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# A Design Study of Single-Rotor Turbomachinery Cycles

by

Manoharan Thiagarajan

**A thesis submitted to the faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial
**

fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Master of Science

in

Mechanical Engineering

Committee

**Dr. Peter King, Chairman
**

Dr. Walter O’Brien, Committee Member

Dr. Clint Dancey, Committee Member

August 12, 2004

Blacksburg, Virginia

Keywords: Auxiliary power unit, single radial rotor, specific power takeoff, compressor, burner, turbine

**A Design Study of Single-Rotor Turbomachinery Cycles
**

by

Manoharan Thiagarajan

**Dr. Peter King, Chairman
**

Dr. Walter O’Brien, Committee Member

Dr. Clint Dancey, Committee Member

(ABSTRACT)

Gas turbine engines provide thrust for aircraft engines and supply shaft power for various

applications. They consist of three main components. That is, a compressor followed by a combustion

chamber (burner) and a turbine. Both turbine and compressor components are either axial or centrifugal

(radial) in design. The combustion chamber is stationary on the engine casing. The type of engine that is

of interest here is the gas turbine auxiliary power unit (APU). A typical APU has a centrifugal

compressor, burner and an axial turbine. APUs generate mechanical shaft power to drive equipments such

as small generators and hydraulic pumps. In airplanes, they provide cabin pressurization and ventilation.

They can also supply electrical power to certain airplane systems such as navigation. In comparison to

thrust engines, APUs are usually much smaller in design.

The purpose of this research was to investigate the possibility of combining the three components

of an APU into a single centrifugal rotor. To do this, a set of equations were chosen that would describe

the new turbomachinery cycle. They either were provided or derived using quasi-one-dimensional

compressible flow equations. A MathCAD program developed for the analysis obtained best design

points for various cases with the help of an optimizer called Model Center. These results were then

compared to current machine specifications (gas turbine engine, gasoline and diesel generators). The

result of interest was maximum specific power takeoff. The results showed high specific powers in the

event there was no restriction to the material and did not exhaust at atmospheric pressure. This caused the

rotor to become very large and have a disk thickness that was unrealistic. With the restrictions fully in

place, they severely limited the performance of the rotor. Sample rotor shapes showed all of them to have

unusual designs. They had a combination of unreasonable blade height variations and very large disk

thicknesses. Indications from this study showed that the single radial rotor turbomachinery design might

not be a good idea. Recommendations for continuation of research include secondary flow consideration,

blade height constraints and extending the flow geometry to include the axial direction.

Acknowledgement

The author wishes to express his sincere gratitude to Dr. Peter King, major professor, for

contributing valuable time, advice, and assistance to the research and to the preparation of this

manuscript. Sincere thanks are due to the members of the author’s graduate committee composed of Dr.

Walter O’Brien, and Dr. Clint Dancey for their advice and constructive criticism. The author also is

grateful to Phoenix Integration for allowing him to use Model Center for the purpose of optimization to

help in the completion of this research project.

Very special thanks are due to the author’s parents for their understanding, patience, and

encouragement throughout the course of this study. Heartiest thanks are also due to Rene Villanueva, An

Song Nguyen, and Kevin Duffy for all their encouragement. Special appreciation goes out to Ms. Lisa

Stables for all her assistance during this research.

To all turbolabbers, warp speed ahead. Space is the final frontier.

iii

........................................................1.......... XI NOMENCLATURE ..............................................................................................................6 HISTORY OF THE APU.......................................................................................1........................2 Supersonic turbine ..........................................1 Burner equations..............................1 Project A ..................................2 AMBIENT AIR AND DIFFUSER .........5 OVERALL APU PROPERTIES .............................................................................................................................................................................39 SIMPLE ONE-DIMENSIONAL FLOW .............................1 Constant area flow with drag and heat addition ............................6 2....................................15 3...................................1 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................................9 2........................................ 41 iv ..............................................................4 Turbine input parameters................................................4............2 The Black Box .......................................................................................................................................................................................................2 IDEAL BRAYTON CYCLE AND IDEAL JET PROPULSION CYCLE ......................................................1.........4.........................................................4..............................................................................2 Constant area flow with only heat addition......................................................6 2............................1 Subsonic turbine................................................................................................................................... 40 4.......................1 RESULTS OF ANALYSIS............1.........................4..............................................................................................................6 Burner and turbine output summary ............................ 31 3...4...........................................................................................23 3.......................1.......................................................25 3............3 COMPRESSOR ........................................................3 The GTC43/44...1...............................................................................1.......................................................................................4 BURNER AND TURBINE .................................................37 CHAPTER 4 4....................................1 GENERAL INFORMATION ....................40 4...........................................................................22 3..............8 2......................................11 CHAPTER 3 FORMULAS USED FOR THE APU .........VII LIST OF TABLES.....................................................................4.......................................................................1 ABOUT SMALL GAS TURBINE ENGINES ............................17 3.35 3.............................6 2.................................18 3...39 4.3 HOW CURRENT APUS WORK ...................1 1........5 Method of solving turbine equations.................................................28 3...................................................2 Burner input parameters and method of solving equations .......15 3......................................................................................4..............................2 AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU) AND PURPOSE OF RESEARCH ......................................................................................................................Table of contents TABLE OF FIGURES ......................................................................................1........................4..................................................................................................................................................................................32 3......3 Turbine equations .......1 1...........................................................................................................1 Burner ..........................................................................4........................4 CHAPTER 2 2...................................... 30 3......................................................29 3....................................................................4........... XIII CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................

..............14 TURBINE SPECIFIC WORK ........................ ....................................................................................................................................1 Case 1: Without the stress and |(P0-P5)/P5| constraints...........6 RELATIVE STAGNATION TEMPERATURE EQUATION ..............2...........................................46 4....................................................68 v .....10 ABSOLUTE STAGNATION PRESSURE EQUATION .................................2......................8 ABSOLUTE STAGNATION TEMPERATURE EQUATION ..............................................................................2................5 CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM ....................................................................................................................1..................................................63 B.....................................................................................................2 RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................................... 48 4................................................................................................................51 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION...................................42 SINGLE ROTOR APU RESULTS .......................62 B.................64 B...................3 EQUATION OF STATE .....2 4................................................................................................................................................................2 Results from Model Center...........................................2 Variable area flow ............................................................55 APPENDIX B BURNER AND TURBINE DERIVATIONS ................2..........................64 B.63 B...........1 CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM ........1 Model Center and input/output constraints .....................................2 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY (FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS)..........................................................54 A..................................................................2................................................................................2..........................................................54 A.............................................................1 SUMMARY .......................................................................58 B..................................................2.............................................................................................................4.......................................56 B....................................................................................2.............................................1 OUTLET RELATIVE MACH NUMBER ............................................................59 B..............52 REFERENCES ............................................52 5....53 APPENDIX A COMPRESSOR DERIVATIONS ...........................56 B...................................66 APPENDIX C TO DETERMINE PERPENDICULAR (ONE-DIMENSIONAL) FLOW AREA BETWEEN THE VANES .................................................... 49 4..............................................................................13 BURNER SPECIFIC WORK .............4 CONSERVATION OF MASS .11 ENTROPY EQUATION ....................58 B.........................................2..........................................3 Case 3: Without the stress constraint but with the |(P0-P5)/P5| constraint....................................................................65 B...................................................4 Case 4: With the stress and |(P0-P5)/P5| constraints .........................12 BURNER ABSOLUTE STAGNATION TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION............................................... 46 4...........................2 OUTLET RELATIVE STAGNATION TEMPERATURE .....................3 Rotor material and size .....................................58 B............................................................................................................................52 5.................................56 B.............................................................43 4......2...........................................................................9 RELATIVE MACH NUMBER EQUATION ............ 50 4..........2...........................7 RELATIVE STAGNATION TEMPERATURE EQUATION ...................2 Case 2: With the stress constraint but without the |(P0-P5)/P5| constraint.......................43 4..........................................................................................67 APPENDIX D CURRENT ENGINE DATA.................................................................................................60 B..........................................

..........................................................................72 E..................................................................................................................................................................84 APPENDIX G COMPLETE RESULTS FOR CASE 3.............................................................72 E................................................100 H...........................................82 F...............1 INPUT PARAMETERS ..........................95 APPENDIX H COMPLETE RESULTS FOR CASE 4........110 APPENDIX K SAMPLE ROTOR FOR CASE 3 WITH CALCULATION PROGRAM .....................................................114 VITA ......................................116 vi .................................................................................................................APPENDIX E COMPLETE RESULTS FOR CASE 1.102 APPENDIX I SAMPLE ROTOR FOR CASE 1 WITH CALCULATION PROGRAM ......................................................................................................1 INPUT PARAMETERS ...................................2 OUTPUT VALUES .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 OUTPUT VALUE ..93 G...........82 F......................................2 OUTPUT VALUES ........................................................93 G...................................................1 INPUT PARAMETERS .................................................................................................................112 APPENDIX L SAMPLE ROTOR FOR CASE 4 WITH CALCULATION PROGRAM .........................................................................................................................................................................2 OUTPUT VALUES .........74 APPENDIX F COMPLETE RESULTS FOR CASE 2.........................................................................108 APPENDIX J SAMPLE ROTOR FOR CASE 2 WITH CALCULATION PROGRAM .......................................................................1 INPUT PARAMETERS ..............100 H...

........................................................................................................ ................................................................................................. 1 Figure 1-2: Pratt & Whitney J58 turbojet engine..............................Table of figures Figure 1-1: Williams International FJ44 turbofan engine...................................... .......... .................... 47 Figure 4-5: Variation of the absolute tangential velocity (m/s)........................................................................................ 40 Figure 4-2: Constant area flow through a duct with heat addition (from [9])............................................................................................................................ ............. 3 Figure 1-4: Turboshaft engine (from [2]).............................. 5 Figure 1-7: The new rotor with the combined components will look something like this compressor impeller (from [5])...................................................... 7 Figure 2-2: GTC43/44 first stage backward curved centrifugal compressor (from [1])............................................................................................................. stagnation temperature (K) and pressure (Pa) according to location in the rotor (Case 1).. 8 Figure 2-3: Closed gas turbine engine cycle (from [6]).......................... ............................................................. .......................................... 13 Figure 2-9: APU turbines (from [3])... 4 Figure 1-6: APU with exhaust vent at the rear of the aircraft (from [4]). 38 Figure 4-1: Constant area combustion chamber (from [10])........................ 76 vii ............................. 71 Figure E-1: Case 1 relative Mach number........................................ ................ .............................................................................................. 10 Figure 2-5: T-s diagram for an ideal jet propulsion cycle along with a turbojet engine schematic (from [6])............................................................................................................. .............................................................................. 13 Figure 3-1: Cylindrical coordinate system (from [5])..................................................................................... .... 4 Figure 1-5: Auxiliary power unit (from [3])................................................................... 16 Figure 3-3: Burner and turbine control volume between two vanes across a small step change (from [9])............................................................................ large gas turbine engine (from [2])..... 12 Figure 2-8: Fuel igniter (from [3]).......... ........................... 31 Figure 3-5: Variation of specific rupture strength with service temperature (from [5]).................................................................................... ................ 10 Figure 2-4: Closed cycle T-s diagram (from [6])............................................... rotor speed (m/s) and flow curvature (deg) (Case 1)................ 22 Figure 3-4: Convergent-divergent nozzle with supersonic exit (from [1])................................................................................................ 11 Figure 2-7: Combustion chambers (from [3])............................................................ 42 Figure 4-4: Relative Mach number.... 11 Figure 2-6: APU centrifugal compressor rotor with inducer vanes (from [3])................. ............................................................ 48 Figure D-1: PSFC and specific power comparison between APU cases and current engines.... small gas turbine engine (from [1])............................................. 5 Figure 2-1: Garrett Black Box (from [1]).................. ...... ................................. ........... 15 Figure 3-2: Shape of rotor with velocity triangle (from [5]).. 41 Figure 4-3: Flow through a duct with variable area (from [9])................ 1 Figure 1-3: Years spent in the small gas turbine engine business (from [1])................................................................................................................................. ...............................................................

.............................................. 77 Figure E-11: Case 1 specific heat (Case 1)......................................................................................................................... ................... 87 Figure F-11: Specific heat (Case 2)....................................................................................................... 80 Figure E-19: Variation of rotor radius ratio with compressor pressure ratio (Case 1)............................................................................................................... 77 Figure E-10: Case 1 rotor speed (Case 1)............ ..... ........................ 76 Figure E-3: Case 1 relative stagnation pressure (Pa)................................................................................................................................................................. ....................................................... .......................................................................... 88 Figure F-15: Beginning of To-s diagram (Case 2)........... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................ 78 Figure E-13: Case 1 tangential velocity (Case 1).................. 87 Figure F-8: Density (Case 2)..................................................................................................................................... .................... 88 Figure F-14: To-s diagram (Case 2).................... 78 Figure E-15: Case 1 Po-v diagram (Case 1)............................................................................................................................................... 78 Figure E-12: Case 1 specific heat ratio (Case 1).......... 88 viii ....... 86 Figure F-4: Stagnation temperature (Case 2). ............................................................................. .... 80 Figure E-18: Variation of compressor radius ratio and pressure ratio (Case 1)............................................ 87 Figure F-9: Flow curvature (Case 2)................................................Figure E-2: Case 1 relative stagnation temperature (K)................................................................................................................................. 88 Figure F-13: Tangential velocity (Case 2)........................................................................................ 77 Figure E-6: Case 1 temperature (Case 1)................ ............................... ............................................................ 87 Figure F-6: Temperature (Case 2)................................................... ........................ 81 Figure E-20: Variation of disk thickness with compressor pressure ratio (Case 1)........................................................ 77 Figure E-8: Case 1 density (Case 1)............................. ....................... 87 Figure F-10: Rotor speed (Case 2)..................................... 88 Figure F-12: Specific heat ratio (Case 2)...................................................................... 76 Figure E-4: Case 1 stagnation temperature (K). 77 Figure E-7: Case 1 pressure (Case 1)........... 76 Figure E-5: Case 1 stagnation pressure (Case 1).............................. 86 Figure F-3: Relative stagnation pressure (Case 2)....................................................................... 79 Figure E-17: Variation of PSFC with compressor pressure ratio (Case 1)................................................................. .............................................. 78 Figure E-16: Variation of specific power takeoff with compressor pressure ratio (Case 1). .......................... 86 Figure F-2: Relative stagnation temperature (Case 2)................................................................................. 81 Figure F-1: Relative Mach number (Case 2).................................................................................................................. ................................................................. 78 Figure E-14: Case 1 To-s diagram (Case 1)........................................................................ ................... ............................................... 86 Figure F-5: Stagnation pressure (Case 2)......... ........ 87 Figure F-7: Pressure (Case 2)...................................................................... 77 Figure E-9: Case 1 flow curvature (Case 1).......................................................

...................................................................... 92 Figure G-1: Relative Mach number (Case 3)................................ ........................................................... ................................................................... ..................................................................................................... 99 Figure G-12: Specific heat ratio (Case 3)....................................... ........................... 97 Figure G-3: Relative stagnation pressure (Case 3)............. 91 Figure F-23: Variation of disk thickness with compressor pressure ratio (Case 2).................................................... . 98 Figure G-10: Rotor speed (Case 3)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Figure F-16: End of To-s diagram (Case 2)...................................................................... ........... 105 Figure H-6: Temperature (Case 4)....................................................... 105 Figure H-8: Density (Case 4)...................................... 90 Figure F-20: Variation of PSFC with compressor pressure ratio (Case 2)........................................ ...................................... .......................................................... 99 Figure G-14: To-s diagram (Case 3).................................................... 106 ix ........................... .......................... 99 Figure G-15: Po-v diagram (Case 3)...................... 98 Figure G-8: Density (Case 3)......... 104 Figure H-3: Relative stagnation pressure (Case 4).............. ................................................................. ......................................................... 104 Figure H-5: Stagnation pressure (Case 4)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 97 Figure G-5: Stagnation pressure (Case 3)................................. ....................... ............................................. 89 Figure F-19: Variation of specific power takeoff with compressor pressure ratio (Case 2)........................... 105 Figure H-11: Specific heat (Case 4)................ 88 Figure F-17: Po-s diagram (Case 2)................................................................................... 105 Figure H-9: Flow curvature (Case 4)................................... 105 Figure H-10: Rotor speed (Case 4)............. ........................................................................................... 104 Figure H-4: Stagnation temperature (Case 4)......................................... 98 Figure G-7: Pressure (Case 3)............................................................................................................................................................................................ 90 Figure F-21: Variation of compressor radius ratio and pressure ratio (Case 2).......................................................................................................... ........................ 91 Figure F-22: Variation of rotor radius ratio with compressor pressure ratio (Case 2)............... ........................................... 99 Figure H-1: Relative Mach number (Case 4).................... 98 Figure G-6: Temperature (Case 3).............................................................. 104 Figure H-2: Relative stagnation temperature (Case 4)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................ 105 Figure H-7: Pressure (Case 4).......... 97 Figure G-4: Stagnation temperature (Case 3).............. ........................................................................................................................... 89 Figure F-18: Beginning of Po-s diagram (Case 2)........................................................................... 98 Figure G-11: Specific heat (Case 3)........................ .... 99 Figure G-13: Tangential velocity (Case 3)...... 97 Figure G-2: Relative stagnation temperature (Case 3)................. 98 Figure G-9: Flow curvature (Case 3).......... ... .......................................................................................

..................................................................... ........... 106 Figure H-13: Tangential velocity (Case 4).............................. 115 x .. 111 Figure K-1: Sample rotor for Case 3 with side view (starting at station 3) .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 106 Figure H-15: Beginning of To-s diagram (Case 4).................................................................................... 107 Figure I-1: Sample rotor for Case 1 with side view (starting at station 3)....................................... 109 Figure J-1: Sample rotor for Case 2 with side view (starting at station 3).... ......................................................... 106 Figure H-17: Po-s diagram (Case 4).............................................Figure H-12: Specific heat ratio (Case 4)................................................. ....................... 106 Figure H-14: To-s diagram (Case 4)............................................ 113 Figure L-1: Sample rotor for Case 4 with side view (starting at station 3)..................................................................................... ..................................... 106 Figure H-16: End of To-s diagram (Case 4)...

............. 18 Table 3-3: Burner equation input parameters........... .... ................................. .................................................. ...................................................................................... 75 Table E-8: Turbine output value (Case 1)...................................................... 44 Table 4-5: Model Center fixed input values... 68 Table D-3: Aircraft (turboprop) and helicopter (turboshaft) dual-purpose engine data... 79 Table F-1: Air and diffuser input parameter values (Case 2)........ 74 Table E-6: Compressor output values (Case 1). ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 69 Table D-5: Diesel generator engine data....................................................................... 76 Table E-10: Data to show Case 1 configuration is the optimum (Case 1 highlighted below)............................................................... 73 Table E-5: Air diffuser output values (Case 1)....... .. ......................... 50 Table 4-10: Overall rotor and other properties (Case 4)............................................................................ 45 Table 4-7: Overall rotor and other properties (Case 1)...................................................................................................................... 70 Table E-1: Air and diffuser input parameter values (Case 1)........................................ 72 Table E-3: Burner input parameter values (Case 1).................................. 32 Table 3-5: Burner exit flow variables........ 44 Table 4-6: Model Center output constraints........................ 69 Table D-4: Four-stroke gasoline generator engine data... 17 Table 3-2: Compressor equation input parameters...................... ...................................... 82 Table F-2: Compressor input parameter values (Case 2)..... ........... 26 Table 3-4: Turbine equation input parameters.............................. 68 Table D-2: Helicopter turboshaft engine data.......... 73 Table E-4: Turbine input parameter values (Case 1)................................... 42 Table 4-3: Comparison of turbine equations to simple flow example (variable area)....................................................................................... .......... ......................................... ....................................................................... ......................................................... 46 Table 4-8: Overall rotor and other properties (Case 2)..................... .... ................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................... 50 Table D-1: Airplane turboprop engine data........................................................................ ....... 43 Table 4-4: Model Center input parameters with range limits.. ......................................................................List of tables Table 3-1: Ambient air equation input parameters... 72 Table E-2: Compressor input parameter values (Case 1)........................................................................................................ 82 xi .................................................................... 75 Table E-9: Rotor overall properties (Case 1)..................................... ................................................................... 35 Table 3-6: Turbine exit flow variables............................... ............................... 41 Table 4-2: Comparison of burner equations to simple flow example (heat addition)............................ 74 Table E-7: Burner output value (Case 1)................................................................................................................. 36 Table 4-1: Comparison of burner equations to simple flow example (drag and heat addtion).............................................................................. .................................................................................... 49 Table 4-9: Overall rotor and other properties (Case 3)......... .......................................................................................................................................................

