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A Design Study of Single-Rotor Turbomachinery Cycles

by

Manoharan Thiagarajan

A thesis submitted to the faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Master of Science

in

Mechanical Engineering

Committee

Dr. Peter King, Chairman
Dr. Walter O’Brien, Committee Member
Dr. Clint Dancey, Committee Member

August 12, 2004
Blacksburg, Virginia

Keywords: Auxiliary power unit, single radial rotor, specific power takeoff, compressor, burner, turbine

A Design Study of Single-Rotor Turbomachinery Cycles
by
Manoharan Thiagarajan

Dr. Peter King, Chairman
Dr. Walter O’Brien, Committee Member
Dr. Clint Dancey, Committee Member

(ABSTRACT)

Gas turbine engines provide thrust for aircraft engines and supply shaft power for various
applications. They consist of three main components. That is, a compressor followed by a combustion
chamber (burner) and a turbine. Both turbine and compressor components are either axial or centrifugal
(radial) in design. The combustion chamber is stationary on the engine casing. The type of engine that is
of interest here is the gas turbine auxiliary power unit (APU). A typical APU has a centrifugal
compressor, burner and an axial turbine. APUs generate mechanical shaft power to drive equipments such
as small generators and hydraulic pumps. In airplanes, they provide cabin pressurization and ventilation.
They can also supply electrical power to certain airplane systems such as navigation. In comparison to
thrust engines, APUs are usually much smaller in design.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the possibility of combining the three components
of an APU into a single centrifugal rotor. To do this, a set of equations were chosen that would describe
the new turbomachinery cycle. They either were provided or derived using quasi-one-dimensional
compressible flow equations. A MathCAD program developed for the analysis obtained best design
points for various cases with the help of an optimizer called Model Center. These results were then
compared to current machine specifications (gas turbine engine, gasoline and diesel generators). The
result of interest was maximum specific power takeoff. The results showed high specific powers in the
event there was no restriction to the material and did not exhaust at atmospheric pressure. This caused the
rotor to become very large and have a disk thickness that was unrealistic. With the restrictions fully in
place, they severely limited the performance of the rotor. Sample rotor shapes showed all of them to have
unusual designs. They had a combination of unreasonable blade height variations and very large disk
thicknesses. Indications from this study showed that the single radial rotor turbomachinery design might
not be a good idea. Recommendations for continuation of research include secondary flow consideration,
blade height constraints and extending the flow geometry to include the axial direction.

Acknowledgement
The author wishes to express his sincere gratitude to Dr. Peter King, major professor, for
contributing valuable time, advice, and assistance to the research and to the preparation of this
manuscript. Sincere thanks are due to the members of the author’s graduate committee composed of Dr.
Walter O’Brien, and Dr. Clint Dancey for their advice and constructive criticism. The author also is
grateful to Phoenix Integration for allowing him to use Model Center for the purpose of optimization to
help in the completion of this research project.
Very special thanks are due to the author’s parents for their understanding, patience, and
encouragement throughout the course of this study. Heartiest thanks are also due to Rene Villanueva, An
Song Nguyen, and Kevin Duffy for all their encouragement. Special appreciation goes out to Ms. Lisa
Stables for all her assistance during this research.
To all turbolabbers, warp speed ahead. Space is the final frontier.

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.................................................................................................................4.....1..............................4................15 3....................................................6 HISTORY OF THE APU.....................................................................................................................17 3......................................................................2 AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU) AND PURPOSE OF RESEARCH .................1............................................................................................1 1.............................................................................................................6 2..............................................VII LIST OF TABLES.......4 BURNER AND TURBINE ........4...................................................32 3......................................3 The GTC43/44..................................39 4..................................2 Burner input parameters and method of solving equations .......23 3........................................................................................................15 3....................29 3................................................................................................1 Constant area flow with drag and heat addition ..................................................................................................4.......1 Subsonic turbine..............................................28 3............................1......................................................................................39 SIMPLE ONE-DIMENSIONAL FLOW ..............2 IDEAL BRAYTON CYCLE AND IDEAL JET PROPULSION CYCLE ............................................8 2.......................................................................................................................... 30 3....................................................................................2 Constant area flow with only heat addition.............................4......................................................................................................................................................................4.....4 CHAPTER 2 2.......................................1 RESULTS OF ANALYSIS............................................................3 COMPRESSOR ...........................................................................................................1.........................................................................2 AMBIENT AIR AND DIFFUSER ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Supersonic turbine ........6 2...........1 ABOUT SMALL GAS TURBINE ENGINES ..... XI NOMENCLATURE .................................35 3.....3 HOW CURRENT APUS WORK ..................9 2......................................................5 OVERALL APU PROPERTIES ............................................................ 31 3.....40 4.................................................37 CHAPTER 4 4............................................................................2 The Black Box ............4......................................4......................25 3...............22 3.3 Turbine equations ...... XIII CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION...............................1 1.........................................................1..1 Project A ........ 41 iv ................4...Table of contents TABLE OF FIGURES ..............................................................................1.................................................................................1......11 CHAPTER 3 FORMULAS USED FOR THE APU ..........................1 Burner equations..........................1.............................................................1 LITERATURE REVIEW............................................6 Burner and turbine output summary ........................................................................................................................................ 40 4.........................................................................................18 3.........4 Turbine input parameters.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 GENERAL INFORMATION ................4..............................1 Burner ......................................5 Method of solving turbine equations....................................6 2..............

........................................................................................................2...................................................................................................2 4.................5 CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM ...................2 RECOMMENDATIONS ...............................10 ABSOLUTE STAGNATION PRESSURE EQUATION ........................................2........54 A..............43 4...........1 CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM .......................................................................................................................................................................66 APPENDIX C TO DETERMINE PERPENDICULAR (ONE-DIMENSIONAL) FLOW AREA BETWEEN THE VANES ....7 RELATIVE STAGNATION TEMPERATURE EQUATION .............1 Case 1: Without the stress and |(P0-P5)/P5| constraints.............51 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION.......................58 B.........................................................9 RELATIVE MACH NUMBER EQUATION ........55 APPENDIX B BURNER AND TURBINE DERIVATIONS .................................................................................................................................2..............2 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY (FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS)..................................................................................................................52 REFERENCES ....................................1..........................................................................................................................65 B..........................................................................................................2................4.. 48 4.....2.............................................................3 EQUATION OF STATE ........................................................3 Case 3: Without the stress constraint but with the |(P0-P5)/P5| constraint..2...............2...........................1 SUMMARY ....................................62 B...................................8 ABSOLUTE STAGNATION TEMPERATURE EQUATION ..........6 RELATIVE STAGNATION TEMPERATURE EQUATION ................4 CONSERVATION OF MASS ................................................................................60 B..................................................14 TURBINE SPECIFIC WORK .......................... 50 4................52 5.................................59 B.............................2 OUTLET RELATIVE STAGNATION TEMPERATURE ....64 B..................2 Results from Model Center..........................................................................4 Case 4: With the stress and |(P0-P5)/P5| constraints ........................................................................................................................2......................63 B...................13 BURNER SPECIFIC WORK ...........................................2.................56 B.................................................................................................................................................................... 49 4...........................................................................................54 A..........................................................................12 BURNER ABSOLUTE STAGNATION TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION....................................3 Rotor material and size .................................................................56 B.....................2........................................2 Case 2: With the stress constraint but without the |(P0-P5)/P5| constraint....................................................................................................... ........42 SINGLE ROTOR APU RESULTS ...........................................................63 B............................................................11 ENTROPY EQUATION ........................................43 4.......64 B................................................58 B.........................................................................................................................................................................................................1 OUTLET RELATIVE MACH NUMBER ..................................................2..................... 46 4..................................56 B..........................2 Variable area flow ........52 5.................................................................................................................46 4......1 Model Center and input/output constraints ......67 APPENDIX D CURRENT ENGINE DATA.................................................53 APPENDIX A COMPRESSOR DERIVATIONS ................................58 B.............................................68 v ...........................................

...................................82 F.........1 INPUT PARAMETERS ..............72 E......84 APPENDIX G COMPLETE RESULTS FOR CASE 3....................................72 E.......100 H.....................................................1 INPUT PARAMETERS ................114 VITA ....102 APPENDIX I SAMPLE ROTOR FOR CASE 1 WITH CALCULATION PROGRAM ...............2 OUTPUT VALUE ....................................APPENDIX E COMPLETE RESULTS FOR CASE 1..............................................................................................................................................................2 OUTPUT VALUES ...........................................................93 G.........................................................................................110 APPENDIX K SAMPLE ROTOR FOR CASE 3 WITH CALCULATION PROGRAM .......................................................................112 APPENDIX L SAMPLE ROTOR FOR CASE 4 WITH CALCULATION PROGRAM ...................................................93 G...........2 OUTPUT VALUES ............108 APPENDIX J SAMPLE ROTOR FOR CASE 2 WITH CALCULATION PROGRAM ................................................................................................................................................2 OUTPUT VALUES ...................................................................................................................................82 F......................................116 vi ............................................................................1 INPUT PARAMETERS ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................1 INPUT PARAMETERS .......................................................74 APPENDIX F COMPLETE RESULTS FOR CASE 2.......................................................95 APPENDIX H COMPLETE RESULTS FOR CASE 4.......................................................................................................................100 H...................................................................................................................................................................................................

................................. ..................... ................................................................. stagnation temperature (K) and pressure (Pa) according to location in the rotor (Case 1)............. 4 Figure 1-5: Auxiliary power unit (from [3])......................... 22 Figure 3-4: Convergent-divergent nozzle with supersonic exit (from [1]).............. .................................................................................................................... 3 Figure 1-4: Turboshaft engine (from [2])..................................................................................................... .... 12 Figure 2-8: Fuel igniter (from [3])........................................ ........................................................................... 47 Figure 4-5: Variation of the absolute tangential velocity (m/s)........................................... 42 Figure 4-4: Relative Mach number................ 1 Figure 1-3: Years spent in the small gas turbine engine business (from [1])... 4 Figure 1-6: APU with exhaust vent at the rear of the aircraft (from [4]).................................. ............................... 10 Figure 2-5: T-s diagram for an ideal jet propulsion cycle along with a turbojet engine schematic (from [6]).................. ...................................................... 13 Figure 3-1: Cylindrical coordinate system (from [5])...... 1 Figure 1-2: Pratt & Whitney J58 turbojet engine............................................. ............................................................. 41 Figure 4-3: Flow through a duct with variable area (from [9])........................................... ..................................................... 11 Figure 2-7: Combustion chambers (from [3])............................. 48 Figure D-1: PSFC and specific power comparison between APU cases and current engines.......................... .... 38 Figure 4-1: Constant area combustion chamber (from [10]).......... 71 Figure E-1: Case 1 relative Mach number....................................................... 15 Figure 3-2: Shape of rotor with velocity triangle (from [5]).................................................................................................. 7 Figure 2-2: GTC43/44 first stage backward curved centrifugal compressor (from [1])....................................................... .....................................................................Table of figures Figure 1-1: Williams International FJ44 turbofan engine............................................................................................... 40 Figure 4-2: Constant area flow through a duct with heat addition (from [9]).............................................................................................................................................. 13 Figure 2-9: APU turbines (from [3])....................................... .......................................................................................... 5 Figure 2-1: Garrett Black Box (from [1]).................................................................. ........................... ................................... 8 Figure 2-3: Closed gas turbine engine cycle (from [6])................................................... 10 Figure 2-4: Closed cycle T-s diagram (from [6])................. 76 vii ....................................................................................................... ............ ........... large gas turbine engine (from [2])..................................................................... 11 Figure 2-6: APU centrifugal compressor rotor with inducer vanes (from [3]).......................... 16 Figure 3-3: Burner and turbine control volume between two vanes across a small step change (from [9])......... 31 Figure 3-5: Variation of specific rupture strength with service temperature (from [5])......... ............................................................... small gas turbine engine (from [1])............................................... rotor speed (m/s) and flow curvature (deg) (Case 1). 5 Figure 1-7: The new rotor with the combined components will look something like this compressor impeller (from [5]).......................................................................

...................................................... ........................................................................................... 77 Figure E-9: Case 1 flow curvature (Case 1).............. ........................................................................................... 77 Figure E-7: Case 1 pressure (Case 1)................Figure E-2: Case 1 relative stagnation temperature (K)............................. ........... 86 Figure F-2: Relative stagnation temperature (Case 2).............. 80 Figure E-18: Variation of compressor radius ratio and pressure ratio (Case 1).................................. 88 viii ............................................................................................................................................................... 87 Figure F-8: Density (Case 2)............ ................................. 77 Figure E-11: Case 1 specific heat (Case 1).... 88 Figure F-13: Tangential velocity (Case 2)............................................................................................................... 77 Figure E-8: Case 1 density (Case 1)........................ 88 Figure F-15: Beginning of To-s diagram (Case 2)................. ............................................. .......................................... 78 Figure E-14: Case 1 To-s diagram (Case 1)........... 87 Figure F-6: Temperature (Case 2)................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... ... ........................................................................................................................... .............................. ................................................................................................ 87 Figure F-9: Flow curvature (Case 2)............................................................................................................................................. 77 Figure E-10: Case 1 rotor speed (Case 1).................................... 76 Figure E-5: Case 1 stagnation pressure (Case 1)............ ....................... 86 Figure F-3: Relative stagnation pressure (Case 2)............... 80 Figure E-19: Variation of rotor radius ratio with compressor pressure ratio (Case 1)................................................................................ 78 Figure E-16: Variation of specific power takeoff with compressor pressure ratio (Case 1)................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 76 Figure E-4: Case 1 stagnation temperature (K).......................................................................... ................................................................................... 78 Figure E-13: Case 1 tangential velocity (Case 1)..................................................................................................................... 86 Figure F-5: Stagnation pressure (Case 2)..... ............................................................... 87 Figure F-7: Pressure (Case 2)......... 87 Figure F-10: Rotor speed (Case 2).............................. ..................... 88 Figure F-14: To-s diagram (Case 2)......................................................................................................................................... ................. 77 Figure E-6: Case 1 temperature (Case 1)........................... 87 Figure F-11: Specific heat (Case 2)................................................... .................................................................................................... 86 Figure F-4: Stagnation temperature (Case 2)..................................... 78 Figure E-12: Case 1 specific heat ratio (Case 1)........... 81 Figure F-1: Relative Mach number (Case 2)........................................................................................................................................................................................ 88 Figure F-12: Specific heat ratio (Case 2).................. 76 Figure E-3: Case 1 relative stagnation pressure (Pa).. 81 Figure E-20: Variation of disk thickness with compressor pressure ratio (Case 1)......................... .. ........................................................... ...... 79 Figure E-17: Variation of PSFC with compressor pressure ratio (Case 1).......................................................................................................................................... 78 Figure E-15: Case 1 Po-v diagram (Case 1)........................

.........................................................................................................................................................Figure F-16: End of To-s diagram (Case 2). 105 Figure H-7: Pressure (Case 4)..................... ........................................................................................................................................................................ 97 Figure G-2: Relative stagnation temperature (Case 3)............... 89 Figure F-18: Beginning of Po-s diagram (Case 2)........ 99 Figure H-1: Relative Mach number (Case 4).. ....................................................... 97 Figure G-4: Stagnation temperature (Case 3)...................... 91 Figure F-23: Variation of disk thickness with compressor pressure ratio (Case 2)........................................... 99 Figure G-15: Po-v diagram (Case 3)..................................................................................................... .................................. ............. 90 Figure F-21: Variation of compressor radius ratio and pressure ratio (Case 2)............................................................................................... 99 Figure G-13: Tangential velocity (Case 3)........................... ........ 105 Figure H-8: Density (Case 4).............................. . 88 Figure F-17: Po-s diagram (Case 2)..................................................................................................................... 92 Figure G-1: Relative Mach number (Case 3)................................ ...................................................... ........................................................................ ......................................................................................... 98 Figure G-10: Rotor speed (Case 3)............. 91 Figure F-22: Variation of rotor radius ratio with compressor pressure ratio (Case 2)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ..................... 105 Figure H-6: Temperature (Case 4).............................................. 105 Figure H-9: Flow curvature (Case 4)......................................................................................................... 104 Figure H-3: Relative stagnation pressure (Case 4).............................................................................................................................................................................. 106 ix ... .............................. 104 Figure H-2: Relative stagnation temperature (Case 4)...... 104 Figure H-4: Stagnation temperature (Case 4)............................................ ......................................................... 90 Figure F-20: Variation of PSFC with compressor pressure ratio (Case 2).............................................................................. 98 Figure G-6: Temperature (Case 3)............................................... ..................................................................................................... 105 Figure H-10: Rotor speed (Case 4)... 97 Figure G-3: Relative stagnation pressure (Case 3).......................... 98 Figure G-9: Flow curvature (Case 3)................................................ 104 Figure H-5: Stagnation pressure (Case 4)..................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................ 98 Figure G-11: Specific heat (Case 3)............................................... .................................................. 99 Figure G-12: Specific heat ratio (Case 3).......................................................... .............. 105 Figure H-11: Specific heat (Case 4)................................................................................................................. ... ... 89 Figure F-19: Variation of specific power takeoff with compressor pressure ratio (Case 2)................................. 98 Figure G-8: Density (Case 3).................. 97 Figure G-5: Stagnation pressure (Case 3)......................... 98 Figure G-7: Pressure (Case 3)........................................................................................................... ............................................. ........ ...................... 99 Figure G-14: To-s diagram (Case 3)......................

....................................................................................................................................... 107 Figure I-1: Sample rotor for Case 1 with side view (starting at station 3)....................... ..................... 106 Figure H-14: To-s diagram (Case 4).................................................................. 115 x .... 106 Figure H-13: Tangential velocity (Case 4)............Figure H-12: Specific heat ratio (Case 4)....................................... 111 Figure K-1: Sample rotor for Case 3 with side view (starting at station 3) ...... ............... 106 Figure H-17: Po-s diagram (Case 4)......... 109 Figure J-1: Sample rotor for Case 2 with side view (starting at station 3).......... 106 Figure H-15: Beginning of To-s diagram (Case 4)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 113 Figure L-1: Sample rotor for Case 4 with side view (starting at station 3). ............................................................................................ ............ 106 Figure H-16: End of To-s diagram (Case 4)................

........................ 70 Table E-1: Air and diffuser input parameter values (Case 1)... 18 Table 3-3: Burner equation input parameters...... 73 Table E-5: Air diffuser output values (Case 1)....................................................................................................... 44 Table 4-5: Model Center fixed input values.................................................. 72 Table E-3: Burner input parameter values (Case 1).................................. .............. 75 Table E-8: Turbine output value (Case 1)............................................. 72 Table E-2: Compressor input parameter values (Case 1)................. 68 Table D-3: Aircraft (turboprop) and helicopter (turboshaft) dual-purpose engine data.............. ................... ........................................................................................................................................... 43 Table 4-4: Model Center input parameters with range limits............................................................................................ ................ ............... ............... 75 Table E-9: Rotor overall properties (Case 1)................................................................................................................................................... ... ............. .................................... 74 Table E-7: Burner output value (Case 1)......................................................... ............. 26 Table 3-4: Turbine equation input parameters............................................................................................................................................................. 45 Table 4-7: Overall rotor and other properties (Case 1)............................... 36 Table 4-1: Comparison of burner equations to simple flow example (drag and heat addtion)..... ......... 44 Table 4-6: Model Center output constraints.................................................. ............................... 42 Table 4-3: Comparison of turbine equations to simple flow example (variable area)......................................................................................... 76 Table E-10: Data to show Case 1 configuration is the optimum (Case 1 highlighted below)..... 69 Table D-4: Four-stroke gasoline generator engine data......................................................................................... 69 Table D-5: Diesel generator engine data.................................................................................................. ................................................................................... 32 Table 3-5: Burner exit flow variables....... 82 xi ......................................................... 49 Table 4-9: Overall rotor and other properties (Case 3).................. 82 Table F-2: Compressor input parameter values (Case 2)............................ 50 Table 4-10: Overall rotor and other properties (Case 4)................................................................ ................ 73 Table E-4: Turbine input parameter values (Case 1)............................................... 35 Table 3-6: Turbine exit flow variables....................................................... .................................................................................................... ................................ 68 Table D-2: Helicopter turboshaft engine data.................................................... .................................................................................List of tables Table 3-1: Ambient air equation input parameters............... 17 Table 3-2: Compressor equation input parameters....................................... ............................................................................ 50 Table D-1: Airplane turboprop engine data...................................................................... 74 Table E-6: Compressor output values (Case 1)....................................................................................... ............................... ................................. .. 41 Table 4-2: Comparison of burner equations to simple flow example (heat addition).................................................................................................... ........ 46 Table 4-8: Overall rotor and other properties (Case 2)............................ 79 Table F-1: Air and diffuser input parameter values (Case 2)...

............................................................................. ... ............................................................................................................................................................ 83 Table F-5: Air diffuser output values (Case 2)...................................... .................... 93 Table G-3: Burner input parameter values (Case 3)............................................. 103 Table H-9: Rotor overall properties (Case 4)............................................................................... 83 Table F-4: Turbine and stress input parameter values (Case 2).... .................................................... 84 Table F-7: Burner output value (Case 2)........ 96 Table G-8: Turbine output value (Case 3)........................... .......... 95 Table G-6: Compressor output values (Case 3).................... 100 Table H-2: Compressor input parameter values (Case 4)... ..... ............ 95 Table G-7: Burner output value (Case 3).............. ............................. 84 Table F-6: Compressor output values (Case 2)....Table F-3: Burner input parameter values (Case 2)............... 101 Table H-5: Air diffuser output values (Case 4)......... 94 Table G-4: Turbine input parameter values (Case 3)......................... .......... 94 Table G-5: Air diffuser output values (Case 3)........................... 97 Table H-1: Air and diffuser input parameter values (Case 4)................................................................................................................................................................................ ............................. 93 Table G-2: Compressor input parameter values (Case 3).......... . 104 xii ...................................... 102 Table H-6: Compressor output values (Case 4)................................ ................................................................................ .... 101 Table H-4: Turbine and stress input parameter values (Case 4)............................ ............................................................................................................................................................................. ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 102 Table H-7: Burner output value (Case 4)................. 100 Table H-3: Burner input parameter values (Case 4)....................................... ............................................................................................................................... 103 Table H-8: Turbine output value (Case 4).......................... 96 Table G-9: Rotor overall properties (Case 3). 89 Table G-1: Air and diffuser input parameter values (Case 3)............................................................................................................. 86 Table F-10: Data to show Case 2 configuration is the optimum (Case 2 highlighted below)...................................................................................................................................................... 85 Table F-8: Turbine output value (Case 2)................................................................................... 85 Table F-9: Rotor overall properties (Case 2)...................................................... .........................

