You are on page 1of 17

Introduction to Mass Communication

Institute of Communication Studies

Animate d Movies

March 5

2012
Submitted to:

Prof. Shafeeq Kamboh
Submitted by:

Ayesha Aziz Amna Farooq Iqra Sayed Mahnoor Qureshi Ayesha Saddique Faiqa Parveaz

......................................... CARTOON MAKERS .....................................................................................................................................................................................5 FIRST ANIMATED PROJECTION (TRADITIONAL)....9 TELEVISION...........................................................................................................4 HISTORY OF ANIMATED MOVIES...........................................................2 INTRODUCTION ...........................................5 FIRST ANIMATED CARTOONS.........................................................................................................................................8 BIMBO ............................................8 POPEYE .....................................................7 KO-KO THE CLOWN ........9 INTRODUCTION OF COMPUTERS AND ANIMATION .........................................................4 FIRST ANIMATED PROJECTION (SCREENING).........................................9 SUPERMAN .............................................................7 THE FLEISCHER BROTHERS: INVENTORS................9 PRIMETIME ANIMATED SERIES..........................................................................................................................8 BETTY BOOP .....................................................................................6 WALT DISNEY: ...Contents CONTENTS..............................................................................4 FIRST ANIMATED PROJECTION (PHOTOGRAPHED) ....................................................................................................................................4 SILENT AGE...........................................................................................................................................................................................................5 ANIMATION IN PAST AND PRESENT .....................................................................................................10 2|Page .................................................................................6 THE DEBUT OF MICKEY MOUSE: ........................................................5 GOLDEN AGE................

...............................................................................................................................................13 EXAMPLES.......................16 3|Page ........15 WOMEN’S RACE AND CULTURE IN ANIMATED MOVIES...............11 FILMING..............14 ACCORDING TO RESEARCHES...........................11 ANIMATION........................................................................11 INK AND PAINT...................................................................................12 MORAL LESSON FROM SNOW WHITE ....................................................................................................................................................................12 LESSON FROM MOVIE UP ......................................................16 RELIGIOUS ANIMATED MOVIES .........................................................................................................10 BACKGROUNDS.................................................................................................................................................................................15 IMPACT OF VIOLENT ANIMATED MOVIES ON CHILDREN.......................................................14 STUDY BY ALBERT BANDURA......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................15 COMMITMENT OF VIOLENCE BY CHILDREN IN SCHOOL.................................................................................10 DIALOGUE AND MUSIC.........................13 VIOLENCE IN ANIMATED MOVIES..HOW ANIMATIONS ARE MADE?.......11 FOR EXAMPLE ....................................................................

The drawings have been slightly changed between individualized frames so when they are played back in rapid succession (24 frames per second) there appears to be seamless movement within the drawings. but animation did not develop further until the advent of motion picture film. Pauvre Pierrot. Reynaud created the Praxinoscope in 1877 and the Théâtre Optique in December 1888. as well as the common flip book. by Charles-Émile Reynaud.Animated movies Introduction The word animate comes from the Latin verb animare. On 28 October 1892. This film is also notable as the first known instance of film perforations being used. where animals are often depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions. The phenakistoscope (1832). at the Musée Grévin in Paris. His films were 4|Page . Silent Age First animated projection (screening) First screening animated projection was created in France. were early animation devices to produce movement from sequential drawings using technological means. who was a French science teacher. meaning “to make alive or to fill with breath. Animation by modern definition is Animation is a graphic representation of drawings to show movement within those drawings. zoetrope (1834) and praxinoscope (1877). clearly attempting to convey the perception of motion. he projected the first animation in public. A series of drawings are linked together and usually photographed by a camera. History of animated movies Early attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion into a still drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings.

