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A grievance may be a dispute between empoyler & employee. It is basically any disagreement between two parties.

A grievance is the process by which regular benefits-eligible employees who are not in a probationary period, may appeal a formal corrective, disciplinary or adverse action. Job satisfaction, a worker's sense of achievement and success, is generally perc eived to be directly linked to productivity as well as to personal wellbeing. Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one's efforts. Job satisfaction further implies enthusiasm and happiness with one's work.

Job enrichment means a vertical expansion of a job. It is different from job enl argement. Job enlargement means a horizontal expansion of a job. Job enrichment makes the job more meaningful, enjoyable and satisfying. It gives the workers more autonomy for planning and controlling the job. It also gives the workers more responsibility. Job enrichme nt gives the workers opportunities for achievement, recognition, advancement and growth. So, the workers are motivated to work harde r. Therefore, Job enrichment makes the job a source of motivation.

human resource development, entails planning, implementing, and managing recruit ment, as well as selection, training, career, and organizational development initiatives within an organizat ion. The goal of HRM is to maximize the productivity of an organization by optimizing the effectiveness of its emplo yees while simultaneously improving the work life of employees and treating employees as valuable resources

Maintenance means the preservation, inspection, overhaul, and repair of aircraft , including the replacement of parts. The purpose of maintenance is to ensure that the aircraft remains airworthy throughout its operational life. A properly maintaine d aircraft is a safe aircraft. Although maintenance requirements vary for different types of aircraft, experien ce shows that most aircraft need some type of preventive maintenance every 25 hours or le ss of

age. storage facilities. This is influenced by the kind of operation. This chart can provide a great deal of information and may help organizational members unde rstand the overall structure of the organization and its strategy. Obviously. Maintenance manuals are available from aircraft manufacturers or commercial vend ors with revisions for maintaining your aircraft. and construction of the aircraft. . means a form of human association for the a ttainment of common objectives. climactic conditions.flying time. and minor maintenance at least every 100 hours. loose organisation of an enterprise implies a dangerous state of affairs. the fuller would be the achievement of the common objectives a nd similarly. This entry describes how organizational charts ar e constructed. no management can manage the various operations of t he enterprise. in its simplest sense. and the circumstances under wh ich a chart is likely to change. the better the organisation. what information the organizational chart provi des. Sound organisation is quite essential for every enterprise. Organizational Chart An organizational chart is a pictorial representation of a company's structure a nd reporting relationships. including the software that can be used to create them. the benefits of making the chart available inside and outside of the organization. Without sound organisation. Organised thoughts have al ways been the basis of organised actions. IMPORTANCE OF ORGANISATION Organisation.

This is the simplest and the earliest form of organisation. The establishment of formal relationships among the individuals working in the o rganization is very important to make clear the lines of authority in the organisation and to coordinate the effo rts of different individuals in an efficient manner. Under this. the line of aut hority flows vertically downward from top . "traditional". They are: 1. Line organisation 2. The line organiz ation represents the structure in a direct vertical relationship through which authority flows. "Scalar" or "Hierarchical" form of organisation. several types of organisation structure have been evolved. Line and Staff organisation 3. Committee organisation Line Organisation:. Functional organisation 4. Organisation structure is primarily concerned with the allocation of tasks and delegation of authority.Some of the principal advantages of organisation may be outlined as below: Facilitates Administration Facilitates Growth and Diversification Provides for Optimum use of Technological Improvements Encourages Human use of Human Beings Stimulates Creativity Facilitates stability of the organisation Reduces Employee Turnover Reduces Duplication of Activities Fosters Coordination FORMS OF ORGANISATION Organisation requires the creation of structural relationship among different de partments and the individuals working there for the accomplishment of desired goals. According to the different practices of distributing authority and respo nsibility among the members of the enterprise. It is also known as "Military".

the future of the department and of the concern as a whole would be in jeopardy.to bottom throughout the organisation. With growth. Authority flows from top to bottom. 3. the efficiency of the whole department will come to depend upon the qualities of management displayed by the head of that department. 2.In line and staff organisation. 4. something hap pens to an efficient manager. opinionated a nd dictatorial basis. It is most economical and effective. If therefore. Since all work is done according to the wishes of one person alone. it may be operated on an arbitrary. That means there is limited communication. This may result in effi cient people being left behind and inefficient people getting the higher and better posts. 3. Under this system. Disadvantages or demerits of line organisation 1. There may be a good deal of nepotism and favouritism. All major decisions and orders are made by the executives at the top and are handed down to their immediate subordinates who in turn break up the orders into specific instruction s for the purpose of their execution by another set of subordinates. 4. Advantages or merits of line organisation 1. The main difference is that sp ecialists are attached to line managers to . Employees are fully aware of the boundaries of their job. Being an autocratic system. the line organisation makes the superiors too overloaded with wo rk. the line authority remains the same as it does in the line organisation. the subordinates should follow the orders of their superio r without expression their opinion on the orders. Line and Staff Organisation:. 2. It is the easiest to establish and simplest to explain to the employers. The quantum of authority is highest at th e top and reduces at each successive level down the hierarchy. There is clear-cut identification of authority and responsibility relationshi p. It fixes responsibility for the performance of tasks in a definite manner upo n certain individuals.