................ 86 Table F-10: Data to show Case 2 configuration is the optimum (Case 2 highlighted below).............................................................................. 103 Table H-9: Rotor overall properties (Case 4).......... 96 Table G-9: Rotor overall properties (Case 3)............................. 83 Table F-4: Turbine and stress input parameter values (Case 2)............ .. ...... ............ ................ 84 Table F-7: Burner output value (Case 2).................................................. 100 Table H-2: Compressor input parameter values (Case 4)... 96 Table G-8: Turbine output value (Case 3)................................................ 93 Table G-2: Compressor input parameter values (Case 3)..................................................................... ................... 94 Table G-4: Turbine input parameter values (Case 3)........ .................................................................................................... ............................... 102 Table H-6: Compressor output values (Case 4)...................................... 95 Table G-6: Compressor output values (Case 3)................. 95 Table G-7: Burner output value (Case 3)........................................................................................ .................................. 83 Table F-5: Air diffuser output values (Case 2)................................... .............................................................................................. ...................................................................................................... 84 Table F-6: Compressor output values (Case 2)........................................ 85 Table F-9: Rotor overall properties (Case 2).................................................... ............................. .. 85 Table F-8: Turbine output value (Case 2)........................................................................................................... ....................Table F-3: Burner input parameter values (Case 2).............. 103 Table H-8: Turbine output value (Case 4)........................................................................................... ............................... ............................................................................................................................................................................. 93 Table G-3: Burner input parameter values (Case 3).......................................... ................................................................................. 102 Table H-7: Burner output value (Case 4)................................................................................................... 97 Table H-1: Air and diffuser input parameter values (Case 4)................................................... ........... 104 xii ........................................ 100 Table H-3: Burner input parameter values (Case 4).. 94 Table G-5: Air diffuser output values (Case 3).... 89 Table G-1: Air and diffuser input parameter values (Case 3)......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 101 Table H-4: Turbine and stress input parameter values (Case 4)............................................ 101 Table H-5: Air diffuser output values (Case 4)............................................................................................................................

Nomenclature Variables Definition Mrel Relative Mach number τrel Relative stagnation temperature ratio πrel Relative stagnation pressure ratio τ Stagnation temperature ratio π Stagnation pressure ratio Torel Relative stagnation temperature Porel Relative stagnation pressure To Stagnation temperature Po Stagnation pressure W Relative velocity T Temperature P Pressure ρ Density s Entropy v Specific volume m Mass flow rate mf Fuel mass flow rate f Fuel-to-air ratio hHV Fuel heating value CD Drag coefficient M Absolute Mach number C Absolute velocity U Blade speed Ω Impeller rotation speed R Gas constant Cp Specific heat γ Ratio of specific heats Q Heat addition per unit seconds W Work per unit seconds PTO Power takeoff per unit seconds xiii .

ηTH Thermal efficiency A Area perpendicular to flow between two vanes r Impeller radius b Vane height β Relative flow and blade angle α Absolute flow angle Nb Number of blades Subscripts Definition Engine components d Diffuser c Compressor b Burner (combustion chamber) t Turbine Station (location) numbering 0 Ambient air (freestream) 1 Diffuser entry 2 Diffuser exit/Compressor entry 2t Compressor entry at the blade tip 3 Compressor exit/Burner entry 4 Burner exit/Turbine entry 4.5 Location close to sonic point 5 Turbine exit Cylindrical coordinate system r Radial θ Tangential z Axial xiv .

gas turbine engine manufactures considered large and small engines as two separate categories with each having different applications. Figure 1-2: Pratt & Whitney J58 turbojet engine. Both had their own unique set of problems and challenges. the power and size of these engines grew significantly compared to piston engines. 1 . Figure 1-1: Williams International FJ44 turbofan engine. military aircrafts followed by civilian ones. With the introduction of large gas turbine engines in the 1940s. Since then.Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction About small gas turbine engines From the beginning. small gas turbine engine (from [1]). began using them in place of piston engines. large gas turbine engine (from [2]).

these scaling issues declined due to aggressive efforts in technology development. For this reason. As a result.The usage of piston engines continued for low power applications. By late 1950s. This attracted manufacturers to the potential of military contracts and a profitable market once they were developed. Small gas turbine engines were quite different mechanically from their larger engine counterparts. the military had plenty of success with these engines such that civilian aircraft started using them. Therefore. payload. The advances produced by these efforts allowed the small engine to overcome its problems related to size and attain outstanding performance. For example. The military turned to the gas turbine engine manufacturers to develop small gas turbine engines. small engines paid an inherent structural weight penalty. Next is a chart that shows the North American companies that developed and built small gas turbine engines from the early 1940s through the present: 2 . Small engine fuel controls had critical accuracy problems because of the lower rates of fuel flow. These incentives and potentials led to an array of companies that wanted to enter the small gas turbine engine business. altitude and reliability than piston engines. Established large engine producers seized the opportunity to expand their business by applying their technical expertise to the development of small gas turbine engines [1]. tactical and strategic missiles c) Military trainer aircraft d) Special purpose aircraft such as Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft e) Helicopters They provided greater operational capabilities in terms of speed. it was necessary that the casing of small engines be approximately as thick as large engine casings. Another example was the difficulty that came about during the development of smaller and lighter fuel controls that had the same amount of reliability like larger engines [1]. There were factors such as manufacturing limitations and mechanical design problems. Piston engine makers saw a need to get into the small gas turbine engine business to maintain their market position and profitability level. Gradually. the evolution of small gas turbine engines occurred slowly. This prevented direct scaling of large engine design and performance. this engine was the power plant of choice for a variety of applications such as: a) Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) b) Decoy. Over time. internal engine pressures were about the same for small and large engines [1].

Another relevant activity underway during the 1940s was small gas turbine component and nonaircraft research and development. developing. 3 . One company. and West Engineering. Each of these companies eventually phased out of the small gas turbine engine business. This made Garrett the first company to begin developing APUs. Boeing. In 1943. Other US companies also became active in studying. and this led to engines that powered both piloted and unmanned aircraft. it phased out of the small gas turbine engine market in the I950s. and auxiliary power units (APU). there would be a market for it [1]. Fairchild. This project consisted of a two-stage compressor for aircraft cabin pressurization. and manufacturing these engines for aircraft propulsion in the 1940s. which later led to turbine environmental control systems. Garrett began work on Project A [1]. These companies included Fredric Flader. The military sponsored much of their work. Williams International. began developing small gas turbine engines using its own funds with the philosophy that once it had successfully developed an engine. jet engine starters. After early efforts by Westinghouse.Figure 1-3: Years spent in the small gas turbine engine business (from [1]).

A turboshaft engine differs from a turboprop engine primarily in the function of the engine shaft. compressed air supplied by the APU goes for aircraft air-conditioning. In commercial and military aircraft. Figure 1-6 shows a typical location of an APU on modern jetliners. Another use of the shaft power is to run pumps. and coffee pots. Instead of driving a propeller. shaft power from APUs generate electrical power that are used for equipments such as lights. Figure 1-5: Auxiliary power unit (from [3]). Figure 1-4: Turboshaft engine (from [2]). In addition. The opening at the aircraft rear indicates the APU exhaust vent. seen in Figure 1-4. Like the turboshaft engine. the turboshaft engine connects to a transmission system or gearbox to drive a mechanical load. heating. It is similar in construction and purpose to a turboshaft engine.2 Auxiliary power unit (APU) and purpose of research An APU is essentially a small gas turbine engine. shaft power is the desired output.1. televisions. onboard computers. microwave ovens. Therefore. They are the compressor. refrigerators. an APU consists of three primary components. Figure 1-5 shows an example of an APU. 4 . a combustion chamber (burner) and a turbine section. and ventilation.

Chapter 3 in this thesis shows the derivation of the equations for the analysis.Figure 1-6: APU with exhaust vent at the rear of the aircraft (from [4]). The analysis could apply equally to APUs. Power takeoff is the amount of mechanical power extracted from the shaft to run equipment such as a generator or hydraulic pump. The purpose of this research is to investigate the possibility of combining the three main components of an APU into a single centrifugal impeller. Figure 1-7: The new rotor with the combined components will look something like this compressor impeller (from [5]). The idea of having a power producing turbomachine with only one rotating component suggests that the engine could be lighter. and so on. and smaller. This in turn could allow it to produce high specific power takeoffs (power takeoff per unit mass flow rate of air). A numerical simulation of the rotor is to take place in this investigation. turboshaft engines. 5 . similar to the compressor design seen in Figure 1-7. cheaper.

backward curved centrifugal compressor.1 Literature review History of the APU 2. It should also supply hot air for the wing anti-icing system. Garrett accepted the job and decided to make a small gas turbine engine. Boeing needed a complete unit in 18 months. a burner.1. This knowledge and experience became an important consideration for aircraft cabin air conditioning equipment. It was also the foundation for Garrett’s first small gas turbine design called the Black Box [1]. The engine consisted of a three stage. Project A demonstrated early on that high efficiencies over broad operating ranges were characteristics of the backward curved compressor rotor design. A geared power takeoff shaft was to run a blower and a generator/alternator. the wing anti-icing system would receive a portion of the exhaust gas.25 inch diameter c) 8 vanes (blades) d) 30 degree backward curvature (measured from the tangent of the outer diameter) e) Shrouded cast aluminum impellers f) Adiabatic efficiency of 78% at the design point Although the unit was just a laboratory development tool. it must provide airflow for cabin pressurization and air conditioning.Chapter 2 2. Compressor bleed air routed through a cooling turbine would generate 40 hp back into the shaft. As the design progressed.2 The Black Box Boeing wanted a lightweight. compact. Garrett (today known as AlliedSignal) started to design and develop a twostage compressor for a cabin air compressor. Each stage was a centrifugal compressor rotor. Preliminary work started in the spring of 1945. The following are the specifications of each rotor: a) Mass flow rate of 45 lb/min at a pressure ratio of 1. 2. and a single stage axial turbine. The company called this classified program Project A. Also in this Black Box were primary and secondary 6 . In addition.75 b) 7.1. self-powered unit that could furnish AC and DC current to its Model 377 Stratocruiser aircraft’s electrical systems. In addition.1 Project A In the spring of 1943. the unit was nicknamed the Black Box due in part to the secrecy of the project and the fact it had so many gadgets made it look like a magical black box.

The high compressor efficiency was not surprising as the technology flowed directly from Project A. regulators. Figure 2-1: Garrett Black Box (from [1]). After a month of trying to get the Black Box to self-run. and air ducts [11]. there was 7 . By that time. With an efficiency of less than 70%. Figure 2-1 shows the Black Box as it was being assembled. engineers found the untested turbine component to be the problem. Component testing began by mid 1946 and showed excellent overall compressor efficiency in the neighborhood of 81 to 82%. as the company had never before built a burner.heat exchangers. Therefore. turbine testing could only occur until the machine was ready to run. The Black Box pressure ratio was three as opposed to 1. the turbine engine was on the borderline of being self-supporting.75 in Project A. The turbine wheel component testing did not occur due to the unavailability of a suitable test rig with the capacity to absorb its power. This was an important accomplishment for Garrett. A threestage compressor achieved this ratio. automatic controls. The burner also performed well in tests. it could not generate sufficient power to run by itself. However. An external power source drove the Black Box after assembly late in the fall of 1946.

two outlets connected with elbows led to two independent tubular steel combustion chambers. Subsequently. the company’s first successful gas turbine engine [1]. The knowledge gained from building a successful combustor was part of the technology base gained from the program. This engine would have a single stage radial inflow turbine. The GTC43/44 contained a two-stage backward curved centrifugal compressor (first stage seen in Figure 2-2) with an overall pressure ratio of three. 1947. These efforts produced here carried on in future Garrett engines especially in the GTC43/44. From the compressor. hence its name GTC43/44 [1]. particularly what not to do. Garrett conducted the first self-sustaining test run of the GTC43/44 on August 23. Figure 2-2: GTC43/44 first stage backward curved centrifugal compressor (from [1]). 2. Garrett had to cancel the Black Box program at the end of December 1946. The engine that Garrett ultimately designed was the GTC43/44. there were some important lessons learned. That was the power needed to start the 5525 hp Allison XT40 turboprop engines in the Navy sponsored Convair XPSY-1 flying boat.3 The GTC43/44 While the Black Box program was still running. Further work on axial turbines discontinued at Garrett in favor of the radial inflow turbine. The highly successful backward curved centrifugal compressor continued in future Garrett projects. Garrett began 8 . 1947. The design work took place between March and April 1947. On June 2. the engine passed its 200hour Navy endurance test and it was the first small gas turbine engine to pass such a test. turbine wheel tests showed 82 to 84% efficiency.insufficient time left to redesign the turbine and meet the contract deadline. Agreeing to develop such a unit. The project started after the termination of the Black Box program. low turbine efficiency. the Navy was looking for a 35 hp gas turbine starter. The complexity of the unit. The unit was to deliver 43 lb of air at 44 lb per square inch absolute pressure. Despite the cost of the program to Garrett and the problems that it caused with Boeing. 1948. Garrett received a contract in early 1947 by the Navy for the starter. and tight development schedule killed the Black Box project [1].1. On July 1.

this process is called an open cycle. When the exhaust gas simply leaves the engine. designed to provide fully automatic starting and overload protection. proved unreliable in service. The first commercial use of the GTC43/44 was in a ground vehicle for starting the Lockheed Electra. The radial inflow turbine also had difficulties such as cracks on the turbine rims.2 Ideal Brayton Cycle and ideal jet propulsion cycle George Brayton first proposed the Brayton cycle for use in the piston engine that he developed around 1870 [6]. 2. The resulting high-temperature gas then expands in a turbine. The combustor-turbine coupling became extremely hot and it was difficult to find a suitable fireproof enclosure. Then burning of fuel occurs when the air proceeds into a combustion chamber (burner). the North American A2J used a mobile ground power version. rises in both temperature and pressure [7]. The GTC43/44 also provided a technology base for future Garrett prime propulsion engines. However. This is when a constant-pressure heat rejection process replaces the exhaust air from the open cycle. Figure 2-3 shows a closed cycle called the Brayton cycle. 1950 in the Convair XPSY-1 flying boat. and exits the engine. Considerable engineering effort went into solving such field service.production of the starter in 1948. The GTC43/44 was however a commercial success and more than 500 units were manufactured between 1949 and early 1950s for a variety of applications. Its first flight service was on April 18. the gas turbine auxiliary power unit (APU). Gas turbine engines usually operate on an open cycle. which Garrett dominated the world markets through the 1990s. drawn into a compressor. this expansion process produces shaft power. Automatic fuel controls. It was Garrett's first successful gas turbine engine. packaging. 9 . In an effort to further its applications. Two GTC43/44s provided compressed air for starting the main engines and for driving alternators that powered the XPSY electrical systems. Ambient air. the GTC43/44 was not without problems [1]. The twin combustor design also proved to be a problem. It was also the start of a major new product line. Today gas turbine engines use it when both the compression and expansion processes take place in rotating machinery. In an APU. and design problems.

The ideal jet propulsion cycle differs from the ideal Brayton cycle simply that the gases do not expand to the ambient pressure in the turbine [6]. Aircraft gas turbine engines operate on an open cycle called a jet propulsion cycle. The equipment could be a small generator or hydraulic pump. 10 . auxiliary equipment. mixes and burns with jet fuel in the combustion chamber at constant pressure. This high pressure-temperature gas then partially expands in the turbine to produce enough power to run the compressor. the following processes happen: a) Isentropic compression (2-3) b) Constant pressure heat addition or combustion (3-4) c) Isentropic expansion (4-5) d) Constant pressure heat rejection (5-1) Figure 2-4 shows the maximum temperature occurring at the end of the combustion process. Figure 2-4 shows the temperature-entropy (T-s) diagram for a closed cycle. The ideal T-s diagram for an APU will be similar to the one below.Figure 2-3: Closed gas turbine engine cycle (from Figure 2-4: Closed cycle T-s diagram (from [6]). the gas exiting the turbine expands to ambient pressure in the nozzle to produce thrust. Ambient air pressure rises slightly as it decelerates in the diffuser. Instead. it expands in the turbine to produce just sufficient power to drive the compressor and. Air. compressed in the compressor. For a turbojet. Figure 2-5 shows a turbojet engine and its ideal T-s diagram. Material constraints contribute to this temperature limitation. For an ideal Brayton cycle. if any. [6]).

it can pressurize aircraft cabins or drive small cold turbines to develop shaft horsepower. an air bleed system is usually present. 2.Figure 2-5: T-s diagram for an ideal jet propulsion cycle along with a turbojet engine schematic (from [6]). 11 . Since this bleed air is very energetic. called inducers. it accelerates outward at high speed and slows down in a ring of stationary vanes called the diffuser. As the air passes through the compressor. guide the air into the compressor. Valves or venturis control this air bleed to within pre-determined limits [3]. Air drawn into the engine first goes through a centrifugal compressor rotor. Curved vanes at the compressor intake area. This causes the air pressure to rise. Immediately after the compressor section. This releases a portion of the airflow in the engine.3 How current APUs work Figure 2-6: APU centrifugal compressor rotor with inducer vanes (from [3]). Rotors without inducers are usually very noisy due to flow separation [5].

Heat resistant ducting guides the combustion gases from the combustion chamber on to the turbine nozzle. The chamber causes it to heat and expand [3]. 12 . In some cases. It must also keep the engine running at constant speed regardless of load. the rest mixes with the combustion exhaust to lower its temperature so that it can pass through the turbine. there are two combustion chambers on either side of the APU. The fuel pump usually receives power from a separate electric motor. The system must ensure that the engine starts and accelerates smoothly without getting too hot [3]. They are the can type or the annular type [3]. It has the advantage of being easy to remove from the APU. The can type is mounted on one side of the engine. Two basic types of combustion chambers exist. A mechanical or electronic governing system controls the amount of fuel supplied to the combustion chamber. Fuel pumps normally consist of gear pumps or small piston pumps operated by a rotating plate arrangement. Combustion chambers vary in design but they all work in the same way. One or more nozzles then spray fuel into the chamber where it burns continuously once ignited. It usually guides the exhaust gases directly onto the turbine nozzle.Figure 2-7: Combustion chambers (from [3]). This chamber design allows the APU to maintain a small size. The diffuser sends this air to the combustion chamber. An annular combustion chamber placed around the axis of the engine takes the form of a cylinder. With about a quarter of the air burned through the APU. A metal liner inside the engine holds a flame in place by injecting air through a number of holes and orifices.

