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FLIGHT International,

28 June 1962

DOD; Boeing were given a paid study contract to switch from the GE MF295 (q.v.) to the TF30. Although bigger and heavier than the other engines considered, the TF30 was a Pratt & Whitney product, and this appears to have been a major factor in its selection. The engine is thus now a focal point in what will probably become the largest aircraft programme in the US, and total engine purchases are expected to reach $800m over eight years. The manufacturer's designation for the TFX engine is JTF10A-20. Installed in the Air Force F-111A it is expected to weigh about 3,5501b with afterburner and variable nozzle, but without any deflection system (which was not asked for). Details of the engine are classified, but it is said to have a zero stage on the fan and to be rated at approximately 12,0001b dry and 19,5001b with reheat in both hot and cold flows. It is thus very closely related to the TF-106. Several JTF10 experimental engines are running, and one has flown under a B-45. The A-20 version has yet to be built, and it is anticipated that it will need about two years to bring it to the production stage. JT11 Financed by the Navy as the J58, this single-shaft turbojet is in the 30,0001b class and is specifically designed for cruising Mach numbers over 2.5. A number of experimental units have been run at West Palm Beach, and although this engine is no longer an active project it has been instrumental in the development of supersonictransport propulsion systems. JT12 Designed by Canadian Pratt & Whitney, this single-shaft turbojet has proved itself a most competitive unit for light military and executive aircraft. First run in May 1958, it completed its 150hr qualification 16 months later and has been in production at Hartford for two years. Although a supersonic afterburning version is available, the production applications are for non-reheat engines in the T-39/T3J Sabreliner, C-140/JetStar and the Fairchild SD-5 drone. Price of the JT12A-6 is $69,000, and the 3,3001b A-8, specified with SNECMA reverser for the Mystere 20 transport, is 880,000. The same gas producer is used in the JFTD12. Military designation of the engine is J60. JFTD12 By adding a two-stage free power turbine at the rear of the JT12 turbojet Pratt & Whitney have evolved a turboshaft unit with a very competitive brochure performance. This performance has been confirmed by bench testing over the past two years, and on May 9 the engine flew as the powerplant of the Sikorsky S-64 Skycrane. Two JFTD12s are geared to the helicopter rotor system, with their exhausts turned outboard. The industrial FT12 is rated at 3,000 s.h.p.

Pratt & WhitneyJFTDI2

AERO

ENGINES

1962

The first bench run of a prototype engine was originally scheduled for April 1961, but was delayed until late May. The first 150hr test was announced in December, when total running exceeded l,000hr. Flight testing was due to begin last autumn, with an engine slung beneath a B-45, but the start of such flying has yet to be announced. In spite of this delay, and of fairly severe stalling experienced in the h-p compressor, the overall programme is approximately on schedule, with about ten engines having now logged well over 4,000hr. Simulated altitude testing in the Willgoos laboratory has yielded better than the estimated performance. Prototype deliveries to Boeing for airframe testing are due this year—one is already flying, hung on the rear of the "-80"' —and production deliveries are scheduled for 1963 (originally "in the first half" of 1963). Pratt & Whitney are looking for further commercial applications, and are especially considering the Caravelle 10B and the BAC One-Eleven (for which they have proposed a derated JT8D). List price of the JT8D-1 is due to rise from the current 8210,000 to 8231,000 by 1965. Military JT8D Although proposals have been made to the US Government—some, one would think, with jet deflection along the lines of the Pegasus—there is no announced application. Earlier this month, however, the JT8D was chosen as the basis for the powerplant for the Swedish Saab-37, and this is discussed on page 1013. JTF10 Today one of the most important aircraft engines in America, this turbofan has a long and chequered history. The basic design incorporated major p u t s of the JT8 (J52) turbojet, and was evolved in 1957 to meet anticipated commercial and military requirements. The first detail investigation began in 1958, in which year Douglas chose the JTF10A-1 as the powerplant of the projected DC-9 four-engine short-haul airliner. The A-l was a flat-rated unit delivering 8,2501b at up to 90°F, with promised growth to 9,5001b on a standard day. During 1959 Douglas agreed the use of a full-length annular by-pass duct and reverser, and the dry weight of the bare engine came out at 2,1101b. The first run of a prototype engine took place in that year, and prototype delivery was then scheduled for April 1961. Despite the lapse of this application, development of a commercial JTF10 has continued, and the most important version at present on offer is the JTF10A-6, some figures for which are given in data table 2. This powerplant is specified for the Douglas 2086, and is available for the BAC One-Eleven. In each case the engine is started by its 40kVA alternator and c.s.d., and exhausts through a pneumatically actuated reverser. L-p bleed air is used directly for cabin pressurization, and the same air is tempered with an h-p bleed for ice protection. Military TF30 By 1960 the US Navy had welcomed the JTF10 as the ideal high-pressure engine for the subsonic Missileer, the carrier aircraft for the Eagle missile. When this weapon system was cancelled in April 1961, the Navy continued to finance the 10,0001b TF30-2 turbofan, and are said to have injected about $30m to date. At the same time the engine appealed greatly to SNECMA, United Aircraft's French licensee, who were seeking a propulsion engine capable of competing in the forthcoming NATO V/STOL competitions. Pratt & Whitney have since collaborated with SNECMA in the development of the TF-104 and TF-106 (q.v.). Meanwhile the US armed forces were formulating their requirements for a new "all can do" tactical fighter and strike aeroplane, and the TFX competition was instituted. After one of the largest battles ever fought by the US aircraft industry the Department of Defense last January chose the entries submitted by General Dynamics Forth Worth and The Boeing Co Wichita. GD had based their submission on the TF30, and this was the engine chosen by