000 people had attended these screenings. "Mickey Mousing" became a term for any movie action (animated or live action) that was perfectly synchronized with music. Walt Disney's 1928 cartoon Steamboat Willie starring Mickey Mouse was the first to use a click track during the recording session. and usually shown before a feature film in a movie theater. It is considered the first example of true character animation. but drawn directly onto the transparent strip. The first cartoon to use a soundtrack was in 1926 with Max Fleischer's My Old Kentucky Home. which produced better synchronism. First animated projection (traditional) The first animated projection in the traditional sense (i. The 5|Page . a cartoonist's line drawings of two faces were 'animated' (or came to life) on a blackboard. on motion picture film) was "Fantasmagorie" by the French director Émile Cohl in 1908. MGM.e. more than 500. now lost] and "Un Drame chez les fantoches" ["A Puppet Drama". Felix the Cat and Oswald the Lucky Rabbit are notable examples. a circus clown led a small dog to jump through a hoop. Paramount and Warner Brothers were the largest studios producing these 5 to 10-minute "shorts". At first. The two faces smiled and winked. First animated projection (photographed) The first (photographed) animated projection was "Humorous Phases of Funny Faces" (1906) by newspaper cartoonist J. one of the co-founders of the Vitagraph Company arrived. First animated cartoons One of the very first successful animated cartoons was Gertie the Dinosaur (1914) by Winsor McCay.not photographed. "Le Cauchemar du fantoche" ["The Puppet's Nightmare". This was followed by two more films. Disney. However the Fleischers used a De Forest sound system and the sound was not completely synchronized with the film. In 1900. theatrical cartoons were produced in huge numbers. called "The Love Affair in Toyland" for American release and "Mystical Love-Making" for British release]. Stuart Blackton. also. and the cigar-smoking man blew smoke in the lady's face. In the movie. Golden Age From the 1930s to 1960s. animated cartoons were black-andwhite and silent. all completed in 1908..

Oswald was the first Disney character to be merchandized. It was extremely labor intensive as there were literally hundreds of drawings per minute of film.e. Animation in past and present Early animations consisted of simple drawings photographed one at a time. His first successful silent cartoons. but musical quotation is often employed. Animated characters usually performed the action in "loops". and the Four Musicians of Bremen. Oswald appeared in a number of cartoon shorts. This made it unnecessary to repeatedly draw the background as it remained static and only the characters moved. Walt Disney: A classic animator in the early days of cinema was Walt Disney. Soon after. who initially experimented with combining animated and live-action films. such as: Trolley Troubles and Poor Papa.or Mickey Mouse in 1928. drawings were repeated over and over.first named Mortimer Mouse . Oswald the Lucky Rabbit became Disney's first successful animal star in a 26-cartoon series distributed by Universal beginning in 1927. The development of celluloid around 1913 quickly made animation easier to manage. such as Little Red Riding Hood . It also created an illusion of depth. 6|Page . especially if foreground elements were placed in the frames. Disney produced about two dozen of the silent. He moved onto another memorable character . black and white Oswald cartoons from 1927-1928 until forced to give up the character to Walter Lantz. i. the animator now could make a complex background and/or foreground and sandwich moving characters in between several other pieces of celluloid.the first Walt Disney cartoon. after relocating and setting up his own studio in Los Angeles (the Disney Brothers Studio) were a series of shorts including 56 episodes called Alice Comedies that debuted in 1924 with Alice's Day at Sea.music used is original most of the time. Disney's Alice cartoons placed a live-action title character (Alice) into an animated Wonderland world.. The very first films he made himself at his own animation studio in Kansas City were short cartoons called Newman Laugh-O-Grams. Instead of numerous drawings. originally an advertising cartoonist at the Kansas City Film Ad Company. which is transparent except for where drawings are painted on it.