The ignition of APUs is similar to that of larger engines. A cold engine is quite difficult to light.000V) but with a low energy spark [3]. Here a trembler induction coil provides a very high voltage (about 20. charged to a high voltage (about 3. The sparkplug extrudes into the combustion chamber and is close to the fuel nozzle. compressor and an external load (via a gearbox) 13 .Figure 2-8: Fuel igniter (from [3]).000 to 30. Some models of engines are equipped with automotive type ignition. which steps up a battery supply.000V). It occurs across the surface of the plug at a rate of one to two sparks per second. The energy from the discharged spark is as much as several joules. The hot gases generated by the combustion process drive one or more turbine wheels that create shaft power. A single shaft connects the turbine. A capacitor. Figure 2-9: APU turbines (from [3]). is discharged into a special sparkplug [3]. The charge comes from a DC inverter. High-energy ignition is the most common ignition.

Most of the twin-shaft APUs work as a GTS unit [3]. In most APUs. APU lubricating oils are synthetic and thinner than the ones used in piston engines. Oil seals keep the oil around the bearing assemblies so that it would not enter the combustion process. On some models. The oil circulating around an APU usually becomes hot such that it passes through some sort of cooling device like a fancooled radiator. A second mechanically independent turbine can also drive the load. Carbon seals are common in APUs. 14 . They are the inflow radial (IFR) and axial turbine. Small engines generally employ a maximum of two turbine stages [3]. compressor air can also pressurize the lubricating oil. the mechanical load on the starter motor reduces and its power automatically cuts off. That is.together. There are two types of turbines found in APUs. Oil pumps are generally gear types. Oil normally returns to a reservoir under gravity or collected by a second larger capacity pump. the compressor uses about two thirds of the mechanical power developed [3]. Axial turbines can be put together to form multiple stages. a disc is fitted with aerofoil cross-sectional blades around its circumference. When this happens. A typical load is an electrical generator or a mechanical pump. Compressor bleed air keep the turbine and nozzle assembly cool by allowing it to flow around the components. The gases flow inward and then along the axis of the wheel and out through an exhaust duct. A single-shaft engine generally cannot accept any kind of load until it has started and accelerated to operating speed. Both normally drive a load via a reduction gearbox. The same gearbox may also drive engine accessories such as fuel and oil pumps. The design of the IFR turbine is similar to a centrifugal compressor rotor but is made of heat resistant metal. A pressure pump with a relief valve pressurizes the system feeding the jets. For axial turbines. Lubrication of APU bearings occur in a similar way to larger propulsion engines. this engine is equipped with two shafts. The larger capacity pump is required as the oil picks up a lot of air and can become foamy. a separate electric motor circulates the oil around the engine. Most aircraft APUs are of single-shaft designs. A nozzle ring directs hot gases from the combustion chamber inwards and tangentially on to the radial blades of the turbine. Twin-shaft APUs are especially useful for starting larger engines and are known as gas turbine starters (GTS). Most APUs self sustain at about 25 to 30% of their rated speed [3]. However. APUs are often started by electric motors. A ring of similar static blades that form a nozzle directs hot gases onto it. Self-sustaining speed is the point where the compressor begins to develop significant gauge pressure. Twin-shaft APUs are less common than the single-shaft ones. Thus. A ring or disc of carbon is spring loaded against a highly polished rotating surface through which oil cannot escape. The turbine disc and nozzle are also made of heat resistant metal. by spraying small oil jets onto them. A heavy-duty motor can accelerate the APU to light up speed and assist the engine until it becomes self-sustaining.

Chapter 3

3.1

Formulas used for the APU

General information

As mentioned before, the new APU combines a compressor, burner and turbine into a single

**centrifugal impeller (rotor). The rotor consists of a number of blades (usually curved), also called vanes,
**

arranged in a regular pattern around a rotating shaft, as seen in Figure 1-7. First, it is essential to become

familiar with the variables and their accompanying subscripts for this research in the Nomenclature

section. The subscripts describe the following [8]:

a) Rotor components

b) Location within the APU (station number)

c) Coordinate system for the velocities

This rotor will use the cylindrical coordinate system for convenience. There are no axial velocity

components (z-direction) within the rotor since it is radial in design. Figure 3-1 shows the absolute

velocity in this coordinate system.

Figure 3-1: Cylindrical coordinate system (from [5]).

**A velocity triangle graphically relates the velocities C, W and U. Figure 3-2 shows the general
**

shape of the rotor along with the velocity triangle:

15

Figure 3-2: Shape of rotor with velocity triangle (from [5]).

**Figure 3-2 indicates a backward leaning configuration. This means the angle β here is positive.
**

The angle of the relative velocity is the same as the blade angle. Equations in this chapter are valid for

any configuration of velocity triangles. Figure 3-1 and Figure 3-2 give the following relationships for the

velocities:

Cθ = U-Wθ

Cr = Wr

Cz = Wz

(1)

**C2 = Cr2+Cθ2+Cz2
**

W2 = Wr2+Wθ2+Wz2

The following sections show the equations needed to analyze the turbomachinery cycle of this new rotor.

Each portion of the rotor has its own set of equations.

The entire analysis in this study ignores the effects of gravity and the gas is continuous (motion of

individual molecules does not have to be considered). In addition, the viscosity of the flow, magnetic and

electrical effects are also negligible.

16

3.2

Ambient air and diffuser

Table 3-1: Ambient air equation input parameters.

Input

Description

M0

Freestream Mach number

T0

Freestream temperature

P0

Freestream pressure

γ0

Specific heat ratio

s0

Freestream entropy

R

Air gas constant

τd

Diffuser stagnation temperature ratio

πd

Diffuser stagnation pressure ratio

Like most gas turbine engines, this APU has a diffuser at the inlet. The diffuser assumptions here

are:

a) Steady flow

b) Calorically perfect

Ambient air first passes through the diffuser before entering the compressor. The equations used to

determine ambient air and diffuser flow properties are:

a) Specific heat of ambient air:

⎛⎜ γ 0 ⎞

⋅R

⎜ γ0 − 1

⎝

⎠

Cp0

(2)

**b) Ratio of To0 (stagnation temperature at station 0) to T0, τr:
**

τr

1+

⎛ γ1 − 1 ⎞ 2

⎜

⋅M

⎝ 2 ⎠ 0

(3)

**c) Ratio of Po0 (stagnation pressure at station 0) to P0, πr:
**

γ0

πr

τr

γ 0− 1

(4)

**d) Ambient air density
**

ρ0

P0

R⋅ T0

e) Diffuser exit stagnation temperature:

17

(5)

Input Description M2rel Inlet relative Mach number β2t Inlet tip (blade edge at inlet outer diameter) flow angle β3 Outlet blade angle ec Polytropic efficiency ζc Inlet hub-to-tip ratio U3/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) Allowable outlet tip speed ratio Cθ2t/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) Inlet swirl parameter Wr3/U3 Outlet flow coefficient The first portion of the rotor is the centrifugal compressor similar to the one in Figure 1-7.3 Compressor Table 3-2: Compressor equation input parameters.To2 τd ⋅ τr⋅ T0 (6) Po2 πd ⋅ πr⋅ P0 (7) f) Diffuser exit stagnation pressure: 3. Assumptions for the compressor are: a) Steady-flow adiabatic compression b) Calorically perfect The Hill and Peterson textbook [5] provided all the following equations necessary to determine the compressor properties except two that needed derivation as shown in Appendix A: a) Inlet tip temperature: 2 ⎡ Cz2t γ 0 − 1 ⎡⎢ ⎛ ⎞ ⎢ ⎜ T2t To2⋅ 1 − ⋅ + ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎜ γ ⋅ R⋅ T 0 o2 ⎣ ⎣⎝ ⎠ ⎛⎜ Cθ2t ⎞ ⎜ γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2 ⎝ ⎠ 2⎤ ⎤ ⎥⎥ ⎥⎥ ⎦⎦ (8) For Equation (8): 2⎤ ⎡ Cθ2t γ0 − 1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎢ ⎥ ⋅M 2 cos ( β 2t) ⋅ 1 − ⋅⎜ ⎢ ⎥ 2rel 2 ⎜ γ ⋅ R⋅ T ⎣ ⎝ 0 o2 ⎠ ⎦ 2 Cz2t γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2 1+ γ0 − 1 2 ( ( ))2 ⋅ M 2rel⋅ cos β 2t b) Inlet tip pressure: 18 (9) .

Po2

P2t

γ0

(10)

γ 0− 1

⎛ To2 ⎞

⎜T

⎝ 2t ⎠

c) Inlet tip density:

P2t

ρ 2t

(11)

R⋅ T2t

**d) Inlet relative stagnation temperature:
**

To2rel

⎛

γ0 − 1

⎝

2

T2t⋅ ⎜ 1 +

2⎞

⋅ M 2rel

⎠

(12)

**e) Inlet relative stagnation pressure:
**

γ0

⎛ To2rel ⎞

Po2rel P2t⋅ ⎜

⎝ T2t ⎠

γ 0− 1

(13)

f) Stagnation temperature ratio:

τc

(

⎛

)⎜

1 + γ0 − 1 ⋅⎜

⎝

⎡

2⎢

W r3

U3

⎞ ⎢

⋅ 1−

⋅ tan ( β 3) −

⎢

U3

γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2

⎠ ⎢

⎢

⎣

Cz2t

⎛⎜ Cθ2t

⎞ Cθ2t ⎤

+

⋅ tan ( β 2t) ⋅

⎥

⎜ γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2

γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2

γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2 ⎥

⎝

⎠

⎥ (14)

2

U3

⎛⎜

⎞

⎥

⎥

⎜ γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2

⎝

⎠

⎦

g) Adiabatic efficiency:

ec

ηc =

τc − 1

(15)

τc − 1

**h) Stagnation pressure ratio:
**

γ0

πc

i)

⎡⎣ 1 + η c( τc − 1) ⎤⎦

γ 0− 1

(16)

**Absolute outlet Mach number:
**

a

M3

1−

γ0 − 1

2

19

⋅a

(17)

For Equation (17):

a

j)

2

W r3

⎛

⎞

⋅ tan ( β 3) +

2 ⎜1 −

U3

⎞ ⎝

⎠

⋅

U3

⎛⎜

⎜ γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2

⎝

⎠

⎛ W r3 ⎞

⎜ U

⎝ 3⎠

2

(18)

τc

**Relative outlet Mach number (Equation 1 in Appendix A):
**

U3

Wr3

U3

( )

M 3rel

cos β 3

γ 0⋅ R⋅ T o2

⋅

τc

1+

γ0 − 1

2

(19)

2

⋅ M3

k) Outlet absolute stagnation temperature:

l)

T o3 = τ c⋅ τ d⋅ τ r⋅ T 0

(20)

P o3 = π c⋅ π d⋅ π r⋅ P 0

(21)

Outlet absolute stagnation pressure:

**m) Outlet relative stagnation temperature (Equation 2 in Appendix A):
**

To3rel

⎡

γ0 − 1

⎢

⎢

⎣

γ0 − 1

⎛

2⎞

2⋅ ⎜ 1 +

⋅ M3

2

⎝

⎠

To3⋅ ⎢ 1 −

⎤

2⎞ ⎥

⋅ ⎛ M 3 − M 3rel

⎝

2

⎠⎥

⎥

⎦

(22)

**n) Outlet relative stagnation pressure:
**

Po3

Po3rel

γ0

⎛

⎞

⎜T

⎝ o3rel ⎠

To3

γ 0− 1

(23)

o) Outlet temperature:

To3rel

T3

1+

γ0 − 1

2

2

⋅ M 3rel

p) Outlet pressure:

20

(24)

Po3rel

P3

γ0

⎛ To3rel ⎞

⎜ T

⎝ 3 ⎠

(25)

γ 0− 1

q) Outlet relative velocity:

(

)

2⋅ Cp0⋅ To3rel − T3

W3

(26)

r) Outlet density:

P3

ρ3 =

(27)

R⋅ T 3

**s) Dimensionless impeller rotation:
**

1

m3

Po2

t)

⋅

⎛

Ω

1

=

2⋅ π ⋅ γ c⋅ ⎜

⎜

⎝

( γ c⋅ R⋅ To2) 4

Cθ2t

γ c⋅ R⋅ T o2

+

⌠

⎮

2⎮

Cz2t

⎞ ⎮

⋅ tan β 2t ⋅ ⎮

γ c⋅ R⋅ T o2

⎠ ⎮

⌡ζ

1

⎡

⎢1 −

⎢

⎣

( )

γ c − 1 ⎡⎛

⎢

⋅ ⎜

⎢⎜

2

⎣⎝

⎞

Cz2t

γ c⋅ R⋅ T o2

⎠

2

+

⎛

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎤⎤

Cθ2t

⎞

2 ⎥⎥

⋅(2 − y )

⎥⎥

γ c⋅ R⋅ T o2

⎠

⎦⎦

2

γ c− 1

⋅

⎛

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎞

Cz2t

γ c⋅ R⋅ T o2

2

⎛

− 2⋅ ⎜

⎜

⎝

⎠

Cθ2t

γ c⋅ R⋅ T o2

⎞

2

(

2

)

⋅ y − 1 ⋅ y dy

(28)

⎠

c

Radius ratio:

U3

γ 0⋅ R⋅ T o2

r3

Cθ2t

r2t

γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2

+

Cz2t

γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2

(29)

( )

⋅ tan β 2t

**u) Outlet blade height to radius ratio:
**

1

⎛ γ0 + 1 ⎞

⎜

⎝ 2 ⎠

b3

γ 0− 1

2 ⎛ r3 ⎞

⋅ ⎛ 1 − ζc ⎞ ⋅ ⎜

⎝

⎠ r

⎝ 2t ⎠

−2

r3

1

⎡

⎢

2⋅ 1 +

⎢

⎣

⎛ 1 + ηc ⎞

⎛

⎜

⋅ ( γ 0 − 1) ⋅ ⎜

⎜

⎝ 2 ⎠

⎝

U3

W r3

⎞ ⎛

⎞ ⎥⎤

⋅⎜ 1 −

⋅ tan ( β 3)

⎥

U3

γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2

⎝

⎠⎦

⎠

2

(30)

γ 0− 1

**v) Outlet rotor speed:
**

U3

U3

⎛⎜

⎞

⋅ γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2

⎜ γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2

⎝

⎠

w) Inlet rotor tip speed:

21

(31)

these equations are to take into account the following effects: a) Flow area change b) Heat exchange c) Work done by or on the flow d) Drag force on the flow e) Mass addition (fuel) into the flow Figure 3-3: Burner and turbine control volume between two vanes across a small step change (from [9]). 22 . the rotor vanes extend to include a burner followed by a turbine.4 (35) Burner and turbine After the compressor. In general.⎛ r3 ⎞ U 2t = U 3⋅ ⎜ ⎜ r2t ⎝ ⎠ −1 (32) x) Mass flow rate to outlet area ratio: m3 A3 ρ 3⋅ W 3 (33) y) Outlet entropy: s3 ( ) ( ) s 0 + Cp0⋅ ln τc − R⋅ ln πc (34) z) Specific power: Wc = −C p0 ⋅ (To3 − To 2 ) m3 3. The best way is to choose the generalized quasi-one-dimensional compressible flow equations. It is necessary to select the governing equations for both components.

The drag coefficient seen in the conservation of linear momentum equation represents the flame holder located only at the beginning of the burner.4. The specific heat ratio is then: γ = Cp Cp − R (37) 3. the flow in the burner is subsonic. it is variable using the following formula [6]: 28.4802⋅ 10 ⋅ kJ kmol⋅ K 28. as seen in Appendix B. The assumptions here are steady flow and that the added fuel does not alter the gas properties significantly. This allows the combustion process to take place since it is difficult to place a flame in the flow to ignite the fuel if the velocities are too fast.First. The equations for this component are: a) Conservation of energy and angular momentum combination: 23 . the burner and turbine equations are thermally perfect.966⋅ 10 ⋅ kJ kmol⋅ K 4 ⋅T 3 (36) kg kmol Therefore.97 2 3 −9 ⋅ T − 1. define a control volume over a differentially short portion of the flow as seen in Figure 3-3. Equations 1 through 9 and 11 from Appendix B describe the flow through the burner vanes. By assuming the change in Cp is very small across the differential step size.1967⋅ 10 ⋅ Cp = kJ kmol⋅ K −5 2 ⋅ T + 0. Then select the governing equations based on the following principles: a) Conservation of angular momentum b) Conservation of energy (first law of thermodynamics) c) Equation of state d) Conservation of mass e) Conservation of linear momentum f) Relative stagnation temperature equation g) Relative stagnation pressure equation h) Absolute stagnation temperature equation i) Relative Mach number equation j) Absolute stagnation pressure equation k) Entropy equation The textbook by Oosthuizen and Carscallen [9] provides some of the equations while the others required derivation.11⋅ kJ kmol⋅ K −2 + 0. The equations here assumed constant specific heats.1 Burner equations For the new rotor.

24 (47) .⎛ 2⋅ h ⋅ η + U2 − W2 ⎞ 2 d( m) W d( W) d( T ) U ⋅ d( U) ⎜ HV b −1 ⋅ − ⋅ − =− ⎜ 2⋅ Cp ⋅ T Cp ⋅ T W Cp ⋅ T T ⎝ ⎠ m (38) b) Equation of state: d( ρ ) ρ d( T ) + − d( P) =0 (39) P T c) Conservation of mass: d( W) d( ρ ) + ρ W d( m) − =− d( A ) m (40) A d) Conservation of linear momentum: d( W) d( m) + W P + 2 m ρ ⋅W ⋅ d( P) P ( ) 1 = − ⋅ d CD 2 (41) e) Relative stagnation temperature equation: ( ) d To − To ( ) T orel d T orel U⋅ W⋅ sin( β ) d( W) U⋅ d( U) − W⋅ d( U ⋅ sin( β ) ) ⋅ + ⋅ = T orel W To Cp ⋅ T o Cp ⋅ T o (42) f) Relative stagnation pressure equation: ( ) d Porel Porel 2 + γ ⋅ M rel 2 ⋅ ( ) d T orel T orel 2 2 + γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ d( m) =− γ ⋅ M rel m 2 ( ) ⋅ d CD (43) g) Absolute stagnation temperature equation: ( ) d To To − T d( T ) W⋅ ( W − U ⋅ sin( β ) ) d( W) U ⋅ d( U ) − W⋅ d( U⋅ sin( β ) ) ⋅ − ⋅ = To T W Cp ⋅ T o Cp ⋅ T o (44) h) Relative Mach number equation: M rel = i) W Absolute stagnation pressure equation: ⎛ To ⎞ P o = P orel⋅ ⎜ ⎜ T orel ⎝ ⎠ j) (45) γ ⋅ R⋅ T γ γ −1 (46) Entropy equation: s ⎛ To ⎞ ⎛ Po ⎞ s 3 + Cp ⋅ ln⎜ − R⋅ ln⎜ ⎝ To3 ⎠ ⎝ Po3 ⎠ Notice that Equations (38) through (44) are differential equations that require a numerical solution.