Nomenclature Variables Definition Mrel Relative Mach number τrel Relative stagnation temperature ratio πrel Relative stagnation pressure ratio τ Stagnation temperature ratio π Stagnation pressure ratio Torel Relative stagnation temperature Porel Relative stagnation pressure To Stagnation temperature Po Stagnation pressure W Relative velocity T Temperature P Pressure ρ Density s Entropy v Specific volume m Mass flow rate mf Fuel mass flow rate f Fuel-to-air ratio hHV Fuel heating value CD Drag coefficient M Absolute Mach number C Absolute velocity U Blade speed Ω Impeller rotation speed R Gas constant Cp Specific heat γ Ratio of specific heats Q Heat addition per unit seconds W Work per unit seconds PTO Power takeoff per unit seconds xiii .

5 Location close to sonic point 5 Turbine exit Cylindrical coordinate system r Radial θ Tangential z Axial xiv .ηTH Thermal efficiency A Area perpendicular to flow between two vanes r Impeller radius b Vane height β Relative flow and blade angle α Absolute flow angle Nb Number of blades Subscripts Definition Engine components d Diffuser c Compressor b Burner (combustion chamber) t Turbine Station (location) numbering 0 Ambient air (freestream) 1 Diffuser entry 2 Diffuser exit/Compressor entry 2t Compressor entry at the blade tip 3 Compressor exit/Burner entry 4 Burner exit/Turbine entry 4.

military aircrafts followed by civilian ones. Since then. gas turbine engine manufactures considered large and small engines as two separate categories with each having different applications. the power and size of these engines grew significantly compared to piston engines. small gas turbine engine (from [1]). large gas turbine engine (from [2]). Figure 1-1: Williams International FJ44 turbofan engine. Figure 1-2: Pratt & Whitney J58 turbojet engine. With the introduction of large gas turbine engines in the 1940s. 1 .Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction About small gas turbine engines From the beginning. began using them in place of piston engines. Both had their own unique set of problems and challenges.

Gradually. Piston engine makers saw a need to get into the small gas turbine engine business to maintain their market position and profitability level. Therefore. The advances produced by these efforts allowed the small engine to overcome its problems related to size and attain outstanding performance. This attracted manufacturers to the potential of military contracts and a profitable market once they were developed. the evolution of small gas turbine engines occurred slowly. Next is a chart that shows the North American companies that developed and built small gas turbine engines from the early 1940s through the present: 2 . For this reason. the military had plenty of success with these engines such that civilian aircraft started using them. tactical and strategic missiles c) Military trainer aircraft d) Special purpose aircraft such as Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft e) Helicopters They provided greater operational capabilities in terms of speed. it was necessary that the casing of small engines be approximately as thick as large engine casings. Small gas turbine engines were quite different mechanically from their larger engine counterparts.The usage of piston engines continued for low power applications. Established large engine producers seized the opportunity to expand their business by applying their technical expertise to the development of small gas turbine engines [1]. altitude and reliability than piston engines. internal engine pressures were about the same for small and large engines [1]. The military turned to the gas turbine engine manufacturers to develop small gas turbine engines. There were factors such as manufacturing limitations and mechanical design problems. Another example was the difficulty that came about during the development of smaller and lighter fuel controls that had the same amount of reliability like larger engines [1]. By late 1950s. Over time. payload. these scaling issues declined due to aggressive efforts in technology development. this engine was the power plant of choice for a variety of applications such as: a) Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) b) Decoy. As a result. For example. small engines paid an inherent structural weight penalty. This prevented direct scaling of large engine design and performance. Small engine fuel controls had critical accuracy problems because of the lower rates of fuel flow. These incentives and potentials led to an array of companies that wanted to enter the small gas turbine engine business.

Other US companies also became active in studying. it phased out of the small gas turbine engine market in the I950s. 3 . jet engine starters. Garrett began work on Project A [1]. developing. This made Garrett the first company to begin developing APUs. there would be a market for it [1]. Each of these companies eventually phased out of the small gas turbine engine business. and auxiliary power units (APU). Williams International. Boeing. and West Engineering.Figure 1-3: Years spent in the small gas turbine engine business (from [1]). The military sponsored much of their work. and manufacturing these engines for aircraft propulsion in the 1940s. In 1943. After early efforts by Westinghouse. which later led to turbine environmental control systems. began developing small gas turbine engines using its own funds with the philosophy that once it had successfully developed an engine. These companies included Fredric Flader. and this led to engines that powered both piloted and unmanned aircraft. One company. This project consisted of a two-stage compressor for aircraft cabin pressurization. Another relevant activity underway during the 1940s was small gas turbine component and nonaircraft research and development. Fairchild.

2 Auxiliary power unit (APU) and purpose of research An APU is essentially a small gas turbine engine. A turboshaft engine differs from a turboprop engine primarily in the function of the engine shaft. It is similar in construction and purpose to a turboshaft engine. shaft power from APUs generate electrical power that are used for equipments such as lights. Figure 1-4: Turboshaft engine (from [2]). Instead of driving a propeller. Like the turboshaft engine.1. televisions. onboard computers. Therefore. Figure 1-5: Auxiliary power unit (from [3]). the turboshaft engine connects to a transmission system or gearbox to drive a mechanical load. and ventilation. The opening at the aircraft rear indicates the APU exhaust vent. Another use of the shaft power is to run pumps. a combustion chamber (burner) and a turbine section. They are the compressor. 4 . seen in Figure 1-4. heating. shaft power is the desired output. Figure 1-5 shows an example of an APU. refrigerators. compressed air supplied by the APU goes for aircraft air-conditioning. microwave ovens. Figure 1-6 shows a typical location of an APU on modern jetliners. and coffee pots. In commercial and military aircraft. an APU consists of three primary components. In addition.

Figure 1-6: APU with exhaust vent at the rear of the aircraft (from [4]). similar to the compressor design seen in Figure 1-7. Chapter 3 in this thesis shows the derivation of the equations for the analysis. The purpose of this research is to investigate the possibility of combining the three main components of an APU into a single centrifugal impeller. and so on. cheaper. The idea of having a power producing turbomachine with only one rotating component suggests that the engine could be lighter. 5 . turboshaft engines. and smaller. Figure 1-7: The new rotor with the combined components will look something like this compressor impeller (from [5]). The analysis could apply equally to APUs. This in turn could allow it to produce high specific power takeoffs (power takeoff per unit mass flow rate of air). Power takeoff is the amount of mechanical power extracted from the shaft to run equipment such as a generator or hydraulic pump. A numerical simulation of the rotor is to take place in this investigation.

1 Literature review History of the APU 2. Each stage was a centrifugal compressor rotor. Boeing needed a complete unit in 18 months. the wing anti-icing system would receive a portion of the exhaust gas. The following are the specifications of each rotor: a) Mass flow rate of 45 lb/min at a pressure ratio of 1. and a single stage axial turbine. it must provide airflow for cabin pressurization and air conditioning. This knowledge and experience became an important consideration for aircraft cabin air conditioning equipment. Garrett (today known as AlliedSignal) started to design and develop a twostage compressor for a cabin air compressor. Compressor bleed air routed through a cooling turbine would generate 40 hp back into the shaft. Garrett accepted the job and decided to make a small gas turbine engine. a burner. backward curved centrifugal compressor.1. The company called this classified program Project A. self-powered unit that could furnish AC and DC current to its Model 377 Stratocruiser aircraft’s electrical systems.25 inch diameter c) 8 vanes (blades) d) 30 degree backward curvature (measured from the tangent of the outer diameter) e) Shrouded cast aluminum impellers f) Adiabatic efficiency of 78% at the design point Although the unit was just a laboratory development tool.2 The Black Box Boeing wanted a lightweight. It was also the foundation for Garrett’s first small gas turbine design called the Black Box [1]. In addition. A geared power takeoff shaft was to run a blower and a generator/alternator. As the design progressed. the unit was nicknamed the Black Box due in part to the secrecy of the project and the fact it had so many gadgets made it look like a magical black box.1 Project A In the spring of 1943.1. The engine consisted of a three stage. Also in this Black Box were primary and secondary 6 . 2. In addition. compact. Preliminary work started in the spring of 1945.Chapter 2 2. It should also supply hot air for the wing anti-icing system.75 b) 7. Project A demonstrated early on that high efficiencies over broad operating ranges were characteristics of the backward curved compressor rotor design.

Component testing began by mid 1946 and showed excellent overall compressor efficiency in the neighborhood of 81 to 82%. A threestage compressor achieved this ratio. The Black Box pressure ratio was three as opposed to 1. regulators. it could not generate sufficient power to run by itself. However. there was 7 . An external power source drove the Black Box after assembly late in the fall of 1946. Therefore. With an efficiency of less than 70%. The burner also performed well in tests. engineers found the untested turbine component to be the problem.heat exchangers. After a month of trying to get the Black Box to self-run. By that time. automatic controls. The high compressor efficiency was not surprising as the technology flowed directly from Project A. turbine testing could only occur until the machine was ready to run. the turbine engine was on the borderline of being self-supporting. Figure 2-1: Garrett Black Box (from [1]). This was an important accomplishment for Garrett. Figure 2-1 shows the Black Box as it was being assembled. The turbine wheel component testing did not occur due to the unavailability of a suitable test rig with the capacity to absorb its power. and air ducts [11]. as the company had never before built a burner.75 in Project A.

That was the power needed to start the 5525 hp Allison XT40 turboprop engines in the Navy sponsored Convair XPSY-1 flying boat. Figure 2-2: GTC43/44 first stage backward curved centrifugal compressor (from [1]). The project started after the termination of the Black Box program. the company’s first successful gas turbine engine [1]. The highly successful backward curved centrifugal compressor continued in future Garrett projects. 1947. the Navy was looking for a 35 hp gas turbine starter. particularly what not to do. The GTC43/44 contained a two-stage backward curved centrifugal compressor (first stage seen in Figure 2-2) with an overall pressure ratio of three. The engine that Garrett ultimately designed was the GTC43/44.3 The GTC43/44 While the Black Box program was still running. low turbine efficiency. Agreeing to develop such a unit. Despite the cost of the program to Garrett and the problems that it caused with Boeing. From the compressor. two outlets connected with elbows led to two independent tubular steel combustion chambers. 2. On June 2. The unit was to deliver 43 lb of air at 44 lb per square inch absolute pressure. Garrett received a contract in early 1947 by the Navy for the starter. there were some important lessons learned. hence its name GTC43/44 [1]. and tight development schedule killed the Black Box project [1]. turbine wheel tests showed 82 to 84% efficiency. Garrett began 8 . On July 1. These efforts produced here carried on in future Garrett engines especially in the GTC43/44.insufficient time left to redesign the turbine and meet the contract deadline. The complexity of the unit. The knowledge gained from building a successful combustor was part of the technology base gained from the program.1. Garrett had to cancel the Black Box program at the end of December 1946. 1947. Garrett conducted the first self-sustaining test run of the GTC43/44 on August 23. Further work on axial turbines discontinued at Garrett in favor of the radial inflow turbine. The design work took place between March and April 1947. This engine would have a single stage radial inflow turbine. 1948. the engine passed its 200hour Navy endurance test and it was the first small gas turbine engine to pass such a test. Subsequently.

packaging. and exits the engine. drawn into a compressor. this process is called an open cycle. The GTC43/44 also provided a technology base for future Garrett prime propulsion engines. Then burning of fuel occurs when the air proceeds into a combustion chamber (burner). which Garrett dominated the world markets through the 1990s. designed to provide fully automatic starting and overload protection. Its first flight service was on April 18. The twin combustor design also proved to be a problem. The first commercial use of the GTC43/44 was in a ground vehicle for starting the Lockheed Electra.2 Ideal Brayton Cycle and ideal jet propulsion cycle George Brayton first proposed the Brayton cycle for use in the piston engine that he developed around 1870 [6]. 1950 in the Convair XPSY-1 flying boat. the GTC43/44 was not without problems [1]. the North American A2J used a mobile ground power version. this expansion process produces shaft power. This is when a constant-pressure heat rejection process replaces the exhaust air from the open cycle. Automatic fuel controls. proved unreliable in service. It was Garrett's first successful gas turbine engine. the gas turbine auxiliary power unit (APU). However. The radial inflow turbine also had difficulties such as cracks on the turbine rims. and design problems. The resulting high-temperature gas then expands in a turbine.production of the starter in 1948. In an APU. Two GTC43/44s provided compressed air for starting the main engines and for driving alternators that powered the XPSY electrical systems. Figure 2-3 shows a closed cycle called the Brayton cycle. The combustor-turbine coupling became extremely hot and it was difficult to find a suitable fireproof enclosure. rises in both temperature and pressure [7]. It was also the start of a major new product line. Gas turbine engines usually operate on an open cycle. Today gas turbine engines use it when both the compression and expansion processes take place in rotating machinery. When the exhaust gas simply leaves the engine. Considerable engineering effort went into solving such field service. In an effort to further its applications. 2. Ambient air. The GTC43/44 was however a commercial success and more than 500 units were manufactured between 1949 and early 1950s for a variety of applications. 9 .

This high pressure-temperature gas then partially expands in the turbine to produce enough power to run the compressor. auxiliary equipment. The equipment could be a small generator or hydraulic pump. For an ideal Brayton cycle. Instead. 10 .Figure 2-3: Closed gas turbine engine cycle (from Figure 2-4: Closed cycle T-s diagram (from [6]). compressed in the compressor. Air. The ideal jet propulsion cycle differs from the ideal Brayton cycle simply that the gases do not expand to the ambient pressure in the turbine [6]. the gas exiting the turbine expands to ambient pressure in the nozzle to produce thrust. the following processes happen: a) Isentropic compression (2-3) b) Constant pressure heat addition or combustion (3-4) c) Isentropic expansion (4-5) d) Constant pressure heat rejection (5-1) Figure 2-4 shows the maximum temperature occurring at the end of the combustion process. The ideal T-s diagram for an APU will be similar to the one below. Ambient air pressure rises slightly as it decelerates in the diffuser. [6]). Aircraft gas turbine engines operate on an open cycle called a jet propulsion cycle. if any. it expands in the turbine to produce just sufficient power to drive the compressor and. Material constraints contribute to this temperature limitation. Figure 2-5 shows a turbojet engine and its ideal T-s diagram. For a turbojet. Figure 2-4 shows the temperature-entropy (T-s) diagram for a closed cycle. mixes and burns with jet fuel in the combustion chamber at constant pressure.

11 . Valves or venturis control this air bleed to within pre-determined limits [3]. it can pressurize aircraft cabins or drive small cold turbines to develop shaft horsepower. This releases a portion of the airflow in the engine. an air bleed system is usually present. As the air passes through the compressor. This causes the air pressure to rise. 2. Curved vanes at the compressor intake area. Immediately after the compressor section. Since this bleed air is very energetic. called inducers.Figure 2-5: T-s diagram for an ideal jet propulsion cycle along with a turbojet engine schematic (from [6]). Rotors without inducers are usually very noisy due to flow separation [5]. guide the air into the compressor.3 How current APUs work Figure 2-6: APU centrifugal compressor rotor with inducer vanes (from [3]). it accelerates outward at high speed and slows down in a ring of stationary vanes called the diffuser. Air drawn into the engine first goes through a centrifugal compressor rotor.

It must also keep the engine running at constant speed regardless of load. The can type is mounted on one side of the engine. Two basic types of combustion chambers exist. In some cases. A metal liner inside the engine holds a flame in place by injecting air through a number of holes and orifices. 12 . Combustion chambers vary in design but they all work in the same way. The fuel pump usually receives power from a separate electric motor. One or more nozzles then spray fuel into the chamber where it burns continuously once ignited. This chamber design allows the APU to maintain a small size. The diffuser sends this air to the combustion chamber. It has the advantage of being easy to remove from the APU. With about a quarter of the air burned through the APU.Figure 2-7: Combustion chambers (from [3]). It usually guides the exhaust gases directly onto the turbine nozzle. An annular combustion chamber placed around the axis of the engine takes the form of a cylinder. Fuel pumps normally consist of gear pumps or small piston pumps operated by a rotating plate arrangement. the rest mixes with the combustion exhaust to lower its temperature so that it can pass through the turbine. They are the can type or the annular type [3]. there are two combustion chambers on either side of the APU. The system must ensure that the engine starts and accelerates smoothly without getting too hot [3]. The chamber causes it to heat and expand [3]. A mechanical or electronic governing system controls the amount of fuel supplied to the combustion chamber. Heat resistant ducting guides the combustion gases from the combustion chamber on to the turbine nozzle.

000 to 30.000V). The sparkplug extrudes into the combustion chamber and is close to the fuel nozzle.000V) but with a low energy spark [3]. A cold engine is quite difficult to light. The charge comes from a DC inverter. The hot gases generated by the combustion process drive one or more turbine wheels that create shaft power. High-energy ignition is the most common ignition. which steps up a battery supply. Some models of engines are equipped with automotive type ignition. charged to a high voltage (about 3. A single shaft connects the turbine. Here a trembler induction coil provides a very high voltage (about 20. is discharged into a special sparkplug [3]. compressor and an external load (via a gearbox) 13 . The ignition of APUs is similar to that of larger engines.Figure 2-8: Fuel igniter (from [3]). Figure 2-9: APU turbines (from [3]). It occurs across the surface of the plug at a rate of one to two sparks per second. A capacitor. The energy from the discharged spark is as much as several joules.

The same gearbox may also drive engine accessories such as fuel and oil pumps. A typical load is an electrical generator or a mechanical pump. In most APUs. A nozzle ring directs hot gases from the combustion chamber inwards and tangentially on to the radial blades of the turbine. They are the inflow radial (IFR) and axial turbine. 14 . The design of the IFR turbine is similar to a centrifugal compressor rotor but is made of heat resistant metal. Oil pumps are generally gear types. Twin-shaft APUs are less common than the single-shaft ones. A heavy-duty motor can accelerate the APU to light up speed and assist the engine until it becomes self-sustaining. Lubrication of APU bearings occur in a similar way to larger propulsion engines. Self-sustaining speed is the point where the compressor begins to develop significant gauge pressure. APUs are often started by electric motors. the mechanical load on the starter motor reduces and its power automatically cuts off. a disc is fitted with aerofoil cross-sectional blades around its circumference. On some models. A single-shaft engine generally cannot accept any kind of load until it has started and accelerated to operating speed. Both normally drive a load via a reduction gearbox. Most APUs self sustain at about 25 to 30% of their rated speed [3]. A pressure pump with a relief valve pressurizes the system feeding the jets. A second mechanically independent turbine can also drive the load. Most of the twin-shaft APUs work as a GTS unit [3]. a separate electric motor circulates the oil around the engine. Oil seals keep the oil around the bearing assemblies so that it would not enter the combustion process. A ring or disc of carbon is spring loaded against a highly polished rotating surface through which oil cannot escape. compressor air can also pressurize the lubricating oil. For axial turbines. The oil circulating around an APU usually becomes hot such that it passes through some sort of cooling device like a fancooled radiator. The larger capacity pump is required as the oil picks up a lot of air and can become foamy. However. Twin-shaft APUs are especially useful for starting larger engines and are known as gas turbine starters (GTS). Most aircraft APUs are of single-shaft designs. The gases flow inward and then along the axis of the wheel and out through an exhaust duct. Thus. Compressor bleed air keep the turbine and nozzle assembly cool by allowing it to flow around the components. A ring of similar static blades that form a nozzle directs hot gases onto it. this engine is equipped with two shafts. There are two types of turbines found in APUs. Oil normally returns to a reservoir under gravity or collected by a second larger capacity pump. by spraying small oil jets onto them. APU lubricating oils are synthetic and thinner than the ones used in piston engines. That is. the compressor uses about two thirds of the mechanical power developed [3]. Small engines generally employ a maximum of two turbine stages [3]. The turbine disc and nozzle are also made of heat resistant metal.together. When this happens. Axial turbines can be put together to form multiple stages. Carbon seals are common in APUs.

Chapter 3
3.1

Formulas used for the APU

General information
As mentioned before, the new APU combines a compressor, burner and turbine into a single

centrifugal impeller (rotor). The rotor consists of a number of blades (usually curved), also called vanes,
arranged in a regular pattern around a rotating shaft, as seen in Figure 1-7. First, it is essential to become
familiar with the variables and their accompanying subscripts for this research in the Nomenclature
section. The subscripts describe the following [8]:
a) Rotor components
b) Location within the APU (station number)
c) Coordinate system for the velocities
This rotor will use the cylindrical coordinate system for convenience. There are no axial velocity
components (z-direction) within the rotor since it is radial in design. Figure 3-1 shows the absolute
velocity in this coordinate system.

Figure 3-1: Cylindrical coordinate system (from [5]).

A velocity triangle graphically relates the velocities C, W and U. Figure 3-2 shows the general
shape of the rotor along with the velocity triangle:

15

Figure 3-2: Shape of rotor with velocity triangle (from [5]).

Figure 3-2 indicates a backward leaning configuration. This means the angle β here is positive.
The angle of the relative velocity is the same as the blade angle. Equations in this chapter are valid for
any configuration of velocity triangles. Figure 3-1 and Figure 3-2 give the following relationships for the
velocities:
Cθ = U-Wθ
Cr = Wr
Cz = Wz

(1)

C2 = Cr2+Cθ2+Cz2
W2 = Wr2+Wθ2+Wz2
The following sections show the equations needed to analyze the turbomachinery cycle of this new rotor.
Each portion of the rotor has its own set of equations.
The entire analysis in this study ignores the effects of gravity and the gas is continuous (motion of
individual molecules does not have to be considered). In addition, the viscosity of the flow, magnetic and
electrical effects are also negligible.

16

3.2

Ambient air and diffuser

Table 3-1: Ambient air equation input parameters.

