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How to Do Your Referencing Using the Harvard System
The Harvard System (also called the Author - Date System) is one of several available methods of referencing and is the preferred choice of most departments in the University. However, you should check with your lecturers which system your course requires before you do your first assignment. This help sheet covers the referencing of many different types of material, both printed and electronic. NB There is no officially agreed system of referencing information in any electronic format, so these guidelines are a local interpretation of the Harvard style. Electronic examples have a shaded background.
Authors Blackboard Materials Blogs (Weblogs) Books Citing in your text Conference Papers Date Discussion Lists DVD E-Books/Kindle E-Journals E-mails Edited Books Film Government Reports Illustrations/Art Interviews pp.2-3,4,5 p.11 p.12 pp.4-5 pp.2-3 pp.9 pp.2,4 p.12 p.9 p.6 pp.6-7 p.12 p.5 p.10 pp.7-8 p.10 p.10 Journals Lecture Notes /Handouts Live Performances Newspapers Online Databases –reports Paraphrasing Plagiarism Quoting Reference List RefWorks Secondary referencing Standards Theses Titles Video Web Pages / Documents p.6 p.10 p.10 p.7 p.8 p.3 p.2 p.3 pp.3-12 p.12 p.2 p.9 p.9 p.4 p.9 p.11

What is a “Reference”?
A reference or citation is a description of any document from which you have taken information, e.g. a complete book, a chapter from it, a journal article, a newspaper article, a web page, or DVD etc.

What is “Citing”?
“Citing” a reference is the act of recording it. It is made in two places: 1. a brief entry for each source in the text of your work, which then leads your reader to … 2. your source, in full, at the end of your work, as an alphabetical reference list. As the list is in alphabetical order, it is easy to pick out the required author‟s work.

Why do I need to do it?
It is both a legal requirement and academic practice to provide references to guide your reader to the sources you have used, to support the arguments you are making, to demonstrate the breadth of your research, to credit the established work of others.++

p.e. separated by a comma. This is only if you have no other information to provide. 2004) If you include the author‟s name as part of the sentence statement. N. K. trying to pass off someone else‟s work as your own: it is a form of cheating. 1999 p. Secondary Referencing If you refer to a document which you DID NOT read. 2. (2007) Human anatomy and physiology. Example: . Incomplete or inaccurate referencing also reflects badly on your work. (See below for more on this). It must be in alphabetical order e. Full reference in the Reference List Whoever you cite in your text has to match your reference list as the list is in alphabetical order. only the date needs to be in brackets. Try to avoid this type of reference as you cannot always check the original and are relying on interpretation by others. Example: … Hartley (1999) declared that … If it is not part of your sentence. you need to provide: the authority: usually surname (family name) of the author(s). 2008) NB Sometimes these details are not provided so: Where there is no obvious author – for printed works use a brief form of the In your text: …Marieb and Hoehn (2007)… leads to the reference list and finds: Marieb. How it works There are 2 parts: 1. both the name and date must be in brackets. Where there is no obvious author or title .What happens if I don‟t? Failure to acknowledge your sources is likely to lead to a suspicion of plagiarism – i. normally by author. you must make this clear. Please consult our Help Sheet 4 on Plagiarism.html. When you compile your reference list you must only cite the work in which you read it. believed that … or Dunn (1988) revealed that …. The page number(s) must be added if a specific part needs to be identified or a direct quote made.simply cite the URL at the end of your sentence (in brackets) and add the date of the latest update. (http://wwar. Example: … although other authors have denied this (Hartley. Example: …which is described there in detail (Hartley. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings. which was described in some detail (A Writer’s Notebook. for further examples of different kinds of documents please read on. which is very rare Example: The followers of the Arts and Crafts Movement believed that the Industrial Revolution removed creativity and individuality from society. Help sheet | 30 | Page | 2 . but which was cited (referenced) by somebody else whose work you DID read. Examples: Dunn (1988). NB This is just one example of a book which happens to have two authors.for an electronic source .226) NB your reference list will include the full details of the Campbell and Muncer work. as cited by Campbell and Muncer (1998).172).. but no mention of Dunn‟s... (cited in Campbell and Muncer. How to Put References into the Text of your Essay / Report Author/s and Date For each reference you make in the text of your essay. Example: (Nursing and Midwifery Council. 1998. 1999). maybe a corporate author the date it was published. Author + Date in your text. and Hoehn. 1946). E. 7th International ed.