USSR
It is not generally realized that about a dozen types of Russian engine are in daily use in Western and "neutral" countries, including the 19,1801b RD-3 (AM-3M) turbojet, the 4,015 e.h.p. AI-20 turboprop, and many types of piston engine. In recent weeks considerable interest has centred around the decision of the Indian Government to consider the VK-7 turbojet, developed under the leadership of Vladimir Klimov, as a possible powerplant for the developed M2 version of the Hindustan HF-24 fighter. The VK-7 is said to be a development of the VK-5 (M-205), which is rated at 6,5001b dry and 8,8181b with reheat. The VK-5 powers the Mig-19 and Yak-25 supersonic fighters, and its total production must exceed 20,000 engines. The VK-7 is not known to have been used in any specific Russian aircraft, although it may well be fitted (with centrebody intakes) in supersonic attack machines clearly derived from the original Yak-25. With a diameter of some 33in, the engine is almost installationally interchangeable with the Orpheus, but Indian technicians are reported to have suggested a series of modifications as a result of studying several VK-7s which were shipped to India earlier this year. According to one source, the proposed modifications would require 18 to 24 months to effect. Soviet Aviation Day last July provided a glimpse of the supersonic "Bounder" prototype, with four engines arranged with direct pitot intakes. The inboard engines of this aircraft are estimated to be rated at some 30,0001b dry and 45,0001b with reheat, and are probably versions of the Soloviev D-15, rated at 28,6601b. On the same occasion the Kamov Vintokryl convertiplane was seen for the first time, and the recent speed-record submission to the FAI describes it as being powered by a pair of 5,700 h.p. TB-2 turboshaft engines, geared to both the propellers and rotors with the free-turbine output from both engines interconnected. In contrast, the TB-2BM engines of the even larger Mi-6 helicopter are rated at only 4,635 s.h.p. There have been unofficial reports concerning the turboshaft engines fitted to the new Mil V-2 and V-8 helicopters, but none appears to be reliable; photographs suggest that the V-2 has two engines of about 500 s.h.p. and the V-8 a single engine of about 3,000 s.h.p. No reliable details are yet available on the turbofan engines of the Tu-124 and Tu-124A airliners, although it is suggested that they are Soloviev units rated at 8,5001b. The engine of the An-24, now coming into service, is the 2,500 s.h.p. AI-24, and preliminary information suggests that it is a single-shaft axial unit. Finally, L'yulka has produced a turbojet weighing 50.71b and rated at 1211b thrust, which is flying in the An-13 sailplane.