The initial value of β is β3. β.2 Burner input parameters and method of solving equations In Equations (38) through (47). The equation for r/r3 is: r δr = 1+ r3 (48) r3 c) At station 4. U. hHV. It follows that the small step change is d(δr/r3) = (δr4/r3)/nb or: r4 ⎛ δr ⎞ d⎜ ⎝ r3 ⎠ r3 −1 (49) nb d) It is now possible to vary the quantity δr/r3 starting with zero in steps of d(δr/r3) from index i = 0 to nb as follows: δr r3 ⎛ δr ⎞ i⋅ d ⎜ (50) ⎝ r3 ⎠ This also allows the variation of r/r3 from one to r4/r3. consider the radius variation along the burner flow to be r = r3+δr (δr is the difference between r as it varies along the burner and r3). f) Obtain the variation of angle β using the following polynomial: ⎛ δr ⎞ + S2⋅ ⎛ δr ⎞ β = β 3 + S1⋅ ⎜ ⎜r ⎝ r3 ⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ 2 (52) The variables S1 and S2 are specified coefficients. The outline below shows how to deal with these variables: a) Specify the radius ratio r4/r3 and the number of iteration steps. e) Vary the flow area as the ratio A/A3 using the second order polynomial below: A A3 ⎛ δr ⎞ + Y2⋅ ⎛ δr ⎞ ⎜r ⎝ r3 ⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ 2 = 1 + Y1⋅ ⎜ (51) The variables Y1 and Y2 are specified coefficients. g) Define the change in rotor speed using: ⎛ r⎞ U = U 3⋅ ⎜ ⎝ r3 ⎠ (53) h) Assuming a linear variation of To (stagnation temperature) with initial value To3 and final value To4 (maximum stagnation temperature in burner) gives: 25 . nb. δr (or δr3) is zero when r = r3. the specified variables are A. δr/r3 is δr4/r3 = (r4/r3)-1.3. and ηb. At the inlet. b) Next.4. To CD.

they give the following form: ⎡ 2 W ⎢ −1 − 0 ⎢ Cp ⋅ T ⎢ 0 −1 ⎢ 1 ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎢ P 1 ⎢ 0 2 ⎢ ρ⋅W ⎢ U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) ⎢ 0 0 ⎢ Cp ⋅ To ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎢ ⎢ T W ⋅ ( W − U⋅ sin ( β ) ) 0 − ⎢− To Cp ⋅ To ⎣ 2 0 0 1 0 0 2⋅ h HV⋅ η b + U − W 2⋅ Cp ⋅ T 0 0 1 0 0 −1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 − Torel To 2 0 0 γ ⋅ M rel 2 0 1 0 2 γ ⋅ M rel 0 Inverting the matrix in Equation (55) gives: 26 2 ⎤ ⎛⎜ ⎥ −1 ⎜ ⎥ ⎜ ⎥ ⎜ ⎥⎜ ⎥ ⎜ ⎥ ⎥⎜ ⎜ ⎥ ⎜ ⎥ ⋅⎜ ⎥ ⎜ ⎥ ⎥⎜ ⎜ ⎥ ⎥⎜ ⎜ ⎥ ⎜ ⎥⎜ ⎥ ⎜ ⎦⎝ d ( T) ⎞ T d ( m) ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ m ⎠ d( W ) W d ( P) P d(ρ ) ( ρ ) d Torel Torel ( ) d Porel Porel U⋅ d ( U) ⎛ − ⎜ Cp ⋅ T ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⎜ d (A) ⎜ − A ⎜ ⎜ 1 − ⋅ d ( CD) ⎜ 2 ⎜ ⎜ d ( To ) U⋅ d( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ⎜− T + Cp ⋅ To o ⎜ ⎜ 2 γ ⋅ M rel ⎜ − ⋅ d ( CD) ⎜ 2 ⎜ ⎜ − d ( To ) + U⋅ d( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ⎜ To Cp ⋅ To ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ (55) ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ . ηb [10]. it is necessary to show how to solve Equations (38) through (47). Input Description r4/r3 Burner radius ratio Y1. i) Specify a drag coefficient. Table 3-3 summarizes the input parameters for the burner: Table 3-3: Burner equation input parameters. The second-order polynomials in Equations (51) and (52) are chosen for convenience. other variations with r are possible. S2 β second order polynomial coefficients To4 Maximum burner stagnation temperature CD Flame holder drag coefficient hHV Fuel heating value ηb Burner efficiency nb Number of iteration steps With the input parameters established. Y2 A/A3 second order polynomial coefficients S1. For Equations (38) through (44). CD for the flame holder along with the fuel heating value.T o = T o3 + T o4 − T o3 r4 −1 ⎛ δr ⎞ ⋅⎜ ⎝ r3 ⎠ (54) r3 Appendix B shows the derivation of Equation (54). hHV and burner efficiency.

Solving Equation (56) numerically from r/r3 = 1 to r4/r3 in steps of d(δr/r3) gives the following flow properties: T W i i T i− 1 W i− 1 + ⎛ d ( T) ⎞ ⋅ T ⎜ T ⎝ ⎠ i−1 + ⎛ d(W ) ⎞ ⋅ W ⎜ ⎝ W ⎠ i−1 P P + ⎛ d ( P) ⎞ ⋅ P ⎜ ⎝ P ⎠ i−1 ρi ρ i− 1 + ⎛ d( ρ ) ⎞ ⋅ ρ ⎜ i− 1 ⎝ ρ ⎠ i i− 1 Porel + i− 1 Porel i To i To i− 1 + ⎛ d ( Porel) ⎞ ⋅ Porel ⎜ P i− 1 ⎝ orel ⎠ ⎛ d ( To ) ⎞ ⋅ To ⎜ T ⎝ o ⎠ i−1 ⎛ m ⎞ ⎛ m ⎞ + ⎛ d ( m) ⎞ ⋅ ⎛ m ⎞ ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎜A ⎟ ⎜A ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ i ⎝ 3 ⎠ i−1 ⎝ m ⎠ ⎝ A 3 ⎠ i−1 W M rel i i γ i⋅ R⋅ T i γi Po i s i ⎛ To ⎞ i Porel ⋅ ⎜ i ⎜ Torel i⎠ ⎝ γ i−1 ⎛ To i ⎞ ⎛ Poi ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ s 3 + Cp ⋅ ln − R⋅ ln ⎜ ⎜P i ⎝ To3 ⎠ ⎝ o3 ⎠ 27 (57) .⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ d ( T) ⎞ T d ( m) ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ m ⎠ d( W ) W d ( P) P d(ρ ) ( ρ ) d Torel Torel ( ) d Porel Porel ⎡ 2 W ⎢ −1 − 0 Cp ⋅ T ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 ⎢ 1 ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎢ P 1 ⎢ 0 2 ⎢ ρ⋅W ⎢ U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) ⎢ 0 0 ⎢ Cp ⋅ To ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎢ ⎢ T W ⋅ ( W − U⋅ sin ( β ) ) − 0 ⎢− To Cp ⋅ To ⎣ 2 2⋅ h HV⋅ η b + U − W 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 −1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 γ ⋅ M rel 0 0 0 − Torel To 2 2⋅ Cp ⋅ T 2 γ ⋅ M rel 0 2 0 0 2 ⎤ − 1⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ −1 U⋅ d ( U) ⎛ ⎞ − ⎜ Cp ⋅ T ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⎜ d (A) ⎜ − A ⎜ ⎜ 1 − ⋅ d ( CD) ⎜ 2 ⋅⎜ (56) d T ⎜ ( o) U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) − + ⎜ T Cp ⋅ To o ⎜ ⎜ 2 γ ⋅ M rel ⎜ − ⋅ d ( CD) ⎜ 2 ⎜ ⎜ − d( To) + U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ⎜ To Cp ⋅ To ⎝ ⎠ Initial flow values for the burner are the compressor exit properties.

4. They are: a) Conservation of energy and angular momentum combination: − W 2 Cp ⋅ T ⋅ d(W ) W − d ( T) − T U⋅ d ( U) Cp ⋅ T (61) b) Equation of state: d(ρ ) ρ + d ( T) T − d ( P) 28 P 0 (62) . the burner flow variables in Equation (57) will use the subscript four.The subscripts i-1 and i refer to the index before and after the differential control volume seen in Figure 3-3. mass addition and drag force terms. In the event f is an input. 3. Equations 1 through 8 along with 10 and 12 in Appendix B describe the flow through the turbine but without the heat addition. Like the burner. the specific power of the burner is: ⎡m ⎤ Wb = − ⎢ 4 ⋅ U 4 ⋅ ( U 4 − W4 ⋅ sin(β 4 )) − U 3 ⋅ ( U 3 − W3 ⋅ sin(β 3 ))⎥ m3 ⎣ m3 ⎦ (60) Appendix B shows the derivation of Equation (60). All the variables on the right hand side of Equation (56) are at index i-1 (except the constants) and it follows that: d( A ) − A ⎛⎡ A ⎤⎞ − ⎛⎡ A ⎤⎞ ⎜⎢A ⎥ ⎜⎢ ⎥ ⎝ ⎣ 3⎦ ⎠ i ⎝ ⎣ A3 ⎦ ⎠ i− 1 ⎛⎡ A ⎤⎞ ⎜⎢A ⎥ ⎝ ⎣ 3⎦ ⎠ i− 1 ( ) d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ( U ⋅ sin β i − U ⋅ sin β i− 1 i i− 1 ) (58) U −U d ( U) i− 1 i ( ) To − To i i− 1 d To At the exit.3 Turbine equations To produce as much power as possible. the flow will have to exit at high relative Mach numbers to help spin the rotor. Knowing that the amount of fuel added is mf = m4-m3 gives the burner fuel-to-air ratio defined as f = mf/m3 or: m4 f m3 −1 (59) The ratio m4/m3 = (m4/A3)/(m3/A3). using the definition of angular momentum [12] from Appendix B and Cθ = UW*sin(β). then the To distribution would require calculation. Next.

5). and U. the calculations must terminate and cannot continuously cross the sonic point. The chosen termination point is when Mrel = 0.c) Conservation of mass: d(W ) W + d(ρ ) − ρ d( A ) (63) A d) Conservation of linear momentum: d(W ) W P + ρ⋅W 2 ⋅ d ( P) P 0 (64) e) Relative stagnation temperature equation: ( ) d To To − ( ) Torel d Torel U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) d ( W ) ⋅ + ⋅ Cp ⋅ To W To Torel U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) Cp ⋅ To (65) f) Relative stagnation pressure equation: ( ) d Porel Porel 2 + γ ⋅ M rel 2 ⋅ ( ) d Torel Torel (66) 0 g) Absolute stagnation temperature equation: ( ) d To To − W ⋅ ( W − U⋅ sin ( β ) ) d ( W ) T d ( T) ⋅ − ⋅ To T Cp ⋅ To W U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) Cp ⋅ To (67) h) Relative Mach number equation: M rel = i) W (68) γ ⋅ R⋅ T Absolute stagnation pressure equation: γ ⎛ To ⎞ Po Po4⋅ ⎜ ⎝ To4 ⎠ j) γ −1 (69) Entropy equation s ⎛ To ⎞ ⎛ Po ⎞ s 4 + Cp ⋅ ln⎜ − R⋅ ln⎜ ⎝ To4 ⎠ ⎝ Po4 ⎠ (70) Notice that Equations (61) through (67) are differential equations that require a numerical solution. If the subsonic flow approaches the sonic point and needs to go supersonic.4. the specified variables are A. It can then proceed to a supersonic flow region. β.4 Turbine input parameters The turbine flow will initially be subsonic.99 (station number 4. 3. In Equations (61) through (70). 29 .

b) Next. f) Obtain the variation of angle β using the following polynomial: β ⎛ δr ⎞ + B2⋅ ⎛ δr ⎞ ⎜r ⎝ r4 ⎠ ⎝ 4⎠ 2 β 4 + B1⋅ ⎜ (75) The variables B1 and B2 are specified coefficients. g) Define the change in rotor speed using: U r U4⋅ ⎛⎜ ⎞ ⎝ r4 ⎠ (76) The second-order polynomials in Equations (74) and (75) are chosen for convenience. The initial value of β is β4. perform the following steps to obtain the input parameters: a) Specify the radius ratio r5/r4 and the number of iterations steps. other variations with r are possible. They are variable using any type of functions. nt. decrease the area as the ratio A/A4 using the second order polynomial below: A A4 ⎛ δr ⎞ + K2⋅ ⎛ δr ⎞ ⎜r ⎝ r4 ⎠ ⎝ 4⎠ 2 1 + K1⋅ ⎜ (74) The variables K1 and K2 are specified coefficients. e) For the flow to accelerate. 30 .4. It follows that the small step change is d(δr/r4) = (δr5/r4)/nt or: r5 ⎛ δr ⎞ d⎜ ⎝ r4 ⎠ r4 −1 (72) nt d) It is now possible to vary the quantity δr/r4 starting with zero in steps of d(δr/r4) from index i = 0 to nt as follows: ⎛ δr ⎞ δr i⋅ d ⎜ (73) ⎝ r4 ⎠ r4 This then allows the variation of r/r4.3. consider the radius along the turbine flow to be r = r4+δr (δr is the difference between r as it varies along the burner and r4). At the inlet. The variation of r/r4 is: r 1+ r4 δr (71) r4 c) At station 5.1 Subsonic turbine Assuming first that the sonic point does not occur.4. δr (or δr4) is zero when r = r4. δr/r4 is δr5/r4 = (r5/r4)-1.

5 needs to be calculated. First.5.5rel < 0.4.5 is: ⎛ r5 ⎞ ⎛ r4. However.4.5 ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ r5 31 −1 (77) . which is the final value of r/r4.4. repeat the steps in Section 3.4.5 and r5/r4 is shorter than the one specified in 3. For the input parameters.4. This means r5/r4 in Step a) becomes r5/r4.5. the flow stops at station 4.5/r4. r5/r4.1. Otherwise.1 by changing the subscripts 4 to 4. it can only go supersonic if it satisfies the condition P0/Po4.3.5. Figure 3-4 from the Anderson textbook [11] provides the basis for this condition: Figure 3-4: Convergent-divergent nozzle with supersonic exit (from [1]).4. obtain the ratio r4.5 ⎞ ⎜ r ⋅⎜ r r4. the ratio r5/r4.528. Now.2 Supersonic turbine If the turbine reaches station 4.

5/A4 is the value of Equation (74) at station 4. the area will have to increase. 3.5 Method of solving turbine equations Table 3-4 summarizes the input parameters for both the subsonic and supersonic turbine.5 ⎞ ⎛ A 5 ⎞ ⎜ A ⎜A ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4.5 ⎠ A 2 (78) The variables KK1 and KK2 are specified coefficients. Input Description r5/r4 Turbine radius ratio K1.5.5 ⎠ (79) The ratio A4. it is necessary to show how to solve Equations (61) through (70).KK2 A/A4. Replace Equation (74) in Step e) with the supersonic area ratio A/A4.K2 A/A4 second order polynomial coefficients KK1. For the flow to accelerate. they give the following form: 32 .4.5 second order polynomial coefficients B1. Table 3-4: Turbine equation input parameters. The overall turbine area ratio is then: A5 A4 ⎛ A 4. the radius ratio is the specified r5/r4.5 polynomial: ⎛ δr ⎞ + KK2⋅ ⎛ δr ⎞ 1 + KK1⋅ ⎜ ⎜r A 4. For Equations (61) through (67).B2 β second order polynomial coefficients nt number of iteration steps With the input parameters established. The decreasing flow area in the subsonic region and increasing flow area in the supersonic region means the turbine resembles a convergent-divergent nozzle.This ensures that by the end of the turbine calculations.5 ⎠ ⎝ 4.5 ⎝ r4.

Modify them according to the following steps: a) If P0/Po4.01. For the supersonic flow.5 except for T. the initial values are the ones at station 4. W.2 ⎡ W ⎢ −1 0 − Cp ⋅ T ⎢ ⎢ 1 −1 0 ⎢ 0 1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ P 1 ⎢ 0 2 ρ⋅W ⎢ ⎢ U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) ⎢ 0 0 Cp ⋅ To ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ T W ⋅ ( W − U⋅ sin ( β ) ) 0 ⎢− T − Cp ⋅ To o ⎣ 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 − Torel To 0 2 0 γ ⋅ M rel 0 2 0 1 0 ⎛ ⎤⎜ 0⎥ ⎜ ⎥⎜ ⎥⎜ 0 ⎥⎜ 0⎥ ⎜ ⎥⎜ 0⎥ ⎜ ⎥⎜ ⎥ ⋅⎜ 1⎥ ⎜ ⎥⎜ ⎥⎜ ⎥⎜ 0⎥ ⎜ ⎥⎜ ⎥⎜ 1⎥ ⎜ ⎦⎜ ⎝ d ( T) T d( W ) W d ( P) P d(ρ ) ( ρ ) d Torel Torel ( ) d Porel Porel ( ) d To To ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ U⋅ d ( U) ⎛ − ⎜ Cp ⋅ T ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⎜ d( A ) ⎜ − A ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⎜ ⎜ U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) Cp ⋅ To ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⎜ ⎜ U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ⎜ Cp ⋅ To ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ (80) ⎠ Inverting the matrix in Equation (80) gives: ⎛⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ d To ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ To ⎠ d ( T) T d(W ) W d ( P) P d( ρ ) ( ρ ) d Torel Torel ( ) d Porel Porel 2 ⎡ W ⎢ −1 − 0 Cp ⋅ T ⎢ ⎢ 1 0 −1 ⎢ 1 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ P 1 ⎢ 0 2 ⎢ ρ⋅W ⎢ U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) ⎢ 0 0 Cp ⋅ To ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎢ ⎢ T W ⋅ ( W − U⋅ sin ( β ) ) 0 ⎢− T − Cp ⋅ To ⎣ o 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 − Torel To 0 2 0 γ ⋅ M rel 2 0 0 1 0 ⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 1⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 1⎥ ⎦ −1 U⋅ d ( U) ⎛ − ⎜ Cp ⋅ T ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⎜ d( A ) ⎜ − A ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⋅ ⎜ ⎜ U⋅ d( U) − W ⋅ d( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) Cp ⋅ To ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⎜ ⎜ U⋅ d( U) − W ⋅ d( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ⎜ Cp ⋅ To ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ (81) ⎠ Initial flow values for the turbine are the burner exit properties. then Mrel = 1. ρ.528.5rel < 0. and Mrel. P. b) Calculate the others using: 33 .

5 γ 4.5rel P (82) γ 4.5− 1 P R⋅ T Solving Equation (81) numerically across the subsonic and supersonic flows until the turbine radius ratio is the specified r5/r4 gives the following flow properties: T W T i− 1 W i− 1 i i + ⎛ d ( T) ⎞ ⋅ T ⎜ T ⎝ ⎠ i−1 + ⎛ d(W ) ⎞ ⋅ W ⎜ W ⎝ ⎠ i−1 P P + ⎛ d ( P) ⎞ ⋅ P ⎜ P ⎝ ⎠ i−1 ρi ρ i− 1 + ⎛ d( ρ ) ⎞ ⋅ ρ ⎜ i− 1 ⎝ ρ ⎠ i− 1 i Porel + i− 1 Porel i To i To i− 1 + ⎛ d ( Porel) ⎞ ⋅ Porel ⎜ P i− 1 ⎝ orel ⎠ ⎛ d ( To ) ⎞ ⋅ To ⎜ T ⎝ o ⎠ i−1 W M rel i (83) i γ i⋅ R⋅ T i γi Po i s i ⎛ To i ⎞ ⎜ Po4 ⋅ ⎜ To4 ⎝ ⎠ γ i−1 ⎛ To i ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ s 4 + Cp ⋅ ln − R⋅ ln ⎜ i ⎜ To4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ Po i ⎞ Po4 ⎠ All the variables on the right hand side of Equation (81) are at index i-1 (except the constants) and it follows that: 34 .5 − 1 1+ 2 2 ⋅ M rel M rel⋅ γ 4.5rel T γ 4.5⋅ R⋅ T W Po4.To4.5 − 1 ⎛ 2⎞ ⎜1 + ⋅ M rel 2 ⎝ ⎠ ρ γ 4.