Repeat in the reference list. it is clear … For three authors or more. See below for more details. different issues of a journal throughout the year. or sections of a book. lemon juice. Paraphrasing This is if you put the original text into your own words. [NB Page numbers for books are not included in the Reference List] Example: … Jackson (2004. Help sheet | 30 | Page | 3 . Example: … (Williamson. which will vary between types of material. before you submit your work. you can leave out any section as long as you make this clear by inserting three dots. b. For electronic sources. c. They should not be a substitute for your own opinion.575) declared that “This is the finest example of postmodernism …” If page numbers are in separate sequences and therefore duplicated e.250). Chapter 6) from which the quote is taken. You may also be asked to compile a bibliography. p. the date of publication and the title of the work. in case it is not available later and your reference is incomplete. You must put it in italics. within your final work.g. Example: … Anderson et al (2003) concluded that … Multiple references to the same author If you cite different documents by the same author which were published in the same year. and try to indicate the relevance of each within the text. but you must still cite the source in full. Do not use quotations too often or their impact will be reduced. or vinegar and herbs in which meat or fish is soaked before cooking. 2001b) etc.If there are two authors: Example: In the much acclaimed work on the subject by Martin and Frost (2001). which should contain all the sources you used in your research even if you did not refer to them. (Williamson. etc. It should only contain the details of documents / sources of the quotes you have referred to within the text of your work. 1999. or quote from them. p. … Quotations in the Text If you quote the exact words directly from a text you must use quotation marks to indicate this. Any book you borrowed from the library will be in your Reading History in your Library Account. it is usual to use the Latin et al (meaning “and others”) after the name of the first author. p. Tip – It is good practice to take the full details of each source of information as soon as you have read it. Example: Bender defines a marinade as: a mixture of oil with wine. Listing Your References at the End of Your Work Your list should have both printed and electronic sources in one single alphabetical sequence. to distinguish between them add the letters a. clarify what you are being asked to provide. Partial Quotes If you do not need to quote the complete original quotation. “When MPs had an operational grievance they were encouraged to direct their question … directly to the agency”. both to give flavour and to make it more tender (Bender.g. and if possible the page number (or at least the chapter heading e. Try to vary the way you introduce a quote into your text. 2001a). but should always include the author‟s name. Example: Flinders (2001. in lower case after the year. you must include the issue or section number or name. Also.make it clear that the information came from an electronic source and when you accessed it. with your lecturers. you must also include extra details . The author(s) and date must be stated. For each reference you need to record various pieces of information.71) comments that. if the quote is long it is clearer to indent the text – quotation marks are not required in this example. Terminology varies between departments so if necessary.