Input

Description

M0

Freestream Mach number

T0

Freestream temperature

P0

Freestream pressure

γ0

Specific heat ratio

s0

Freestream entropy

R

Air gas constant

τd

Diffuser stagnation temperature ratio

πd

Diffuser stagnation pressure ratio

Like most gas turbine engines, this APU has a diffuser at the inlet. The diffuser assumptions here
are:
a) Steady flow
b) Calorically perfect
Ambient air first passes through the diffuser before entering the compressor. The equations used to
determine ambient air and diffuser flow properties are:
a) Specific heat of ambient air:

⎛⎜ γ 0 ⎞
⋅R
⎜ γ0 − 1

Cp0

(2)

b) Ratio of To0 (stagnation temperature at station 0) to T0, τr:
τr

1+

⎛ γ1 − 1 ⎞ 2

⋅M
⎝ 2 ⎠ 0

(3)

c) Ratio of Po0 (stagnation pressure at station 0) to P0, πr:
γ0

πr

τr

γ 0− 1

(4)

d) Ambient air density
ρ0

P0
R⋅ T0

e) Diffuser exit stagnation temperature:

17

(5)

3 Compressor Table 3-2: Compressor equation input parameters.To2 τd ⋅ τr⋅ T0 (6) Po2 πd ⋅ πr⋅ P0 (7) f) Diffuser exit stagnation pressure: 3. Assumptions for the compressor are: a) Steady-flow adiabatic compression b) Calorically perfect The Hill and Peterson textbook [5] provided all the following equations necessary to determine the compressor properties except two that needed derivation as shown in Appendix A: a) Inlet tip temperature: 2 ⎡ Cz2t γ 0 − 1 ⎡⎢ ⎛ ⎞ ⎢ ⎜ T2t To2⋅ 1 − ⋅ + ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎜ γ ⋅ R⋅ T 0 o2 ⎣ ⎣⎝ ⎠ ⎛⎜ Cθ2t ⎞ ⎜ γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2 ⎝ ⎠ 2⎤ ⎤ ⎥⎥ ⎥⎥ ⎦⎦ (8) For Equation (8): 2⎤ ⎡ Cθ2t γ0 − 1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎢ ⎥ ⋅M 2 cos ( β 2t) ⋅ 1 − ⋅⎜ ⎢ ⎥ 2rel 2 ⎜ γ ⋅ R⋅ T ⎣ ⎝ 0 o2 ⎠ ⎦ 2 Cz2t γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2 1+ γ0 − 1 2 ( ( ))2 ⋅ M 2rel⋅ cos β 2t b) Inlet tip pressure: 18 (9) . Input Description M2rel Inlet relative Mach number β2t Inlet tip (blade edge at inlet outer diameter) flow angle β3 Outlet blade angle ec Polytropic efficiency ζc Inlet hub-to-tip ratio U3/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) Allowable outlet tip speed ratio Cθ2t/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) Inlet swirl parameter Wr3/U3 Outlet flow coefficient The first portion of the rotor is the centrifugal compressor similar to the one in Figure 1-7.

Po2

P2t

γ0

(10)

γ 0− 1

⎛ To2 ⎞
⎜T
⎝ 2t ⎠
c) Inlet tip density:

P2t

ρ 2t

(11)

R⋅ T2t

d) Inlet relative stagnation temperature:
To2rel

γ0 − 1

2

T2t⋅ ⎜ 1 +

2⎞

⋅ M 2rel

(12)

e) Inlet relative stagnation pressure:
γ0

⎛ To2rel ⎞
Po2rel P2t⋅ ⎜
⎝ T2t ⎠

γ 0− 1

(13)

f) Stagnation temperature ratio:

τc

(

)⎜

1 + γ0 − 1 ⋅⎜


2⎢
W r3
U3
⎞ ⎢
⋅ 1−
⋅ tan ( β 3) −

U3
γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2
⎠ ⎢

Cz2t
⎛⎜ Cθ2t
⎞ Cθ2t ⎤
+
⋅ tan ( β 2t) ⋅

⎜ γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2
γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2
γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2 ⎥


⎥ (14)
2
U3
⎛⎜



⎜ γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2


g) Adiabatic efficiency:
ec

ηc =

τc − 1

(15)

τc − 1

h) Stagnation pressure ratio:
γ0

πc

i)

⎡⎣ 1 + η c( τc − 1) ⎤⎦

γ 0− 1

(16)

Absolute outlet Mach number:
a

M3
1−

γ0 − 1
2

19

⋅a

(17)

For Equation (17):

a

j)

2
W r3


⋅ tan ( β 3) +
2 ⎜1 −
U3
⎞ ⎝

U3
⎛⎜
⎜ γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2

⎛ W r3 ⎞
⎜ U
⎝ 3⎠

2

(18)

τc

Relative outlet Mach number (Equation 1 in Appendix A):
U3

Wr3
U3

( )

M 3rel

cos β 3

γ 0⋅ R⋅ T o2

τc
1+

γ0 − 1
2

(19)
2

⋅ M3

k) Outlet absolute stagnation temperature:

l)

T o3 = τ c⋅ τ d⋅ τ r⋅ T 0

(20)

P o3 = π c⋅ π d⋅ π r⋅ P 0

(21)

Outlet absolute stagnation pressure:

m) Outlet relative stagnation temperature (Equation 2 in Appendix A):
To3rel

γ0 − 1



γ0 − 1

2⎞
2⋅ ⎜ 1 +
⋅ M3
2

To3⋅ ⎢ 1 −


2⎞ ⎥

⋅ ⎛ M 3 − M 3rel

2

⎠⎥

(22)

n) Outlet relative stagnation pressure:
Po3

Po3rel

γ0



⎜T
⎝ o3rel ⎠
To3

γ 0− 1

(23)

o) Outlet temperature:
To3rel

T3
1+

γ0 − 1
2

2

⋅ M 3rel

p) Outlet pressure:

20

(24)

Po3rel

P3

γ0

⎛ To3rel ⎞
⎜ T
⎝ 3 ⎠

(25)

γ 0− 1

q) Outlet relative velocity:

(

)

2⋅ Cp0⋅ To3rel − T3

W3

(26)

r) Outlet density:
P3

ρ3 =

(27)

R⋅ T 3

s) Dimensionless impeller rotation:
1

m3
Po2

t)


1

=

2⋅ π ⋅ γ c⋅ ⎜


( γ c⋅ R⋅ To2) 4

Cθ2t
γ c⋅ R⋅ T o2

+



2⎮
Cz2t
⎞ ⎮
⋅ tan β 2t ⋅ ⎮
γ c⋅ R⋅ T o2
⎠ ⎮
⌡ζ

1


⎢1 −

( )

γ c − 1 ⎡⎛

⋅ ⎜
⎢⎜
2
⎣⎝

Cz2t
γ c⋅ R⋅ T o2

2

+




⎤⎤
Cθ2t

2 ⎥⎥
⋅(2 − y )
⎥⎥
γ c⋅ R⋅ T o2

⎦⎦
2

γ c− 1




Cz2t
γ c⋅ R⋅ T o2

2

− 2⋅ ⎜


Cθ2t
γ c⋅ R⋅ T o2

2

(

2

)

⋅ y − 1 ⋅ y dy

(28)

c

Radius ratio:
U3
γ 0⋅ R⋅ T o2

r3
Cθ2t

r2t

γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2

+

Cz2t
γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2

(29)

( )

⋅ tan β 2t

u) Outlet blade height to radius ratio:
1

⎛ γ0 + 1 ⎞

⎝ 2 ⎠

b3

γ 0− 1

2 ⎛ r3 ⎞
⋅ ⎛ 1 − ζc ⎞ ⋅ ⎜

⎠ r
⎝ 2t ⎠

−2

r3

1



2⋅ 1 +

⎛ 1 + ηc ⎞


⋅ ( γ 0 − 1) ⋅ ⎜

⎝ 2 ⎠

U3
W r3
⎞ ⎛
⎞ ⎥⎤
⋅⎜ 1 −
⋅ tan ( β 3)

U3
γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2

⎠⎦

2

(30)

γ 0− 1

v) Outlet rotor speed:
U3

U3
⎛⎜

⋅ γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2
⎜ γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2

w) Inlet rotor tip speed:

21

(31)

these equations are to take into account the following effects: a) Flow area change b) Heat exchange c) Work done by or on the flow d) Drag force on the flow e) Mass addition (fuel) into the flow Figure 3-3: Burner and turbine control volume between two vanes across a small step change (from [9]). The best way is to choose the generalized quasi-one-dimensional compressible flow equations.4 (35) Burner and turbine After the compressor. In general. the rotor vanes extend to include a burner followed by a turbine. 22 . It is necessary to select the governing equations for both components.⎛ r3 ⎞ U 2t = U 3⋅ ⎜ ⎜ r2t ⎝ ⎠ −1 (32) x) Mass flow rate to outlet area ratio: m3 A3 ρ 3⋅ W 3 (33) y) Outlet entropy: s3 ( ) ( ) s 0 + Cp0⋅ ln τc − R⋅ ln πc (34) z) Specific power: Wc = −C p0 ⋅ (To3 − To 2 ) m3 3.

The drag coefficient seen in the conservation of linear momentum equation represents the flame holder located only at the beginning of the burner. as seen in Appendix B.11⋅ kJ kmol⋅ K −2 + 0.First.1967⋅ 10 ⋅ Cp = kJ kmol⋅ K −5 2 ⋅ T + 0.4. The equations here assumed constant specific heats.966⋅ 10 ⋅ kJ kmol⋅ K 4 ⋅T 3 (36) kg kmol Therefore. the burner and turbine equations are thermally perfect.1 Burner equations For the new rotor. The specific heat ratio is then: γ = Cp Cp − R (37) 3. The assumptions here are steady flow and that the added fuel does not alter the gas properties significantly. define a control volume over a differentially short portion of the flow as seen in Figure 3-3. This allows the combustion process to take place since it is difficult to place a flame in the flow to ignite the fuel if the velocities are too fast. it is variable using the following formula [6]: 28. the flow in the burner is subsonic. The equations for this component are: a) Conservation of energy and angular momentum combination: 23 . By assuming the change in Cp is very small across the differential step size.97 2 3 −9 ⋅ T − 1.4802⋅ 10 ⋅ kJ kmol⋅ K 28. Then select the governing equations based on the following principles: a) Conservation of angular momentum b) Conservation of energy (first law of thermodynamics) c) Equation of state d) Conservation of mass e) Conservation of linear momentum f) Relative stagnation temperature equation g) Relative stagnation pressure equation h) Absolute stagnation temperature equation i) Relative Mach number equation j) Absolute stagnation pressure equation k) Entropy equation The textbook by Oosthuizen and Carscallen [9] provides some of the equations while the others required derivation. Equations 1 through 9 and 11 from Appendix B describe the flow through the burner vanes.

⎛ 2⋅ h ⋅ η + U2 − W2 ⎞ 2 d( m) W d( W) d( T ) U ⋅ d( U) ⎜ HV b −1 ⋅ − ⋅ − =− ⎜ 2⋅ Cp ⋅ T Cp ⋅ T W Cp ⋅ T T ⎝ ⎠ m (38) b) Equation of state: d( ρ ) ρ d( T ) + − d( P) =0 (39) P T c) Conservation of mass: d( W) d( ρ ) + ρ W d( m) − =− d( A ) m (40) A d) Conservation of linear momentum: d( W) d( m) + W P + 2 m ρ ⋅W ⋅ d( P) P ( ) 1 = − ⋅ d CD 2 (41) e) Relative stagnation temperature equation: ( ) d To − To ( ) T orel d T orel U⋅ W⋅ sin( β ) d( W) U⋅ d( U) − W⋅ d( U ⋅ sin( β ) ) ⋅ + ⋅ = T orel W To Cp ⋅ T o Cp ⋅ T o (42) f) Relative stagnation pressure equation: ( ) d Porel Porel 2 + γ ⋅ M rel 2 ⋅ ( ) d T orel T orel 2 2 + γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ d( m) =− γ ⋅ M rel m 2 ( ) ⋅ d CD (43) g) Absolute stagnation temperature equation: ( ) d To To − T d( T ) W⋅ ( W − U ⋅ sin( β ) ) d( W) U ⋅ d( U ) − W⋅ d( U⋅ sin( β ) ) ⋅ − ⋅ = To T W Cp ⋅ T o Cp ⋅ T o (44) h) Relative Mach number equation: M rel = i) W Absolute stagnation pressure equation: ⎛ To ⎞ P o = P orel⋅ ⎜ ⎜ T orel ⎝ ⎠ j) (45) γ ⋅ R⋅ T γ γ −1 (46) Entropy equation: s ⎛ To ⎞ ⎛ Po ⎞ s 3 + Cp ⋅ ln⎜ − R⋅ ln⎜ ⎝ To3 ⎠ ⎝ Po3 ⎠ Notice that Equations (38) through (44) are differential equations that require a numerical solution. 24 (47) .

β. To CD. It follows that the small step change is d(δr/r3) = (δr4/r3)/nb or: r4 ⎛ δr ⎞ d⎜ ⎝ r3 ⎠ r3 −1 (49) nb d) It is now possible to vary the quantity δr/r3 starting with zero in steps of d(δr/r3) from index i = 0 to nb as follows: δr r3 ⎛ δr ⎞ i⋅ d ⎜ (50) ⎝ r3 ⎠ This also allows the variation of r/r3 from one to r4/r3. At the inlet. δr (or δr3) is zero when r = r3. f) Obtain the variation of angle β using the following polynomial: ⎛ δr ⎞ + S2⋅ ⎛ δr ⎞ β = β 3 + S1⋅ ⎜ ⎜r ⎝ r3 ⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ 2 (52) The variables S1 and S2 are specified coefficients.4. δr/r3 is δr4/r3 = (r4/r3)-1.3. g) Define the change in rotor speed using: ⎛ r⎞ U = U 3⋅ ⎜ ⎝ r3 ⎠ (53) h) Assuming a linear variation of To (stagnation temperature) with initial value To3 and final value To4 (maximum stagnation temperature in burner) gives: 25 . b) Next. the specified variables are A.2 Burner input parameters and method of solving equations In Equations (38) through (47). The equation for r/r3 is: r δr = 1+ r3 (48) r3 c) At station 4. The initial value of β is β3. consider the radius variation along the burner flow to be r = r3+δr (δr is the difference between r as it varies along the burner and r3). hHV. and ηb. U. The outline below shows how to deal with these variables: a) Specify the radius ratio r4/r3 and the number of iteration steps. e) Vary the flow area as the ratio A/A3 using the second order polynomial below: A A3 ⎛ δr ⎞ + Y2⋅ ⎛ δr ⎞ ⎜r ⎝ r3 ⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ 2 = 1 + Y1⋅ ⎜ (51) The variables Y1 and Y2 are specified coefficients. nb.

ηb [10]. it is necessary to show how to solve Equations (38) through (47). The second-order polynomials in Equations (51) and (52) are chosen for convenience. For Equations (38) through (44). CD for the flame holder along with the fuel heating value. Y2 A/A3 second order polynomial coefficients S1. Table 3-3 summarizes the input parameters for the burner: Table 3-3: Burner equation input parameters. i) Specify a drag coefficient. S2 β second order polynomial coefficients To4 Maximum burner stagnation temperature CD Flame holder drag coefficient hHV Fuel heating value ηb Burner efficiency nb Number of iteration steps With the input parameters established. they give the following form: ⎡ 2 W ⎢ −1 − 0 ⎢ Cp ⋅ T ⎢ 0 −1 ⎢ 1 ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎢ P 1 ⎢ 0 2 ⎢ ρ⋅W ⎢ U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) ⎢ 0 0 ⎢ Cp ⋅ To ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎢ ⎢ T W ⋅ ( W − U⋅ sin ( β ) ) 0 − ⎢− To Cp ⋅ To ⎣ 2 0 0 1 0 0 2⋅ h HV⋅ η b + U − W 2⋅ Cp ⋅ T 0 0 1 0 0 −1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 − Torel To 2 0 0 γ ⋅ M rel 2 0 1 0 2 γ ⋅ M rel 0 Inverting the matrix in Equation (55) gives: 26 2 ⎤ ⎛⎜ ⎥ −1 ⎜ ⎥ ⎜ ⎥ ⎜ ⎥⎜ ⎥ ⎜ ⎥ ⎥⎜ ⎜ ⎥ ⎜ ⎥ ⋅⎜ ⎥ ⎜ ⎥ ⎥⎜ ⎜ ⎥ ⎥⎜ ⎜ ⎥ ⎜ ⎥⎜ ⎥ ⎜ ⎦⎝ d ( T) ⎞ T d ( m) ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ m ⎠ d( W ) W d ( P) P d(ρ ) ( ρ ) d Torel Torel ( ) d Porel Porel U⋅ d ( U) ⎛ − ⎜ Cp ⋅ T ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⎜ d (A) ⎜ − A ⎜ ⎜ 1 − ⋅ d ( CD) ⎜ 2 ⎜ ⎜ d ( To ) U⋅ d( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ⎜− T + Cp ⋅ To o ⎜ ⎜ 2 γ ⋅ M rel ⎜ − ⋅ d ( CD) ⎜ 2 ⎜ ⎜ − d ( To ) + U⋅ d( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ⎜ To Cp ⋅ To ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ (55) ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ .T o = T o3 + T o4 − T o3 r4 −1 ⎛ δr ⎞ ⋅⎜ ⎝ r3 ⎠ (54) r3 Appendix B shows the derivation of Equation (54). hHV and burner efficiency. other variations with r are possible. Input Description r4/r3 Burner radius ratio Y1.

⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ d ( T) ⎞ T d ( m) ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ m ⎠ d( W ) W d ( P) P d(ρ ) ( ρ ) d Torel Torel ( ) d Porel Porel ⎡ 2 W ⎢ −1 − 0 Cp ⋅ T ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 ⎢ 1 ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎢ P 1 ⎢ 0 2 ⎢ ρ⋅W ⎢ U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) ⎢ 0 0 ⎢ Cp ⋅ To ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎢ ⎢ T W ⋅ ( W − U⋅ sin ( β ) ) − 0 ⎢− To Cp ⋅ To ⎣ 2 2⋅ h HV⋅ η b + U − W 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 −1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 γ ⋅ M rel 0 0 0 − Torel To 2 2⋅ Cp ⋅ T 2 γ ⋅ M rel 0 2 0 0 2 ⎤ − 1⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ −1 U⋅ d ( U) ⎛ ⎞ − ⎜ Cp ⋅ T ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⎜ d (A) ⎜ − A ⎜ ⎜ 1 − ⋅ d ( CD) ⎜ 2 ⋅⎜ (56) d T ⎜ ( o) U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) − + ⎜ T Cp ⋅ To o ⎜ ⎜ 2 γ ⋅ M rel ⎜ − ⋅ d ( CD) ⎜ 2 ⎜ ⎜ − d( To) + U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ⎜ To Cp ⋅ To ⎝ ⎠ Initial flow values for the burner are the compressor exit properties. Solving Equation (56) numerically from r/r3 = 1 to r4/r3 in steps of d(δr/r3) gives the following flow properties: T W i i T i− 1 W i− 1 + ⎛ d ( T) ⎞ ⋅ T ⎜ T ⎝ ⎠ i−1 + ⎛ d(W ) ⎞ ⋅ W ⎜ ⎝ W ⎠ i−1 P P + ⎛ d ( P) ⎞ ⋅ P ⎜ ⎝ P ⎠ i−1 ρi ρ i− 1 + ⎛ d( ρ ) ⎞ ⋅ ρ ⎜ i− 1 ⎝ ρ ⎠ i i− 1 Porel + i− 1 Porel i To i To i− 1 + ⎛ d ( Porel) ⎞ ⋅ Porel ⎜ P i− 1 ⎝ orel ⎠ ⎛ d ( To ) ⎞ ⋅ To ⎜ T ⎝ o ⎠ i−1 ⎛ m ⎞ ⎛ m ⎞ + ⎛ d ( m) ⎞ ⋅ ⎛ m ⎞ ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎜A ⎟ ⎜A ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ i ⎝ 3 ⎠ i−1 ⎝ m ⎠ ⎝ A 3 ⎠ i−1 W M rel i i γ i⋅ R⋅ T i γi Po i s i ⎛ To ⎞ i Porel ⋅ ⎜ i ⎜ Torel i⎠ ⎝ γ i−1 ⎛ To i ⎞ ⎛ Poi ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ s 3 + Cp ⋅ ln − R⋅ ln ⎜ ⎜P i ⎝ To3 ⎠ ⎝ o3 ⎠ 27 (57) .

4. Like the burner. They are: a) Conservation of energy and angular momentum combination: − W 2 Cp ⋅ T ⋅ d(W ) W − d ( T) − T U⋅ d ( U) Cp ⋅ T (61) b) Equation of state: d(ρ ) ρ + d ( T) T − d ( P) 28 P 0 (62) . the specific power of the burner is: ⎡m ⎤ Wb = − ⎢ 4 ⋅ U 4 ⋅ ( U 4 − W4 ⋅ sin(β 4 )) − U 3 ⋅ ( U 3 − W3 ⋅ sin(β 3 ))⎥ m3 ⎣ m3 ⎦ (60) Appendix B shows the derivation of Equation (60). mass addition and drag force terms. Equations 1 through 8 along with 10 and 12 in Appendix B describe the flow through the turbine but without the heat addition. using the definition of angular momentum [12] from Appendix B and Cθ = UW*sin(β). In the event f is an input. Next. the burner flow variables in Equation (57) will use the subscript four. the flow will have to exit at high relative Mach numbers to help spin the rotor. then the To distribution would require calculation. Knowing that the amount of fuel added is mf = m4-m3 gives the burner fuel-to-air ratio defined as f = mf/m3 or: m4 f m3 −1 (59) The ratio m4/m3 = (m4/A3)/(m3/A3).3 Turbine equations To produce as much power as possible. All the variables on the right hand side of Equation (56) are at index i-1 (except the constants) and it follows that: d( A ) − A ⎛⎡ A ⎤⎞ − ⎛⎡ A ⎤⎞ ⎜⎢A ⎥ ⎜⎢ ⎥ ⎝ ⎣ 3⎦ ⎠ i ⎝ ⎣ A3 ⎦ ⎠ i− 1 ⎛⎡ A ⎤⎞ ⎜⎢A ⎥ ⎝ ⎣ 3⎦ ⎠ i− 1 ( ) d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ( U ⋅ sin β i − U ⋅ sin β i− 1 i i− 1 ) (58) U −U d ( U) i− 1 i ( ) To − To i i− 1 d To At the exit.The subscripts i-1 and i refer to the index before and after the differential control volume seen in Figure 3-3. 3.

