expressed as version or update [Date accessed] .pdf. S. Historical Perspectives. Example: National Down Syndrome Society [no date] Associated medical conditions National Down Syndrome Society. Name of the module/unit in italics or underlined. Example: Takhar. Make sure you have the full details at the time of access. (2005) Race. [Online]. Year (in brackets) Available from: URL of main Blackboard site Title of notes or document [Date accessed].nds. Google Scholar which has peer-reviewed articles only.Title of lecture Name of teaching establishment Module code. Help sheet | 30 | Page | 11 . or [Lecture Notes].the exact date you looked at the page/website/document]. before you do it. LSBU.uk/resource/briefings/every_little_hurts.org [Accessed 13 May 2005]. 28th Jan.uk [Accessed 29 October 2005]. Better sites include: LSBU e-resources.org . NFP-1-052. [Accessed 30 April 2005]. If the web page contains insufficient detail (e. Intute or Pinakes Freely available and unregulated web pages are the sources most likely to be unstable as material can be removed or changed. Place of publication (if clear) Example: Burke.g.

A help sheet is available and there are online tutorials. surname and initials Date posted (day / month).typepad. [Available in the LSBU library system. P. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. (2007) Antibiotic assays on Olympus Analysers. and is available to buy RRP = £8. (2005) RE: New passwords for off-campus access. It will then generate citations and bibliographies in the format needed. so use the name they have used in you reference.com/knitting_history/ [Accessed 2 December 2005]. 21 June. and contributions added anonymously. Discussion list name in italics or [Date accessed].uk/lists/ACB-CLIN-CHEM-GEN. Useful additional reading: The following publication lists more examples. Message title/subject Available from: URL of the list archive. This is not an easy option. 8th ed. Daniels. Personal e-mail to: J. Blog name Example: “Julia” (2005) Take back the craft. Clinical Biochemistry discussion list. H. You will need to provide: Author (or pseudonym) Version (if clear) Year of posting or last update (in Date of posting (day / month) brackets) Available from: URL Title in italics or underlined [Date accessed]. [Online].g. (2010) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. Personal E-Mail Messages Name of sender Personal e-mail to: name of recipient Year sent (in brackets) Date of message (day / month) Message Subject / Title in italics or underlined Example: Beam.Weblogs (Blogs) Possibly the most unreliable electronic source . J. You still need to know how to do your referencing. writing and collaboration tool designed to help researchers gather. store and share all types of information.html [Accessed 10 June 2010].ac.jiscmail. 12 June RefWorks RefWorks is an online. manage.postings can be removed and amended without warning. Messages are archived for a limited period only by the list owners. R. research management. [Blog entry] Available from: http://knittinghistory. Year of the communication (in brackets) [Online]. G. e. and Shields. In the above example the discussion list is in upper case letters. please check the catalogue for availability] Help sheet | 30 | Page | 12 . underlined Example: Thomas. Type of internet site. but this is not usual. Discussion List Messages You need to supply the following information: Author of message.99: Pears. Available from: http://www. Many authors give first names or aliases/pseudonyms.