4. Output Description M4rel Exit relative Mach number τbrel Relative stagnation temperature ratio (To4rel/To3rel) πbrel Relative stagnation pressure ratio (Po4rel/Po3rel) τb Absolute stagnation temperature ratio (To4/To3) πb Absolute stagnation pressure ratio (Po4/Po3) To4rel Relative stagnation temperature Po4rel Relative stagnation pressure Po4 Absolute stagnation pressure W4 Outlet relative velocity T4 Outlet temperature P4 Outlet pressure ρ4 Outlet density s4 Outlet entropy m4/m3 Mass flow rate ratio A4/A3 Area ratio 35 (85) . 3. Using the definition of angular momentum [12] from Appendix B and Cθ = U-W*sin(β). the specific power of the turbine is: Wt = −(1 + f ) ⋅ [U 5 ⋅ ( U 5 − W5 ⋅ sin(β 5 )) − U 4 ⋅ ( U 4 − W4 ⋅ sin(β 4 ))] m3 Appendix B shows the derivation of Equation (85).5 ⎠ i−1 A ( U ⋅ sin β i − U ⋅ sin β i− 1 i i− 1 d ( U) (84) ) U −U i i− 1 At the exit.6 Burner and turbine output summary In summary.subsonic: d( A) A ⎛ A ⎞ −⎛ A ⎞ ⎜A ⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎠ i ⎝ A 4 ⎠ i−1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜A ⎝ 4 ⎠ i−1 A . the burner exit variables are: Table 3-5: Burner exit flow variables. the turbine flow variables in Equation (83) will carry the subscript five.5 ⎠ i−1 ⎛ A ⎞ ⎜A ⎝ 4.5 ⎠ i ⎝ A4. supersonic: ( ) d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) d(A) ⎛ A ⎞ −⎛ A ⎞ ⎜A ⎜ ⎝ 4.

Output Description β4 Outlet flow angle U4 Outlet rotor speed f Fuel-to-air ratio Cp4 Outlet specific heat γ4 Outlet specific heat ratio Wb/m3 Burner specific power For the turbine: Table 3-6: Turbine exit flow variables. Output Description M5rel Exit relative Mach number τtrel Relative stagnation temperature ratio (To5rel/To4rel) πtrel Relative stagnation pressure ratio (Po5rel/Po4rel) τt Absolute stagnation temperature ratio (To5/To5) πt Absolute stagnation pressure ratio (Po5/Po4) To5rel Relative stagnation temperature Po5rel Relative stagnation pressure To5 Absolute stagnation pressure Po5 Absolute stagnation pressure W5 Outlet relative velocity T5 Outlet temperature P5 Outlet pressure ρ5 Outlet density s5 Outlet entropy A5/A4 Area ratio β5 Outlet flow angle U5 Outlet rotor speed Cp5 Outlet specific heat γ5 Outlet specific heat ratio Wt/m3 Turbine specific power 36 .

To make this analysis as simple as possible. This is important when comparing the new APU to other engines currently in service. Plotting the burner and turbine results show how they vary throughout the flow.5 Overall APU properties With the flow properties now known at each component. it is important to introduce the concept of centrifugal stress. It is still possible to obtain other output properties not mentioned in this chapter by using a combination of variables seen in Table 3-5 and Table 3-6. the assumptions are: a) The rotor bottom is a relatively flat disk. 3. calculate the ratio r5/r2h: 37 . In order to limit the impeller size. the specific power takeoff and PSFC are the two parameters used when comparing the rotor with other engines.The output variables above are the important ones. Here are the important parameters that describe the overall performance: a) Rotor specific power takeoff: PTO W t Wb Wc = + + mc mc mc mc (86) b) Power takeoff coefficient: CTO ⎛ PTO ⎞ ⎜ m ⎝ c ⎠ (87) Cpc ⋅ T0 c) Power specific fuel consumption (PSFC): mf f PTO ⎛ PTO ⎞ ⎜ m ⎝ c ⎠ (88) d) Thermal efficiency: η TH CTO f⋅ hHV (89) Cpc ⋅ T 0 e) Rotor radius-to-compressor inlet tip ratio: r5 r2t ⎛ r3 ⎞ ⎛ r4 ⎞ ⎛ r5 ⎞ ⎜ r ⋅⎜ r ⋅⎜ r ⎝ 2t ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ (90) In most cases. b) The disk thickness is tapered in such a way that its centrifugal stress is uniform everywhere. it is necessary to determine the overall performance of the rotor. First.

38 (92) . z2h/z5 from the Hill and Petersen textbook [5] is: z2h z5 ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ exp⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ −2 ⎤ ⎛ r5 ⎞ ⎥ 1−⎜ ⎥ r2h ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ 2 ⎛ σ ⎞ ⎥ ⋅⎜ 2 ρ ⎥ U5 ⎝ material ⎠ ⎦ Use Figure 3-5 to select an appropriate value of σ/ρmaterial (also called specific rupture strength): Figure 3-5: Variation of specific rupture strength with service temperature (from [5]). It is thicker at the hub than at the rim.r5 r2h ζc −1 ⎛ r3 ⎞ ⎛ r4 ⎞ ⎛ r5 ⎞ ⋅⎜ ⋅⎜ ⎝ r2t ⎠ ⎝ r3 ⎠ ⎝ r4 ⎠ ⋅⎜ (91) The disk hub-to-rim thickness ratio.

the equations in this section will use relative frame variables (absolute and relative frames are the same for simple flows). the chosen simple case is the variable area duct flow. 39 . it was important to validate the burner and turbine equations by comparing them with simple flow problems. b) Flow in a constant area duct with only heat addition. In the equations/results section. Simple cases for the burner are: a) Flow in a constant area duct with drag and heat addition. Before continuing with the rotor analysis. the program performed the analysis according to the following steps: a) Air and diffuser b) Compressor c) Burner d) Turbine e) Overall APU properties The turbine portion evaluates only the subsonic flow if the supersonic region does not occur. For both cases above. 4.1 Simple one-dimensional flow A simple flow involves no curvature (β does not change) and rotation along with constant specific heats. mf is extremely small compared to m3. For convenience. The purpose was to provide confidence in the usage of the burner and turbine equations. As for the turbine.Chapter 4 Results of analysis A MathCAD program created to carry out the new rotor analysis consisted of an input parameters section and an equations/results section.

1 Burner 4. The equation for M4rel in terms of the upstream variables and a prescribed τbrel [10] is: 2⋅ χ M 4rel 1 ( ) 1 − 2⋅ γ b ⋅ χ + ⎡ 1 − 2⋅ γ b + 1 ⋅ χ ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (93) 2 where: γc − 1 2⎛ 2⎞ ⋅ M 3rel γ c M 3rel ⋅ ⎜ 1 + 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⋅τ ⋅ 2 brel γb C ⎡ ⎛ ⎞ ⎤ D ⎢ 1 + γ c⋅ M3rel2⋅ ⎜ 1 − ⎥ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ χ (94) Next. the equation for πbrel [10] is: γb CD ⎞ ⎛ γb − 1 ⎛ 2⎞ 1 + γ c⋅ M 3rel ⋅ ⎜ 1 − ⎜1 + ⋅ M 4rel 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⋅ γ b− 1 2 πbrel 2 1 + γ b ⋅ M 4rel γc − 1 ⎛ 2⎞ ⎜1 + ⋅ M 3rel 2 ⎝ ⎠ γc (95) γ c− 1 In this section. the input parameters for the burner equations in the program are for a simple case.1 Constant area flow with drag and heat addition Figure 4-1: Constant area combustion chamber (from [10]).1.4. This allows the comparison of the quantities M4rel and πbrel in Equations (93) and (95) with its respective values in the program.1. Consider a constant area duct with flame holders at the beginning that contribute a drag force to the flow as seen in Figure 4-1. Table 4-1 summarizes this comparison: 40 .1.

785714 0.380952 0. the input parameters for the burner equations are such that it is a simple case for this section.Table 4-1: Comparison of burner equations to simple flow example (drag and heat addtion).1.297083 0.1 are applicable for the above control volume but with CD = 0. Once again. Table 4-2 summarizes the program results and the ones from Equations (93) and (95): 41 .287 kJ/(kg*K) γ0 = γ4 = 1.231116 0.2 T3 = 500K 600 1.2 Constant area flow with only heat addition Figure 4-2: Constant area flow through a duct with heat addition (from [9]).294143 0.355036 0.4 r4/r3 = 2 nb = 1000 4.952305 900 1.1.914513 P3 = 500kPa CD = 1.98 R = 0.93304 0. Consider the heat addition flow thorough the control volume shown in Figure 4-2.5 hHV = 18.230973 0.000 BTU/lbm ηb = 0. Burner To4 input (K) πbrel M4rel τbrel Burner Equation Burner Equation equations (93) equations (95) M3rel = 0.934004 1200 2.362688 0.911921 0. The same equations in Section 4.190476 0.1.952213 0.1.

220526 0.343898 0.1.287 kJ/(kg*K) γ0 = γ4 = 1.958871 P3 = 500kPa CD = 0 hHV = 18.4 r4/r3 = 2 nb = 1000 4.27976 0.221122 0.785714 0.956187 0.2 T3 = 500K 600 1.976184 0.994463 0.380952 0. At any two points in the flow.190476 0. Burner To4 input (K) πbrel M4rel τbrel Burner Equation Burner Equation equations (93) equations (95) M3rel = 0. Consider the flow shown in Figure 4-3.000 BTU/lbm ηb = 0.Table 4-2: Comparison of burner equations to simple flow example (heat addition).97725 1200 2.336013 0. the area ratio [9] is: 42 .2 Variable area flow Figure 4-3: Flow through a duct with variable area (from [9]).283147 0.994625 900 1.98 R = 0.

γ t+ 1 A5 A4 ⎛ ⎜1+ M ⎛ 4rel ⎞ ⎜ ⋅ ⎜M ⎝ 5rel ⎠ ⎜ 1 + ⎜ ⎝ γt − 1 2 γt − 1 2 2⎞ ( 2⋅ γ t − 1 ) ⋅ M 5rel (96) ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⋅ M 4rel ⎠ Equation (96) also works for convergent-divergent ducts.013896 1.273793 1. Equation (96) uses the values of M4rel and M5rel from the turbine calculations to determine A5/A4.5 2.583947 2. This type of nozzle can generate a supersonic flow.250246 0. Turbine input A5/A4 Μ4rel Μ5rel Turbine equations Equation (96) T4 = 500K P4 = 500kPa 0. That means the turbine is a convergent-divergent nozzle just like in Figure 4-3. Model Center has a specially created plug-in that easily wraps Mathcad programs into it. the 43 .287005 kJ/(kg*K) γ4 = 1.249443 2. Table 4-3 summarizes the results: Table 4-3: Comparison of turbine equations to simple flow example (variable area). For the compressor input parameters.7 2.274185 0.2. The turbine input parameters in the program are such that both a subsonic and supersonic region exists for a simple case. Model Center needed a range of values for all or just a selected number of input parameters to perform the optimization.827483 Cpt = 1. they were obtainable using typical values from the Hill and Petersen textbook. it was preferable to optimize it using Model Center (created by Phoenix Integration Inc.008123 kJ/(kg*K) R = 0.).1 Model Center and input/output constraints In order to implement the MathCAD program for the new rotor.9 2.4 r5/r4 = 2 nt = 8000 4.826604 2. As for the burner and turbine.426491 2. With the wrapping completed. Unlike other optimizers.2 Single rotor APU results 4.

The objective of the optimizer in this study was to maximize the specific power takeoff.3 0.1 0. Table 4-4 summarizes these input parameters: Table 4-4: Model Center input parameters with range limits.325 Y2 0 CD 1.45 2.5 Cθ2t/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 0 0.70203 To4 (K) 1200 B2 0 R (kJ/(kg*K)) 0.99 nb 2000 P0 (kPa) 101.4 U3/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 0.range of values was as wide as possible but within reasonable limits. Input parameters Values Input parameters Values Input parameters Values M0 0 τd 0.398 S2 0 KK2 0 s0 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1. Model Center then chose the best values for the input parameters when the optimizing process ended. Range of values Input parameters Lower limit Upper limit M2rel 0.99 hHV (BTU/lbm) 18000 T0 (K) 300 πd 0.6 Y1 -15 15 S1 0 50 r4/r3 1 4 K1 -50 -1 K2 1 1.9 β2t (deg) 10 50 ζc 0.287005 ηb 0.5 γ0 1.15 0.5 KK1 1 50 B1 0 50 r5/r4 1 4 σ/ρmaterial (kPa/kg/m3) 15 30 The input parameters that have fixed values were: Table 4-5: Model Center fixed input values.4 Wr3/U3 0.98 nt 8000 44 .

5 ensured the relative Mach number did not become too large in the event the flow goes supersonic.7 between 1. Limits placed on the compressor. the results from this run served as the initial values for the SLP method. it took SLP as much as two times to find the true optimum point. it was the quickest among the three.Setting a limit on σ/ρmaterial allowed the selection of an appropriate material from Figure 3-5 at the end of the optimizer run. Usually. To obtain the best results. it was necessary to restart the calculation using initial values from the previous run.005 means the rotor flow exits close to atmospheric pressure. it was preferable to set constraints on some of the output variables. The downside with using the SLP method was it took between one and a half to two hours to complete a run. SLP had the most efficient algorithm. SQP was the newest algorithm. This eventually helped speed up the optimization process. With the information in Table 4-4 and Table 4-6. In addition. Output variables M3rel Constraints maximum of 0. For this reason. Table 4-6 shows the chosen variables along with their given constraints: Table 4-6: Model Center output constraints. c) Sequential quadratic programming (SQP).1 Output variables β4 (deg) Output Constraints variables maximum of 90 β5 deg Constraints maximum of 90 deg A5/A4.2. it required initial values for the variables listed in Table 4-4 along with the constraints mentioned in Table 4-6. According to Model Center.1 and πc 30 r3/r2t at least 1.2. The entire optimization procedure 45 . b) Sequential linear programming (SLP). Of the three. burner and turbine size prevented them from becoming too small or big. However.5 maximum of 4 z2h/z5 between 1 and 3 M4rel maximum of 0. To make sure SLP found a true optimum. the limit |(P0-P5)/P5| (for backpressure matching consideration) being less than 0. Model Center found the maximum specific power takeoff for the cases mentioned in Section 4. There were three available optimizing methods in Model Center: a) Method of feasible directions (MFD). Before starting the optimizer. MFD was found not to reach the maximum point for the given constraints and limitations.005 The limit placed on A5/A4.8 |(P0-P5)/P5| less than 0.

which limited the turbine size. c) Without the stress constraint but with the |(P0-P5)/P5| constraints. The high specific power takeoff resulted due to both the burner and turbine producing a large amount of specific power. Figure E-14 showed how this configuration compared to the Brayton cycle.061594 ηTH r5/r2h z2h/z5 5.5 reached a value of 4.390339 1. The optimum occurred when the compressor pressure ratio was just enough to satisfy the P0/Po4.2 Results from Model Center The Model Center analysis consisted of four different cases: a) Without the stress (z2h/z5) and |(P0-P5)/P5| constraints. Case 1 clearly competed very well with the other gas turbine engines.2.needed repeating using different initial values to make sure the true optimum point did indeed occur. b) With the stress constraint but without the |(P0-P5)/P5| constraint. Model Center then provided the following results (complete results in Appendix E): Table 4-7: Overall rotor and other properties (Case 1).78268 124301. 4.528 condition and allowed the flow to go past the sonic point into the supersonic region (refer to Figure 4-4).748837E+4 β5 Wc/m3 Wb/m3 Wt/m3 (deg) (W/kg/s) (W/kg/s) (W/kg/s) 89.256221E-8 0.499688 πc 6.2. Figure E-16 through Figure E-20 (all created by only varying U3/(γ0*R*To2)1/2) shows that this configuration was the optimum point based on the given constraints and limitations in Section 4.1 Case 1: Without the stress and |(P0-P5)/P5| constraints.433445 -228368.012. 4.5rel < 0.705278 516285. PTO/m3 mf/PTO (W/kg/s) (kg/s/W) 412218. 46 .2.1. The rest of the limitation in Table 4-4 and Table 4-6 stayed the same. SQP was capable of reaching a maximum point close to the one achieved by SLP but required many repeated runs.577093 The optimizer stopped when A5/A4. d) With the stress and |(P0-P5)/P5| constraints. This case was necessary to investigate how large the rotor will get without the limitation of material (stress) or whether the flow exited at atmospheric pressure. In Figure D-1.454406 65.2.

1500 3 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 2 Mrel To 500 1 0 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 0 10 20 0 30 0 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 10 20 30 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r 6 1 . The plots in Figure 4-4 show that the rotor went supersonic which in turn caused the stagnation temperature and pressure to drop considerably in the turbine.105 0 0 10 20 30 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure 4-4: Relative Mach number. 47 . stagnation temperature (K) and pressure (Pa) according to location in the rotor (Case 1).10 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ P o 5 . This would occur in the burner for all the other cases. There was an unavoidable stagnation pressure drop in the burner that was consistent with the concept of burning at finite relative Mach numbers.

The burner would act like a turbine in all the subsequent cases.2 Case 2: With the stress constraint but without the |(P0-P5)/P5| constraint The analysis now included material limitation but still without taking into account the backpressure.500 1000 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 0 Cθ U ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 500 500 1000 0 10 20 0 30 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 0 10 20 30 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r 100 β deg ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 50 0 0 10 20 30 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure 4-5: Variation of the absolute tangential velocity (m/s). A r5/r2h value of 65. Table 4-7 showed a huge value for z2h/z5 making this rotor unrealistic. which resulted in U5 being 765. Figure 4-5 indicates that U and β achieved high values that contributed to a large negative drop in the value of Cθ for the turbine. rotor speed (m/s) and flow curvature (deg) (Case 1). The drop in Cθ in the burner made it act like a turbine and produced specific power.390339. made the rotor become as strong as possible to withstand the amount of stress associated with this configuration. 4.698776 m/s.2.2. However. This permitted it to achieve a high specific power value. Table 4-8 shows some of the results from Model Center with the complete set located in Appendix F: 48 .

5. all the points in Figure F-19 through Figure F-23 had their flow end at station 4.378184 -16268.2.Table 4-8: Overall rotor and other properties (Case 2). Figure F-19 through Figure F-23 (all created by only varying M2rel) indicated that Case 2 was indeed an optimum. When placed into Figure D-1.094656 81713. This gave the following selected results in Table 4-9 (complete results in Appendix G): 49 . it was known that the compressor pressure ratio had to be around six and higher to go past the sonic point. This would be the situation for all the subsequent cases. In Figure F-13. In fact. This made the burner and turbine each produce specific power that was not as high as in the previous case.200241 πc 1. Therefore.5. From Case 1.932721 β5 Wc/m3 Wb/m3 Wt/m3 (deg) (W/kg/s) (W/kg/s) (W/kg/s) 81. The exception here was there was no supersonic flow region. Unlike Case 1. 4. the optimizer halted when r3/r2t came close to its minimum value. The plots also showed that more specific power takeoff was possible but only when r3/r2t became smaller than one. In this case. as seen in Figure F-1. The compressor pressure ratio was not high enough to satisfy the condition P0/Po4.183161 Comparing the results in Appendix E and Appendix F showed similar patterns in the flow characteristics. Figure F-14 showed how this case compared to the Brayton cycle (to view the compressor and turbine temperature change in Figure F-14.2. the size limitation affected the range at which Cθ could drop in the burner and turbine. This was due to a smaller rotor size and exit rotor speed.053457E-7 0.924331 ηTH r5/r2h z2h/z5 2. the stress limitation clearly prevented the rotor from achieving a high specific power takeoff.5rel < 0. this case was close to the other gas turbine engines but could not compete very well in terms of specific power takeoff and PSFC. PTO/m3 mf/PTO (W/kg/s) (kg/s/W) 127884.211841 2. Like in Case 1. The value of U5 was definitely a lot smaller than in Case 1. see Figure F-15 and Figure F-16). the value of z2h/z5 here was more realistic.528 and caused the flow to cutoff at station 4.3 Case 3: Without the stress constraint but with the |(P0-P5)/P5| constraint It was now necessary to determine the rotor characteristics using the backpressure as a constraint but without any stress limitations. Figure F-23 showed the disk thickness would continue to become larger with increasing compressor pressure ratio and specific power takeoff.116314 3.818746 62439.