5). and U. the calculations must terminate and cannot continuously cross the sonic point.4 Turbine input parameters The turbine flow will initially be subsonic. It can then proceed to a supersonic flow region. If the subsonic flow approaches the sonic point and needs to go supersonic. In Equations (61) through (70).4. β. the specified variables are A. 3.c) Conservation of mass: d(W ) W + d(ρ ) − ρ d( A ) (63) A d) Conservation of linear momentum: d(W ) W P + ρ⋅W 2 ⋅ d ( P) P 0 (64) e) Relative stagnation temperature equation: ( ) d To To − ( ) Torel d Torel U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) d ( W ) ⋅ + ⋅ Cp ⋅ To W To Torel U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) Cp ⋅ To (65) f) Relative stagnation pressure equation: ( ) d Porel Porel 2 + γ ⋅ M rel 2 ⋅ ( ) d Torel Torel (66) 0 g) Absolute stagnation temperature equation: ( ) d To To − W ⋅ ( W − U⋅ sin ( β ) ) d ( W ) T d ( T) ⋅ − ⋅ To T Cp ⋅ To W U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) Cp ⋅ To (67) h) Relative Mach number equation: M rel = i) W (68) γ ⋅ R⋅ T Absolute stagnation pressure equation: γ ⎛ To ⎞ Po Po4⋅ ⎜ ⎝ To4 ⎠ j) γ −1 (69) Entropy equation s ⎛ To ⎞ ⎛ Po ⎞ s 4 + Cp ⋅ ln⎜ − R⋅ ln⎜ ⎝ To4 ⎠ ⎝ Po4 ⎠ (70) Notice that Equations (61) through (67) are differential equations that require a numerical solution. The chosen termination point is when Mrel = 0.99 (station number 4. 29 .

It follows that the small step change is d(δr/r4) = (δr5/r4)/nt or: r5 ⎛ δr ⎞ d⎜ ⎝ r4 ⎠ r4 −1 (72) nt d) It is now possible to vary the quantity δr/r4 starting with zero in steps of d(δr/r4) from index i = 0 to nt as follows: ⎛ δr ⎞ δr i⋅ d ⎜ (73) ⎝ r4 ⎠ r4 This then allows the variation of r/r4.4. δr (or δr4) is zero when r = r4. They are variable using any type of functions. g) Define the change in rotor speed using: U r U4⋅ ⎛⎜ ⎞ ⎝ r4 ⎠ (76) The second-order polynomials in Equations (74) and (75) are chosen for convenience. b) Next. The variation of r/r4 is: r 1+ r4 δr (71) r4 c) At station 5. nt. perform the following steps to obtain the input parameters: a) Specify the radius ratio r5/r4 and the number of iterations steps.3. decrease the area as the ratio A/A4 using the second order polynomial below: A A4 ⎛ δr ⎞ + K2⋅ ⎛ δr ⎞ ⎜r ⎝ r4 ⎠ ⎝ 4⎠ 2 1 + K1⋅ ⎜ (74) The variables K1 and K2 are specified coefficients. 30 . f) Obtain the variation of angle β using the following polynomial: β ⎛ δr ⎞ + B2⋅ ⎛ δr ⎞ ⎜r ⎝ r4 ⎠ ⎝ 4⎠ 2 β 4 + B1⋅ ⎜ (75) The variables B1 and B2 are specified coefficients. δr/r4 is δr5/r4 = (r5/r4)-1. The initial value of β is β4. At the inlet. consider the radius along the turbine flow to be r = r4+δr (δr is the difference between r as it varies along the burner and r4). other variations with r are possible.4.1 Subsonic turbine Assuming first that the sonic point does not occur. e) For the flow to accelerate.

4. However.4.4.4.1 by changing the subscripts 4 to 4. the ratio r5/r4.5. the flow stops at station 4.3.5 needs to be calculated.1.5 ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ r5 31 −1 (77) .528. it can only go supersonic if it satisfies the condition P0/Po4.5 is: ⎛ r5 ⎞ ⎛ r4.5. Otherwise. Now.4. obtain the ratio r4.4.5 and r5/r4 is shorter than the one specified in 3. First. which is the final value of r/r4.5. This means r5/r4 in Step a) becomes r5/r4.5/r4. Figure 3-4 from the Anderson textbook [11] provides the basis for this condition: Figure 3-4: Convergent-divergent nozzle with supersonic exit (from [1]). repeat the steps in Section 3.2 Supersonic turbine If the turbine reaches station 4. r5/r4.5rel < 0. For the input parameters.5 ⎞ ⎜ r ⋅⎜ r r4.

5/A4 is the value of Equation (74) at station 4. the area will have to increase.5 polynomial: ⎛ δr ⎞ + KK2⋅ ⎛ δr ⎞ 1 + KK1⋅ ⎜ ⎜r A 4. Input Description r5/r4 Turbine radius ratio K1.5 ⎠ A 2 (78) The variables KK1 and KK2 are specified coefficients. it is necessary to show how to solve Equations (61) through (70). For the flow to accelerate.4.5.5 ⎞ ⎛ A 5 ⎞ ⎜ A ⎜A ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4. Replace Equation (74) in Step e) with the supersonic area ratio A/A4.5 ⎝ r4.KK2 A/A4.This ensures that by the end of the turbine calculations.5 Method of solving turbine equations Table 3-4 summarizes the input parameters for both the subsonic and supersonic turbine. For Equations (61) through (67). 3. Table 3-4: Turbine equation input parameters.5 ⎠ (79) The ratio A4. The decreasing flow area in the subsonic region and increasing flow area in the supersonic region means the turbine resembles a convergent-divergent nozzle.5 ⎠ ⎝ 4. the radius ratio is the specified r5/r4.K2 A/A4 second order polynomial coefficients KK1. they give the following form: 32 .B2 β second order polynomial coefficients nt number of iteration steps With the input parameters established.5 second order polynomial coefficients B1. The overall turbine area ratio is then: A5 A4 ⎛ A 4.

5 except for T.528. ρ. the initial values are the ones at station 4. Modify them according to the following steps: a) If P0/Po4. then Mrel = 1. b) Calculate the others using: 33 .2 ⎡ W ⎢ −1 0 − Cp ⋅ T ⎢ ⎢ 1 −1 0 ⎢ 0 1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ P 1 ⎢ 0 2 ρ⋅W ⎢ ⎢ U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) ⎢ 0 0 Cp ⋅ To ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ T W ⋅ ( W − U⋅ sin ( β ) ) 0 ⎢− T − Cp ⋅ To o ⎣ 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 − Torel To 0 2 0 γ ⋅ M rel 0 2 0 1 0 ⎛ ⎤⎜ 0⎥ ⎜ ⎥⎜ ⎥⎜ 0 ⎥⎜ 0⎥ ⎜ ⎥⎜ 0⎥ ⎜ ⎥⎜ ⎥ ⋅⎜ 1⎥ ⎜ ⎥⎜ ⎥⎜ ⎥⎜ 0⎥ ⎜ ⎥⎜ ⎥⎜ 1⎥ ⎜ ⎦⎜ ⎝ d ( T) T d( W ) W d ( P) P d(ρ ) ( ρ ) d Torel Torel ( ) d Porel Porel ( ) d To To ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ U⋅ d ( U) ⎛ − ⎜ Cp ⋅ T ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⎜ d( A ) ⎜ − A ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⎜ ⎜ U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) Cp ⋅ To ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⎜ ⎜ U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ⎜ Cp ⋅ To ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ (80) ⎠ Inverting the matrix in Equation (80) gives: ⎛⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ d To ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ To ⎠ d ( T) T d(W ) W d ( P) P d( ρ ) ( ρ ) d Torel Torel ( ) d Porel Porel 2 ⎡ W ⎢ −1 − 0 Cp ⋅ T ⎢ ⎢ 1 0 −1 ⎢ 1 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ P 1 ⎢ 0 2 ⎢ ρ⋅W ⎢ U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) ⎢ 0 0 Cp ⋅ To ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎢ ⎢ T W ⋅ ( W − U⋅ sin ( β ) ) 0 ⎢− T − Cp ⋅ To ⎣ o 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 − Torel To 0 2 0 γ ⋅ M rel 2 0 0 1 0 ⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 1⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 1⎥ ⎦ −1 U⋅ d ( U) ⎛ − ⎜ Cp ⋅ T ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⎜ d( A ) ⎜ − A ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⋅ ⎜ ⎜ U⋅ d( U) − W ⋅ d( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) Cp ⋅ To ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⎜ ⎜ U⋅ d( U) − W ⋅ d( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ⎜ Cp ⋅ To ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ (81) ⎠ Initial flow values for the turbine are the burner exit properties. P.5rel < 0.01. For the supersonic flow. W. and Mrel.

5 − 1 1+ 2 2 ⋅ M rel M rel⋅ γ 4.5 − 1 ⎛ 2⎞ ⎜1 + ⋅ M rel 2 ⎝ ⎠ ρ γ 4.5 γ 4.5rel T γ 4.To4.5⋅ R⋅ T W Po4.5rel P (82) γ 4.5− 1 P R⋅ T Solving Equation (81) numerically across the subsonic and supersonic flows until the turbine radius ratio is the specified r5/r4 gives the following flow properties: T W T i− 1 W i− 1 i i + ⎛ d ( T) ⎞ ⋅ T ⎜ T ⎝ ⎠ i−1 + ⎛ d(W ) ⎞ ⋅ W ⎜ W ⎝ ⎠ i−1 P P + ⎛ d ( P) ⎞ ⋅ P ⎜ P ⎝ ⎠ i−1 ρi ρ i− 1 + ⎛ d( ρ ) ⎞ ⋅ ρ ⎜ i− 1 ⎝ ρ ⎠ i− 1 i Porel + i− 1 Porel i To i To i− 1 + ⎛ d ( Porel) ⎞ ⋅ Porel ⎜ P i− 1 ⎝ orel ⎠ ⎛ d ( To ) ⎞ ⋅ To ⎜ T ⎝ o ⎠ i−1 W M rel i (83) i γ i⋅ R⋅ T i γi Po i s i ⎛ To i ⎞ ⎜ Po4 ⋅ ⎜ To4 ⎝ ⎠ γ i−1 ⎛ To i ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ s 4 + Cp ⋅ ln − R⋅ ln ⎜ i ⎜ To4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ Po i ⎞ Po4 ⎠ All the variables on the right hand side of Equation (81) are at index i-1 (except the constants) and it follows that: 34 .

Output Description M4rel Exit relative Mach number τbrel Relative stagnation temperature ratio (To4rel/To3rel) πbrel Relative stagnation pressure ratio (Po4rel/Po3rel) τb Absolute stagnation temperature ratio (To4/To3) πb Absolute stagnation pressure ratio (Po4/Po3) To4rel Relative stagnation temperature Po4rel Relative stagnation pressure Po4 Absolute stagnation pressure W4 Outlet relative velocity T4 Outlet temperature P4 Outlet pressure ρ4 Outlet density s4 Outlet entropy m4/m3 Mass flow rate ratio A4/A3 Area ratio 35 (85) .6 Burner and turbine output summary In summary. Using the definition of angular momentum [12] from Appendix B and Cθ = U-W*sin(β).5 ⎠ i−1 ⎛ A ⎞ ⎜A ⎝ 4.subsonic: d( A) A ⎛ A ⎞ −⎛ A ⎞ ⎜A ⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎠ i ⎝ A 4 ⎠ i−1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜A ⎝ 4 ⎠ i−1 A .5 ⎠ i−1 A ( U ⋅ sin β i − U ⋅ sin β i− 1 i i− 1 d ( U) (84) ) U −U i i− 1 At the exit. the specific power of the turbine is: Wt = −(1 + f ) ⋅ [U 5 ⋅ ( U 5 − W5 ⋅ sin(β 5 )) − U 4 ⋅ ( U 4 − W4 ⋅ sin(β 4 ))] m3 Appendix B shows the derivation of Equation (85). supersonic: ( ) d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) d(A) ⎛ A ⎞ −⎛ A ⎞ ⎜A ⎜ ⎝ 4. 3.5 ⎠ i ⎝ A4.4. the turbine flow variables in Equation (83) will carry the subscript five. the burner exit variables are: Table 3-5: Burner exit flow variables.

Output Description β4 Outlet flow angle U4 Outlet rotor speed f Fuel-to-air ratio Cp4 Outlet specific heat γ4 Outlet specific heat ratio Wb/m3 Burner specific power For the turbine: Table 3-6: Turbine exit flow variables. Output Description M5rel Exit relative Mach number τtrel Relative stagnation temperature ratio (To5rel/To4rel) πtrel Relative stagnation pressure ratio (Po5rel/Po4rel) τt Absolute stagnation temperature ratio (To5/To5) πt Absolute stagnation pressure ratio (Po5/Po4) To5rel Relative stagnation temperature Po5rel Relative stagnation pressure To5 Absolute stagnation pressure Po5 Absolute stagnation pressure W5 Outlet relative velocity T5 Outlet temperature P5 Outlet pressure ρ5 Outlet density s5 Outlet entropy A5/A4 Area ratio β5 Outlet flow angle U5 Outlet rotor speed Cp5 Outlet specific heat γ5 Outlet specific heat ratio Wt/m3 Turbine specific power 36 .

calculate the ratio r5/r2h: 37 . the assumptions are: a) The rotor bottom is a relatively flat disk. Here are the important parameters that describe the overall performance: a) Rotor specific power takeoff: PTO W t Wb Wc = + + mc mc mc mc (86) b) Power takeoff coefficient: CTO ⎛ PTO ⎞ ⎜ m ⎝ c ⎠ (87) Cpc ⋅ T0 c) Power specific fuel consumption (PSFC): mf f PTO ⎛ PTO ⎞ ⎜ m ⎝ c ⎠ (88) d) Thermal efficiency: η TH CTO f⋅ hHV (89) Cpc ⋅ T 0 e) Rotor radius-to-compressor inlet tip ratio: r5 r2t ⎛ r3 ⎞ ⎛ r4 ⎞ ⎛ r5 ⎞ ⎜ r ⋅⎜ r ⋅⎜ r ⎝ 2t ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ (90) In most cases. This is important when comparing the new APU to other engines currently in service. it is necessary to determine the overall performance of the rotor. In order to limit the impeller size. it is important to introduce the concept of centrifugal stress. To make this analysis as simple as possible. First.The output variables above are the important ones. Plotting the burner and turbine results show how they vary throughout the flow. 3. b) The disk thickness is tapered in such a way that its centrifugal stress is uniform everywhere.5 Overall APU properties With the flow properties now known at each component. It is still possible to obtain other output properties not mentioned in this chapter by using a combination of variables seen in Table 3-5 and Table 3-6. the specific power takeoff and PSFC are the two parameters used when comparing the rotor with other engines.

It is thicker at the hub than at the rim. z2h/z5 from the Hill and Petersen textbook [5] is: z2h z5 ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ exp⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ −2 ⎤ ⎛ r5 ⎞ ⎥ 1−⎜ ⎥ r2h ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ 2 ⎛ σ ⎞ ⎥ ⋅⎜ 2 ρ ⎥ U5 ⎝ material ⎠ ⎦ Use Figure 3-5 to select an appropriate value of σ/ρmaterial (also called specific rupture strength): Figure 3-5: Variation of specific rupture strength with service temperature (from [5]). 38 (92) .r5 r2h ζc −1 ⎛ r3 ⎞ ⎛ r4 ⎞ ⎛ r5 ⎞ ⋅⎜ ⋅⎜ ⎝ r2t ⎠ ⎝ r3 ⎠ ⎝ r4 ⎠ ⋅⎜ (91) The disk hub-to-rim thickness ratio.

For convenience. it was important to validate the burner and turbine equations by comparing them with simple flow problems. b) Flow in a constant area duct with only heat addition. For both cases above. the chosen simple case is the variable area duct flow. The purpose was to provide confidence in the usage of the burner and turbine equations. the equations in this section will use relative frame variables (absolute and relative frames are the same for simple flows). mf is extremely small compared to m3. the program performed the analysis according to the following steps: a) Air and diffuser b) Compressor c) Burner d) Turbine e) Overall APU properties The turbine portion evaluates only the subsonic flow if the supersonic region does not occur.1 Simple one-dimensional flow A simple flow involves no curvature (β does not change) and rotation along with constant specific heats. Before continuing with the rotor analysis. 4.Chapter 4 Results of analysis A MathCAD program created to carry out the new rotor analysis consisted of an input parameters section and an equations/results section. Simple cases for the burner are: a) Flow in a constant area duct with drag and heat addition. In the equations/results section. 39 . As for the turbine.

The equation for M4rel in terms of the upstream variables and a prescribed τbrel [10] is: 2⋅ χ M 4rel 1 ( ) 1 − 2⋅ γ b ⋅ χ + ⎡ 1 − 2⋅ γ b + 1 ⋅ χ ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (93) 2 where: γc − 1 2⎛ 2⎞ ⋅ M 3rel γ c M 3rel ⋅ ⎜ 1 + 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⋅τ ⋅ 2 brel γb C ⎡ ⎛ ⎞ ⎤ D ⎢ 1 + γ c⋅ M3rel2⋅ ⎜ 1 − ⎥ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ χ (94) Next. Table 4-1 summarizes this comparison: 40 .1. This allows the comparison of the quantities M4rel and πbrel in Equations (93) and (95) with its respective values in the program.1 Constant area flow with drag and heat addition Figure 4-1: Constant area combustion chamber (from [10]).1.4.1 Burner 4. the equation for πbrel [10] is: γb CD ⎞ ⎛ γb − 1 ⎛ 2⎞ 1 + γ c⋅ M 3rel ⋅ ⎜ 1 − ⎜1 + ⋅ M 4rel 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⋅ γ b− 1 2 πbrel 2 1 + γ b ⋅ M 4rel γc − 1 ⎛ 2⎞ ⎜1 + ⋅ M 3rel 2 ⎝ ⎠ γc (95) γ c− 1 In this section. Consider a constant area duct with flame holders at the beginning that contribute a drag force to the flow as seen in Figure 4-1.1. the input parameters for the burner equations in the program are for a simple case.

1. The same equations in Section 4.355036 0. Once again.934004 1200 2.230973 0. Consider the heat addition flow thorough the control volume shown in Figure 4-2.914513 P3 = 500kPa CD = 1. Burner To4 input (K) πbrel M4rel τbrel Burner Equation Burner Equation equations (93) equations (95) M3rel = 0.1.190476 0.380952 0.2 T3 = 500K 600 1.297083 0.911921 0.5 hHV = 18. Table 4-2 summarizes the program results and the ones from Equations (93) and (95): 41 .98 R = 0.1.952213 0.2 Constant area flow with only heat addition Figure 4-2: Constant area flow through a duct with heat addition (from [9]).952305 900 1.1.Table 4-1: Comparison of burner equations to simple flow example (drag and heat addtion).785714 0. the input parameters for the burner equations are such that it is a simple case for this section.294143 0.000 BTU/lbm ηb = 0.4 r4/r3 = 2 nb = 1000 4.362688 0.287 kJ/(kg*K) γ0 = γ4 = 1.231116 0.1 are applicable for the above control volume but with CD = 0.93304 0.

343898 0.000 BTU/lbm ηb = 0.2 T3 = 500K 600 1.Table 4-2: Comparison of burner equations to simple flow example (heat addition). Consider the flow shown in Figure 4-3.336013 0. At any two points in the flow.994463 0.98 R = 0.4 r4/r3 = 2 nb = 1000 4.956187 0.2 Variable area flow Figure 4-3: Flow through a duct with variable area (from [9]).283147 0. Burner To4 input (K) πbrel M4rel τbrel Burner Equation Burner Equation equations (93) equations (95) M3rel = 0.785714 0.994625 900 1.287 kJ/(kg*K) γ0 = γ4 = 1.97725 1200 2.380952 0.1.221122 0. the area ratio [9] is: 42 .27976 0.190476 0.958871 P3 = 500kPa CD = 0 hHV = 18.976184 0.220526 0.

826604 2. they were obtainable using typical values from the Hill and Petersen textbook.273793 1. Turbine input A5/A4 Μ4rel Μ5rel Turbine equations Equation (96) T4 = 500K P4 = 500kPa 0. Table 4-3 summarizes the results: Table 4-3: Comparison of turbine equations to simple flow example (variable area).5 2. For the compressor input parameters.).249443 2.4 r5/r4 = 2 nt = 8000 4.287005 kJ/(kg*K) γ4 = 1. the 43 .013896 1. With the wrapping completed.2 Single rotor APU results 4. Model Center needed a range of values for all or just a selected number of input parameters to perform the optimization.827483 Cpt = 1. it was preferable to optimize it using Model Center (created by Phoenix Integration Inc.426491 2. That means the turbine is a convergent-divergent nozzle just like in Figure 4-3. The turbine input parameters in the program are such that both a subsonic and supersonic region exists for a simple case.2.7 2. This type of nozzle can generate a supersonic flow.250246 0. Unlike other optimizers. Model Center has a specially created plug-in that easily wraps Mathcad programs into it. Equation (96) uses the values of M4rel and M5rel from the turbine calculations to determine A5/A4.γ t+ 1 A5 A4 ⎛ ⎜1+ M ⎛ 4rel ⎞ ⎜ ⋅ ⎜M ⎝ 5rel ⎠ ⎜ 1 + ⎜ ⎝ γt − 1 2 γt − 1 2 2⎞ ( 2⋅ γ t − 1 ) ⋅ M 5rel (96) ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⋅ M 4rel ⎠ Equation (96) also works for convergent-divergent ducts.1 Model Center and input/output constraints In order to implement the MathCAD program for the new rotor.274185 0.583947 2.008123 kJ/(kg*K) R = 0.9 2. As for the burner and turbine.