this must be alphabetised as well. it is not possible to cover all types of resource. check to see if it has an editor.d. usually on the reverse of the title page. Books Beware! If a book is edited it may be treated more like a periodical. use that. Always take the details of the author. death. The list is not put in numerical order as that is not how Harvard works. A journal title. The title (chapter or article) These are neither underlined nor italicised. before a sub-title. publisher. using the brief title. edition.] or [undated] Example: [no page numbers] Example: [editorial] Example: [Online]. normally of the author/ corporate author’s name. but like the book title. The list of your citations quoted in your text. etc. only the first letter of the first word is in upper case. then use lower case for all other title words. Date The date and edition must correspond. though. Electronic information often has two dates. a second initial or title will determine the order Example: Smith. Authors with the same surname If two authors have identical surnames and first initials. Journal of Advanced Nursing Hint: use the library catalogue if in doubt. Title etc. may be on the back of the title page. make it clear that this is the case. Smith. to emphasise the title. one for the information and one for the webpage itself. or underlining (if written in long hand). Date. [n. For 2 examples of edited books see next page. However. Do not use a reprint date. If you cannot find a date at all. has capital first letters for all the major words e.g. unless there is a proper name. J. NB Any date(s) without brackets after an author‟s name is/are intended to distinguish between authors of the same name. Help sheet | 30 | Page | 4 . 1965 The title (book or journal) Use italics (if typed). Examples: The following examples show you what should be included for the most common sources. If the date of publication is not clear look for the latest copyright date: ©. Other systems do use numbers. so please ask for advice from staff if necessary. J. Place a colon (:) after the short title. title. maybe. Example: [no date]. but use the short. but is the date of the author‟s birth and. James.A. Adding information. Do not confuse an edition with a reprint. When you first find a quote in a book. For a book title. The date. this must be in square brackets. but if you have cited. This is nothing to do with the publication date. by adding this information in square brackets. must be in alphabetical order. Only include the first one acknowledged. not present in the publication details . Place of publication This is city or town. Do not use the reprint date. from the title page of a book (not the front cover). not just the country.T. If you add information which does not actually appear in the original. If there is one for the information. Example: Burke. capitalise the first letter only. Where there is no obvious author: List by full title. main title (before any colon) in your text. etc.Bibliographic Details: Author.

A chapter from an edited book If you refer to a chapter in a book edited by someone other than the author of the chapter. Help sheet | 30 | Page | 5 or . If there are three authors or more. J. The book title is in italics. Example: Bradbury. comma. However. K. M. London: Kogan Page. full stop. Oxford: Blackwell.The preferred order of presentation within your reference list is: Surname of author(s). the full stop will change to a comma If there is only one author. R. some LSBU departments prefer you to list ALL authors in full. The edition (if other than the first). Example: British Broadcasting Corporation (2004) Building public value: renewing the BBC for a digital world. Harlow: Pearson. Example: Ezra. (2006) Successful presentation skills. but if you do. Corporate author When something is published by an organization or a company there may be no individual author to identify. Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. E. Hatcher. (eds. 4th ed. 3rd ed. (2005) Evidence-based mental health care. Butler. full stop Year of publication (in brackets) The title (in italics with only the first letter of first word capitalised).) or (eds. (2003) Attitudes. full stop A book by two authors Example: Date of Publication Title of book in italics Authors‟ surnames and initial(s) Edition Macionis. as in the text entry.J. Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. G. J.) (2004) European Cinema. use the name of the editor(s) followed by (ed. S. S. it is becoming more usual for the “et al” rule to be used here. in: Deaux. not the title of the chapter. NB Page numbers are not normally Place of publication (town or city) Publisher required as you will have them in-text.) Representations of the social. full stop Place of publication (the first city or town) followed by a colon Publisher‟s name. London: BBC. You must therefore check with your lecturer first. G. and Oakley-Browne. Examples: Hatcher. (2008) Sociology: a global introduction. If the book is edited. (ed.. colon between short and secondary/sub title. and Plummer. social representations and beyond. et al (2005) Evidence-based mental health care. and Philogene. you need to make this clear by using “in” (followed by a colon). A. initial(s). It is the author of the chapter you cite.) in place of the author. Example: Gaskell. Prentice Hall. Oxford: OUP. J.