The Debut of Mickey Mouse: In 1928. dialogue. The third was The Gallopin' Gaucho. In 1917. The second was Steamboat Willie. imitated aviator Charles Lindbergh. Max Fleischer invented the rot scope to streamline the frame-by-frame copying 7|Page . serious rivals to Disney's animation production came from the Fleischers (Max. The first Mickey Mouse cartoon was released on May 15. the 7-minute Steamboat Willie was re-released in 1928 with sound and premiered at the 79th Street Colony Theatre in New York.the first sound cartoon to be a major hit . with Mickey as a roustabout on Peg leg Pete's river steamer. Mickey's first sound cartoon didn't include Mickey's voice -. (These early films were soon re-worked and re-released with sounds. while impressing Minnie. Animated star Mickey with Minnie was redrawn with shoes and white. Strangely. fourfingered gloves. but without his trademark white gloves. Joe. It was the first cartoon with post-produced synchronized soundtrack of music.he didn't speak until his ninth short. 1928. and sound effects and is considered Mickey Mouse's screen debut performance and birthdate. Cartoon Makers At the same time. Disney Studios' chief animator Ub Iwerks developed a new character from a figure known as Mortimer Mouse. released on August 2. through his shrewd oversight of production. They were already making technical innovations that would revolutionize the art of animation. Plane Crazy in which Mickey. a crudely-drawn or sketched. and Lou). To help make Mickey stand out from other cartoon characters at the dawn of the talkies.leading to many more Mickey Mouse films during the late 1920s and 1930s. Dave. Walt Disney was fast becoming the most influential pioneer in the field of character-based cell animation. 1928. The Fleischer Brothers: Inventors. It was a landmark film and a big hit . rodent-like 'Mickey Mouse' slightly similar to Felix the Cat. The Karnival Kid (1929) when he said the words: "Hot dogs!" Walt's voice was used for Mickey.

one of the first animated characters. featuring the animated Ko-Ko the Clown character in a live-action world . with sing-along lyrics and a 'bouncing-ball' helper. cartoon Betty Boop vamp-character. the first feature animation. The first sound cartoon was one of the Song Car-Tunes -Mother Pin a Rose on Me. 8|Page .process .who was soon relegated to a minor companion co-star with the Fleischer's next racy cartoon star. thigh-high gown (and visible garter) and was. adult-oriented. Ko-Ko climbed out of the inkwell and interacted with the human animator. who always wore a strapless.it was a device used to overlay drawings on live-action film. Betty Boop Max Fleischer was responsible for the provocative. and produced the hour-long Einstein's Theory of Relativity. their Talkartoons for Paramount starred a mouse-like character named Bimbo . Twelve of the 36 short films were released in both sound and silent versions. The Fleischer Brothers also made the first animated films (cartoons) that featured a soundtrack. The Fleischers were also pioneering the use of 3-D animation landscapes. They were also the first audience participation films. Bimbo From 1929-1932. Ko-Ko the Clown One of the Fleischers' first successful ventures occurred in 1919 with the premiere of the part live-action/part animation Out of the Inkwell series of shorts. in a series of 36 films called Ko-Ko Song Car-Tunes. based on flapper icon Clara Bow's 'It' Girl and Mae West.

became the first full length feature film animated entirely on computers when it was released in 1995. Toy Story. The Mechanical Monsters. Many feature films of today had animation incorporated into them for special effects.Popeye The Fleischers also obtained the rights to the tough. A film like Star Wars by George Lucas would rely heavily on computer animation for many of its special effects. spinach-loving sailor Popeye with oversized arms who was introduced in January 1929 in creator Elzie C. Television Competition from television drew audiences away from movie theaters in the late 1950s. Introduction of computers and animation With the introduction of computers. highlighted by the work of Jay Ward on Crusader Rabbit. produced by Walt Disney Productions and Pixar Animation Studios. The first Superman short. With the advent of personal computers. Superman. American television animation of the 1950s featured quite limited animation styles. Starring Popeye. up in the sky!" The most famous of the series was the second entry. Today. which premiered in 1941. Segar's "Thimble Theatre" newspaper comic strip published in the New York Journal for King Features Syndicate since 1919. also produced a series of seventeen Superman cartoons in the early 1940s. it has now become possible for the average person to create animations." Superman Dave and Max Fleischer. animated cartoons are produced mostly for television. animation took on a whole new meaning. one-eyed. in an agreement with Paramount and DC Comics. introduced the terms "faster than a speeding bullet" and "Look. and the theatrical cartoon began its decline. Other notable 1950s programs include UPA's Gerald McBoing 9|Page . Popeye became so popular in the comic strip that it was renamed "Thimble Theatre.