98 nt 8000 44 .5 KK1 1 50 B1 0 50 r5/r4 1 4 σ/ρmaterial (kPa/kg/m3) 15 30 The input parameters that have fixed values were: Table 4-5: Model Center fixed input values.398 S2 0 KK2 0 s0 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.4 Wr3/U3 0.range of values was as wide as possible but within reasonable limits.5 Cθ2t/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 0 0.325 Y2 0 CD 1.99 hHV (BTU/lbm) 18000 T0 (K) 300 πd 0.15 0.5 γ0 1.99 nb 2000 P0 (kPa) 101. Range of values Input parameters Lower limit Upper limit M2rel 0.6 Y1 -15 15 S1 0 50 r4/r3 1 4 K1 -50 -1 K2 1 1.287005 ηb 0. Table 4-4 summarizes these input parameters: Table 4-4: Model Center input parameters with range limits. The objective of the optimizer in this study was to maximize the specific power takeoff.3 0.45 2.70203 To4 (K) 1200 B2 0 R (kJ/(kg*K)) 0.4 U3/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 0.1 0. Model Center then chose the best values for the input parameters when the optimizing process ended.9 β2t (deg) 10 50 ζc 0. Input parameters Values Input parameters Values Input parameters Values M0 0 τd 0.

With the information in Table 4-4 and Table 4-6.Setting a limit on σ/ρmaterial allowed the selection of an appropriate material from Figure 3-5 at the end of the optimizer run. it was necessary to restart the calculation using initial values from the previous run.1 Output variables β4 (deg) Output Constraints variables maximum of 90 β5 deg Constraints maximum of 90 deg A5/A4. In addition. c) Sequential quadratic programming (SQP). SLP had the most efficient algorithm. However.005 means the rotor flow exits close to atmospheric pressure. This eventually helped speed up the optimization process. it was preferable to set constraints on some of the output variables. b) Sequential linear programming (SLP). it was the quickest among the three. The entire optimization procedure 45 . There were three available optimizing methods in Model Center: a) Method of feasible directions (MFD). Before starting the optimizer.5 maximum of 4 z2h/z5 between 1 and 3 M4rel maximum of 0. The downside with using the SLP method was it took between one and a half to two hours to complete a run. it took SLP as much as two times to find the true optimum point. MFD was found not to reach the maximum point for the given constraints and limitations.1 and πc 30 r3/r2t at least 1.005 The limit placed on A5/A4. Of the three. it required initial values for the variables listed in Table 4-4 along with the constraints mentioned in Table 4-6. To obtain the best results. Usually.8 |(P0-P5)/P5| less than 0.2. For this reason. the limit |(P0-P5)/P5| (for backpressure matching consideration) being less than 0. Limits placed on the compressor.2. To make sure SLP found a true optimum. Model Center found the maximum specific power takeoff for the cases mentioned in Section 4. Table 4-6 shows the chosen variables along with their given constraints: Table 4-6: Model Center output constraints. Output variables M3rel Constraints maximum of 0. burner and turbine size prevented them from becoming too small or big. the results from this run served as the initial values for the SLP method.5 ensured the relative Mach number did not become too large in the event the flow goes supersonic. SQP was the newest algorithm.7 between 1. According to Model Center.

2.5rel < 0.433445 -228368.061594 ηTH r5/r2h z2h/z5 5.748837E+4 β5 Wc/m3 Wb/m3 Wt/m3 (deg) (W/kg/s) (W/kg/s) (W/kg/s) 89.1 Case 1: Without the stress and |(P0-P5)/P5| constraints. which limited the turbine size. SQP was capable of reaching a maximum point close to the one achieved by SLP but required many repeated runs. Model Center then provided the following results (complete results in Appendix E): Table 4-7: Overall rotor and other properties (Case 1).012.2 Results from Model Center The Model Center analysis consisted of four different cases: a) Without the stress (z2h/z5) and |(P0-P5)/P5| constraints.499688 πc 6.577093 The optimizer stopped when A5/A4.2.705278 516285. In Figure D-1.5 reached a value of 4. This case was necessary to investigate how large the rotor will get without the limitation of material (stress) or whether the flow exited at atmospheric pressure.454406 65. Figure E-16 through Figure E-20 (all created by only varying U3/(γ0*R*To2)1/2) shows that this configuration was the optimum point based on the given constraints and limitations in Section 4.390339 1. PTO/m3 mf/PTO (W/kg/s) (kg/s/W) 412218. c) Without the stress constraint but with the |(P0-P5)/P5| constraints.528 condition and allowed the flow to go past the sonic point into the supersonic region (refer to Figure 4-4).2. The optimum occurred when the compressor pressure ratio was just enough to satisfy the P0/Po4. 4.78268 124301. 46 . The rest of the limitation in Table 4-4 and Table 4-6 stayed the same.1.needed repeating using different initial values to make sure the true optimum point did indeed occur. Figure E-14 showed how this configuration compared to the Brayton cycle. The high specific power takeoff resulted due to both the burner and turbine producing a large amount of specific power. Case 1 clearly competed very well with the other gas turbine engines.2. 4. b) With the stress constraint but without the |(P0-P5)/P5| constraint.256221E-8 0. d) With the stress and |(P0-P5)/P5| constraints.

47 .105 0 0 10 20 30 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure 4-4: Relative Mach number.10 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ P o 5 .1500 3 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 2 Mrel To 500 1 0 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 0 10 20 0 30 0 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 10 20 30 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r 6 1 . stagnation temperature (K) and pressure (Pa) according to location in the rotor (Case 1). The plots in Figure 4-4 show that the rotor went supersonic which in turn caused the stagnation temperature and pressure to drop considerably in the turbine. This would occur in the burner for all the other cases. There was an unavoidable stagnation pressure drop in the burner that was consistent with the concept of burning at finite relative Mach numbers.

Table 4-7 showed a huge value for z2h/z5 making this rotor unrealistic. Figure 4-5 indicates that U and β achieved high values that contributed to a large negative drop in the value of Cθ for the turbine. 4. which resulted in U5 being 765. The burner would act like a turbine in all the subsequent cases. However.500 1000 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 0 Cθ U ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 500 500 1000 0 10 20 0 30 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 0 10 20 30 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r 100 β deg ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 50 0 0 10 20 30 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure 4-5: Variation of the absolute tangential velocity (m/s).698776 m/s.2 Case 2: With the stress constraint but without the |(P0-P5)/P5| constraint The analysis now included material limitation but still without taking into account the backpressure.390339.2. The drop in Cθ in the burner made it act like a turbine and produced specific power.2. Table 4-8 shows some of the results from Model Center with the complete set located in Appendix F: 48 . made the rotor become as strong as possible to withstand the amount of stress associated with this configuration. A r5/r2h value of 65. This permitted it to achieve a high specific power value. rotor speed (m/s) and flow curvature (deg) (Case 1).

The compressor pressure ratio was not high enough to satisfy the condition P0/Po4. as seen in Figure F-1.818746 62439.116314 3. The value of U5 was definitely a lot smaller than in Case 1. this case was close to the other gas turbine engines but could not compete very well in terms of specific power takeoff and PSFC.200241 πc 1. This was due to a smaller rotor size and exit rotor speed.2.5. Figure F-14 showed how this case compared to the Brayton cycle (to view the compressor and turbine temperature change in Figure F-14. This would be the situation for all the subsequent cases. The exception here was there was no supersonic flow region.5. In Figure F-13. all the points in Figure F-19 through Figure F-23 had their flow end at station 4. Figure F-23 showed the disk thickness would continue to become larger with increasing compressor pressure ratio and specific power takeoff. the optimizer halted when r3/r2t came close to its minimum value. This gave the following selected results in Table 4-9 (complete results in Appendix G): 49 .5rel < 0.3 Case 3: Without the stress constraint but with the |(P0-P5)/P5| constraint It was now necessary to determine the rotor characteristics using the backpressure as a constraint but without any stress limitations.932721 β5 Wc/m3 Wb/m3 Wt/m3 (deg) (W/kg/s) (W/kg/s) (W/kg/s) 81.183161 Comparing the results in Appendix E and Appendix F showed similar patterns in the flow characteristics. PTO/m3 mf/PTO (W/kg/s) (kg/s/W) 127884. This made the burner and turbine each produce specific power that was not as high as in the previous case. 4. the size limitation affected the range at which Cθ could drop in the burner and turbine. In this case.094656 81713.053457E-7 0.Table 4-8: Overall rotor and other properties (Case 2). the value of z2h/z5 here was more realistic.211841 2. Therefore. In fact. Figure F-19 through Figure F-23 (all created by only varying M2rel) indicated that Case 2 was indeed an optimum. When placed into Figure D-1.378184 -16268. Unlike Case 1. it was known that the compressor pressure ratio had to be around six and higher to go past the sonic point. From Case 1. The plots also showed that more specific power takeoff was possible but only when r3/r2t became smaller than one. the stress limitation clearly prevented the rotor from achieving a high specific power takeoff.2. see Figure F-15 and Figure F-16). Like in Case 1.924331 ηTH r5/r2h z2h/z5 2.528 and caused the flow to cutoff at station 4.

232095 πc 17.596648 ηTH r5/r2h z2h/z5 1.2. the flow managed to get into the supersonic region. However. With no material limitation.4 Case 4: With the stress and |(P0-P5)/P5| constraints In this case. Table 4-9 showed that the burner and turbine together produced a significant amount of specific power. Case 3 and Case 2 were close together but compared not very well to the other gas turbine engines. the compressor pressure ratio had to be very large. In Figure D-1.78374 310579.754028 50 . the compressor power demand took up most of this specific power leaving a specific power takeoff a little more than in Case 2. PTO/m3 mf/PTO (W/kg/s) (kg/s/W) 132248. this large compressor had a negative effect on the specific power takeoff. Therefore. the rotor size behaved similar to Case 1 and the disk thickness went as large as possible.017598 3. The plots in Appendix G showed that the major portion of the rotor was in fact the compressor.533881 1.292149E+4 β5 Wc/m3 Wb/m3 Wt/m3 (deg) (W/kg/s) (W/kg/s) (W/kg/s) 88.4036 There was an obvious improvement in the results compared to Case 2.820934 πc 1.007112 44305. a z2h/z5 value of 1.495073 2.940205 19140.15154 19.572254 ηTH r5/r2h z2h/z5 1. 4.489291 β5 Wc/m3 Wb/m3 Wt/m3 (deg) (W/kg/s) (W/kg/s) (W/kg/s) 84. This was due to the large Cθ drop seen in Figure G-12 with high β5 and U5 values. To accomplish this.57612E-7 0.292149E+4 made the manufacturing of this rotor impossible.14829 257696. From Figure G-1.5rel < 0.357239E-6 0. This meant it satisfied the P0/Po4.Table 4-9: Overall rotor and other properties (Case 3). Model Center used all the constraints and limitations mentioned in Table 4-4 and Table 4-6 to give the selected results in Table 4-10: Table 4-10: Overall rotor and other properties (Case 4).76084 -436026.535271 -45803.528 condition and at the same time had an exit pressure close to atmospheric. PTO/m3 mf/PTO (W/kg/s) (kg/s/W) 17641. Nevertheless.2.

131 and z2h/z5 = 1. A general observation was the compressor always had the largest size compared to the other components. In Case 2. the height was 9.934 inches but when it reached the burner outlet. Using Figure 3-5 (with To4 as the service temperature). Appendix H shows the rest of the results for this case. As for Case 4.312 inches. b4 = 0.292149E+4 in Case 3 made this rotor unrealistic. It was very small at the compressor outlet but took on a very large value at the rotor exit.3 Rotor material and size The specific strength for this rotor (including all the other cases) ended at its highest given limit of 30 kPa/kg/m3. Appendix I showed Case 1 had an unusual blade height distribution. This once again indicated that the rotor required the strongest material possible. Figure H-13 showed there was not much of a drop in Cθ between the burner inlet and turbine exit to significantly power the compressor and produce specific power takeoff at the same time. 4. the compressor absorbed most of the specific power generated. However. All four cases had eight vanes and r2t = 2 inches. this case produced the lowest specific power takeoff and highest PSFC among the four cases. a possible material was molybdenum alloy stainless steel. 51 .2.159 inches in Case 3 made this rotor seem reasonable. it was important to illustrate how the rotor for each case would look like. Both the first two cases obviously had unusual rotor designs.When completely constrained.743 inches and b5 = 4. the compressor exit blade height started out at 0. Like in Case 3. both the ratio b5/b3 = 53. Each rotor design had geometries that made their manufacturing not practical. Part of this reason was that the flow ended at M5rel equal to 0. Appendix I through Appendix L shows how this took place.476262371. The value of b5 equal to 1.738 inches. This also occurred in Cases 3 and 4. Placing this case into Figure D-1 showed that it was far from the gas turbine engine points in terms of both specific power takeoff and PSFC. Next.

as in the last case. it was unable to achieve supersonic exit velocities and produced a very low specific power takeoff. all the gas turbine engines (including the four cases) compared badly with the gasoline and diesel power generators. An optimizer maximized the specific power takeoff for each case using a set of design constraints placed on the input parameters and output variables. These generators usually do not have any weight limitations since they are ground-based. burner and turbine of a gas turbine engine into a single radial rotor and simulate it mathematically according to the principles of quasi-onedimensional flow. not just the specific power takeoff. This allowed a large specific power takeoff that was able to compete very well with current gas turbine engines in service. This in turn affected the specific powers produced by the burner and turbine components. 52 . intercoolers and so on giving them high efficiencies. at least for large PTO/m3. the rotor size became as large as possible with high supersonic exit relative Mach numbers. This allows them to have extra components such as regenerators. Therefore. b) Consider secondary flows to analyze the rotor with loss terms such as friction. However.Chapter 5 5. Constraining the rotor size prevented a large absolute tangential velocity change. 5. e) Provide more degrees of freedom to the analysis by extending the rotor geometry to allow flow in the axial direction (z-direction). This made it compare poorly with current gas turbine engine performance. The pictures indicated that all four rotors had an unusual combination of blade heights and disk thicknesses making their construction difficult. Stress analysis indicated this rotor had an unrealistic disk thickness distribution. the results in general suggest that the single radial rotor concept may not be such a good idea. Each case also had the disadvantage of having large compressors (compared to the other components). d) Perform a combined burner and turbine analysis. The results from the first case indicated that with no restrictions on the type of material and exit backpressure matching. c) Provide constraints for the blade height variation to make rotor shape more practical. some recommendations for continuation of this research are: a) Optimize the PSFC. The simulations consisted of four different cases with each producing a unique set of results. With the rotor fully constrained.2 Recommendations With the study now complete. Each case investigated had a sample rotor drawn to help visualize their shapes.1 Conclusion Summary The idea of this study was to combine the compressor.

[4] Auxiliary Power Unit: The APU described. John D. 1998.References [1] Fleming. New York: McGraw. New York: McGraw-Hill.co. L.b737. 3rd ed. Aircraft Engine Design.uk/apu. Cengel. [7] Bloch.htm] [5] Hill.htm]. Washington: AIAA. Philip G. 1992.uk/~spurr/sec. 1982 [12] Dixon. 2nd ed. 4th ed. Peterson. 1995. Mattingly.. Turboshaft. Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery.. 1997. Ramjet. Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach. [2] Turboprop. Michael A.users. Gordon C. A Practical Guide to Compressor Technology. and Yunus A. Reston: AIAA. 1999. [6] Boles. Compressible Fluid Flow. 1984.html]. Boston: McGraw-Hill. [http://www.com/abe_right4. [11] Anderson Jr. Heiser. and Patrick H. Scramjet and Turbojet/Ramjet. Oosthuizen. [http://www. Aerothermodynamics of Gas Turbine and Rocket Propulsion.. Modern Compressible Flow: With Historical Perspective.. William H. and Richard A. William E. Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Propulsion. S. and Jack D.org. 53 . Reston: AIAA..globalnet. 1998. Boston: BH. [3] How it Works: Small Gas Turbine Engine (APU). Heinz P. Reading: Addison-Wesley. Daniel H.aircraftenginedesign. Leyes II. [http://www. The History of North American Small Gas Turbine Aircraft Engines.. [10] Oates. 1987 [9] Carscallen. William A. New York: McGraw. 1999. and Carl R. [8] Daley.

τc γ 0⋅ R⋅ T o2 ⋅ <-----Equation 1 τc 1+ γ0 − 1 2 2 ⋅ M3 54 2 2 ⋅ M3 .Appendix A A.1 M 3rel M 3rel Compressor Derivations Outlet relative Mach number W3 γ 0⋅ R⋅ T3 W r3 ( ) cos β 3 1 ⋅ <----.T3 1+ γ0 − 1 2 ⋅ M3 Wr3 M 3rel U3 ( ) cos β 3 U3 ⋅ γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2⋅ 1+ γ0 − 1 2 To3 To2 2 ⋅ M3 Wr3 M 3rel U3 ( ) cos β 3 ⋅ U3 γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2⋅ τc 1+ U3 ( ) cos β 3 γ0 − 1 2 To3 To2 2 ⋅ M3 U3 Wr3 M 3rel <----.W 3 γ 0⋅ R⋅ T3 W r3 ( ) cos β 3 Wr3 M 3rel U3 ( ) cos β 3 ⋅ U3 γ 0⋅ R⋅ T3 Wr3 M 3rel U3 ( ) cos β 3 U3 ⋅ γ 0⋅ R⋅ To3 1+ γ0 − 1 2 To3 <----.

2 Outlet relative stagnation temperature 2 2 C3 since Cp0⋅ T3 and Cp0⋅ T3 Cp0⋅ To3 − 2 2 Cp0⋅ To3rel − Cp0⋅ To3 − 2 2 2 C3 Cp0⋅ To3 − + 2 To3 − : C3 2 To3rel 2 2 W3 2 Cp0⋅ To3rel Cp0⋅ To3rel − W3 W3 2 2 C3 − W 3 2⋅ Cp0 2 2 ⎛ C3 − W 3 ⎞ ⎜ To3rel To3⋅ 1 − ⎜ 2⋅ Cp0⋅ To3 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 ⎡ W 3 ⎞ ⎥⎤ γ 0⋅ R⋅ T3 ⎛⎜ C3 ⎢ To3rel To3⋅ 1 − ⋅ − ⎢ 2⋅ Cp0⋅ To3 ⎜ γ 0⋅ R⋅ T3 γ 0⋅ R⋅ T3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦ 2 γ 0⋅ R ⎡ 2 2 ⎤ To3rel To3⋅ ⎢ 1 − ⋅ ⎛ M 3 − M 3rel ⎞ ⎥ ⎠ To3 ⎝ ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ 2 ⋅ C p0 T ⎢ ⎥ 3 ⎣ ⎦ To3rel To3rel ( ⎡ To3⋅ ⎢ 1 − ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ) γ 0⋅ γ 0 − 1 ⎛ γ0 − 1 ⎝ 2 2⋅ γ 0⋅ ⎜ 1 + ⋅ M3 ⎡ γ0 − 1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ γ0 − 1 ⎛ 2⋅ ⎜ 1 + ⋅ M3 2 ⎝ ⎠ To3⋅ ⎢ 1 − <-----M 3rel ⎤ 2⎞ ⎥ ⋅ ⎛ M 3 − M 3rel 2 ⎝ 2⎞ ⎠ 2 ⎠⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎤ 2⎞ ⎥ ⋅ ⎛ M 3 − M 3rel ⎝ 2⎞ W3 2 ⎠⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 55 <----- γ 0⋅ R⋅ T3 R γ0 − 1 Cp0 γ0 <-----Equation 2 and 2 2 and M 3 To3 T3 C3 γ 0⋅ R⋅ T3 1+ γ0 − 1 2 2 ⋅ M3 .A.