940205 19140.535271 -45803.57612E-7 0. In Figure D-1. this large compressor had a negative effect on the specific power takeoff. With no material limitation. From Figure G-1.017598 3.007112 44305. PTO/m3 mf/PTO (W/kg/s) (kg/s/W) 17641.292149E+4 made the manufacturing of this rotor impossible.Table 4-9: Overall rotor and other properties (Case 3). Therefore. the flow managed to get into the supersonic region.495073 2.820934 πc 1. the compressor power demand took up most of this specific power leaving a specific power takeoff a little more than in Case 2.2.572254 ηTH r5/r2h z2h/z5 1. the compressor pressure ratio had to be very large. To accomplish this. However.4036 There was an obvious improvement in the results compared to Case 2.5rel < 0. This was due to the large Cθ drop seen in Figure G-12 with high β5 and U5 values.754028 50 . Model Center used all the constraints and limitations mentioned in Table 4-4 and Table 4-6 to give the selected results in Table 4-10: Table 4-10: Overall rotor and other properties (Case 4).4 Case 4: With the stress and |(P0-P5)/P5| constraints In this case. 4.596648 ηTH r5/r2h z2h/z5 1.76084 -436026.292149E+4 β5 Wc/m3 Wb/m3 Wt/m3 (deg) (W/kg/s) (W/kg/s) (W/kg/s) 88.533881 1. the rotor size behaved similar to Case 1 and the disk thickness went as large as possible.14829 257696.78374 310579. Table 4-9 showed that the burner and turbine together produced a significant amount of specific power. Case 3 and Case 2 were close together but compared not very well to the other gas turbine engines. PTO/m3 mf/PTO (W/kg/s) (kg/s/W) 132248. The plots in Appendix G showed that the major portion of the rotor was in fact the compressor.357239E-6 0. a z2h/z5 value of 1. Nevertheless.2.232095 πc 17.489291 β5 Wc/m3 Wb/m3 Wt/m3 (deg) (W/kg/s) (W/kg/s) (W/kg/s) 84. This meant it satisfied the P0/Po4.528 condition and at the same time had an exit pressure close to atmospheric.15154 19.

Like in Case 3.312 inches. 4. A general observation was the compressor always had the largest size compared to the other components. This once again indicated that the rotor required the strongest material possible.743 inches and b5 = 4. the compressor exit blade height started out at 0. Part of this reason was that the flow ended at M5rel equal to 0. It was very small at the compressor outlet but took on a very large value at the rotor exit. Next. Appendix I showed Case 1 had an unusual blade height distribution.2.When completely constrained. Each rotor design had geometries that made their manufacturing not practical. both the ratio b5/b3 = 53. In Case 2. The value of b5 equal to 1. However.738 inches. Placing this case into Figure D-1 showed that it was far from the gas turbine engine points in terms of both specific power takeoff and PSFC. a possible material was molybdenum alloy stainless steel.476262371. As for Case 4.934 inches but when it reached the burner outlet.131 and z2h/z5 = 1. b4 = 0. it was important to illustrate how the rotor for each case would look like. the compressor absorbed most of the specific power generated.292149E+4 in Case 3 made this rotor unrealistic. Using Figure 3-5 (with To4 as the service temperature). All four cases had eight vanes and r2t = 2 inches. Appendix I through Appendix L shows how this took place. the height was 9. this case produced the lowest specific power takeoff and highest PSFC among the four cases. Appendix H shows the rest of the results for this case.159 inches in Case 3 made this rotor seem reasonable. 51 .3 Rotor material and size The specific strength for this rotor (including all the other cases) ended at its highest given limit of 30 kPa/kg/m3. This also occurred in Cases 3 and 4. Both the first two cases obviously had unusual rotor designs. Figure H-13 showed there was not much of a drop in Cθ between the burner inlet and turbine exit to significantly power the compressor and produce specific power takeoff at the same time.

intercoolers and so on giving them high efficiencies. Each case also had the disadvantage of having large compressors (compared to the other components). the rotor size became as large as possible with high supersonic exit relative Mach numbers. This made it compare poorly with current gas turbine engine performance. b) Consider secondary flows to analyze the rotor with loss terms such as friction. With the rotor fully constrained. e) Provide more degrees of freedom to the analysis by extending the rotor geometry to allow flow in the axial direction (z-direction).2 Recommendations With the study now complete. This allows them to have extra components such as regenerators. This allowed a large specific power takeoff that was able to compete very well with current gas turbine engines in service. c) Provide constraints for the blade height variation to make rotor shape more practical. 5. This in turn affected the specific powers produced by the burner and turbine components. as in the last case. d) Perform a combined burner and turbine analysis. Stress analysis indicated this rotor had an unrealistic disk thickness distribution. not just the specific power takeoff. The results from the first case indicated that with no restrictions on the type of material and exit backpressure matching. at least for large PTO/m3. burner and turbine of a gas turbine engine into a single radial rotor and simulate it mathematically according to the principles of quasi-onedimensional flow. some recommendations for continuation of this research are: a) Optimize the PSFC. Each case investigated had a sample rotor drawn to help visualize their shapes. the results in general suggest that the single radial rotor concept may not be such a good idea. The pictures indicated that all four rotors had an unusual combination of blade heights and disk thicknesses making their construction difficult. Therefore. Constraining the rotor size prevented a large absolute tangential velocity change. 52 . all the gas turbine engines (including the four cases) compared badly with the gasoline and diesel power generators. The simulations consisted of four different cases with each producing a unique set of results. it was unable to achieve supersonic exit velocities and produced a very low specific power takeoff. An optimizer maximized the specific power takeoff for each case using a set of design constraints placed on the input parameters and output variables. However.1 Conclusion Summary The idea of this study was to combine the compressor.Chapter 5 5. These generators usually do not have any weight limitations since they are ground-based.

Cengel. Leyes II. William A. 1999.. 1992. 1998. 4th ed.users. A Practical Guide to Compressor Technology. Oosthuizen. [8] Daley. William H. Daniel H. 1995.html]. William E.uk/apu. and Patrick H. [11] Anderson Jr. Gordon C.htm]. Heiser. Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Propulsion. [7] Bloch. Aircraft Engine Design.htm] [5] Hill. Scramjet and Turbojet/Ramjet.. [http://www.References [1] Fleming.org.. Reston: AIAA. Turboshaft.b737. The History of North American Small Gas Turbine Aircraft Engines. S. New York: McGraw-Hill. Washington: AIAA. Boston: BH.aircraftenginedesign. Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery. and Carl R. L. 53 .. New York: McGraw. Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach. Mattingly.. [2] Turboprop. 1984. and Yunus A. Modern Compressible Flow: With Historical Perspective. 1982 [12] Dixon. New York: McGraw. [http://www. and Jack D.globalnet. Reading: Addison-Wesley. 1997.. and Richard A. Reston: AIAA.co. Boston: McGraw-Hill. 3rd ed. [4] Auxiliary Power Unit: The APU described. 1999. Peterson.uk/~spurr/sec. Michael A. John D. Aerothermodynamics of Gas Turbine and Rocket Propulsion. [10] Oates. [3] How it Works: Small Gas Turbine Engine (APU). Ramjet. 2nd ed. Philip G. [6] Boles.com/abe_right4. [http://www. 1987 [9] Carscallen. Compressible Fluid Flow. 1998. Heinz P.

τc γ 0⋅ R⋅ T o2 ⋅ <-----Equation 1 τc 1+ γ0 − 1 2 2 ⋅ M3 54 2 2 ⋅ M3 .W 3 γ 0⋅ R⋅ T3 W r3 ( ) cos β 3 Wr3 M 3rel U3 ( ) cos β 3 ⋅ U3 γ 0⋅ R⋅ T3 Wr3 M 3rel U3 ( ) cos β 3 U3 ⋅ γ 0⋅ R⋅ To3 1+ γ0 − 1 2 To3 <----.Appendix A A.1 M 3rel M 3rel Compressor Derivations Outlet relative Mach number W3 γ 0⋅ R⋅ T3 W r3 ( ) cos β 3 1 ⋅ <----.T3 1+ γ0 − 1 2 ⋅ M3 Wr3 M 3rel U3 ( ) cos β 3 U3 ⋅ γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2⋅ 1+ γ0 − 1 2 To3 To2 2 ⋅ M3 Wr3 M 3rel U3 ( ) cos β 3 ⋅ U3 γ 0⋅ R⋅ To2⋅ τc 1+ U3 ( ) cos β 3 γ0 − 1 2 To3 To2 2 ⋅ M3 U3 Wr3 M 3rel <----.

A.2 Outlet relative stagnation temperature 2 2 C3 since Cp0⋅ T3 and Cp0⋅ T3 Cp0⋅ To3 − 2 2 Cp0⋅ To3rel − Cp0⋅ To3 − 2 2 2 C3 Cp0⋅ To3 − + 2 To3 − : C3 2 To3rel 2 2 W3 2 Cp0⋅ To3rel Cp0⋅ To3rel − W3 W3 2 2 C3 − W 3 2⋅ Cp0 2 2 ⎛ C3 − W 3 ⎞ ⎜ To3rel To3⋅ 1 − ⎜ 2⋅ Cp0⋅ To3 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 ⎡ W 3 ⎞ ⎥⎤ γ 0⋅ R⋅ T3 ⎛⎜ C3 ⎢ To3rel To3⋅ 1 − ⋅ − ⎢ 2⋅ Cp0⋅ To3 ⎜ γ 0⋅ R⋅ T3 γ 0⋅ R⋅ T3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦ 2 γ 0⋅ R ⎡ 2 2 ⎤ To3rel To3⋅ ⎢ 1 − ⋅ ⎛ M 3 − M 3rel ⎞ ⎥ ⎠ To3 ⎝ ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ 2 ⋅ C p0 T ⎢ ⎥ 3 ⎣ ⎦ To3rel To3rel ( ⎡ To3⋅ ⎢ 1 − ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ) γ 0⋅ γ 0 − 1 ⎛ γ0 − 1 ⎝ 2 2⋅ γ 0⋅ ⎜ 1 + ⋅ M3 ⎡ γ0 − 1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ γ0 − 1 ⎛ 2⋅ ⎜ 1 + ⋅ M3 2 ⎝ ⎠ To3⋅ ⎢ 1 − <-----M 3rel ⎤ 2⎞ ⎥ ⋅ ⎛ M 3 − M 3rel 2 ⎝ 2⎞ ⎠ 2 ⎠⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎤ 2⎞ ⎥ ⋅ ⎛ M 3 − M 3rel ⎝ 2⎞ W3 2 ⎠⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 55 <----- γ 0⋅ R⋅ T3 R γ0 − 1 Cp0 γ0 <-----Equation 2 and 2 2 and M 3 To3 T3 C3 γ 0⋅ R⋅ T3 1+ γ0 − 1 2 2 ⋅ M3 .

2 Conservation of energy (first law of thermodynamics) Q − W = ( m ⋅ h o ) out − ( m ⋅ h o ) in 2 h+ since h o C 2 : ⎡ ⎛ ⎡ ⎛ C 2 ⎞⎟⎤ C 2 ⎞⎟⎤ ⎥ ⎥ − ⎢m ⋅ ⎜ h + Q − W = ⎢m ⋅ ⎜ h + 2 ⎟⎥ 2 ⎟⎥ ⎢ ⎜⎝ ⎢ ⎜⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ out ⎣ ⎦ in ( )out − (m⋅ U⋅ Cθ )in ( )out Q + m⋅ U⋅ Cθ Q + m⋅ U⋅ Cθ ⎡ ⎛ Q + ⎢m⋅ ⎜ U⋅ Cθ − ⎣ ⎝ ⎛ C ⎝ 2 − ⎜ m⋅ 2 ⎞⎤ 2 ⎞⎤ ⎡ ⎛ ⎡ ⎛ ⎢m⋅ ⎜ h + C ⎥ − ⎢m⋅ ⎜ h + C ⎥ 2 ⎠⎦ out ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ in ⎣ ⎝ 2⎞ ( − m⋅ U⋅ Cθ ⎠ out )in ⎛ C ⎝ 2 2⎞ + ⎜ m⋅ ⎠ in ( m⋅ h ) out <-----place conservation of angular momentum here − ( m⋅ h ) in 2 ⎞⎤ ⎡ ⎛ ⎥ − ⎢m⋅ ⎜ U⋅ Cθ − C ⎥ ( m⋅ h ) − ( m⋅ h ) out in 2 ⎠⎦ out ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ in 2 ⎞⎤ C 2 C : for U⋅ Cθ − 2 2 2 U⋅ Cθ − C U⋅ Cθ − C U⋅ Cθ − C 2 U⋅ Cθ − 2 2 ( C 2 2 ( ( C U⋅ Cθ − C U 2 2 2 ) ) U⋅ U − W θ − U⋅ Cθ − 2 ) U⋅ U − W θ − 2 U⋅ Cθ − 2 U − U⋅ W θ − 2 − 2 2 <----.1 Burner and turbine derivations Conservation of angular momentum −W = ( m ⋅ U ⋅ C θ ) out − ( m ⋅ U ⋅ C θ ) in B.Appendix B B.W 2 W 2 2 2 − U 2 + U⋅ W θ 2 2 56 2 2 Wr + Wθ 2 Cr (both from velocity triangle) .C 2 U⋅ U − W θ − 2 2 Cr + Cθ W 2 ( Wr + U − Wθ )2 2 2 2 2 Cr + Cθ U − W θ and W r <-----Cθ W r + U − 2⋅ U⋅ W θ + W θ 2 2 2 2 2 W + U − 2⋅ U⋅ W θ <----.

d ( Q) 0 2 2 ⎛ ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛ 2⎞ ⎞ ⎜ hHV⋅ η b + U − W − Cp⋅ T ⋅ d ( m) + d⎜ U − d ⎜ W − Cp⋅ d ( T) 0 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ m ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 2⋅ h HV⋅ η b U2 W 2 ⎞ d( m) ⎜ + − − Cp ⋅ T ⋅ + U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( W ) − Cp ⋅ d ( T) 0 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ m ⎛ 2⋅ h ⋅ η + U2 − W 2 ⎞ U⋅ d ( U) W ⋅ d( W ) d ( T) ⎜ HV b d ( m) −1 ⋅ + − − ⎜ 2⋅ Cp ⋅ T Cp ⋅ T Cp ⋅ T T ⎝ ⎠ m ⎛ 2⋅ h ⋅ η + U2 − W 2 ⎞ 2 W d( W ) d ( T) ⎜ HV b d ( m) −1 ⋅ − ⋅ − ⎜ 2⋅ Cp ⋅ T T Cp ⋅ T W ⎝ ⎠ m 57 − 0 U⋅ d ( U) Cp ⋅ T <-----divide by Cp ⋅ T <-----Equation 1 h HV⋅ η b ⋅ d ( m) .2 2 U C place U⋅ Cθ − 2 − 2 W 2 into the first law equation: 2 ⎡ ⎛ U2 W 2 ⎞⎤ ⎡ ⎛ U2 W 2 ⎞⎤ ⎢ ⎜ ⎥ ⎥ Q + m⋅ − − ⎢m⋅ ⎜ − ( m⋅ h ) − ( m⋅ h ) out in 2 ⎠⎦ out ⎣ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠⎦ in ⎣ ⎝ 2 2⎞ ⎛ U ⎝ 2 ⎛ U ⎝ 2 Q + ⎜ m⋅ Q + ⎜ m⋅ 2⎞ ⎛ U ⎠ out ⎝ 2 − ⎜ m⋅ 2⎞ W ⎠ in ⎝ 2 ⎠ out W 2⎞ 2⎞ ⎛ U ⎠ out ⎝ 2 − ⎜ m⋅ 2⎞ ⎛ − ⎜ m⋅ ⎡⎛ − ⎢ ⎜ m⋅ ⎠ in ⎢⎣ ⎝ 2 2⎞ ⎛ W ⎝ 2 ⎠ in W 2⎞ + ⎜ m⋅ ⎛ − ⎜ m⋅ (m⋅ Cp⋅ T)out − (m⋅ Cp⋅ T)in ⎤ ⎥ 2 ⎠ in ⎥ ⎦ ⎠ out ⎝ <----.h Cp ⋅ T (m⋅ Cp⋅ T)out − (m⋅ Cp⋅ T)in convert equation above into differential form: 2⎞ ⎛ U ⎝ 2 d ( Q) + d ⎜ m⋅ ⎠ ⎛ U2 ⎞ m ⎛ U2 ⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎠ h HV⋅ η b ⋅ d ( m) h HV⋅ η b ⋅ d ( m) m m 2⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎠ U + ⎝ 2 ⎠ + d⎜ W 2 d ( Q) + m⋅ d ⎜ d ( Q) ⎛ − d ⎜ m⋅ 2 2 U + 2 ⋅ ⎛ W2 ⎞ ⋅ d ( m) − m⋅ d ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 2 ⋅ − d⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ m ⎛ U2 ⎞ U ⎛ W2 ⎞ d ( m) + d⎜ + ( d m⋅ Cp ⋅ T 2 + d ( m) m U 2 − ⋅ W 2 d ( m) m 2 ⋅ − ) − W 2 W 2 2 ⋅ ⎝ 2 ⎠ d ( m) m ⋅ d ( m) m − m⋅ Cp ⋅ d ( T) + Cp ⋅ T⋅ d ( m) d ( m) Cp ⋅ d ( T) + Cp ⋅ T⋅ m d ( m) ⎛ W2 ⎞ − d⎜ 2 W 2 2 ⋅ <-----divide by m d ( m) Cp ⋅ d ( T) + Cp ⋅ T⋅ m d ( m) m 2⎞ ⎛U d ( m) − Cp ⋅ T⋅ + d⎜ m ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ W2 ⎞ − d⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ − Cp ⋅ d ( T) <----.

3 Equation of state d( ρ ) d ( T) + ρ B.B.5 ρ + d(A) d ( m) A m − d ( m) − m d( A ) <-----Equation 3 A Conservation of linear momentum P − d ( P) − ρ ⋅W 2 ⋅ d ( P) d( W ) P W ( ) d FD for + d ( m) m + ( ) d FD 2 ρ ⋅W ⋅A : 2 ρ ⋅W ⋅A 1 ( ) d FD 2 1 2 ρ ⋅W ⋅A 2 ( ) d FD 1 ( ) ⋅ d FD 2 ⋅ρ ⋅W ⋅A ( ) d FD ⋅ 2 1 2 ρ ⋅W ⋅A 2 ( ) d FD 1 2 d FD ( ) 1 2 2 P ρ ⋅W 2 ⋅ <----.4 T <-----Equation 2 0 P Conservation of mass d( W ) d( ρ ) + W d( W ) ρ d( ρ ) + W B.d CD ( ) d FD 1 2 ρ ⋅W ⋅A − ( ) ( ) ⋅ d CD 2 ρ ⋅W ⋅A place 2 ⋅ρ ⋅W ⋅A 2 ⋅ρ ⋅W ⋅A ( ) ⋅ d CD into the linear momentum equation: d ( P) d( W ) P W + d ( m) m + 1 2 ( ) ⋅ d CD 58 .

d( W ) d ( m) + W B.6 P + m ρ ⋅W ⋅ 2 d ( P) P ( ) 1 − ⋅ d CD 2 Relative stagnation temperature equation 2 2 C Cp ⋅ To − 2 W Cp ⋅ Torel − 2 W 2 2 C Cp ⋅ Torel − + 2 2 Cp ⋅ To Cp ⋅ Torel + 2 2 C −W 2 2 C −W 2 2 : 2 2 2 2 2 2 <-----C 2 2 C −W 2 ( Wr + U − Wθ 2 2 )2 − W r2 − W θ 2 2 2 C −W 2 2 U − 2⋅ U⋅ W θ + W θ − W θ 2 2 2 2 Cr + Cθ and W <-----Cθ 2 2 Wr + Wθ U − W θ and W r 2 2 2 2 U 2 2 2 C −W 2 2 U 2 2 2 C −W 2 2 − U⋅ W θ − U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) <-----W θ W ⋅ sin ( β ) (from velocity triangle) 2 − U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) into Cp ⋅ To 2 U 2 Cp ⋅ Torel + 2 Cp ⋅ To U Cp ⋅ Torel + − U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) 2 convert equation above into differential form: 59 C −W 2 2 : 2 Cr (both from velocity triangle) 2 C −W place 2 Cr + Cθ − W r − W θ 2 W : Cp ⋅ Torel − 2 2 Cp ⋅ To C −W 2 C and Cp ⋅ T Cp ⋅ To − 2 since Cp ⋅ T for <-----Equation 4 .