including Scooby-Doo. and they are often made into large-size panoramas. which. How animations are made? The story is developed as a "storyboard". South Park. it is easy to make alterations to the story. MGM. This background is painted in a format suitable for a vertical camera move. The Cleveland Show. Now. The backgrounds are the "landscape" in which the characters are moving. 10 | P a g e . and in syndicated afternoon timeslots. Primetime animated series The Hanna-Barbera cartoon. Where Are You! The Jetsons. Primetime cartoons were virtually non-existent until 1990s hit The Simpsons ushered in a new era of adult animation. "pan backgrounds". networks found success by running these shows as Saturday morning cartoons. Hanna-Barbera's Huckleberry Hound and Quick Draw McGraw. Television animation for children flourished on Saturday morning.Boing. "adult animation" programs. and rebroadcast of many classic theatrical cartoons from Warner Brothers. However. running from 1960-66 (and in reruns since). new drawings are added to the storyboard. was the first successful primetime animated series in the United States. on cable channels like Nickelodeon. Top Cat. considerably larger than the picture format. Aqua Teen Hunger Force (currently known as Aqua Unit Patrol Squad 1). and Disney. such as Aeon Flux. The Flintstones. a giant-sized comic strip. despite not being a primetime cartoon. reaching smaller audiences with more demographic unity among children. While many networks followed the show's success by scheduling other cartoons in the early 1960s. none of these programs survived more than a year (save ScoobyDoo. As the story develops. and The Alvin Show. acrylic or sometimes even oil paints. has managed to stay afloat for over four decades). and Futurama are a large part of television. American Dad!. Backgrounds The backgrounds are painted on cardboard or celluloid with tempera. Beavis and Butt-head. Since the drawings are pinned onto a cork board. Disney Channel and Cartoon Network. Family Guy. The camera follows the characters as they move across the background.

an arm moves a fraction of a millimeter. each corresponding to one frame of film. Music and sound effects aren't usually recorded until after the film is finally cut. so a certain 3dimensional effect is achieved. Sometimes the picture is divided into several levels (4 on this "multiplane" stand). This filmstrip is analyzed in a sound reader. depending upon the speed of movement . Every second of finished film consists of 24 frames. and an optical sound track is then prepared and printed onto the film. and the colors are filled in on the reverse side of the cels. with three or even more frames shot of every drawing. The difference between two successive frames can be almost negligible. usually called "cels".faster movements need more drawings per second.necessary to obtain perfect synchronization between sound and picture. The foremiddle. slower moves can be animated with less. the drawings are copied onto transparent sheets of celluloid or plastic.Dialogue and music Before the tedious drawing work can begin. the dialogue is recorded on tape and then transferred onto magnetic film. requiring 12 to 24 drawings. or 12". The lines are traced in ink. The sheet is divided into many rows. and every syllable is registered on an "exposure sheet" . for instance.and backgrounds of the landscape are on different levels. in order to get completely even colors when viewed from the front. Ink and paint In order to superimpose the animated characters on the backgrounds. 11 | P a g e . Animation Now the real work begins. especially when the camera or background is moving. The animated drawings are filmed on black & white film to check the smoothness of the movements (this is called a pencil test). separated by about 30 cm. Filming The filming is carried out on an "animation stand".