1 Burner and turbine derivations Conservation of angular momentum −W = ( m ⋅ U ⋅ C θ ) out − ( m ⋅ U ⋅ C θ ) in B.2 Conservation of energy (first law of thermodynamics) Q − W = ( m ⋅ h o ) out − ( m ⋅ h o ) in 2 h+ since h o C 2 : ⎡ ⎛ ⎡ ⎛ C 2 ⎞⎟⎤ C 2 ⎞⎟⎤ ⎥ ⎥ − ⎢m ⋅ ⎜ h + Q − W = ⎢m ⋅ ⎜ h + 2 ⎟⎥ 2 ⎟⎥ ⎢ ⎜⎝ ⎢ ⎜⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ out ⎣ ⎦ in ( )out − (m⋅ U⋅ Cθ )in ( )out Q + m⋅ U⋅ Cθ Q + m⋅ U⋅ Cθ ⎡ ⎛ Q + ⎢m⋅ ⎜ U⋅ Cθ − ⎣ ⎝ ⎛ C ⎝ 2 − ⎜ m⋅ 2 ⎞⎤ 2 ⎞⎤ ⎡ ⎛ ⎡ ⎛ ⎢m⋅ ⎜ h + C ⎥ − ⎢m⋅ ⎜ h + C ⎥ 2 ⎠⎦ out ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ in ⎣ ⎝ 2⎞ ( − m⋅ U⋅ Cθ ⎠ out )in ⎛ C ⎝ 2 2⎞ + ⎜ m⋅ ⎠ in ( m⋅ h ) out <-----place conservation of angular momentum here − ( m⋅ h ) in 2 ⎞⎤ ⎡ ⎛ ⎥ − ⎢m⋅ ⎜ U⋅ Cθ − C ⎥ ( m⋅ h ) − ( m⋅ h ) out in 2 ⎠⎦ out ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ in 2 ⎞⎤ C 2 C : for U⋅ Cθ − 2 2 2 U⋅ Cθ − C U⋅ Cθ − C U⋅ Cθ − C 2 U⋅ Cθ − 2 2 ( C 2 2 ( ( C U⋅ Cθ − C U 2 2 2 ) ) U⋅ U − W θ − U⋅ Cθ − 2 ) U⋅ U − W θ − 2 U⋅ Cθ − 2 U − U⋅ W θ − 2 − 2 2 <----.Appendix B B.W 2 W 2 2 2 − U 2 + U⋅ W θ 2 2 56 2 2 Wr + Wθ 2 Cr (both from velocity triangle) .C 2 U⋅ U − W θ − 2 2 Cr + Cθ W 2 ( Wr + U − Wθ )2 2 2 2 2 Cr + Cθ U − W θ and W r <-----Cθ W r + U − 2⋅ U⋅ W θ + W θ 2 2 2 2 2 W + U − 2⋅ U⋅ W θ <----.

h Cp ⋅ T (m⋅ Cp⋅ T)out − (m⋅ Cp⋅ T)in convert equation above into differential form: 2⎞ ⎛ U ⎝ 2 d ( Q) + d ⎜ m⋅ ⎠ ⎛ U2 ⎞ m ⎛ U2 ⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎠ h HV⋅ η b ⋅ d ( m) h HV⋅ η b ⋅ d ( m) m m 2⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎠ U + ⎝ 2 ⎠ + d⎜ W 2 d ( Q) + m⋅ d ⎜ d ( Q) ⎛ − d ⎜ m⋅ 2 2 U + 2 ⋅ ⎛ W2 ⎞ ⋅ d ( m) − m⋅ d ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 2 ⋅ − d⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ m ⎛ U2 ⎞ U ⎛ W2 ⎞ d ( m) + d⎜ + ( d m⋅ Cp ⋅ T 2 + d ( m) m U 2 − ⋅ W 2 d ( m) m 2 ⋅ − ) − W 2 W 2 2 ⋅ ⎝ 2 ⎠ d ( m) m ⋅ d ( m) m − m⋅ Cp ⋅ d ( T) + Cp ⋅ T⋅ d ( m) d ( m) Cp ⋅ d ( T) + Cp ⋅ T⋅ m d ( m) ⎛ W2 ⎞ − d⎜ 2 W 2 2 ⋅ <-----divide by m d ( m) Cp ⋅ d ( T) + Cp ⋅ T⋅ m d ( m) m 2⎞ ⎛U d ( m) − Cp ⋅ T⋅ + d⎜ m ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ W2 ⎞ − d⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ − Cp ⋅ d ( T) <----.d ( Q) 0 2 2 ⎛ ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛ 2⎞ ⎞ ⎜ hHV⋅ η b + U − W − Cp⋅ T ⋅ d ( m) + d⎜ U − d ⎜ W − Cp⋅ d ( T) 0 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ m ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 2⋅ h HV⋅ η b U2 W 2 ⎞ d( m) ⎜ + − − Cp ⋅ T ⋅ + U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( W ) − Cp ⋅ d ( T) 0 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ m ⎛ 2⋅ h ⋅ η + U2 − W 2 ⎞ U⋅ d ( U) W ⋅ d( W ) d ( T) ⎜ HV b d ( m) −1 ⋅ + − − ⎜ 2⋅ Cp ⋅ T Cp ⋅ T Cp ⋅ T T ⎝ ⎠ m ⎛ 2⋅ h ⋅ η + U2 − W 2 ⎞ 2 W d( W ) d ( T) ⎜ HV b d ( m) −1 ⋅ − ⋅ − ⎜ 2⋅ Cp ⋅ T T Cp ⋅ T W ⎝ ⎠ m 57 − 0 U⋅ d ( U) Cp ⋅ T <-----divide by Cp ⋅ T <-----Equation 1 h HV⋅ η b ⋅ d ( m) .2 2 U C place U⋅ Cθ − 2 − 2 W 2 into the first law equation: 2 ⎡ ⎛ U2 W 2 ⎞⎤ ⎡ ⎛ U2 W 2 ⎞⎤ ⎢ ⎜ ⎥ ⎥ Q + m⋅ − − ⎢m⋅ ⎜ − ( m⋅ h ) − ( m⋅ h ) out in 2 ⎠⎦ out ⎣ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠⎦ in ⎣ ⎝ 2 2⎞ ⎛ U ⎝ 2 ⎛ U ⎝ 2 Q + ⎜ m⋅ Q + ⎜ m⋅ 2⎞ ⎛ U ⎠ out ⎝ 2 − ⎜ m⋅ 2⎞ W ⎠ in ⎝ 2 ⎠ out W 2⎞ 2⎞ ⎛ U ⎠ out ⎝ 2 − ⎜ m⋅ 2⎞ ⎛ − ⎜ m⋅ ⎡⎛ − ⎢ ⎜ m⋅ ⎠ in ⎢⎣ ⎝ 2 2⎞ ⎛ W ⎝ 2 ⎠ in W 2⎞ + ⎜ m⋅ ⎛ − ⎜ m⋅ (m⋅ Cp⋅ T)out − (m⋅ Cp⋅ T)in ⎤ ⎥ 2 ⎠ in ⎥ ⎦ ⎠ out ⎝ <----.

5 ρ + d(A) d ( m) A m − d ( m) − m d( A ) <-----Equation 3 A Conservation of linear momentum P − d ( P) − ρ ⋅W 2 ⋅ d ( P) d( W ) P W ( ) d FD for + d ( m) m + ( ) d FD 2 ρ ⋅W ⋅A : 2 ρ ⋅W ⋅A 1 ( ) d FD 2 1 2 ρ ⋅W ⋅A 2 ( ) d FD 1 ( ) ⋅ d FD 2 ⋅ρ ⋅W ⋅A ( ) d FD ⋅ 2 1 2 ρ ⋅W ⋅A 2 ( ) d FD 1 2 d FD ( ) 1 2 2 P ρ ⋅W 2 ⋅ <----.3 Equation of state d( ρ ) d ( T) + ρ B.d CD ( ) d FD 1 2 ρ ⋅W ⋅A − ( ) ( ) ⋅ d CD 2 ρ ⋅W ⋅A place 2 ⋅ρ ⋅W ⋅A 2 ⋅ρ ⋅W ⋅A ( ) ⋅ d CD into the linear momentum equation: d ( P) d( W ) P W + d ( m) m + 1 2 ( ) ⋅ d CD 58 .4 T <-----Equation 2 0 P Conservation of mass d( W ) d( ρ ) + W d( W ) ρ d( ρ ) + W B.B.

6 P + m ρ ⋅W ⋅ 2 d ( P) P ( ) 1 − ⋅ d CD 2 Relative stagnation temperature equation 2 2 C Cp ⋅ To − 2 W Cp ⋅ Torel − 2 W 2 2 C Cp ⋅ Torel − + 2 2 Cp ⋅ To Cp ⋅ Torel + 2 2 C −W 2 2 C −W 2 2 : 2 2 2 2 2 2 <-----C 2 2 C −W 2 ( Wr + U − Wθ 2 2 )2 − W r2 − W θ 2 2 2 C −W 2 2 U − 2⋅ U⋅ W θ + W θ − W θ 2 2 2 2 Cr + Cθ and W <-----Cθ 2 2 Wr + Wθ U − W θ and W r 2 2 2 2 U 2 2 2 C −W 2 2 U 2 2 2 C −W 2 2 − U⋅ W θ − U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) <-----W θ W ⋅ sin ( β ) (from velocity triangle) 2 − U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) into Cp ⋅ To 2 U 2 Cp ⋅ Torel + 2 Cp ⋅ To U Cp ⋅ Torel + − U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) 2 convert equation above into differential form: 59 C −W 2 2 : 2 Cr (both from velocity triangle) 2 C −W place 2 Cr + Cθ − W r − W θ 2 W : Cp ⋅ Torel − 2 2 Cp ⋅ To C −W 2 C and Cp ⋅ T Cp ⋅ To − 2 since Cp ⋅ T for <-----Equation 4 .d( W ) d ( m) + W B.

Cp ⋅ d Torel + ( ) Cp ⋅ d Torel + U⋅ d ( U) − U⋅ sin ( β ) ⋅ d ( W ) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) Cp ⋅ d To ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 2) − d(U⋅W⋅ sin (β )) ( ) Cp ⋅ d To d U 2 Cp ⋅ d To − Cp ⋅ d Torel + U⋅ sin ( β ) ⋅ d ( W ) ( U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ) d Torel d( W ) Cp ⋅ d To − Cp ⋅ Torel⋅ + U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) ⋅ Torel W ( ) ( ) d To − To B.M rel 2 2 d(W ) γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ W 2 d ( m) + γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ m + d ( P) P − γ ⋅ M rel 2 2 d ( P) P 2 d(W ) −γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ W 2 d ( m) − γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ m − γ ⋅ M rel 2 place P 2 d( W ) −γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ W 2 d ( m) − γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ m − 2 γ⋅P ( ) ⋅ d CD ( ) ⋅ d CD 2 d ( P) ρ⋅W γ ⋅ M rel 2 ( ) ⋅ d CD into the 60 ( ) d Porel Porel equation: <-----Equation 5 .7 ( ) Torel d Torel U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) d ( W ) ⋅ + ⋅ To Torel Cp ⋅ To W U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) <-----divide by Cp ⋅ To Cp ⋅ To Relative stagnation temperature equation 2 ( γ ⋅ M rel ) d Porel d ( P) Porel P d ⎛ M rel + γ−1 1+ 2 2⎞ ⎝ ⋅ 2 2 ⋅ M rel ⎠ 2 M rel from the the conservation of linear momentum equation: d( W ) W d( W ) W d( W ) W + + + d ( m) m + P ρ⋅W d ( m) m + 2 ⋅ d ( m) m + 1 − ⋅ d CD 2 P γ⋅P γ⋅ρ ⋅W ( ) d ( P) 2 1 2 ⋅ d ( P) ⋅ d ( P) ( ) 1 − ⋅ d CD 2 P γ ⋅ M rel ( ) 1 − ⋅ d CD 2 P 2 <----.

2 ( ) 2 d Porel 2 d(W ) −γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ Porel W d ⎛ M rel 2 d ( m) − γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ − m γ ⋅ M rel 2 γ ⋅ M rel ( ) d ⎛ M rel ⎝ ⋅ 2 ⋅ d CD + 1+ γ−1 2 2 ⋅ M rel 2⎞ ⎠ 2 M rel 2⎞ ⎝ from definition of ⎠: 2 M rel d ⎛ M rel 2⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 2⋅ 2 d(W ) W M rel d ( T) T ⎞ ⎛ d⎛ M 2 ⎞ rel ⎠ d ( T) ⎝ ⎜ ⋅ + 2 2 ⎜ T M rel ⎝ ⎠ d( W ) 1 W place − ⎞ ⎛ d⎛ M 2 ⎞ d ( Porel) d ( T) rel ⎠ ⎝ ⎜ into the equation: ⋅ + 2 Porel 2 ⎜ T ⎝ Mrel ⎠ 1 d(W ) W 2 ( ) 2 d Porel − Porel γ ⋅ M rel 2 γ ⋅ M rel 2 2 ⎞ ⎛ d⎛ M 2 ⎞ γ ⋅ M rel d ⎛ M rel ⎞ rel ⎠ 2 d ( T) 2 d ( m) ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⋅ + − γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ − ⋅ d ( CD) + ⋅ m ⎜ M 2 2 2 T γ−1 2 M rel 1+ ⋅ M rel rel ⎝ ⎠ 2 by definition. the relative stagnation temperature is: ( γ−1 ) d Torel d ( T) Torel T ( + 1+ ) d ( T) d Torel T Torel place 2 γ−1 2 γ−1 2 − 1+ ( ) d ( T) d Torel T Torel 2 d ⎛ M rel ⋅ M rel 2 ⋅ M rel 2 2 − 1+ ⎠ 2 M rel 2 d ⎛ M rel ⋅ M rel γ−1 2 2⎞ ⎝ ⋅ 2 2 2 M rel ⋅ M rel γ−1 ⎠ d ⎛ M rel ⋅ M rel γ−1 2⎞ ⎝ ⋅ ⎝ ⋅ 2 ⋅ M rel 2⎞ ⎠ into the d ( Porel) equation: Porel 2 M rel 61 .

C 2 2 Cp ⋅ To 2 2 W + U − 2⋅ U⋅ W θ <----.2 2 ( γ ⋅ M rel γ−1 2 ⎛ 2 2 ⎞ 2 2 ⋅ M rel γ ⋅ M rel ⎜ d ⎛ M rel ⎞ d ( Torel) d ⎛ M rel ⎞ γ M ⋅ d ⎛ M rel ⎞ 2 d ( m ) rel 2 ⎝ ⎠ + ⎝ ⎠ − γ ⋅ M 2⋅ ⎝ ⎠ − ⋅⎜ − ⋅ − ⋅ d C + ⋅ ( ) ⎟ rel m D 2 2 Torel 2 2 2 γ−1 γ−1 2 2 M rel ⎜ M rel M rel 1+ ⋅ M rel 1+ ⋅ M rel 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ) 2 d Porel Porel 2 ( γ ⋅ M rel 2 2 2 γ ⋅ M rel ⎛⎜ d ( Torel) d ⎛ M rel ⎞ ⎞ d ⎛ M rel ⎞ γ ⋅ M rel 1 2 2 d ( m) ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ − ⋅ + ⋅ − γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ − ⋅ d ( CD) + ⋅ ⎟ ⎜ T 2 2 2 2 m γ − 1 γ − 1 2 2 M rel M rel 1+ ⋅ M rel 1+ ⋅ M rel ⎜ orel 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ) 2 d Porel Porel 2 2 ( ) 2 d Porel − Porel ( ) − Porel ( ) Porel B.8 ⋅ 2 ( ) d Torel γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ 2 2 + γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ 2 1+ ( ) ) Torel ⎝ ⋅ 2 2 ⋅ Mrel 2 − γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ m − ⎠ − γ ⋅ M 2⋅ d ( m) − γ ⋅ Mrel ⋅ d C + ( D) rel + γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ m γ ⋅ M rel d ⎛ Mrel ⎝ ⋅ 2 1+ γ−1 2 2 ⋅ Mrel ( ) ⋅ d CD 2 − 2 m 2 2 d ( m) γ ⋅ M rel 2 Mrel 2 d ( m) Torel ( γ−1 2⎞ 2 d Torel d Torel d ⎛ Mrel 2 − Torel 2 d Porel d Porel γ ⋅ Mrel γ ⋅ M rel γ ⋅ M rel ( ) ⋅ d CD 2 <-----Equation 6 Absolute stagnation temperature equation 2 Cp ⋅ To C Cp ⋅ T + 2 2 Cp ⋅ To Cp ⋅ T + Cr + Cθ Cp ⋅ T + Cp ⋅ T + Cp ⋅ T + Cp ⋅ To Cp ⋅ T + )2 2 2 Cr + Cθ 2 <-----Cθ W r + U − 2⋅ U⋅ W θ + W θ 2 U − W θ and W r Cr (both from velocity triangle) 2 2 2 Cp ⋅ To ( Wr + U − Wθ 2 Cp ⋅ To 2 <----.W 2 2 W + U − 2⋅ U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) 2 2 2 <-----W θ 62 2 Wr + Wθ 2 W ⋅ sin ( β ) (from velocity triangle) 2⎞ 2 Mrel ⎠ .

2 2 W U Cp ⋅ T + + − U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) 2 2 Cp ⋅ To convert equation above into differential form: ( 2) + d(U2) − d(U⋅W⋅ sin (β )) ( ) Cp ⋅ d ( T) + ( ) Cp ⋅ d ( T) + W ⋅ d ( W ) + U⋅ d ( U) − U⋅ sin ( β ) ⋅ d ( W ) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ( ) Cp ⋅ d ( T) + ( W − U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ⋅ d ( W ) + U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ( ) U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) Cp ⋅ d To Cp ⋅ d To Cp ⋅ d To d W 2 2 Cp ⋅ d To − Cp ⋅ d ( T) − ( W − U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ⋅ d ( W ) ( ) d ( T) d(W ) Cp ⋅ d To − Cp ⋅ T⋅ − W ⋅ ( W − U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ⋅ T W ( ) d To − To B.10 Absolute stagnation pressure equation burner: γ since Po P ⎛ To ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ T ⎠ γ γ −1 and Porel P ⎛ Torel ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ T ⎠ γ −1 : γ Po P ⎛ To ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ T ⎠ γ −1 γ Porel P ⎛ Torel ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ T ⎠ γ −1 63 <-----divide by Cp ⋅ To <-----Equation 7 .9 T d ( T) W ⋅ ( W − U⋅ sin ( β ) ) d ( W ) ⋅ − ⋅ To T Cp ⋅ To W U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) Cp ⋅ To Relative Mach number equation W M rel <-----Equation 8 γ ⋅ R⋅ T B.

γ Po To γ −1 γ Porel Torel γ −1 γ ⎛ To ⎞ Po Porel⋅ ⎜ ⎝ Torel ⎠ γ −1 <-----Equation 9 turbine: γ ⎛ To ⎞ Po Po4⋅ ⎜ ⎝ To4 ⎠ γ −1 <-----Equation 10 B.11 Entropy equation burner: s ⎛ To ⎞ ⎛ Po ⎞ − R⋅ ln⎜ s 3 + Cp ⋅ ln⎜ ⎝ To3 ⎠ ⎝ Po3 ⎠ <-----Equation 11 turbine: s ⎛ To ⎞ ⎛ Po ⎞ − R⋅ ln⎜ s 4 + Cp ⋅ ln⎜ ⎝ To4 ⎠ ⎝ Po4 ⎠ <-----Equation 12 B. which means δr r r3 r3 δr3 r3 −1 0 and To To3: 64 .12 Burner absolute stagnation temperature distribution the To distribution is linear: To ⎛ δr ⎞ a + b⋅ ⎜ at the inlet. <----- ⎝ r3 ⎠ r r3 1.

To3 a ⎛ δr3 ⎞ a + b⋅ ⎜ ⎝ r3 ⎠ To3 at the outlet.13 Burner specific work −W b = ( m ⋅ U ⋅ C θ ) 4 − ( m ⋅ U ⋅ C θ ) 3 <-----from the definition of angular momentum ⎡m ⎤ − W b = m 3 ⋅ ⎢ 4 ⋅ U 4 ⋅ ( U 4 − Wθ4 ) − U 3 ⋅ ( U 3 − Wθ3 ) ⎥ ⎣ m3 ⎦ <-----Cθ ⎡m ⎤ − Wb = m 3 ⋅ ⎢ 4 ⋅ U 4 ⋅ ( U 4 − W4 ⋅ sin(β 4 )) − U 3 ⋅ ( U 3 − W3 ⋅ sin(β 3 ))⎥ ⎣ m3 ⎦ ⎡m ⎤ Wb = − ⎢ 4 ⋅ U 4 ⋅ ( U 4 − W4 ⋅ sin(β 4 )) − U 3 ⋅ ( U 3 − W3 ⋅ sin(β 3 ))⎥ m3 ⎣ m3 ⎦ 65 U − Wθ <-----W θ W ⋅ sin ( β ) <-----Equation 14 . r r4 r3 r3 To3 + b ⋅ ⎜ To4 To3 + b ⋅ ⎜ r4 r3 r3 − 1 and To To4: ⎝ r3 ⎠ ⎛ r4 ⎝ r3 −1 ⎞ ⎠ To4 − To3 r4 r3 place a −1 To3 and b To4 − To3 r4 r3 To δr4 ⎛ δr4 ⎞ To4 b . which means To3 + To4 − To3 r4 r3 −1 in the To distribution equation: −1 ⎛ δr ⎞ ⋅⎜ <-----Equation 13 ⎝ r3 ⎠ B.

14 Turbine specific work − W t = m 4 ⋅ [U 5 ⋅ C θ5 − U 4 ⋅ C θ4 ] <-----from the definition of angular momentum − W t = ( m 3 + m f ) ⋅ [U 5 ⋅ ( U 5 − Wθ5 ) − U 4 ⋅ ( U 4 − Wθ4 )] − W t = m 3 ⋅ (1 + <-----Cθ U − Wθ mf ) ⋅ [U 5 ⋅ ( U 5 − W5 ⋅ sin(β 5 )) − U 4 ⋅ ( U 4 − W4 ⋅ sin(β 4 ))] m3 − W t = m 3 ⋅ (1 + f ) ⋅ [U 5 ⋅ ( U 5 − W5 ⋅ sin(β 5 )) − U 4 ⋅ ( U 4 − W4 ⋅ sin(β 4 ))] Wt = −(1 + f ) ⋅ [U 5 ⋅ ( U 5 − W5 ⋅ sin(β 5 )) − U 4 ⋅ ( U 4 − W4 ⋅ sin(β 4 ))] m3 66 <-----W θ W ⋅ sin ( β ) <-----f = m f / m 3 <-----Equation 15 .B.

W r W ⋅ cos ( β ) mass flow rateassociated with area perpendicular to flow between two vane m ⌠ →→ ⎮ ⎮ ρ ⋅ W ⋅ n dA ⌡ m ρ ⋅W⋅A since the mass flow rates are the same: ρ ⋅W⋅A A 2⋅ π⋅ r⋅ b ⋅ ρ ⋅ W ⋅ cos ( β ) Nb 2⋅ π⋅ r⋅ b ⋅ cos ( β ) Nb 67 .Cr C⋅ cos ( α ) Nb 2⋅ π⋅ r⋅ b ⋅ ρ ⋅ W r <----.Appendix C To determine perpendicular (one-dimensional) flow area between the vanes mass flow rate associated with the circular area between two vanes: ⌠ →→ ⎮ ( ) ⎮ ρ ⋅ C⋅ n ⋅ 2⋅ π⋅ b dr ⌡ m m m m m Nb 2⋅ π⋅ r⋅ b ⋅ ρ ⋅ C⋅ cos ( α ) Nb 2⋅ π⋅ r⋅ b ⋅ ρ ⋅ Cr <----.W r Cr Nb 2⋅ π⋅ r⋅ b ⋅ ρ ⋅ W ⋅ cos ( β ) Nb <----.

9 P&WC PT6A-27 680 0.507 19.8 TV2-117 1500 0.64 12.459 10 Ivchenko Prog.639 57.633 6.53 NK NK-12MV 14795 0.Appendix D Current engine data Table D-1: Airplane turboprop engine data.498 16.17 Klimov Corporation TV7-117 2466 0.6 6.83 Company General Electric Klimov Corporation Model 68 .397 17.602 7.465 7.41 16.602 7.75 TPE 331-T76 577 0. ZMKB D-136 10000 0.7 CT58-110 1250 0.436 79. PTO mf/PTO m3 (shp) (lbm/h/shp) (lbm/s) TPE 331-5 710 0.536 32.4 Turbomeca Bastan VIC 798 0.6 13.75 Company Model Honeywell Rolls Royce Table D-2: Helicopter turboshaft engine data.4 JSC 'Aviadvigatel D-25V 5500 0.8 AE 2100J 4591 0.5 TV3-117 2190 0.84 LHTEC CTS-800-4 1362 0.773 10 Walter M602B 2012 0.506 11.6 Honeywell TPE 331-5 710 0.46 7. PTO mf/PTO m3 (shp) (lbm/h/shp) (lbm/s) T58 (GE-10) 1400 0.33 Allison T56-A15 4591 0.05 PZL Rzeszow GTD-350 394 0.7 T700-401C 1800 0.606 18.8 MTR MTR 390 1285 0.501 143 OEDB TVD-20-01 1380 0.84 4.