Under this system. there may be considerable confusion throughout the organization as to the functions and po sitions of staff members with relation to the line supervisors. and staff officials generally complain tha t their advice is not properly attended to. The staff experts may be ineffective because they do not get the authority to . 2. The line and staff organisation is based on the principle of specialisation. to collect information and to give help which wil l enable the line officials tocarry out their activities better. The expert advice and guidance given by the staff officers to the line office rs benefit the entire organisation. feeling t hat prestige and influence of line managers suffer from the presence of the specialists. it relieves the line managers of the botheration of concentrating on specialized functions. There is generally a conflict between the line and staff executives. Unless the duties and responsibilities of the staff members are clearly indic ated by charts and manuals. there will be sound managerial decisions under this system. 3. The staff officers do not have any power of command in the or ganisation as they are employed to provide expert advice to the line officers. Features of line and staff organisation 1. 3. Th us. Therefore. The line managers feel that staff specialists do not always give right type of advice. 4. 4. 3. Staff specialists help the line managers in taking better decisions by provid ing expert advice. As the staff officers look after the detailed analysis of each important mana gerial activity. 2. The staff officers are specialists who offer ex pert advice to the line officers to perform their tasks efficiently. there are line officers who have authority and command ove r the subordinates and are accountable for the tasks entrusted to them. the staff officers prepare the plans and give advise to th e line officers and the line officers execute the plan with the help of workers. the line managers get the benefit of specialised knowledge of staff specialists at various levels. Disadvantages or demerits of line and staff organisation 1. It brings expert knowledge to bear upon management and operating problems. Advantages or merits of line and staff organisation 1. Under this system. 2. Line managers sometimes may resent the activities of staff members.advise them on important matters. These specialists stand ready with their speci ality to serve line mangers as and when their services are called for.

four of these were located in the pla nning room and four in the shop. This m ay lead to conflicts among them.implement their recommendations. As there is not scope for one-man control in this form of organisation. . Functional Organisation:. W. Thus. the whole task of management and direction of subordinates should be divided according to the type of work in volved. Taylor who formulated the Functional type of organisation. b) Under this type of organisation. there are many foremen of equal rank. h e was to receive his daily orders and help directly from eight different bosses. instead of coming in contact with the management at one point only. functional organisation violates the principle of unity of command. Every functionary in ch arge is an expert in his area and can help the subordinates in better performance in his area. Division of labour is planned not incidental. 3. As the name implies. 4. Advantages of functional organisation 1. As far as the workman was concerned. This system ensures the separation of mental functions from manual functions. 2. Disadvantages or demerits of Functional organisation a) It is unstable because it weakens the disciplinary controls. by making the wo rkers work under several different bosses.The difficulty of the line organisation in securing su itable chief executive was overcome by F. The four specialists or bosses in the planning room are: (i) Route Clerk (ii) Instruction Card Clerk (iii) Time and Cost Clerk (iv) Shop disciplinarian. Functional organisation is based on expert knowledge. this system ensure co-operation and teamwork among the workers.

Operation Check. Check for physical condition and safety of equipment and compon ents. GENERAL. but may also b e performed by the mechanics after annual and 100-hour inspections. Functional Test. exhaust and any other apertures. b. The aircraft flight manual. but the manufacturer s published data should be referred to for details. to prevent the ingress of dust. Installed turbine engines which are to be out of use for a period of up to seven days require no protection apart from fitting covers or blanks to the intake.c) The co-ordinating influence needed to ensure a smoothly functioning organizat ion may involve heavy overhead expenses. a. etc. rain. A turbine engine should not normally be ground run solely for the purpose of preservation. This is performed by qualified mechanics and repair stations to check the calibration and accuracy of the avionics with the use of test equipment while they are still on the aircraft. c. such as the transponder and the static checks. This check is performed primary by the pilot. Some general guidance is given below. There are several methods of ground checking avionics systems. and the manufacturer s information are used as a reference when performing the check. snow. For storage periods in excess of seven days additio nal precautions may be necessary to prevent corrosion. d) The inability to locate and fix responsibility may seriously affect the disci pline and morale of the workers through apparent or actual contradiction of the orders. since the number of temperature cycles to which it is subjected is a factor in limiting its life. Visual Check. the Airman s Information Manual (AIM). The equipment manufacturer s manuals and proced ures are .

propeller. certificate numbe r. When using this method the unit or instrument is removed from the aircraft and inspected. The type of inspection. The date the work was completed. and calibrated as required. Bench Test. aircraft eng ine. or appliance shall make an entry containing: A description of the work or some reference to data acceptable to the FAA. it is important to ensure that your aircraft s logbooks are complete and up to date at all times. repaired. When a mechanic approves or disapproves an aircraft for return to service after an annual. an entry shall be made including: Aircraft time in service. and any prospective buyer will want to review the airc raft and all maintenance performed. As an aircraft owner. Any person who maintains. rebuilds or alters an aircraft. The name of the person who performed the work. In addition. airframe. and kind of certificate held by the person approving the aircraft for return to service.used as a reference. . d. or progressive inspection. 100-hour. The date of inspection. Logbooks Most maintenance performed on an aircraft is recorded in the aircraft logbooks. The aircraft logbooks outline the maintenance history of your aircraft. the signature. any A&P or certificated repair station performing maintenance on your aircraft will want to review the prior maintenance performed on the aircraft. and If the work was approved for return to service.

.The signature. The kind of inspection performed. and kind of certificate held by the person ap proving or disapproving the aircraft for return to service. and A statement that a signed and dated list of any defects found during the inspect ion was given to the owner. A statement by the mechanic that the inspection was performed in accordance with the instructions and procedures for the kind of inspection program selected by the owner. certificate number. if the aircraft is not approved for return to service. and A signed and dated listing of discrepancies and unairworthy items.