Up tells a story that is both funny and tender.5 dl (1/2 pint) of india ink 240 meters (720 ft) color film and of course a LOT OF INSPIRATION Impact on society Animated movies leave an impact on our heart and mind. and the movie deals with the reality of death and loss.Since they are usually seen in primary age.To make an 8-minute animated cartoon you need: 7000 sheets of paper 150 sheets of cardboard 10 crow-quill pens 5 erasers 10 liters (2 1/2 gal. they leave an impact that remains with us throughout our long life. Several moments of peril may be frightening for young children. For example Lesson from movie up Presented in beautiful 3D animation. Kids are greatly influenced by these movies . conveying a moral that our connection with others is what makes life meaningful.) of paint 1200 meters (3600 ft) b&w film 7000 sheets of celluloid 50 felt-tip pens 50 pencils 20 brushes 2. 12 | P a g e .

your dreams will become a reality. the theme of the story is that you should treat people the way you would like to be treated and then more good comes out of it than evil. This is also about hope. The moral to Cinderella is no matter what the situation is. don’t give up on your dreams. frequency of violence in cartoons is higher than in live-action dramas or comedies . Violence in animated movies Violence in cartoons is an integral part of cartoon content. At the end her prince came and took her with him and they lived happily forever. He took her away but he didn’t kill her and left her free. She ran and stayed with seven dwarfs in their small house. Moreover.As a consequence.Lesson from beauty and the beast For me the moral is that despite what befalls you in life you should never treat innocent persons as though they are responsible for your state of misery and you should never become so bitter with life that you no longer wish to be a part of it because the one responsible for the state you're in is staring back at you in the mirror-YOURSELF. beauty over ugliness. Good always win in the end despite how evil has been planning and being a good person with a good heart will always get you to what you want. may be not as in Cinderella but some worthwhile. faith. In fact. This is the theme because the two evil sisters and the wicked step mother were really mean to her and when they went out they left the poor Cinderella to wash the floor. youth are more likely to view media 13 | P a g e . enduring. Also you should not become so frustrated with life that you fail to recognize when someone has entered your life to help you change it!!!!! Moral lesson from Cinderella story In Cinderella. The richer person with higher statuses isn’t better person or more beautiful one and in the end the poorer person will have the better ending. It’s a great fairytale… Moral lesson from snow white Snow white is such a beautiful fairytale in which there was a princess named “snow white”. Once her mother asked her slave to kill snow white. This story teaches a lesson that we must help others in bad time and it also teaches the lesson those things me look nice on the outside but can be mean on the inside. But then in the end Cinderella goes to a prince’s princess and the others didn’t get a sniff of it. The moral was probably something about hope and how if you are a good person. everybody will get their prince. She was the prettiest girl in the whole world but her cruel step mother treated her really bad. goodness over selfishness.

5 minutes). Coyote and Roadrunner. and 71% of the fatalities happened to "bad" characters (fatalities were significantly more likely to happen to a "bad" than "good"/"neutral" character . while the parents do chores or work they must complete that involves not having their children distract them. more aggressive actions.4). finding quick and witty ways to save himself from the antagonistic Elmer Fudd. with 49% showing a character celebrating a violent act. the Road Runner always manages to best him.depicted Violence during Saturday morning cartoons than during prime-time television hours children do imitate their heroes. Yosemite Sam. is a cartoon which contains 22 separate acts of violence. These cartoons generally portray Bugs Bunny as the protagonist. 23. and 40% of them happened to "bad" characters. those that star Bugs Bunny. Coyote is involved.odds ratio. only 22% showed treatment of the injury. 100% of the films had at least one violent act where the body was the weapon. If Wile E. and 24% showed someone experiencing pain. whereas unilateral violence by "bad" characters was mostly "dark" (51%). Daffy Duck. and 99% had at least one violent act with a weapon. This is when children receive the full force of the violence in television. mainly guns or running off cliffs. In all the films. According to researches Every film contained at least one violent incident (average duration 9. Examples The best-known examples of such violence are in the short Warner Brothers "Looney Tunes" cartoons. Parents see the television as a babysitter of sorts and let their children sit in front of it. 95% confidence interval 8. These ways often involve violence. The intention to cause bodily injury was present in 81% of the films. and Wile E. due in part to the Road Runner and to Wile's faulty Acme products. studies conducted have shown that children either imitate their heroes or let the actions of these heroes influence their later. and 62% of the films (46) showed an injury." featuring Warner Brothers' Wile E. Sixty-two of the injuries were fatal. thus fooling children: "The cartoon "Zipping Along. 14 | P a g e . and is a mere 7 minutes in length. at least one "good" character participated in a violent incident. hoping to emulate them and be able to stand as strong and powerful as they do.5-63. Of these 46 films. evading capture and leading to Wile's numerous falls off cliffs or collisions with them. Daffy Duck has been seen as a competitor with Bugs and usually ends up on the losing side. Only 32% of the films had at least one non-violent message.2. In 72 movies. Unilateral violence by "good" characters was mostly "light" (72%). there were 125 total injuries. absorbing everything they see mindlessly. but the violence is portrayed in a humorous manner that disguises its malignance. Coyote. or whoever the villain of the moment may be.