7 Turbomeca RM 322 2241 0. Generator cylinders model (hp) (ft3/min) 5ERKM 11.5 19 0.71 Kohler 7ER 16 24 0.454 8.58 10.503 29. T55 (GA-714) 4868 0.78 Onan Microquiet 4000 9.68 17 GEM-42 1000 0.95 CMM 7000 14 18. PTO mf/PTO m3 (shp) (lbm/h/shp) (lbm/s) T64 (GE-413) 3925 0.69 Makila (1A2) 1845 0.Company PTO mf/PTO m3 (shp) (lbm/h/shp) (lbm/s) Gazelle 1400 0.4 LTC1.608 13.6 Company Kohler Onan Kohler 1 2 Power Air intake Fuel Number of consumption (gal/hr) 4 69 .603 13 Model Rolls Royce Turbomeca Table D-3: Aircraft (turboprop) and helicopter (turboshaft) dual-purpose engine data.8 Company Model General Electric Honeywell Table D-4: Four-stroke gasoline generator engine data.08 LTS/LTP 101 (750B-1) 550 0.1 Turmo (IIIC3) 1480 0.9 17.52 Gnome (H-1400) 1250 0.5 LTC4.442 12.577 5.6 12CCE 17 35 5.5 19 0.551 12.65 7.22 10CCE 13 35 5.9 1.94 CME 5500 12.2 0. L-13B) 1400 0. T53 (T5313B.47 29.1 TVD-1500/RD 600 (1500 S) 1300 0.

7 GR160 175 283 7.8 15EOR/Z 26.7 36 0.4 20EOR/Z 36.4 GR50 58 94 2.97 GR25 31 87 1. Company Generac Number of Generator Power Air intake cylinders 3 Kohler Fuel consumption model (hp) (ft3/min) GR8 11 22 0.5 GR85 93 178 3.1 54 1.4 GR190 206 283 8.Table D-5: Diesel generator engine data.6 GR210 220 283 9.6 GR70 85 150 3.67 GR125 144 283 5.67 10EOR/Z 17.8 (gal/hr) Generac 4 Kohler Generac 6 70 .1 70 1.

71 .Figure D-1: PSFC and specific power comparison between APU cases and current engines.

287 τd 0.251381 72 .1 Complete results for Case 1 Input parameters Table E-1: Air and diffuser input parameter values (Case 1).99 πd 0.4 U3/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 1.905 M2rel 0. Input Values M0 0 T0 (K) 300 P0 (kPa) 101.Appendix E E.70203 R (kJ/(kg*K)) 0.325 γ0 1. Input Values β2t (deg) 10 β3 (deg) 0 ec 0.384337 Cθ2t/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 0 Wr3/U3 0.398 s0 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.99 Table E-2: Compressor input parameter values (Case 1).5 ζc 0.

187721 nt 8000 σ/ρmaterial (kPa/kg/m3) 30 73 .98 CD 1. Input Values K1 -10.350002 KK1 16.323625 S2 0 To4 (K) 1200 ηb 0.692596 Y2 0 S1 3.349041 nb 2000 Table E-4: Turbine input parameter values (Case 1).142985 B2 0 r5/r4 1.024377 K2 1.Table E-3: Burner input parameter values (Case 1). Input Values Y1 0.5 hHV (BTU/lbm) 18000 r4/r3 1.430168 KK2 0 B1 2.

061593887 U3 (m/s) 477.2 Output values Table E-5: Air diffuser output values (Case 1).31175 Table E-6: Compressor output values (Case 1).2498426 s3 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.32427858 τc 1.045410296 W3 (m/s) 120.106466006 M3 1.27415519 T3 (K) 403. Output Values Output Values T2t (K) 283.7827 3 74 .22522507 r3/r2t 16.00958077 m3/A3 (kg/(m *s)) 252.8169058 ρ3 (kg/m ) 2.E.3293979 Po3 (kPa) 2 608.1068889 To2rel (kPa) 297.762722794 b3/r3 0.878835559 Po3rel (kPa) 258.098369441 M3rel 0.8794646 To3rel (K) 410.7681092 Po2rel (kPa) 100.0767384 3 ρ2t (kg/m ) 1.000639812 πc 6. Output Values Cp0 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.2643349 ηc 0.29870493 (m3/ Po2)1/2*Ω/(γ0*R* To2)1/4 0.756319109 To3 (K) 523.00812309 τr 1 πr 1 ρ0 (kg/m3) 1.176808766 To2 (K) 297 Po2 (kPa) 100.1298177 U2t (m/s) 29.0490906 P2t (kPa) 85.5286698 Wc/m3 (W/kg/s) -228368.4250355 P3 (kPa) 242.

817183228 s5 (kJ/(kg*K)) 3.386067689 πbrel 0. Output Values Output Values M5rel 2.371951433 W5 (m/s) 1292.7881702 Cp5 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.021667114 πb 0.205425768 τtrel 1.126086403 ρ4 (kg/m3) 0.433445 To5 (K) 753.863164912 πt 0.630817867 P5 (kPa) 7.7053 Table E-8: Turbine output value (Case 1).1774811 Wt/m3 (W/kg/s) 516285.2417444 To4rel (K) 1282.012205168 To5rel (K) 1361.326686938 Po4 (kPa) 146.04096135 πtrel 0.941365 β5 (deg) 89.021667114 T4 (K) 1156.6789908 W4 (m/s) 530.8233787 f 0.179957283 A5/A4.131401637 τb 2.165537217 To4 (K) 1200 γ4 1.628156809 A5/A4 3.29213808 m4/m3 1.521759 β4 (deg) 66.3809563 γ5 1.061557783 ρ5 (kg/m3) 0.5956577 U4 (m/s) 644.6987756 T5 (K) 613.743665982 s4 (kJ/(kg*K)) 3.700693 U5 (m/s) 765.799978645 P4 (kPa) 128.33955 Wb/m3 (W/kg/s) 124301. Output Values Output Values M4rel 0.5 4.1908667 τbrel 3.131401637 τt 0.241091813 A4/A3 1.187721 Po5rel (kPa) 156.5771 75 .Table E-7: Burner output value (Case 1).0516227 Cp4 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.470956 r5/r4 1.058624556 Po5 (kPa) 26.467768 Po4rel (kPa) 192.

Table E-9: Rotor overall properties (Case 1).37489 1500 3 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 2 Mrel T orel 500 1 0 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 0 10 20 0 30 0 10 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 20 30 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure E-1: Case 1 relative Mach number.362989975 mf/PTO (kg/s/W) 5. Output Values PTO/m3 (W/kg/s) 412218.105 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 To 500 1 .45440614 r5/r2h 65. 3 .4997 CTO 1.25622E-08 ηTH 0.10 5 0 10 20 0 30 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 0 10 20 30 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure E-3: Case 1 relative stagnation pressure (Pa). Figure E-2: Case 1 relative stagnation temperature (K). Figure E-4: Case 1 stagnation temperature (K).39033925 z2h/z5 17488.10 5 1500 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ P orel2 . 76 .

β 30 r Figure E-5: Case 1 stagnation pressure (Case 1).10 1 0 0 10 20 0 30 0 10 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 30 Figure E-8: Case 1 density (Case 1). deg 20 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r 0 10 20 U 500 0 30 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 0 10 20 30 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure E-9: Case 1 flow curvature (Case 1).105 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 T 500 0 0 10 20 0 30 0 10 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure E-6: Case 1 temperature (Case 1).10 5 P ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 2 ρ 5 1 .10 6 1500 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ P o 5 . 3 . 77 . Figure E-10: Case 1 rotor speed (Case 1).10 5 3 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 2 .1 . 100 1000 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 50 0 20 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure E-7: Case 1 pressure (Case 1).

500 1500 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 0 Cθ s3 s4 1000 To 500 1000 500 0 10 20 0 1500 30 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 2000 2500 3000 3500 s Figure E-14: Case 1 To-s diagram (Case 1).1200 1.35 1. Figure E-13: Case 1 tangential velocity (Case 1).3 30 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 0 10 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 20 30 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r Figure E-11: Case 1 specific heat (Case 1). 1 .4 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ Cp 1100 1000 0 10 20 γ 1. Figure E-12: Case 1 specific heat ratio (Case 1). 78 .10 6 P o 5 .105 1 1 ρ3 ρ4 0 0 10 20 30 1 ρ Figure E-15: Case 1 Po-v diagram (Case 1).

64E-07 29.792128 53339.682409 1 1.381734 43761.881601 66.178761 12.26E-08 65.16218 2.3 6.033592 1.390339 1.20024 1 1.26 5.5 1.18E-07 40.35193 5.58 5.05 3.254489 0. U3/(γ0*R*To2)1/2 πc r3/r2t 0.384337 1.489095 12. 79 7 .187477 1 2.9 1 PTO/m3 mf/PTO r5/r2h z2h/z5 A5/A4.233796 7.28E-07 37.130212 16.966537 46.27E-08 65.638476 1 6.612915 69279.102533 23.97134 32332.061594 16.587 2.7 1.39 44.657836 1.712 2.76E-07 97.868 4.69E-07 0.033892 1 2.901004 11.324279 412218.761836 8.776372 1 88795.04E-07 42.5 21.430948 10.5 5.75E+04 4.89E+04 4.Table E-10: Data to show Case 1 configuration is the optimum (Case 1 highlighted below).1 3.391057 416331.005 3.785 450000 400000 PTO/m3 (W/kg/s) 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 πc Figure E-16: Variation of specific power takeoff with compressor pressure ratio (Case 1).012205 6.896064 89465.

00E-07 3.00E-07 2.00E-07 0.8.00E+00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 πc Figure E-17: Variation of PSFC with compressor pressure ratio (Case 1).00E-07 mf /PTO (kg/s/W) 6.00E-07 5.00E-07 4.00E-07 1. 18 16 14 r3 /r2t 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 πc Figure E-18: Variation of compressor radius ratio and pressure ratio (Case 1).00E-07 7. 80 7 .

70 60 r5 /r2h 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 πc Figure E-19: Variation of rotor radius ratio with compressor pressure ratio (Case 1). 81 7 . 20000 15000 z2h/z5 10000 5000 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 -5000 πc Figure E-20: Variation of disk thickness with compressor pressure ratio (Case 1).

Input Values M0 0 T0 (K) 300 P0 (kPa) 101.614369 Cθ2t/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 0.398209 Wr3/U3 0.99 πd 0.905 M2rel 0.398559 U3/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 0.585342 β3 (deg) 0 ec 0.70203 R (kJ/(kg*K)) 0.325 γ0 1.287 τd 0.64997 ζc 0.1 Complete results for Case 2 Input parameters Table F-1: Air and diffuser input parameter values (Case 2).Appendix F F.536858 82 .398 s0 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.99 Table F-2: Compressor input parameter values (Case 2). Input Values β2t (deg) 19.

5 hHV (BTU/lbm) 18000 r4/r3 1.638544 K2 1.537262 S2 0 To4 (K) 1200 ηb 0.638544 3 83 . Input Values K1 -41.99312 Y2 0 S1 5.995009 nt 8000 σ/ρmaterial (kPa/kg/m ) -41.255677 nb 2000 Table F-4: Turbine and stress input parameter values (Case 2).Table F-3: Burner input parameter values (Case 2).058003 KK2 0 B1 1. Input Values Y1 3.98 CD 1.147403 B2 0 r5/r4 1.287858 KK1 13.

3989835 To2rel (kPa) 290.054333375 b3/r3 0.906117753 W3 (m/s) 113. Output Values Output Values T2t (K) 267.863337 T3 (K) 284.6547712 Po3 (kPa) 2 118.015415114 τc 1.707097155 To3 (K) 313.827809062 M3 0.176808766 To2 (K) 297 Po2 (kPa) 100.036885354 M3rel 0.6849691 P2t (kPa) 69.8584493 U2t (m/s) 208.082989 To3rel (K) 290.00812309 τr 1 πr 1 ρ0 (kg/m3) 1.337056672 (m3/ Po2)1/2*Ω/(γ0*R* To2)1/4 0.183161186 U3 (m/s) 212.09466 3 3 84 .1370122 Wc/m3 (W/kg/s) -16268.902709389 Po3rel (kPa) 91.63465782 Po2rel (kPa) 92.60638697 m3/A3 (kg/(m *s)) 118.54868673 s3 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.F.8286281 ηc 0.712587056 r3/r2t 1.31175 Table F-6: Compressor output values (Case 2). Output Values Cp0 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.2 Output values Table F-5: Air diffuser output values (Case 2).42506928 ρ3 (kg/m ) 1.0581585 ρ2t (kg/m ) 0.1564381 P3 (kPa) 84.460075489 πc 1.

524437467 τt 0. Output Values Output Values M5rel 0.026260618 T4 (K) 1187.55709997 β5 (deg) 81.5837271 f 0.987347437 P5 (kPa) 34.836135196 A5/A4.23796475 τtrel 1.696315 Cp5 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.39300603 γ5 1.331583213 W5 (m/s) 635.3077314 W4 (m/s) 405.020948942 To4rel (K) 1263.683366737 s4 (kJ/(kg*K)) 3.378184 To5 (K) 1147.Table F-7: Burner output value (Case 2).144872207 πbrel 0.681971 r5/r4 1.544785 Wb/m3 (W/kg/s) 81713.20024 85 .116531 Po4rel (kPa) 62.832188317 m4/m3 1.439404 β4 (deg) 81.524437467 τb 3.344274537 ρ4 (kg/m3) 0.9900172 U5 (m/s) 267.152564501 Po5 (kPa) 42.41581802 τbrel 4.56132736 Cp4 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.00019199 ρ5 (kg/m3) 0. Output Values Output Values M4rel 0.026260618 πb 0.171053612 To4 (K) 1200 γ4 1.109959882 πtrel 0.5 1 To5rel (K) 1263.999932428 s5 (kJ/(kg*K)) 3.427190894 A4/A3 2.70113808 U4 (m/s) 266.324648437 Po4 (kPa) 50.003980036 Po5rel (kPa) 62.956413596 A5/A4 0.3676458 T5 (K) 1085.68245 Wt/m3 (W/kg/s) 62439.81875 Table F-8: Turbine output value (Case 2).834297496 πt 0.603615629 P4 (kPa) 49.

1 1.9243 CTO 0.10 4 0.3 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r Figure F-1: Relative Mach number (Case 2).1 1.5 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 T orel ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 500 0 0. Figure F-2: Relative stagnation temperature (Case 2).932720727 1500 1 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ Mrel 0.9 1 1.2 0 0.2 1.1 1.10 5 1500 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ P orel8 .Table F-9: Rotor overall properties (Case 2).2 0 1.3 0.116314054 r5/r2h 3.2 1.104 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 To ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 500 6 .1 1. Figure F-4: Stagnation temperature (Case 2).422848247 mf/PTO (kg/s/W) 2.9 1.9 1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 1.3 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure F-3: Relative stagnation pressure (Case 2).211840863 z2h/z5 2.05346E-07 ηTH 0.9 1 1.3 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 1 1. 1 . 86 . Output Values PTO/m3 (W/kg/s) 127884.

Figure F-6: Temperature (Case 2). 1 . 87 1.1 1.2 0 1.1.9 1 1.2 U 250 200 1.10 5 1500 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1 .3 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r Figure F-5: Stagnation pressure (Case 2).1 1.9 1 1.3 0. Figure F-10: Rotor speed (Case 2).2 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure F-9: Flow curvature (Case 2).10 5 Po ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 T 5 .1 1.3 .2 Figure F-8: Density (Case 2).5 0 0.5 .3 0. 100 deg 1.1 1.2 0 1.9 1 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1. β 1.5 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 5 .9 1 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure F-7: Pressure (Case 2).10 5 P ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1.1 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 0.9 1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 1.3 300 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 50 0 1.2 1.10 4 500 0 0.1 1.3 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 0.10 4 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1 ρ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 0.9 1 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1.

3 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 2000 3000 4000 s Figure F-14: To-s diagram (Case 2).1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r 1500 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 0 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ s3 s4 1000 To 500 500 0.2 0 1000 1.9 1 1.3 0.35 1000 0.1 1. Figure F-16: End of To-s diagram (Case 2). 500 Cθ 1.3 r Figure F-11: Specific heat (Case 2).1200 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ Cp 1100 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1.2 1.4 γ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1.2 1.9 1 1. 88 .1 1. 350 s3 s4 T o 1200 To 300 1700 1750 3400 s 3600 s Figure F-15: Beginning of To-s diagram (Case 2).3 1. Figure F-13: Tangential velocity (Case 2).9 1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 1. Figure F-12: Specific heat ratio (Case 2).

5 0.872641 2.129212 121724. M2rel πc r3/r2t PTO/m3 mf/PTO r5/r2h z2h/z5 A5/A4.14E-07 3.15E-07 3.10 5 1 ρ4 1 ρ3 1 .965726 1 0.10 1 .991339 122827.191614 1.4 1.15 2.7 1.93E+00 1 0.472944 2.12E-07 2.9 1.55 1.14E-07 3.794145 3.097826 121739.14E-07 3.6 1. Figure F-18: Beginning of Po-s diagram (Case 2).572674 3.24 2.236315 1.068503 121877.162841 121858.041077 122114.947586 123789.5 .13E-07 3.227077 1.93 2.95E+00 1 0.237661 122769.763883 89 .917246 3.23 2.35 1.016945 1 0.982956 1 0.87477 126283.379761 2.050059 1 0.5 1.129034 2.183161 1.27 2.209031 1.45 2.844053 1 1.28 2.134521 2.14E-07 3.809908 1 1 0.10 5 1.245687 1.75 2.10 5 0 0 5 10 1 2 1 1 ρ ρ Figure F-17: Po-s diagram (Case 2).174873 0.878672 1 0.15E-07 3.45 2.292602 2.143564 0.995435 2.95 2.3 1.8 1.45 1.06 2.11E-07 3.198915 122186.91E+00 1 0.10E-07 2.679526 3.015415 122430.1.10 5 Po 1 ρ3 Po 4 5 .217979 1.87 2.200241 1.13E-07 2.000041 1 0.03363 1 0.908966 124950.158849 0. Table F-10: Data to show Case 2 configuration is the optimum (Case 2 highlighted below).64997 1.211045 2.15E-07 3.2 .

11E-07 2.14E-07 mf /PTO (kg/s/W) 2. 90 1.12 1.10E-07 1.18 1.26 .2 1.12E-07 2.14 1. 2.2 1.24 1.22 1.13E-07 2.14E-07 2.18 1.26 πc Figure F-19: Variation of specific power takeoff with compressor pressure ratio (Case 2).15E-07 2.13E-07 2.24 πc Figure F-20: Variation of PSFC with compressor pressure ratio (Case 2).127000 PTO/m3 (W/kg/s) 126000 125000 124000 123000 122000 121000 1.15E-07 2.12 1.12E-07 2.16 1.22 1.16 1.11E-07 2.14 1.

22 1.24 πc Figure F-22: Variation of rotor radius ratio with compressor pressure ratio (Case 2).26 .6 0.5 0 1.5 r5 /r2h 3 2.22 1.14 1.2 1.18 1.2 1 r3 /r2t 0.5 1 0.12 1.2 1.16 1.12 1.4 0. 91 1.18 1.8 0.2 0 1.24 1.26 πc Figure F-21: Variation of compressor radius ratio and pressure ratio (Case 2).1.4 1.14 1.5 4 3. 4.16 1.5 2 1.

2 1.05 3 z2h/z5 2.14 1.75 1.9 2.24 πc Figure F-23: Variation of disk thickness with compressor pressure ratio (Case 2).95 2. 92 1.18 1.26 .12 1.16 1.1 3.22 1.85 2.3.8 2.

398 s0 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1. Input Values M0 0 T0 (K) 300 P0 (kPa) 101.99 Table G-2: Compressor input parameter values (Case 3).70203 R (kJ/(kg*K)) 0.203182 93 .1 Complete results for Case 3 Input parameters Table G-1: Air and diffuser input parameter values (Case 3).287 τd 0.4 U3/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 1.Appendix G G.158584 β3 (deg) 0 ec 0.215862 Wr3/U3 0.368845 ζc 0.905 M2rel 0. Input Values β2t (deg) 10.99 πd 0.325 γ0 1.928568 Cθ2t/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 0.

227624 S2 0 To4 (K) 1200 ηb 0.069184 nb 2000 Table G-4: Turbine input parameter values (Case 3).335502 Y2 0 S1 21.524361 K2 1.350092 KK1 4. Input Values Y1 1.349654 B2 0 r5/r4 1. Input Values K1 -3.5 hHV (BTU/lbm) 18000 r4/r3 1.98 CD 1.724029 KK2 0 B1 1.06018 nt 8000 σ/ρmaterial (kPa/kg/m3) 30 94 .Table G-3: Burner input parameter values (Case 3).

456274202 b3/r3 0.31175 Table G-6: Compressor output values (Case 3).326260951 M3 1.237307959 M3rel 0.1305732 Po2rel (kPa) 97.301819786 (m3/ Po2)1/2*Ω/(γ0*R* To2)1/4 0.513438 Wc/m3 (W/kg/s) -436026.785.6872451 ηc 0.515817267 r3/r2t 6.2 Output value Table G-5: Air diffuser output values (Case 3).905847 3 ρ2t (kg/m ) 1.64231542 m3/A3 (kg/(m *s)) 437. Output Values Output Values T2t (K) 286.40360049 U3 (m/s) 665.00812309 τr 1 πr 1 ρ0 (kg/m3) 1.4874876 P3 (kPa) 465.622 P2t (kPa) 88.861980802 Po3rel (kPa) 495.7837 3 95 .893129974 τc 2.7504952 To3rel (K) 509.G.36252913 ρ3 (kg/m ) 3.5817412 T3 (K) 500.7249039 Po3 (kPa) 2 1745.6121768 To2rel (kPa) 294.788094816 To3 (K) 729.2685171 U2t (m/s) 96.001581712 πc 17.176808766 To2 (K) 297 Po2 (kPa) 100.4286911 s3 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1. Output Values Cp0 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.07717487 W3 (m/s) 135.

