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REINFORCEMENT CONCRETE

OBJECTIVE
1.

2.

To design structures that meet clients’ needs at affordable prices and safe to use. This includes:
1. 2. 3. 4.

No collapse. No deflection. No need extra repair for additional loading or weather effect. Fire resistance ~ enough time for residents to evacuate the building.

WHAT IS RC?

Reinforced concrete is a strong durable building material, made of concrete and steel. Can be formed into many varied shapes and sizes ranging from a simple rectangular column to a slender curved dome or shell. Its utility and versatility are achieved by combining the best features of concrete and steel.

WHY RC?

Consider some of the widely differing properties of these two materials as listed below:

concrete

steel

Strength in tension
Strength in compression Strength in shear

poor
good

good
good, but slender bars will buckle. good

fair

Durability

good

corrodes if unprotected.
Poor – suffers rapid loss of strength at high temperatures.

Fire resistance

good

It can be seen that the materials are more or less complementary. Thus, when they are combined, the steel is able to provide the tensile strength and probably some of the shear strength. While the concrete, strong in compression, protects the steel to give durability and fire resistance.

Limit State Design to BS8110 Part 1 version 1997

Aim: must ensure that: 1. under the worst loadings, the structure is safe.
2.

during normal working conditions, the deformation of members does not detract from the appearance, durability or performance of the structure.

Limit State Design to BS8110 Part 1 version 1997
(cont.)

Despite the difficulty in accessing the precise loading and variations in the strength of the concrete and steel, these requirements have to be met.

Limit State Design to BS8110 Part 1 version 1997
(cont.)


1.

Purpose:
To achieve acceptable probabilities that a structure will not become unfit for its extended use, that is, that it will not reach a limit state.

The two principal types of limit state are the ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state.

Limit State Design to BS8110 Part 1 version 1997
(cont.)


1.

Ultimate limit state:
This requires that the structure must be able to withstand, with an adequate factor of safety against collapse. The loads for which it is designed to ensure the safety of the building occupants and/or the safety of the building itself. The possibility of overturning or buckling must be taken into account.

2.

3.

Limit State Design to BS8110 Part 1 version 1997
(cont.)


4.

Ultimate limit state:
As must the possibility of accidental damage as caused, for example, by internal explosion.

Limit State Design to BS8110 Part 1 version 1997
(cont.)

Generally the most important serviceability limit states are:
The appearance or efficiency of any part of the structure must not be adversely affected by deflections nor should the comfort of the building users be adversely affected. Local damage due to cracking and spalling must not affect the appearance, efficiency or durability of the structure.

a. Deflection

b. Cracking

Limit State Design to BS8110 Part 1 version 1997
(cont.)

c. Durability

This must be considered in terms of the proposed life of the structure and its conditions of exposure.

OTHERs: d. Excessive vibration May cause discomfort or alarm as well as damage.

Limit State Design to BS8110 Part 1 version 1997
(cont.)

e. Fatigue

Must be considered if cyclic loading is likely. Must be considered in terms of resistance to collapse, flame penetration and heat transfer.

f. Fire resistance

g. Special Any special requirements not circumstanc covered by any of the more es common limit state, such as earthquake resistance.

Each limit state will vary according to the nature of the structure. Usual procedure – which is the crucial limit state for a particular structure and base the design on this. Checks must be made to ensure that all other limit states are satisfied by the results produced. Except in special cases such as water retaining structures, the ultimate limit state is generally critical for reinforced concrete.