agrees with this and suggests that the type of violence a child performs is shaped by the type that he or she sees on television. is that what they are doing is wrong and will eventually ruin their life and future learning ways on how to kill by simply watching a movie. Televised models are important sources of social behavior. This is the part wherein a person is vulnerable to anything. Children imitate the actions which they see in the cartons and in this way they develop the sense of violence which is the worst effect of animated movies on children. "social audiences typically normalize the violent antics of Bugs Bunny. Impact of violent animated movies on children Children see and accept this violence without ever recognizing the truly violent content. This acceptance has been present for over thirty years because Bugs Bunny and other Warner Brothers characters are seen as American icons. Parents are now scared to send their children to school for fear of being victimized by school violence. Since movies today involve new ways of killing a person. for the most part. Because these characters execute violence within the animated lay frame of 'make-believe. They then practice this new found knowledge or skill in school and on other children. 15 | P a g e . the Roadrunner. Commitment of violence by children in school The recent increase in school violence have cause Pakistani residents to panic. Imagine a child him and learns it quickly. This is where they learn almost everything that will eventually shape a person’s very being. What they don’t know. and other assorted cartoon characters. a child not knowing which is right or wrong takes it like any other lesson. and absorbs anything be it right or wrong. each watching a different form of violence.' their attacks rarely are treated as heinous or deviant in kind. mentally.Study by Albert Bandura A study conducted by Albert Bandura with several groups of children. unquestioned. their cartoons thus. The most important age for any person is his early childhood. a person displaying violence on film is as influential as one displaying it in real life. morally and emotionally.

still old stereotypes are obeyed. There aren't many heroines that are successful and unattractive. she hasn't really succeeded. but if she doesn't snag a handsome prince. The best thing that can happen to a Disney heroin is to marry her prince charming.movie review. Although traditional roles have changed and women have developed to become more modern. one problem lies in every Disney film. 16 | P a g e . either. so that the woman can live ‘happily ever after’? Religious animated movies Religious teachings can be conveyed successfully through a short animated movie . but never both. the power that men and true love have over the female characters.e. According to theorist Bell there are only three female positions: that of an idolized teenage heroine. or attractive. or nurturing post-menopausal woman. The modern cartoon heroine may aspire to a career.This Christian movie is centered around a group of animals that live in the stable where Jesus was born. too. I. the women characters are either old. These animals were present when Jesus was born and meet Him (the King) and the movie is set 33 years later around the time when Jesus will die on the Cross . cleaver.Women’s race and culture in animated movies In most animated films made today.even Indian cinema has made movies like Hanuman. Feminists believe that women in fairytales rely on their looks and that they have no power.in past and even in present film makers are making religious movies so that kids become aware of the bases of their religion for example “The Lion of Judah”. in animation or in live action movies. Does this ending have to be. strong and brave. only the men can defeat evil so the female has to wait for the prince to save her. wicked middle-aged women.

17 | P a g e .