g. R.” Example: Only first word with a capital first letter. details are normally on the contents page and usually at the top or bottom of every page of each article. 8th ed. [Online]. unless proper name).g. comma Volume number. Title of article in plain text. full stop Year of publication in brackets Title of the ARTICLE ( only first word with capitalised initial letter. Title of book (and any subtitle) .com [Accessed: 16 August 2007]. comma Title of the JOURNAL (in italics). the e-book service you used). Smith. pp. 184-188.E-books (Electronic Books) As above examples. through the LSBU Catalogue. part or issue number (in brackets). British National Formulary. Available from: (i. (2005) How computers work. Title of journal in italics or underlined. Sometimes the online published date for an article will be different to the printed version. (59). comma.if available) followed by a colon(:) Publisher‟s name. Always use the publication date of the version being used. and Downs. If you access the journal from a full-text collection e. [e-book reader]. in italics). you need to cite the resource provider‟s (e. See example for e-reader below. not italics. 19 (26).g. Indianapolis: Que. if an editorial. Edition (other than the first) Place of publication (of printed original . indicate this in square brackets after the title e. or add extra features. Example 1: White. Only initial letter capitalised.italics or underlined. URL Help sheet | 30 | Page | 6 . Nursing Standard. [editorial]) Title of the journal in italics or underlined. issue or part number (in brackets). All main words have capital first letter. and Jack.g. Available from: http://www. You need to include: Author (or editor) surname and initials Year (in brackets). Available from: Safari Tech Books Online. Example 2 – from an e-reader: Aristotle (2005) Ethics. Available from: (the database provider.safaribooksonline. comma First and last pages of the article separated by a hyphen and indicated by the abbreviation “pp. initial(s). 33-37. T. You will need to provide the following: Author (or editor) surname and initials Year of publication (original print version or online version) (in brackets) Title of article (only first letter of first word [Accessed: 5 May 2011]. A. E. in square brackets. URL (web address) (Date accessed). (2005) Reflective practice: a meaningful task for students. e. except for certain [Online]. Business Source Premier) URL for the full text. E-Journal article obtained using a full-text database or journal collection. [Online]. page numbers (pp. Business Source Premier. http://0-proquest. K. Example: Joint Formulary Committee (2010) Antihistamines. Electronic Journal Articles Make it clear how you accessed each article as online journals sometimes omit sections found in the printed version. plus page range). pp. Kindle version. Date (month or season) Volume number (if any). Journal Articles For journals. You need to include: Surname of the author(s).amazon.

London: HMSO. By giving the date of access. Available from: ScienceDirect. sometimes a running number within the “volume”. 27 September [Accessed 31 July 2005]. except that in the „Available from‟ statement you should give the precise URL or DOI (digital object identifier) for the article. L. Government Publications (Reports. 1.14710528. the URL of the ProQuest Newspapers or LexisNexis services. e. 33 (7). please see: How to do your Referencing: the OSCOLA System (Law Resources) (HS 29) For individual legal reports. Help sheet | 30 | Page | 7 . but follow the OSCOLA form e. Available from: http://0-proquest.x. and Jutting. – the actual date you viewed the article.g. the Guardian if you used a direct link. square brackets for date. Financial Times. J. please note in addition: Editorials rarely have an attributable author The section of the newspaper is helpful if relevant (in brackets) Specific editions of many newspapers are indexed Example: Atkins. Example: Tobin. your reader will be clear which version you are identifying if there have been revisions. Example: Morrison. To be published in BJOG.g. R. [preprint] 13 Apr 2011 [Online]. (2010) “The crush starts here”. 8 June 2010. C.02967. DOI: 10. but the article title should be in quotation marks. as usual. An Article from a Newspaper The same rules apply as for a journal reference. include them with the Harvard citations in the Reference List. or the specific URL of the individual newspaper. World Development. e. need to indicate if your reference is from any particular section or edition of the paper. pp. Sometimes page numbers will be given. [Online]. Consultation Papers) There are a variety of these and below are some examples The publisher is usually The Stationery Office (TSO) (formerly HMSO). Details of volume and issue numbers are not required as you must have the specific date. M. E-Journal article directly from a web site You will need exactly the same information as for the example above. The Guardian (Education Supplement). (2005) Women‟s discrimination in developing countries: a new data set for better policies. p. alphabetically.52). et al (2011) Mental health problems common in women with fear of childbirth.1111/j.52. Acts of Parliament (Statutes) Example: Housing Act 1996 (c. You do. (2004) ECB warns finance ministers it will retain sole control of euro.2011. reference the article precisely as given on the screen. Whatever the practice. However. Each act is given a running number or “chapter” during the [Accessed 25 January 2005]. Example with DOI for a prepublication article: Rouhe.umi. http://sciencedirect. H. July. Article in an Electronic Newspaper You need to give similar information as for a journal article from a database.g.[Date accessed xx xxxxxxxx xxxx]. 1065-1081. [Online]. Legal material – case reports This referencing is often different from Harvard. e.g. [Accessed: 9 May 2011]. c. and Schieritz.

