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Are alpha helices right-handed or left-handed? Why?

Right-handed because lef t-handed would not work with L-amino acids How many disulfide bonds are in insulin? 3 Why is proline considered to be an imino acid? Its functional group cyclizes on the nitrogen "In the cell, are lysine and arginine usually protonated or deprotonated? Why?" Protonated because they have a pKa higher than 7.4 "In the cell, are aspartic acid and glutamic acid usually protonated or deproton ated? Why?" Deprotonated because they have a pKa lower than 7.4. Why can glycine allow for strange conformations? It has H for an R group. What are 4-hydroxyproline and 5-hydroxylysine constituents of? Collagen What is the most abundant fibrous protein in mammals? Collagen What amino acid is used as the initial N-terminal residue of ALL bacterial prote ins? N-formyl methionine Name two places where you might find -N-acetyl lysine. "Histones, cytoskeletal proteins" Over what pH range does the CO-NH peptide bond not ionize? pH 2-12 Name two ways you can break a peptide bond. 1. high temperature with strong acid or base 2. enzymatic cleavage Name the four interactions that are important for stabilizing protein structure. 1. hydrogen bonds 2. Ionic interactions 3. Hydrophobic interactions 4. Disulfide bonds How many meters are in an Angstrom? 10-Oct What is the range of lengths of hydrogen bonds in Angstroms? 2.7 – 3.1 Angstrom s Name some amino acids that donate a hydrogen atom to form a hydrogen bond. "Serine, threonine, tyrosine" Name some amino acids that accept a hydrogen atom to form a hydrogen bond. "Histidine (N), glutamate, aspartate" Compare the location of hydrophobic and hydrophilic side chains. "Hydroph obic residues are inside the core of the protein, while hydrophilic residues are located at the surface" Is the inside of a cell generally a reducing or oxidizing environment? Reducing How can a disulfide bond be disrupted? By reducing agents How many distinct arrangements of amino acids are possible in a tripeptide? 800 What is the function of lysozyme? Degrade bacterial cell walls How many disulfide bonds are in lysozyme? 4 What do hairpin loops join together? Adjacent anti-parallel β sheets How do hairpin loops in parallel strands compare to hairpin loops in anti-parall el strands? They are longer in parallel strands. Name three different tertiary structure shapes that B sheets can fold into. "Flat sheet, twisted sheet, barrel" Give an example of a homomer. Hemoglobin Give an example of a heteromer. Myosin The surface of a substrate must have what three things in order to bind to a par ticular protein? "Shape, charge, hydrophilicity/phobicity" List five ways that proteins can be modified. "Glycosylation, phosphorylation/ dephosphorylation, lipid anchors, methylation/acetylation, proteolytic processin g" Name the amino acids that like to be in helices. LAME Name the amino acids that hate being in helices. PYGS