Cp ⋅ d Torel + ( ) Cp ⋅ d Torel + U⋅ d ( U) − U⋅ sin ( β ) ⋅ d ( W ) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) Cp ⋅ d To ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 2) − d(U⋅W⋅ sin (β )) ( ) Cp ⋅ d To d U 2 Cp ⋅ d To − Cp ⋅ d Torel + U⋅ sin ( β ) ⋅ d ( W ) ( U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ) d Torel d( W ) Cp ⋅ d To − Cp ⋅ Torel⋅ + U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) ⋅ Torel W ( ) ( ) d To − To B.M rel 2 2 d(W ) γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ W 2 d ( m) + γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ m + d ( P) P − γ ⋅ M rel 2 2 d ( P) P 2 d(W ) −γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ W 2 d ( m) − γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ m − γ ⋅ M rel 2 place P 2 d( W ) −γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ W 2 d ( m) − γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ m − 2 γ⋅P ( ) ⋅ d CD ( ) ⋅ d CD 2 d ( P) ρ⋅W γ ⋅ M rel 2 ( ) ⋅ d CD into the 60 ( ) d Porel Porel equation: <-----Equation 5 .7 ( ) Torel d Torel U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) d ( W ) ⋅ + ⋅ To Torel Cp ⋅ To W U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) <-----divide by Cp ⋅ To Cp ⋅ To Relative stagnation temperature equation 2 ( γ ⋅ M rel ) d Porel d ( P) Porel P d ⎛ M rel + γ−1 1+ 2 2⎞ ⎝ ⋅ 2 2 ⋅ M rel ⎠ 2 M rel from the the conservation of linear momentum equation: d( W ) W d( W ) W d( W ) W + + + d ( m) m + P ρ⋅W d ( m) m + 2 ⋅ d ( m) m + 1 − ⋅ d CD 2 P γ⋅P γ⋅ρ ⋅W ( ) d ( P) 2 1 2 ⋅ d ( P) ⋅ d ( P) ( ) 1 − ⋅ d CD 2 P γ ⋅ M rel ( ) 1 − ⋅ d CD 2 P 2 <----.

2 ( ) 2 d Porel 2 d(W ) −γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ Porel W d ⎛ M rel 2 d ( m) − γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ − m γ ⋅ M rel 2 γ ⋅ M rel ( ) d ⎛ M rel ⎝ ⋅ 2 ⋅ d CD + 1+ γ−1 2 2 ⋅ M rel 2⎞ ⎠ 2 M rel 2⎞ ⎝ from definition of ⎠: 2 M rel d ⎛ M rel 2⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 2⋅ 2 d(W ) W M rel d ( T) T ⎞ ⎛ d⎛ M 2 ⎞ rel ⎠ d ( T) ⎝ ⎜ ⋅ + 2 2 ⎜ T M rel ⎝ ⎠ d( W ) 1 W place − ⎞ ⎛ d⎛ M 2 ⎞ d ( Porel) d ( T) rel ⎠ ⎝ ⎜ into the equation: ⋅ + 2 Porel 2 ⎜ T ⎝ Mrel ⎠ 1 d(W ) W 2 ( ) 2 d Porel − Porel γ ⋅ M rel 2 γ ⋅ M rel 2 2 ⎞ ⎛ d⎛ M 2 ⎞ γ ⋅ M rel d ⎛ M rel ⎞ rel ⎠ 2 d ( T) 2 d ( m) ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⋅ + − γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ − ⋅ d ( CD) + ⋅ m ⎜ M 2 2 2 T γ−1 2 M rel 1+ ⋅ M rel rel ⎝ ⎠ 2 by definition. the relative stagnation temperature is: ( γ−1 ) d Torel d ( T) Torel T ( + 1+ ) d ( T) d Torel T Torel place 2 γ−1 2 γ−1 2 − 1+ ( ) d ( T) d Torel T Torel 2 d ⎛ M rel ⋅ M rel 2 ⋅ M rel 2 2 − 1+ ⎠ 2 M rel 2 d ⎛ M rel ⋅ M rel γ−1 2 2⎞ ⎝ ⋅ 2 2 2 M rel ⋅ M rel γ−1 ⎠ d ⎛ M rel ⋅ M rel γ−1 2⎞ ⎝ ⋅ ⎝ ⋅ 2 ⋅ M rel 2⎞ ⎠ into the d ( Porel) equation: Porel 2 M rel 61 .

W 2 2 W + U − 2⋅ U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) 2 2 2 <-----W θ 62 2 Wr + Wθ 2 W ⋅ sin ( β ) (from velocity triangle) 2⎞ 2 Mrel ⎠ .8 ⋅ 2 ( ) d Torel γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ 2 2 + γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ 2 1+ ( ) ) Torel ⎝ ⋅ 2 2 ⋅ Mrel 2 − γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ m − ⎠ − γ ⋅ M 2⋅ d ( m) − γ ⋅ Mrel ⋅ d C + ( D) rel + γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ m γ ⋅ M rel d ⎛ Mrel ⎝ ⋅ 2 1+ γ−1 2 2 ⋅ Mrel ( ) ⋅ d CD 2 − 2 m 2 2 d ( m) γ ⋅ M rel 2 Mrel 2 d ( m) Torel ( γ−1 2⎞ 2 d Torel d Torel d ⎛ Mrel 2 − Torel 2 d Porel d Porel γ ⋅ Mrel γ ⋅ M rel γ ⋅ M rel ( ) ⋅ d CD 2 <-----Equation 6 Absolute stagnation temperature equation 2 Cp ⋅ To C Cp ⋅ T + 2 2 Cp ⋅ To Cp ⋅ T + Cr + Cθ Cp ⋅ T + Cp ⋅ T + Cp ⋅ T + Cp ⋅ To Cp ⋅ T + )2 2 2 Cr + Cθ 2 <-----Cθ W r + U − 2⋅ U⋅ W θ + W θ 2 U − W θ and W r Cr (both from velocity triangle) 2 2 2 Cp ⋅ To ( Wr + U − Wθ 2 Cp ⋅ To 2 <----.C 2 2 Cp ⋅ To 2 2 W + U − 2⋅ U⋅ W θ <----.2 2 ( γ ⋅ M rel γ−1 2 ⎛ 2 2 ⎞ 2 2 ⋅ M rel γ ⋅ M rel ⎜ d ⎛ M rel ⎞ d ( Torel) d ⎛ M rel ⎞ γ M ⋅ d ⎛ M rel ⎞ 2 d ( m ) rel 2 ⎝ ⎠ + ⎝ ⎠ − γ ⋅ M 2⋅ ⎝ ⎠ − ⋅⎜ − ⋅ − ⋅ d C + ⋅ ( ) ⎟ rel m D 2 2 Torel 2 2 2 γ−1 γ−1 2 2 M rel ⎜ M rel M rel 1+ ⋅ M rel 1+ ⋅ M rel 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ) 2 d Porel Porel 2 ( γ ⋅ M rel 2 2 2 γ ⋅ M rel ⎛⎜ d ( Torel) d ⎛ M rel ⎞ ⎞ d ⎛ M rel ⎞ γ ⋅ M rel 1 2 2 d ( m) ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ − ⋅ + ⋅ − γ ⋅ M rel ⋅ − ⋅ d ( CD) + ⋅ ⎟ ⎜ T 2 2 2 2 m γ − 1 γ − 1 2 2 M rel M rel 1+ ⋅ M rel 1+ ⋅ M rel ⎜ orel 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ) 2 d Porel Porel 2 2 ( ) 2 d Porel − Porel ( ) − Porel ( ) Porel B.

2 2 W U Cp ⋅ T + + − U⋅ W ⋅ sin ( β ) 2 2 Cp ⋅ To convert equation above into differential form: ( 2) + d(U2) − d(U⋅W⋅ sin (β )) ( ) Cp ⋅ d ( T) + ( ) Cp ⋅ d ( T) + W ⋅ d ( W ) + U⋅ d ( U) − U⋅ sin ( β ) ⋅ d ( W ) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ( ) Cp ⋅ d ( T) + ( W − U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ⋅ d ( W ) + U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ( ) U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) Cp ⋅ d To Cp ⋅ d To Cp ⋅ d To d W 2 2 Cp ⋅ d To − Cp ⋅ d ( T) − ( W − U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ⋅ d ( W ) ( ) d ( T) d(W ) Cp ⋅ d To − Cp ⋅ T⋅ − W ⋅ ( W − U⋅ sin ( β ) ) ⋅ T W ( ) d To − To B.9 T d ( T) W ⋅ ( W − U⋅ sin ( β ) ) d ( W ) ⋅ − ⋅ To T Cp ⋅ To W U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) U⋅ d ( U) − W ⋅ d ( U⋅ sin ( β ) ) Cp ⋅ To Relative Mach number equation W M rel <-----Equation 8 γ ⋅ R⋅ T B.10 Absolute stagnation pressure equation burner: γ since Po P ⎛ To ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ T ⎠ γ γ −1 and Porel P ⎛ Torel ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ T ⎠ γ −1 : γ Po P ⎛ To ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ T ⎠ γ −1 γ Porel P ⎛ Torel ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ T ⎠ γ −1 63 <-----divide by Cp ⋅ To <-----Equation 7 .

which means δr r r3 r3 δr3 r3 −1 0 and To To3: 64 .γ Po To γ −1 γ Porel Torel γ −1 γ ⎛ To ⎞ Po Porel⋅ ⎜ ⎝ Torel ⎠ γ −1 <-----Equation 9 turbine: γ ⎛ To ⎞ Po Po4⋅ ⎜ ⎝ To4 ⎠ γ −1 <-----Equation 10 B.11 Entropy equation burner: s ⎛ To ⎞ ⎛ Po ⎞ − R⋅ ln⎜ s 3 + Cp ⋅ ln⎜ ⎝ To3 ⎠ ⎝ Po3 ⎠ <-----Equation 11 turbine: s ⎛ To ⎞ ⎛ Po ⎞ − R⋅ ln⎜ s 4 + Cp ⋅ ln⎜ ⎝ To4 ⎠ ⎝ Po4 ⎠ <-----Equation 12 B.12 Burner absolute stagnation temperature distribution the To distribution is linear: To ⎛ δr ⎞ a + b⋅ ⎜ at the inlet. <----- ⎝ r3 ⎠ r r3 1.

13 Burner specific work −W b = ( m ⋅ U ⋅ C θ ) 4 − ( m ⋅ U ⋅ C θ ) 3 <-----from the definition of angular momentum ⎡m ⎤ − W b = m 3 ⋅ ⎢ 4 ⋅ U 4 ⋅ ( U 4 − Wθ4 ) − U 3 ⋅ ( U 3 − Wθ3 ) ⎥ ⎣ m3 ⎦ <-----Cθ ⎡m ⎤ − Wb = m 3 ⋅ ⎢ 4 ⋅ U 4 ⋅ ( U 4 − W4 ⋅ sin(β 4 )) − U 3 ⋅ ( U 3 − W3 ⋅ sin(β 3 ))⎥ ⎣ m3 ⎦ ⎡m ⎤ Wb = − ⎢ 4 ⋅ U 4 ⋅ ( U 4 − W4 ⋅ sin(β 4 )) − U 3 ⋅ ( U 3 − W3 ⋅ sin(β 3 ))⎥ m3 ⎣ m3 ⎦ 65 U − Wθ <-----W θ W ⋅ sin ( β ) <-----Equation 14 .To3 a ⎛ δr3 ⎞ a + b⋅ ⎜ ⎝ r3 ⎠ To3 at the outlet. which means To3 + To4 − To3 r4 r3 −1 in the To distribution equation: −1 ⎛ δr ⎞ ⋅⎜ <-----Equation 13 ⎝ r3 ⎠ B. r r4 r3 r3 To3 + b ⋅ ⎜ To4 To3 + b ⋅ ⎜ r4 r3 r3 − 1 and To To4: ⎝ r3 ⎠ ⎛ r4 ⎝ r3 −1 ⎞ ⎠ To4 − To3 r4 r3 place a −1 To3 and b To4 − To3 r4 r3 To δr4 ⎛ δr4 ⎞ To4 b .

B.14 Turbine specific work − W t = m 4 ⋅ [U 5 ⋅ C θ5 − U 4 ⋅ C θ4 ] <-----from the definition of angular momentum − W t = ( m 3 + m f ) ⋅ [U 5 ⋅ ( U 5 − Wθ5 ) − U 4 ⋅ ( U 4 − Wθ4 )] − W t = m 3 ⋅ (1 + <-----Cθ U − Wθ mf ) ⋅ [U 5 ⋅ ( U 5 − W5 ⋅ sin(β 5 )) − U 4 ⋅ ( U 4 − W4 ⋅ sin(β 4 ))] m3 − W t = m 3 ⋅ (1 + f ) ⋅ [U 5 ⋅ ( U 5 − W5 ⋅ sin(β 5 )) − U 4 ⋅ ( U 4 − W4 ⋅ sin(β 4 ))] Wt = −(1 + f ) ⋅ [U 5 ⋅ ( U 5 − W5 ⋅ sin(β 5 )) − U 4 ⋅ ( U 4 − W4 ⋅ sin(β 4 ))] m3 66 <-----W θ W ⋅ sin ( β ) <-----f = m f / m 3 <-----Equation 15 .

Cr C⋅ cos ( α ) Nb 2⋅ π⋅ r⋅ b ⋅ ρ ⋅ W r <----.W r W ⋅ cos ( β ) mass flow rateassociated with area perpendicular to flow between two vane m ⌠ →→ ⎮ ⎮ ρ ⋅ W ⋅ n dA ⌡ m ρ ⋅W⋅A since the mass flow rates are the same: ρ ⋅W⋅A A 2⋅ π⋅ r⋅ b ⋅ ρ ⋅ W ⋅ cos ( β ) Nb 2⋅ π⋅ r⋅ b ⋅ cos ( β ) Nb 67 .Appendix C To determine perpendicular (one-dimensional) flow area between the vanes mass flow rate associated with the circular area between two vanes: ⌠ →→ ⎮ ( ) ⎮ ρ ⋅ C⋅ n ⋅ 2⋅ π⋅ b dr ⌡ m m m m m Nb 2⋅ π⋅ r⋅ b ⋅ ρ ⋅ C⋅ cos ( α ) Nb 2⋅ π⋅ r⋅ b ⋅ ρ ⋅ Cr <----.W r Cr Nb 2⋅ π⋅ r⋅ b ⋅ ρ ⋅ W ⋅ cos ( β ) Nb <----.

459 10 Ivchenko Prog.05 PZL Rzeszow GTD-350 394 0. PTO mf/PTO m3 (shp) (lbm/h/shp) (lbm/s) TPE 331-5 710 0.8 TV2-117 1500 0.602 7. ZMKB D-136 10000 0.6 13.465 7.17 Klimov Corporation TV7-117 2466 0.64 12.436 79.84 4.41 16.53 NK NK-12MV 14795 0.9 P&WC PT6A-27 680 0.498 16.536 32.773 10 Walter M602B 2012 0.75 Company Model Honeywell Rolls Royce Table D-2: Helicopter turboshaft engine data.507 19.501 143 OEDB TVD-20-01 1380 0.7 CT58-110 1250 0.6 Honeywell TPE 331-5 710 0. PTO mf/PTO m3 (shp) (lbm/h/shp) (lbm/s) T58 (GE-10) 1400 0.Appendix D Current engine data Table D-1: Airplane turboprop engine data.602 7.84 LHTEC CTS-800-4 1362 0.7 T700-401C 1800 0.639 57.75 TPE 331-T76 577 0.506 11.397 17.8 MTR MTR 390 1285 0.606 18.83 Company General Electric Klimov Corporation Model 68 .8 AE 2100J 4591 0.633 6.33 Allison T56-A15 4591 0.5 TV3-117 2190 0.6 6.46 7.4 Turbomeca Bastan VIC 798 0.4 JSC 'Aviadvigatel D-25V 5500 0.

52 Gnome (H-1400) 1250 0. L-13B) 1400 0.95 CMM 7000 14 18.608 13. PTO mf/PTO m3 (shp) (lbm/h/shp) (lbm/s) T64 (GE-413) 3925 0.22 10CCE 13 35 5.08 LTS/LTP 101 (750B-1) 550 0.1 Turmo (IIIC3) 1480 0.6 12CCE 17 35 5. T53 (T5313B.551 12.78 Onan Microquiet 4000 9.2 0.58 10.69 Makila (1A2) 1845 0.577 5.47 29.4 LTC1.8 Company Model General Electric Honeywell Table D-4: Four-stroke gasoline generator engine data.68 17 GEM-42 1000 0.5 19 0.9 17.5 19 0.7 Turbomeca RM 322 2241 0.1 TVD-1500/RD 600 (1500 S) 1300 0.5 LTC4.6 Company Kohler Onan Kohler 1 2 Power Air intake Fuel Number of consumption (gal/hr) 4 69 .94 CME 5500 12.603 13 Model Rolls Royce Turbomeca Table D-3: Aircraft (turboprop) and helicopter (turboshaft) dual-purpose engine data.442 12.9 1. Generator cylinders model (hp) (ft3/min) 5ERKM 11.65 7.Company PTO mf/PTO m3 (shp) (lbm/h/shp) (lbm/s) Gazelle 1400 0.71 Kohler 7ER 16 24 0.454 8. T55 (GA-714) 4868 0.503 29.

6 GR70 85 150 3.4 GR50 58 94 2.8 15EOR/Z 26.1 70 1.7 36 0.7 GR160 175 283 7.97 GR25 31 87 1.67 GR125 144 283 5.67 10EOR/Z 17.6 GR210 220 283 9.1 54 1.5 GR85 93 178 3.8 (gal/hr) Generac 4 Kohler Generac 6 70 .Table D-5: Diesel generator engine data.4 20EOR/Z 36.4 GR190 206 283 8. Company Generac Number of Generator Power Air intake cylinders 3 Kohler Fuel consumption model (hp) (ft3/min) GR8 11 22 0.

71 .Figure D-1: PSFC and specific power comparison between APU cases and current engines.

398 s0 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.4 U3/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 1.384337 Cθ2t/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 0 Wr3/U3 0.99 Table E-2: Compressor input parameter values (Case 1).287 τd 0.Appendix E E.5 ζc 0.251381 72 .70203 R (kJ/(kg*K)) 0.905 M2rel 0.325 γ0 1. Input Values M0 0 T0 (K) 300 P0 (kPa) 101.1 Complete results for Case 1 Input parameters Table E-1: Air and diffuser input parameter values (Case 1). Input Values β2t (deg) 10 β3 (deg) 0 ec 0.99 πd 0.