97683752 s5 (kJ/(kg*K)) 2.9819685 U4 (m/s) 711.341938124 W5 (m/s) 917.5 1.2147063 Cp5 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.820663 τtrel 1.6464899 T5 (K) 950.192265289 πt 0.1483 Table G-8: Turbine output value (Case 3).06018 Po5rel (kPa) 371.1241734 β5 (deg) 88.766859421 s4 (kJ/(kg*K)) 2.145266 Po4rel (kPa) 379.6339543 τbrel 2.466709557 A5/A4.235197655 To5rel (K) 1316.5370987 γ5 1.326257883 Po4 (kPa) 283.889971791 τb 1.644932002 m4/m3 1.529142176 ρ4 (kg/m3) 0.071508 β4 (deg) 84.09239537 To4rel (K) 1289.166692558 To4 (K) 1200 γ4 1.6213979 Wt/m3 (W/kg/s) 257696.607773 r5/r4 1.020843961 T4 (K) 1162.162667148 A4/A3 1.020843961 πb 0.Table G-7: Burner output value (Case 3).2321 96 .369539251 πtrel 0. Output Values Output Values M4rel 0.021361317 ρ5 (kg/m3) 0.809722 Wb/m3 (W/kg/s) 310579.9241592 Cp4 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.0416408 f 0.799710092 P4 (kPa) 253.51580327 P5 (kPa) 100.76084 To5 (K) 988.823512255 A5/A4 1.75986289 πbrel 0.126352764 Po5 (kPa) 132.8097775 W4 (m/s) 532.1864066 U5 (m/s) 754. Output Values Output Values M5rel 1.889971791 τt 0.

5966 CTO 0. 97 .5 0 0 5 0 10 0 5 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 10 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure G-1: Relative Mach number (Case 3).57612E-07 ηTH 0.10 5 1500 ⎡ r3⎡ ⎤r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢⎥ ⎥ ⎣ r2t⎣ ⎦r2t ⎦ 4 . Output Values PTO/m3 (W/kg/s) 132248.151540461 r5/r2h 19.49295 1500 2 ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ 1. Figure G-4: Stagnation temperature (Case 3).Table G-9: Rotor overall properties (Case 3). Figure G-2: Relative stagnation temperature (Case 3).53388085 z2h/z5 12921.437276618 mf/PTO (kg/s/W) 1.10 5 P orel ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ 1000 To 5 2 . 6 .5 Mrel 1 ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ 1000 T orel 500 0.10 500 0 0 5 0 10 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 0 5 10 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure G-3: Relative stagnation pressure (Case 3).

Figure G-10: Rotor speed (Case 3). 100 deg 5 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 0 5 U 500 0 10 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ 0 5 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure G-9: Flow curvature (Case 3). 6 . Figure G-6: Temperature (Case 3). 98 10 .10 0 0 5 0 10 0 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure G-7: Pressure (Case 3).10 5 4 ⎡ r3⎡ ⎤r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢⎥ ⎥ ⎣ r2t⎣ ⎦r2t ⎦ 4 .10 5 P ρ ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ 2 5 2 . β 1000 ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ 50 0 10 Figure G-8: Density (Case 3).10 6 1500 ⎡ r3⎡ ⎤r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢⎥ ⎥ ⎣ r2t⎣ ⎦r2t ⎦ P o 1 .2 .106 ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ 1000 T 500 0 0 5 0 10 0 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 5 10 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r Figure G-5: Stagnation pressure (Case 3).

Figure G-13: Tangential velocity (Case 3). 99 3 . Figure G-12: Specific heat ratio (Case 3).35 1.106 0 0 1 2 1 ρ Figure G-15: Po-v diagram (Case 3).10 6 1 ρ4 1 ρ3 P o 1 .4 ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ Cp 1100 1000 0 γ 5 1. 1000 1500 ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ 500 Cθ s3 s4 1000 To 0 500 500 0 5 0 1500 10 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 2000 2500 3000 s Figure G-14: To-s diagram (Case 3).1200 1.3 10 ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ 0 5 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 10 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r Figure G-11: Specific heat (Case 3). 2 .

287 τd 0.619976 Cθ2t/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 0 Wr3/U3 0.99 πd 0.999979 β3 (deg) 0 ec 0.99 Table H-2: Compressor input parameter values (Case 4). Input Values M0 0 T0 (K) 300 P0 (kPa) 101.Appendix H H. Input Values β2t (deg) 49.905 M2rel 0.2 100 .672518 ζc 0.70203 R (kJ/(kg*K)) 0.398 s0 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.1 Complete results for Case 4 Input parameters Table H-1: Air and diffuser input parameter values (Case 4).325 γ0 1.399999 U3/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 0.

332654 S2 0 To4 (K) 1200 ηb 0.5 hHV (BTU/lbm) 18000 r4/r3 1.855414 K2 1.98 CD 1.7 KK2 0 B1 22. Input Values K1 -7.196379 KK1 1.Table H-3: Burner input parameter values (Case 4).1 nb 2000 Table H-4: Turbine and stress input parameter values (Case 4).766825 B2 0 r5/r4 1. Input Values Y1 -1.036995 nt 8000 σ/ρmaterial (kPa/kg/m ) 3 30 101 .434396 Y2 0 S1 6.

572253502 U3 (m/s) 214.898764101 Po3rel (kPa) 123.39563798 3 ρ2t (kg/m ) 1.4319393 ρ3 (kg/m ) 1.9250334 s3 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.2 Output values Table H-5: Air diffuser output values (Case 4).31175 Table H-6: Compressor output values (Case 4).7155002 P2t (kPa) 88.6922554 Po2rel (kPa) 119.715663037 To3 (K) 342.119679011 (m3/ Po2)1/2*Ω/(γ0*R* To2)1/4 0.7174343 ηc 0. Output Values Cp0 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.225591545 τc 1.31377556 πc 1.80371022 U2t (m/s) 174. Output Values Output Values T2t (K) 286.34090334 M3rel 0.1240383 P3 (kPa) 122.0185511 To3rel (K) 319.152979356 b3/r3 0.H.604641308 M3 0.23730292 m3/A3 (kg/(m *s)) 57.07365206 W3 (m/s) 42.4348687 Wc/m3 (W/kg/s) -45803.610245611 r3/r2t 1.00812309 τr 1 πr 1 ρ0 (kg/m3) 1.808737 To2rel (kPa) 312.3513274 Po3 (kPa) 2 157.624696 T3 (K) 318.176808766 To2 (K) 297 Po2 (kPa) 100.94021 3 102 .

99985241 W5 (m/s) 316.314921598 P4 (kPa) 110.3265771 γ5 1.283435 Po4rel (kPa) 117.439082 s5 (kJ/(kg*K)) 3.880422528 P5 (kPa) 101.266250485 Wt/m3 (W/kg/s) 44305.023944159 T4 (K) 1179. Output Values Output Values M4rel 0.476262371 To5 (K) 1162.Table H-7: Burner output value (Case 4).9026514 f 0.535271 τt 0.1401293 β5 (deg) 84.957271 A5/A4 0.023944159 πb 0.6519401 r5/r4 1.947802185 s4 (kJ/(kg*K)) 3.325184899 Po4 (kPa) 117.326626093 To5rel (K) 1201.504316032 m4/m3 1.304751534 U5 (m/s) 244.711062276 τtrel 1.266250485 τb 3.036995 πtrel 0.103251 ρ5 (kg/m3) 0.169595183 To4 (K) 1200 γ4 1.00711 Table H-8: Turbine output value (Case 4).8565604 To4rel (K) 1199.969131059 T5 (K) 1157.75403 103 .165700874 πt 0. Output Values Output Values Output Values M5rel 0.751173898 ρ4 (kg/m3) 0.4564174 Cp4 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.0527876 τbrel 3.254069 Cp5 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.746469231 A4/A3 0.7297682 U4 (m/s) 235.324832124 πbrel 0.215682 Wb/m3 (W/kg/s) 19140.315694 β4 (deg) 36.1286954 Po5rel (kPa) 117.4204062 W4 (m/s) 210.00149048 Po5 (kPa) 103.

058332232 mf/PTO (kg/s/W) 1.4 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r Figure H-3: Relative stagnation pressure (Case 4).495072575 z2h/z5 2.2 0 1.35724E-06 ηTH 0. Output Values PTO/m3 (W/kg/s) 17641.2 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 1.10 5 1 1.10 5 1500 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ P orel 1.2 . Figure H-2: Relative stagnation temperature (Case 4).105 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 To ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 500 1. 104 .5 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 T orel ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 500 0 1 1.2 0 1.15 .489291269 1500 1 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ Mrel 0. 1.25 .017597931 r5/r2h 3. Figure H-4: Stagnation temperature (Case 4).2 1.Table H-9: Rotor overall properties (Case 4).4 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r Figure H-1: Relative Mach number (Case 4).4 1 1.82093 CTO 0.4 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 1 1.

4 .2 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure H-9: Flow curvature (Case 4).5 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1.2 . Figure H-10: Rotor speed (Case 4).4 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 5 1. Figure H-8: Density (Case 4).2 1.10 deg 1.2 0 1.10 1 1.4 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure H-7: Pressure (Case 4).4 1 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 1.2 r Figure H-5: Stagnation pressure (Case 4).10 1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r 1 1. 8 .5 4 β 1.2 .5 .4 .4 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1. 100 250 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 50 0 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 0.4 Figure H-6: Temperature (Case 4).10 5 P ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1 ρ 5 1 .2 0 1.105 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 T ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 500 1 . 105 1. 1.10 5 1500 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ P o 1.2 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ U 200 150 1.10 5 1 1.

3 1.4 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 2000 2500 3000 3500 s Figure H-14: To-s diagram (Case 4). 106 .35 1.2 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 1. Figure H-16: End of To-s diagram (Case 4). Figure H-13: Tangential velocity (Case 4).4 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1.4 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r Figure H-11: Specific heat (Case 4).2 γ 1.4 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ Cp 1100 1000 1 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1. 1300 s3 s4 400 T o 1200 To 1100 1600 1700 1800 3200 s 3300 s Figure H-15: Beginning of To-s diagram (Case 4). Figure H-12: Specific heat ratio (Case 4).1200 1. 400 1500 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 200 Cθ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ s3 s4 1000 To 0 200 500 1 1.2 0 1500 1.

2 .10

5

P o 1.5 .105

1 .10

1
ρ4

1
ρ3

5
0

1

2

3

1

ρ

Figure H-17: Po-s diagram (Case 4).

107

4

Appendix I

Sample rotor for Case 1 with calculation program

⎡ A 4⎤
⎢ A ⎥ := 1.241744
⎣ 3⎦

⎡ A4 ⎤
⎢ A ⎥ := 1.03858
⎣ 4.5⎦

⎡ b3⎤
−4
⎢ r ⎥ := 6.39812× 10
⎣ 3⎦

⎡ r3 ⎤
⎢ r ⎥ := 16.324279
⎣ 2t ⎦

β 3 := 0⋅ deg

β 4 := 66.467768deg

ζc := 0.4

r2t := 2⋅ in

⎡ r5⎤
r5 := r4⋅ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ r4⎦

d 2h := 2⋅ r2h

⎡ b3⎤

⎣ r3 ⎦

b 3 := r3⋅ ⎢

⎛ ⎡ A4 ⎤ ⎞
A 4.5 := A 4⋅ ⎜ ⎢

⎝ ⎣ A 4.5⎦ ⎠

A 3 :=

d 2t := 2⋅ r2t

( )

2⋅ π⋅ r3⋅ b 3⋅ cos β 3

−1

b 4.5 :=

⎡ r4⎤
⎢ r ⎥ := 1.349041
⎣ 3⎦

β 4.5 := 66.922988deg

r2h := r2t⋅ ζc

Nb

⎡ A5 ⎤
⎢ A ⎥ := 4.012205
⎣ 4.5⎦
⎡ r4.5⎤
⎢ r ⎥ := 1.003707
⎣ 4⎦
β 5 := 89.433445deg

⎡ r3 ⎤
r3 := r2t⋅ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ r2t ⎦
d 3 := 2⋅ r3

⎡ A 4⎤

⎣ A 3⎦

d 5 := 2⋅ r5

Nb ⋅ A 4

b 4 :=

( )

2⋅ π⋅ r4⋅ cos β 4

⎡ A5 ⎤

⎣ A 4.5⎦

A 5 := A 4.5⋅ ⎢

( )

⎡ r4.5⎤
r4.5 := r4⋅ ⎢

⎣ r4 ⎦

d 4.5 := 2⋅ r4.5

A 4 := A 3⋅ ⎢

2⋅ π⋅ r4.5⋅ cos β 4.5

Nb := 8

⎡ r4⎤
r4 := r3⋅ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ r3⎦

d 4 := 2⋅ r4

Nb ⋅ A 4.5

⎡ r5⎤
⎢ r ⎥ := 1.187721
⎣ 4⎦

b 5 :=

Nb ⋅ A 5

( )

2⋅ π⋅ r5⋅ cos β 5

r2h = 0.8in

r3 = 32.649in

r4 = 44.044in

r4.5 = 44.208in

r5 = 52.312in

d 2h = 1.6in

d 2t = 4 in

d 3 = 65.297in

d 4 = 88.088in

d 4.5 = 88.415in

d 5 = 104.625in

b 3 = 0.021in

b 4 = 0.048in

b 4.5 = 0.047in

b 5 = 6.325in

2

A 4 = 0.665in

A 3 = 0.536in

2

2

A 4.5 = 0.64in

108

2

A 5 = 2.569in

89.4°= β5
67.0° = β4.5

Ø 104.624 = d5

Ø 88.416 = d4.5
Ø 4.000 = d2t

Ø 1.600 = d2h

Ø 88.088 = d4

Ø 65.298 = d3

r
θ

b4 = .048

.047 = b4.5

b3 = .021
b5 = 6.325

Figure I-1: Sample rotor for Case 1 with side view (starting at station 3).

109

116531deg ⋅ β 5 := 81.336in 2 A 4 = 3.012in A 3 = 1.1in b 3 = 0.020949 ⎣ 3⎦ ⎡ A 5⎤ ⎢ A ⎥ := 0.6in d 2t = 4 in d 3 = 4.460075 ⎣ 3⎦ ⎡ r4⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 1.255677 ⎣ 3⎦ ⎡ r5⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 1.378184deg ⋅ Nb := 8 ζc := 0.934in b 4 = 9.56in d 2h = 1.00398 ⎣ 4⎦ β 3 := 0⋅ deg β 4 := 81.4 r2t := 2⋅ in d 2h := 2⋅ r2h r2h := r2t⋅ ζc d 2t := 2⋅ r2t ⎡ b3⎤ ⎥ ⎣ r3 ⎦ b 3 := r3⋅ ⎢ ⎡ A 5⎤ ⎥ ⎣ A 4⎦ A 3 := d 3 := 2⋅ r3 ( ) 2⋅ π⋅ r3⋅ b 3⋅ cos β 3 Nb ⎡ r3 ⎤ r3 := r2t⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ d 4 := 2⋅ r4 ⎡ r4⎤ r4 := r3⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r3⎦ d 5 := 2⋅ r5 ⎡ A 4⎤ ⎥ ⎣ A 3⎦ A 4 := A 3⋅ ⎢ b 4 := Nb ⋅ A 4 ( ) 2⋅ π⋅ r4⋅ cos β 4 Nb ⋅ A 5 A 5 := A 4⋅ ⎢ b 5 := r2h = 0.12in .55in r5 = 2.062in d 4 = 5.8in r3 = 2.49in ⎡ r5⎤ r5 := r4⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r4⎦ ( ) 2⋅ π⋅ r5⋅ cos β 5 2 2 A 5 = 2.015415 ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ b3⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 0.834297 ⎣ 4⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ := 1.031in r4 = 2.513in 110 d 5 = 5.Appendix J Sample rotor for Case 2 with calculation program ⎡ A 4⎤ ⎢ A ⎥ := 2.738in b 5 = 8.

934 Figure J-1: Sample rotor for Case 2 with side view (starting at station 3).81.062 = d3 Ø 4.3°=β 5 Ø 5.336 =b5 b3 = .594 = d2h r θ 9.000 = d2t Ø 1.738 =b4 8.100 = d4 Ø 4. 111 .120 = d5 Ø 5.

910798deg ⋅ r2h := r2t⋅ ζc d 2h := 2⋅ r2h ⎡ A5 ⎤ ⎢ A ⎥ := 1.5 := r4⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r4 ⎦ Nb ⋅ A 4 b 4 := A 5 := A 4.145266deg ⋅ ζc := 0.236in 2 2 A 4.89313 ⎣ 2t ⎦ β 3 := 0⋅ deg ⎡ b3⎤ −3 ⎢ r ⎥ := 1.5⎦ b 5 := Nb ⋅ A 5 ( ) 2⋅ π⋅ r5⋅ cos β 5 r2h = 0.8in r3 = 13.5⋅ cos β 4.627in d 2h = 1.159in 2 A 4 = 0.4 r2t := 2⋅ in ⎡ r5⎤ r5 := r4⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r4⎦ ⎡ b3⎤ ⎥ ⎣ r3 ⎦ b 3 := r3⋅ ⎢ ⎛ ⎡ A4 ⎤ ⎞ A 4.218in b 4.06018 ⎣ 4⎦ β 5 := 88.5 := 2⋅ r4.581712× 10 ⎣ 3⎦ β 4 := 84.5⎦ ⎠ A 3 := ( ) 2⋅ π⋅ r3⋅ b 3⋅ cos β 3 −1 b 4.74in r4.254in b 3 = 0.5 A 4 := A 3⋅ ⎢ Nb ⋅ A 4.235198 ⎣ 4.772in d 5 = 31.786in r4 = 14.5⎤ r4.249in 112 2 A 5 = 0.5 := 84.5 Nb := 8 d 4.5⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 1.573in d 4 = 29.5 ⎡ r5⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 1.5⎦ ( ) ⎡ r4.036009 ⎣ 4.5 = 29.5⋅ ⎢ 2⋅ π⋅ r4.24in b 5 = 1.48in d 4.069184 ⎣ 3⎦ β 4.5⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 6.5 = 0.5 = 0.Appendix K Sample rotor for Case 3 with calculation program ⎡ A 4⎤ ⎢ A ⎥ := 1.0099 ⎣ 4⎦ ⎡ r4⎤ r4 := r3⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r3⎦ d 4 := 2⋅ r4 ⎡ A 4⎤ ⎥ ⎣ A 3⎦ d 5 := 2⋅ r5 ( ) 2⋅ π⋅ r4⋅ cos β 4 ⎡ A5 ⎤ ⎥ ⎣ A 4.022in b 4 = 0.886in r5 = 15.308in .258in A 3 = 0.6in d 2t = 4 in d 3 = 27.5 := d 3 := 2⋅ r3 ⎡ r4.76084deg ⋅ ⎡ r3 ⎤ r3 := r2t⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ d 2t := 2⋅ r2t Nb ⎡ r4⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 1.5 := A 4⋅ ⎜ ⎢ ⎥ ⎝ ⎣ A 4.092395 ⎣ 3⎦ ⎡ A4 ⎤ ⎢ A ⎥ := 1.5 = 14.

254 = d5 Ø 29.1° = β 4 88.5 b3 = .5 Ø 31.8° = β 5 Ø 29.218 θ .480 = d4 Ø 27.159 = b5 Figure K-1: Sample rotor for Case 3 with side view (starting at station 3) 113 .022 1.84.572 = d3 Ø 4.000 = d2t Ø 1.772 = d4.600 = d2h r b4 = .240 = b4.

902in 114 d 5 = 5.592in .711062 ⎣ 4⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 1.451in A 3 = 1.6in d 2t = 4 in d 3 = 4.312in 2 Nb := 8 ⎡ r4⎤ r4 := r3⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r3⎦ d 4 := 2⋅ r4 r3 = 2.85656 ⎣ 3⎦ ⎡ A 5⎤ ⎢ A ⎥ := 0.769in b 4 = 0.393in 2 A 5 = 0.225592 ⎣ 2t ⎦ ⎡ b3⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 0.796in d 2h = 1.535271deg ⋅ ζc := 0.743in b 5 = 4.481in ⎡ r5⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 1.902in b 3 = 0.4 r2t := 2⋅ in d 2h := 2⋅ r2h r2h := r2t⋅ ζc d 2t := 2⋅ r2t ⎡ b3⎤ ⎥ ⎣ r3 ⎦ b 3 := r3⋅ ⎢ ⎡ A 5⎤ ⎥ ⎣ A 4⎦ A 5 := A 4⋅ ⎢ A 3 := b 5 := d 3 := 2⋅ r3 ( ) 2⋅ π⋅ r3⋅ b 3⋅ cos β 3 Nb ⎡ r3 ⎤ r3 := r2t⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r5⎤ r5 := r4⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r4⎦ d 5 := 2⋅ r5 ⎡ A 4⎤ ⎥ ⎣ A 3⎦ A 4 := A 3⋅ ⎢ b 4 := Nb ⋅ A 4 ( ) 2⋅ π⋅ r4⋅ cos β 4 Nb ⋅ A 5 ( ) 2⋅ π⋅ r5⋅ cos β 5 r4 = 2.268in d 4 = 5.696in r5 = 2.313776 ⎣ 3⎦ ⎡ r4⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 1.1 ⎣ 3⎦ β 3 := 0⋅ deg β 4 := 36.036995 ⎣ 4⎦ 2 A 4 = 1.283435deg ⋅ β 5 := 84.Appendix L Sample rotor for Case 4 with calculation program ⎡ A 4⎤ ⎢ A ⎥ := 0.

902 = d3 Ø 1.392 = d4 Ø 4.β 4 = 36° 85° = β 5 Ø 5.600 = d2t Ø 4.312= b4 .592 = d5 Ø 5.769 Figure L-1: Sample rotor for Case 4 with side view (starting at station 3).743 = b5 b3 = .000 = d2h r θ 4. 115 .

G. His early education up until high school was in Kuala Lumpur. graduate student and completed his defense in Summer II. They both served as an agricultural officer and teacher. 1977. R. respectively.S. He then transferred to Louisiana State University and completed his B. he enrolled at the Mechanical Engineering Department of Virginia Tech as a M. Louisiana on August 23. Louisiana from 1995 to 1996. In the Fall of 2001. in Mechanical Engineering in Fall of 2000.S. he enrolled in McNeese State University at Lake Charles. Malaysia. His father. After completing high school at Cochrane Road Secondary School (Malaysia). 116 . Thiagarajan and mother. Easwari are Malaysian Government employees. He plans to continue with his studies by pursuing a PhD degree in Aerospace Engineering.Vita Manoharan Thiagarajan was born to Malaysian parents in Baton Rouge.