Mintel oxygen reports platform [Online]. Series information . Available from: [Online].homeoffice. e. they must be referenced from the exact information on the title page. NB The session number for the House of Lords is in even if lengthy e. unlike that for the House of Commons Electronic Government Documents Many government publications are now only available electronically and their updating is often problematic. Departmental Reports Example: Great Britain. What you must include: Country. FAME [Online].if any. Department of Health (2004) Choosing health: making healthy choices easier. (HC 247) NB Your in-text citation would be: (Great Britain. Cm. Session 2009-10. 2003) House of Lords Papers Example: Great Britain. Parliament. Home Office. 1. (HL 2009-2010 (1)). Available at: https://fame2. Parliament. the Hutton Report. House of Commons Papers Example: Great Britain. London: TSO. annual return‟. Major reports are known by the name of the chair of the committee which produced them.g.mintel. more choice for parents and pupil. Help sheet | 30 | Page | 8 . (13)). Available at: http://0-academic. House of Commons. London: TSO. (Home Office Statistical Bulletin 15/05). London: The Stationery Office. better schools for all. (2005) Higher standards. Green (consultation papers) and White (policy statements) Papers Example: Great Britain. 6677.pdf [Accessed 25 November 2005].com. Parliament.G. Parliament.M. Year of publication (in brackets) Available from: URL Title of the document in italics or underlined [Date accessed] Publisher Example: Great Britain. Home Office (2005) Sentencing Statistics 2004. Check dates and “versions” carefully.Bills Example: Great Britain. by Lord Hutton. House of Lords (2009) Consumer emissions (climate change) Bill London: TSO (Bills 2009-10. House Of Lords. Science And Technology Committee (2009) Nanotechnologies and food: v. Name of Department or Committee [Online] [Accessed: 10 May 2011]. especially when departments merge or change name. London: TSO. [Accessed: 10 May 2011]. Reports from Online Databases Example (Market Research reports): Mintel (2011) „BMW unveils electric car‟.g. Command Papers incl. Department for Education and Skills. Example (Financial reports): Bureau van Dijk (2011) „Kobalt Computers Ltd. House of Commons (2003) Return to an address of the Honourable the House of Commons dated 28th January 2004 for the report of the inquiry into the circumstances surrounding the death of Dr David Kelly C.

