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GUIDELINES FOR SUMMARY WRITING: 1 Read the instructions/ questions carefully. 2.

Read the passage first to get a general idea. 3. Bracket the relevant part of the passage. 4. Read the question again to make sure you know what you have to summarize. 5. Read over a second or third time if necessary to get better understanding of the passage. 6. Underline in pencil the important points. 7. Jot down in order the main points in the passage. 8. You may then write a rough copy of the summary as far as possible in your own words, if you can, without changing the meaning of the original passage. If you can’t, just replace words with their synonyms or long expressions with one word or two. 9. Omit all examples. 10. There should be continuity of ideas written in simple English. It should be a patchwork of sentences and phrases taken here and there from the original passage. 11. Do not exceed the number of words allowed. For example, if the question says in about ‘60 words’(including the 10 words given). It means whatever is written after the 61st word will not be taken into consideration. 12. Use the same tense as that in the passage. The summary should be written in the third person and in the past for narrative. (Third persons are: he, she, it and they). For expository writing, use the present tense. 13. Indirect speech is used for the dialogues. 14. Write the exact number of words at the foot of the summary. Please DO NOT CHEAT. If your summary is short, you may have left out few important points. Usually a summary is about one third of the original passage. 15. Do not waste time during the examination because you only have a limited time. To save time draw a column lengthwise and write one word in each column in your rough copy. This is to save time.

there are mistakes in spelling or grammar b. write down 7. Exercise 1 Give a general term. 6. buses. the summary is accurate. 1. tables and cupboards cars. cannot be forgiven 8. asked for enter _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ . 2. 5. take out 3.16. 4. talk softly 6. love of one’s country Exercise 2 One word for two. read the neatly written summary and check if: a. cannot be trusted 9. not fit to be eaten 10. lorries and trucks clothes used for sleeping runner. Finally. jumper and games player of different colours people of no fixed home furniture ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ 7. 3. chairs. go with 4. talk about 5. 1. go into 2.

put emphasis on 10. all the time 9. all of sudden 3. once in a while 10. in a short while 2. as time passed 5. little by little 4. for the time being 7. last of all 6. now and then _______ _______ _______ soon/shortly __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ SAMPLE QUESTION . time and again 8.8. go beyond Exercise 3 One word for a phrase 1. picked out 9.

They give us shade and protection from the sun. Some even provide food and shelter to human beings and animals. trunks. Use your own words as far as possible without changing the original meaning. Read the passage below and answer the question that follows. Write a summary on ‘why trees are very useful’ Your summary must: not be more than 60 words. including the 10 words given below be in continuous writing (not note form) be written in ONE paragraph. When big raindrops hit the leaves. roots and leaves as homes. Trees remove carbon dioxide from the air when they make food. . boats and furniture. The roots and leaves of the trees even help to save our soil. Begin your summary as follows: For ages. Human beings need oxygen to live. we should not cut them down unnecessarily. The air is cooler too in places where there are trees around them. The oxygen released by trees is useful for us to stay alive. Trees protect us from the sun and make the air around us cooler. Then. trees have been very useful as they are ………… SAMPLE ANSWER For ages. Practice 1 Read the passage below and answer the question that follows.You are advised to spend about 30 minutes on the question. For many years they have provided us with timber to build houses. Trees also help to save our soil together and prevent it from being washed away. The leaves help to protect the soil too. Knowing that trees are so useful. trees make us more comfortable. In hot weather. they give out oxygen into the air for us to breathe. We can get food and shelter from trees. they break up into smaller drops that will not damage the soil. Trees are very useful. Squirrels. birds and insects use their branches. trees have been very useful as they are the main source of timber.

The earth is wrapped in a blanket of gasses called the atmosphere which is like an enormous weather machine. The word ‘hurricane’ comes from ‘Huracan’. Your summary must: .be in continuous writing(not note form) . it rises very fast. this is the beginning of a hurricane. swirling mass of clouds. sucking water vapour up into the atmosphere like a giant pump. Begin your summary as follows: Hurricane.be written in ONE paragraph Use your own words as far as possible without changing the original meaning. When these thunderstorms join forces. It takes time for a storm to develop into a hurricane that is strong enough to cause destruction.not more than 60 words. In warmer places. Hurricanes are the largest and most powerful storms in the world. As the air is warm.A hurricane is s swirling mass of clouds that moves around a calm and clear centre called an eye. The average lifespan of a hurricane is five to ten days. Its energy drives air and water around our planet as it warms the earth creating the clouds and the wind. The sun is like a giant engine driving the weather machine. . All this rising air forms clouds which can then build into thunderstorms. Practice 2 Read the passage below and answer the question that follows. including the 10 words given below . the weather machine can be very powerful because there is more energy from the sun to drive it. This explains why hurricanes are formed over warm areas. Write a summary on the causes of hurricanes.. This happens when the wind inside the storm increases to 119 km per hour. is the most powerful storm ……………. a word given to the West Indian God of Storms.

pedophiles have used e-mail.There are some risks for children who use the internet for online services. bulletin boards and chat areas to gain a child’s confidence and then arrange a face-to-face meeting. In a few cases. . hateful or violent in nature. One risk is that a child may be exposed to inappropriate material that is sexual. They are particularly at risk because they often use the computer unsupervised and are more likely to participate in online discussions regarding companionship. a child might provide information or arrange an encounter that could risk his or her safety or the safety of other family members. Begin your summary as follows: Children who use the internet for online service are at …………… KEY WORDS FOR SUMMARY Find the meaning of the words listed below. Another risk is that while online. demeaning or belligerent. A third risk is that a child might encounter messages via e-mail or chat board that are harassing.be written in ONE paragraph Use your own words as far as possible without changing the original meaning. including the 10 words given below . relationships or social activity. Your summary must: . or encourages activities that are dangerous or illegal. Parents should communicate with their children. Write a summary on the dangers encountered by children when online.not be more than 60 words. Their intentions might be bad for the teenage user.be in continuous writing (not note form) . and alert them to any potential problem that may occur with the use of the computer.

NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 WORDS IMPORTANCE SIGNIFICANCE CHARACTERISTICS SYMPTOMS CAUSES CONSEQUENCES EFFECTS BENEFITS UNPLEASANT TREATMENT CAREER DANGERS FEATURES SNATCH THEFT RECTIFY PREVENT MEASURES PRECAUTIONS ADVANTAGES SOLUTIONS STEPS PROCEDURES APPEARANCES CONTRIBUTIONS LIFESTYLE SCHEDULE CHALLENGES EXPERIENCE TOOLS RECYCLE REASONS LUXURY VACANCY DEVELOPMENT MEANING .