[Online]. R.D thesis. Standards You should cite the standard number plus. Example: Thesis / Dissertation You should indicate whether the research is published or and publisher. C. give the editor‟s name if available. and the publisher and place of publication. Athens. Include the location of the institution if it is not clear from the name alone Example: Edwards. For electronic references remember to add: [Online]. Belgium: ISHS. Example: Leshem. in: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Turfgrass Management and Science for Sports Fields. June 2003. Available from: URL. Available from: the precise pages within the proceedings in which the paper appears. Greece. Example: Gosal. (1991) Degrees of differences: family and education in the lives of mature motherstudents. [Accessed: date]. and location of the conference need to be identified. MSc Estate Management. the date approved. Ph. A. title. [Online].uk/theses/SGOSOL. London: BSI. Leuven.lsbu. S. [Online]. It should include: Author surname and initial Date (of publication) Title of the paper in italics or underlined Where and when it was presented. any specific part indicated. and the name and location of the awarding institution. Speech. Help sheet | 30 | Page | 9 . Example: British Standards Institution (2005) BS 7000-6: 2005: Guide to managing inclusive design. the year. pp. London: Polytechnic of the South Bank.Conference Papers The title. Title – in italics or underlined Level of thesis.lsbu. and Signal Processing.lisa. Turkey. Istanbul. Available from: URL of the source of the full text or DOI [Date Accessed].F. 117-122. Electronic Conference Papers This illustrates the referencing of a single paper from a conference. Digitised Thesis / Dissertation You need to provide the following: Author surname and initial Available from: the URL of the online service Date (in brackets) [Date accessed]. et al. what level award it was. (2004) An Italian survey of pitches for soccer. South Bank University.lispac. [Accessed 17 September 2003]. [Online]. (2000) On the finite sample behavior of the constant modules cost. plus the name and author of the actual paper.pdf [Accessed 5 August 2005]. (2003) The future of women surveyors. date. Available from: awarding University. Paper presented at the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics.

part or whole. Illustrations in books/journals etc. London] Illustrations/Artwork Make it clear whether you viewed the original in location or from a reproduction in a book. The type of illustration should be noted in the text citation.Provide the name of the director or producer. ballet. Example: To Kill a Mockingbird (1962) [Film drama] directed by Robert Mulligan. If you view online include: [Online. catalogue or webpage.DVD / Video . If part of a series. 14 May. London. (1955) A View from the Bridge [performance viewed 12 February 1987. p176 fig. add details of the specific version you used. the name of the broadcasting company. giving the date and distributor. and finally the actual date of the recording. Example: Miller. It does not matter whether the author is the illustrator or not. state this first. (2003) Personal Interview (memories of Southwark during the Second World War). Where titles are available on DVD or video. [Oil on canvas] The Wallace Collection. Film Title in italics. Example: The 50 years war: Israel and the Arabs Part 2 (2005) [DVD] London: BBC 4. then the programme title (in italics). or list them as appendices. Jean-Honore (1766) The swing. if known. Hollywood: Universal Studios. then the format. if not year of lecture Help sheet | 30 | Page | 10 . Year in brackets. Recorded off-air 27/09/2005. Live Performances (theatre. you reference the artist.) You need to identify the playwright or choreographer. Give the year of the original broadcast in round brackets. Lecture Notes/Handouts Warning! Some lecturers do not wish to have their notes regurgitated back to them – ask first. I. If they do not mind you must include: Author surname and initial Year of handout (in brackets) if given.Recorded (broadcast) material This is unlikely to have an “author” so put the title first. it is the author you reference not the artist. Format / medium in square brackets […]. 10. Example: In text: … Barker‟s illustration (1998.5) shows a young girl leaving the village … If you viewed an illustration/artwork. (see examples on previous pages). Interviews Keep notes and transcripts ready to produce on demand. are referenced as you would a normal book/journal etc. the date of the premiere performance. NB If you reproduce any part of an illustration you need permission. etc. in square brackets. Example: Fragonard. Example: Patterson. Indicate the subject matter (in brackets) and the interview date(s). the location and name of the production company responsible. A. Available at: URL [Accessed: date]. National Theatre. Cite the surname and initials of the person interviewed using the title “Personal Interview”. the title of the work and details of where and when it was seen.

Help sheet | 30 | Page | 11 . Culture and Identity 3. lecturer‟s notes or course documents.Title of lecture Name of teaching establishment Module code. [Online]. (2010) Referencing/citing: including plagiarism/copyright. 28th Jan.nds. Academic misconduct: plagiarism. Make sure you have the full details at the time of access. Available from: http://blackboard. (1997) Carbohydrates? They aren’t that simple. Available from: http://www. L. Ask your lecturers whether you should be quoting from their notes. Tutor‟s or author‟s surname and initials [Online]. [Accessed 30 April 2005]. Location Title of lecture notes – italics or underlined Date of lecture. Author/editor (if available) or name of organisation Name of publisher (if available).uk/resource/briefings/every_little_hurts. S. Individuals in Society.pdf. Year of publication or last update (in brackets) [Online].co. [Online]. Example: Takhar. [Accessed 14 February 2001]. Title of Module Example: Watmough. If the web page contains insufficient detail (e. Intute or Pinakes Freely available and unregulated web pages are the sources most likely to be unstable as material can be removed or changed. (2005) Race. Place of publication (if clear) Example: Burke. indicate such omissions or cite the main web site and indicate how to link from it. Where there is no obvious author Example: Every little hurts: why Tesco needs to be tamed [MPs Briefing] (2004) Friends of the Earth. Name of the module/unit in italics or underlined. Check with your lecturers the types of web sites from which you should not be quoting. HSC. Available from: http://www. Example: National Down Syndrome Society [no date] Associated medical conditions National Down Syndrome Society. Web pages / Web documents (including pdf documents) NB Downloaded images should always be acknowledged even if it is „free‟ clip art. Available from: http://www.sportsci. [Online]. [Online].foe. Title of the web document – in italics Available from: URL (in FULL) Edition – usually expressed as version or update [Date accessed] .g. Blackboard Materials Make it clear what you are referencing. Better sites include: LSBU e-resources. before you do it. Department [Handout].org [Accessed 13 May 2005]. Historical Perspectives. NFP-1-052.lsbu.the exact date you looked at the page/website/document]. e.J. Year (in brackets) Available from: URL of main Blackboard site Title of notes or document [Date accessed]. LSBU. Google Scholar which has peer-reviewed articles only. or [Lecture Notes]. lacking date or author). Havering. Race. D. Culture and Identity. [Handout].org .uk [Accessed 29 October 2005] [Blog entry] Available from: http://knittinghistory. please check the catalogue for availability] Help sheet | 30 | Page | 12 . store and share all types of information. underlined Example: Thomas. G. Available from: http://www. (2005) RE: New passwords for off-campus access. In the above example the discussion list is in upper case letters. Type of internet site. This is not an easy option.jiscmail. Many authors give first names or aliases/pseudonyms.g. and contributions added anonymously.99: Pears. Useful additional reading: The following publication lists more examples. so use the name they have used in you reference. A help sheet is available and there are online tutorials. Discussion list name in italics or [Date accessed].html [Accessed 10 June 2010]. Message title/subject Available from: URL of the list archive. Year of the communication (in brackets) [Online]. (2010) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. manage. and Shields. (2007) Antibiotic assays on Olympus Analysers. and is available to buy RRP = £8. You still need to know how to do your referencing. [Available in the LSBU library system. R. P. surname and initials Date posted (day / month).com/knitting_history/ [Accessed 2 December 2005]. Personal e-mail to: J.postings can be removed and amended without warning. J. H. Messages are archived for a limited period only by the list owners. writing and collaboration tool designed to help researchers gather. Basingstoke: Palgrave Daniels. 21 June. but this is not usual. Discussion List Messages You need to supply the following information: Author of message. You will need to provide: Author (or pseudonym) Version (if clear) Year of posting or last update (in Date of posting (day / month) brackets) Available from: URL Title in italics or underlined [Date accessed]. 8th ed. [Online]. Clinical Biochemistry discussion list. e.Weblogs (Blogs) Possibly the most unreliable electronic source . Blog name Example: “Julia” (2005) Take back the craft. 12 June RefWorks RefWorks is an online. Personal E-Mail Messages Name of sender Personal e-mail to: name of recipient Year sent (in brackets) Date of message (day / month) Message Subject / Title in italics or underlined Example: Beam. research management. It will then generate citations and bibliographies in the format needed.