98 CD 1.430168 KK2 0 B1 2.024377 K2 1.142985 B2 0 r5/r4 1.Table E-3: Burner input parameter values (Case 1).5 hHV (BTU/lbm) 18000 r4/r3 1.323625 S2 0 To4 (K) 1200 ηb 0.692596 Y2 0 S1 3.349041 nb 2000 Table E-4: Turbine input parameter values (Case 1).187721 nt 8000 σ/ρmaterial (kPa/kg/m3) 30 73 . Input Values Y1 0.350002 KK1 16. Input Values K1 -10.

32427858 τc 1. Output Values Cp0 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.762722794 b3/r3 0.3293979 Po3 (kPa) 2 608.106466006 M3 1.0490906 P2t (kPa) 85.7681092 Po2rel (kPa) 100.31175 Table E-6: Compressor output values (Case 1).4250355 P3 (kPa) 242.27415519 T3 (K) 403.176808766 To2 (K) 297 Po2 (kPa) 100.E.22522507 r3/r2t 16. Output Values Output Values T2t (K) 283.5286698 Wc/m3 (W/kg/s) -228368.7827 3 74 .2 Output values Table E-5: Air diffuser output values (Case 1).756319109 To3 (K) 523.098369441 M3rel 0.2643349 ηc 0.00958077 m3/A3 (kg/(m *s)) 252.045410296 W3 (m/s) 120.29870493 (m3/ Po2)1/2*Ω/(γ0*R* To2)1/4 0.0767384 3 ρ2t (kg/m ) 1.878835559 Po3rel (kPa) 258.00812309 τr 1 πr 1 ρ0 (kg/m3) 1.061593887 U3 (m/s) 477.2498426 s3 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.8169058 ρ3 (kg/m ) 2.8794646 To3rel (K) 410.000639812 πc 6.1068889 To2rel (kPa) 297.1298177 U2t (m/s) 29.

433445 To5 (K) 753.371951433 W5 (m/s) 1292. Output Values Output Values M5rel 2.630817867 P5 (kPa) 7.743665982 s4 (kJ/(kg*K)) 3.467768 Po4rel (kPa) 192.012205168 To5rel (K) 1361.8233787 f 0.2417444 To4rel (K) 1282.Table E-7: Burner output value (Case 1).326686938 Po4 (kPa) 146.126086403 ρ4 (kg/m3) 0.6987756 T5 (K) 613.021667114 πb 0.179957283 A5/A4.5956577 U4 (m/s) 644.061557783 ρ5 (kg/m3) 0.131401637 τt 0.04096135 πtrel 0.863164912 πt 0.817183228 s5 (kJ/(kg*K)) 3.058624556 Po5 (kPa) 26.187721 Po5rel (kPa) 156.205425768 τtrel 1.131401637 τb 2.0516227 Cp4 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.700693 U5 (m/s) 765.29213808 m4/m3 1.521759 β4 (deg) 66. Output Values Output Values M4rel 0.6789908 W4 (m/s) 530.628156809 A5/A4 3.7881702 Cp5 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.1908667 τbrel 3.33955 Wb/m3 (W/kg/s) 124301.386067689 πbrel 0.470956 r5/r4 1.7053 Table E-8: Turbine output value (Case 1).5771 75 .021667114 T4 (K) 1156.799978645 P4 (kPa) 128.165537217 To4 (K) 1200 γ4 1.1774811 Wt/m3 (W/kg/s) 516285.3809563 γ5 1.941365 β5 (deg) 89.241091813 A4/A3 1.5 4.

Table E-9: Rotor overall properties (Case 1). Output Values PTO/m3 (W/kg/s) 412218. Figure E-4: Case 1 stagnation temperature (K).105 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 To 500 1 . Figure E-2: Case 1 relative stagnation temperature (K).37489 1500 3 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 2 Mrel T orel 500 1 0 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 0 10 20 0 30 0 10 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 20 30 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure E-1: Case 1 relative Mach number. 76 .10 5 0 10 20 0 30 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 0 10 20 30 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure E-3: Case 1 relative stagnation pressure (Pa).25622E-08 ηTH 0.362989975 mf/PTO (kg/s/W) 5.4997 CTO 1.10 5 1500 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ P orel2 .39033925 z2h/z5 17488. 3 .45440614 r5/r2h 65.

10 5 3 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 2 . 77 .10 6 1500 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ P o 5 . deg 20 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r 0 10 20 U 500 0 30 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 0 10 20 30 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure E-9: Case 1 flow curvature (Case 1).10 5 P ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 2 ρ 5 1 . 3 .105 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 T 500 0 0 10 20 0 30 0 10 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure E-6: Case 1 temperature (Case 1).10 1 0 0 10 20 0 30 0 10 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 30 Figure E-8: Case 1 density (Case 1). β 30 r Figure E-5: Case 1 stagnation pressure (Case 1).1 . Figure E-10: Case 1 rotor speed (Case 1). 100 1000 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 50 0 20 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure E-7: Case 1 pressure (Case 1).

4 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ Cp 1100 1000 0 10 20 γ 1.3 30 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 0 10 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 20 30 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r Figure E-11: Case 1 specific heat (Case 1). 1 .105 1 1 ρ3 ρ4 0 0 10 20 30 1 ρ Figure E-15: Case 1 Po-v diagram (Case 1).35 1. 78 . 500 1500 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 0 Cθ s3 s4 1000 To 500 1000 500 0 10 20 0 1500 30 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 2000 2500 3000 3500 s Figure E-14: Case 1 To-s diagram (Case 1). Figure E-13: Case 1 tangential velocity (Case 1). Figure E-12: Case 1 specific heat ratio (Case 1).10 6 P o 5 .1200 1.

20024 1 1.26E-08 65.Table E-10: Data to show Case 1 configuration is the optimum (Case 1 highlighted below).9 1 PTO/m3 mf/PTO r5/r2h z2h/z5 A5/A4.58 5.966537 46.061594 16.638476 1 6.587 2.102533 23.178761 12.612915 69279.868 4.005 3.5 5.901004 11.233796 7.776372 1 88795.04E-07 42.75E+04 4.130212 16.35193 5.89E+04 4.39 44.26 5.712 2.324279 412218.64E-07 29.69E-07 0.896064 89465.05 3.012205 6.187477 1 2.489095 12.785 450000 400000 PTO/m3 (W/kg/s) 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 πc Figure E-16: Variation of specific power takeoff with compressor pressure ratio (Case 1).881601 66.761836 8.16218 2.430948 10.1 3. 79 7 .657836 1.76E-07 97.254489 0.27E-08 65.5 21.033592 1.682409 1 1.384337 1.381734 43761.28E-07 37.97134 32332.7 1.033892 1 2.18E-07 40. U3/(γ0*R*To2)1/2 πc r3/r2t 0.3 6.391057 416331.390339 1.5 1.792128 53339.

00E-07 0.00E-07 2.00E-07 4.00E-07 1.00E+00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 πc Figure E-17: Variation of PSFC with compressor pressure ratio (Case 1).00E-07 7. 80 7 .00E-07 5.00E-07 mf /PTO (kg/s/W) 6. 18 16 14 r3 /r2t 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 πc Figure E-18: Variation of compressor radius ratio and pressure ratio (Case 1).8.00E-07 3.

70 60 r5 /r2h 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 πc Figure E-19: Variation of rotor radius ratio with compressor pressure ratio (Case 1). 20000 15000 z2h/z5 10000 5000 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 -5000 πc Figure E-20: Variation of disk thickness with compressor pressure ratio (Case 1). 81 7 .

614369 Cθ2t/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 0.1 Complete results for Case 2 Input parameters Table F-1: Air and diffuser input parameter values (Case 2).99 Table F-2: Compressor input parameter values (Case 2). Input Values β2t (deg) 19.325 γ0 1.398209 Wr3/U3 0. Input Values M0 0 T0 (K) 300 P0 (kPa) 101.585342 β3 (deg) 0 ec 0.398 s0 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.64997 ζc 0.905 M2rel 0.287 τd 0.Appendix F F.70203 R (kJ/(kg*K)) 0.99 πd 0.536858 82 .398559 U3/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 0.

99312 Y2 0 S1 5. Input Values K1 -41.Table F-3: Burner input parameter values (Case 2).537262 S2 0 To4 (K) 1200 ηb 0.638544 K2 1.287858 KK1 13.995009 nt 8000 σ/ρmaterial (kPa/kg/m ) -41.255677 nb 2000 Table F-4: Turbine and stress input parameter values (Case 2).147403 B2 0 r5/r4 1.638544 3 83 . Input Values Y1 3.058003 KK2 0 B1 1.98 CD 1.5 hHV (BTU/lbm) 18000 r4/r3 1.

015415114 τc 1.712587056 r3/r2t 1.09466 3 3 84 .31175 Table F-6: Compressor output values (Case 2).827809062 M3 0. Output Values Output Values T2t (K) 267.8584493 U2t (m/s) 208.00812309 τr 1 πr 1 ρ0 (kg/m3) 1.1564381 P3 (kPa) 84.60638697 m3/A3 (kg/(m *s)) 118. Output Values Cp0 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.54868673 s3 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.707097155 To3 (K) 313.176808766 To2 (K) 297 Po2 (kPa) 100.337056672 (m3/ Po2)1/2*Ω/(γ0*R* To2)1/4 0.082989 To3rel (K) 290.054333375 b3/r3 0.902709389 Po3rel (kPa) 91.183161186 U3 (m/s) 212.6849691 P2t (kPa) 69.8286281 ηc 0.906117753 W3 (m/s) 113.6547712 Po3 (kPa) 2 118.42506928 ρ3 (kg/m ) 1.63465782 Po2rel (kPa) 92.3989835 To2rel (kPa) 290.036885354 M3rel 0.460075489 πc 1.F.0581585 ρ2t (kg/m ) 0.1370122 Wc/m3 (W/kg/s) -16268.863337 T3 (K) 284.2 Output values Table F-5: Air diffuser output values (Case 2).

70113808 U4 (m/s) 266.5837271 f 0.56132736 Cp4 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.026260618 T4 (K) 1187.832188317 m4/m3 1.171053612 To4 (K) 1200 γ4 1.81875 Table F-8: Turbine output value (Case 2).3676458 T5 (K) 1085.5 1 To5rel (K) 1263.109959882 πtrel 0.116531 Po4rel (kPa) 62.439404 β4 (deg) 81.681971 r5/r4 1.00019199 ρ5 (kg/m3) 0.003980036 Po5rel (kPa) 62.3077314 W4 (m/s) 405.987347437 P5 (kPa) 34.524437467 τb 3.020948942 To4rel (K) 1263.427190894 A4/A3 2.696315 Cp5 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.683366737 s4 (kJ/(kg*K)) 3.026260618 πb 0.68245 Wt/m3 (W/kg/s) 62439.23796475 τtrel 1.999932428 s5 (kJ/(kg*K)) 3.144872207 πbrel 0.603615629 P4 (kPa) 49.324648437 Po4 (kPa) 50.378184 To5 (K) 1147.39300603 γ5 1.20024 85 .956413596 A5/A4 0.544785 Wb/m3 (W/kg/s) 81713.331583213 W5 (m/s) 635. Output Values Output Values M5rel 0.524437467 τt 0.836135196 A5/A4.834297496 πt 0.9900172 U5 (m/s) 267. Output Values Output Values M4rel 0.152564501 Po5 (kPa) 42.344274537 ρ4 (kg/m3) 0.Table F-7: Burner output value (Case 2).55709997 β5 (deg) 81.41581802 τbrel 4.

9243 CTO 0.1 1.3 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r Figure F-1: Relative Mach number (Case 2).10 4 0.9 1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 1.9 1 1.932720727 1500 1 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ Mrel 0.3 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 1 1.5 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 T orel ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 500 0 0.1 1. 86 . Figure F-2: Relative stagnation temperature (Case 2).Table F-9: Rotor overall properties (Case 2).2 0 0.9 1 1.1 1.9 1.1 1.116314054 r5/r2h 3.422848247 mf/PTO (kg/s/W) 2.10 5 1500 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ P orel8 .2 0 1. 1 . Output Values PTO/m3 (W/kg/s) 127884.3 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure F-3: Relative stagnation pressure (Case 2).104 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 To ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 500 6 .2 1.3 0.2 1. Figure F-4: Stagnation temperature (Case 2).05346E-07 ηTH 0.211840863 z2h/z5 2.

2 0 1.1 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 0.3 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r Figure F-5: Stagnation pressure (Case 2).5 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 5 .9 1 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure F-7: Pressure (Case 2).9 1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 1.9 1 1.9 1 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1.9 1 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1. Figure F-10: Rotor speed (Case 2).3 0. 87 1.5 0 0.2 1.10 5 Po ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 T 5 .10 5 1500 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1 .2 U 250 200 1.2 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure F-9: Flow curvature (Case 2).1 1.2 Figure F-8: Density (Case 2).3 300 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 50 0 1.5 . 1 .1. β 1.1 1.3 .3 0.10 4 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1 ρ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 0.10 5 P ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1.3 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 0 1.10 4 500 0 0.1 1.1 1. Figure F-6: Temperature (Case 2). 100 deg 1.

3 1.1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r 1500 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 0 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ s3 s4 1000 To 500 500 0.3 r Figure F-11: Specific heat (Case 2).1200 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ Cp 1100 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1.4 γ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1.2 1.9 1 1. 350 s3 s4 T o 1200 To 300 1700 1750 3400 s 3600 s Figure F-15: Beginning of To-s diagram (Case 2). 88 . Figure F-12: Specific heat ratio (Case 2).3 0.1 1. 500 Cθ 1.9 1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 1. Figure F-13: Tangential velocity (Case 2).9 1 1.35 1000 0.2 1. Figure F-16: End of To-s diagram (Case 2).3 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 2000 3000 4000 s Figure F-14: To-s diagram (Case 2).1 1.2 0 1000 1.

8 1.5 .134521 2.15 2.55 1.15E-07 3.35 1.4 1.5 0.245687 1.87477 126283.209031 1.947586 123789.91E+00 1 0.28 2.679526 3.10 5 1.217979 1.015415 122430.10 1 .95E+00 1 0. Figure F-18: Beginning of Po-s diagram (Case 2).000041 1 0.45 2. Table F-10: Data to show Case 2 configuration is the optimum (Case 2 highlighted below).162841 121858.14E-07 3.041077 122114.45 1.050059 1 0.14E-07 3.379761 2.917246 3.995435 2.158849 0.10E-07 2.809908 1 1 0.27 2.965726 1 0.45 2.872641 2.23 2.06 2.183161 1.9 1.200241 1.95 2.6 1.572674 3.93 2.143564 0.64997 1.129212 121724.12E-07 2.068503 121877.2 .211045 2.13E-07 3.3 1.097826 121739.10 5 1 ρ4 1 ρ3 1 .844053 1 1.1.292602 2.14E-07 3.174873 0.794145 3.191614 1.016945 1 0.10 5 Po 1 ρ3 Po 4 5 .763883 89 .227077 1.75 2.87 2.878672 1 0.7 1.129034 2.93E+00 1 0.472944 2.15E-07 3.908966 124950.198915 122186.15E-07 3.10 5 0 0 5 10 1 2 1 1 ρ ρ Figure F-17: Po-s diagram (Case 2).03363 1 0.991339 122827.14E-07 3.11E-07 3.237661 122769.13E-07 2.5 1.24 2. M2rel πc r3/r2t PTO/m3 mf/PTO r5/r2h z2h/z5 A5/A4.982956 1 0.236315 1.

16 1.127000 PTO/m3 (W/kg/s) 126000 125000 124000 123000 122000 121000 1.22 1.14 1.14E-07 2.12 1.10E-07 1.14 1.24 πc Figure F-20: Variation of PSFC with compressor pressure ratio (Case 2).22 1.15E-07 2.16 1.26 .12E-07 2.13E-07 2.15E-07 2.12E-07 2.12 1.18 1.11E-07 2.2 1.18 1.24 1.14E-07 mf /PTO (kg/s/W) 2.2 1.11E-07 2. 90 1. 2.26 πc Figure F-19: Variation of specific power takeoff with compressor pressure ratio (Case 2).13E-07 2.

16 1.26 .2 0 1.24 πc Figure F-22: Variation of rotor radius ratio with compressor pressure ratio (Case 2).4 1.4 0.12 1.2 1.8 0.24 1. 4.22 1.1.14 1.2 1 r3 /r2t 0.22 1. 91 1.5 2 1.18 1.12 1.2 1.5 4 3.26 πc Figure F-21: Variation of compressor radius ratio and pressure ratio (Case 2).6 0.5 0 1.5 r5 /r2h 3 2.18 1.5 1 0.14 1.16 1.

85 2.16 1.9 2.26 .14 1. 92 1.12 1.2 1.3.22 1.95 2.8 2.18 1.24 πc Figure F-23: Variation of disk thickness with compressor pressure ratio (Case 2).05 3 z2h/z5 2.75 1.1 3.

203182 93 .1 Complete results for Case 3 Input parameters Table G-1: Air and diffuser input parameter values (Case 3).4 U3/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 1.215862 Wr3/U3 0. Input Values M0 0 T0 (K) 300 P0 (kPa) 101.325 γ0 1. Input Values β2t (deg) 10.99 Table G-2: Compressor input parameter values (Case 3).287 τd 0.368845 ζc 0.928568 Cθ2t/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 0.Appendix G G.158584 β3 (deg) 0 ec 0.99 πd 0.398 s0 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.70203 R (kJ/(kg*K)) 0.905 M2rel 0.

524361 K2 1.335502 Y2 0 S1 21.724029 KK2 0 B1 1.06018 nt 8000 σ/ρmaterial (kPa/kg/m3) 30 94 .227624 S2 0 To4 (K) 1200 ηb 0.98 CD 1. Input Values Y1 1.349654 B2 0 r5/r4 1.Table G-3: Burner input parameter values (Case 3).350092 KK1 4. Input Values K1 -3.5 hHV (BTU/lbm) 18000 r4/r3 1.069184 nb 2000 Table G-4: Turbine input parameter values (Case 3).

36252913 ρ3 (kg/m ) 3.515817267 r3/r2t 6.176808766 To2 (K) 297 Po2 (kPa) 100.326260951 M3 1.785.001581712 πc 17.861980802 Po3rel (kPa) 495.7504952 To3rel (K) 509.2 Output value Table G-5: Air diffuser output values (Case 3).4874876 P3 (kPa) 465.5817412 T3 (K) 500.G.456274202 b3/r3 0.64231542 m3/A3 (kg/(m *s)) 437.6872451 ηc 0.788094816 To3 (K) 729.07717487 W3 (m/s) 135.00812309 τr 1 πr 1 ρ0 (kg/m3) 1.4286911 s3 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1. Output Values Cp0 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.905847 3 ρ2t (kg/m ) 1.7837 3 95 .31175 Table G-6: Compressor output values (Case 3).513438 Wc/m3 (W/kg/s) -436026.1305732 Po2rel (kPa) 97.7249039 Po3 (kPa) 2 1745.893129974 τc 2. Output Values Output Values T2t (K) 286.2685171 U2t (m/s) 96.237307959 M3rel 0.6121768 To2rel (kPa) 294.622 P2t (kPa) 88.301819786 (m3/ Po2)1/2*Ω/(γ0*R* To2)1/4 0.40360049 U3 (m/s) 665.

1483 Table G-8: Turbine output value (Case 3).644932002 m4/m3 1. Output Values Output Values M4rel 0.09239537 To4rel (K) 1289.97683752 s5 (kJ/(kg*K)) 2.1241734 β5 (deg) 88.889971791 τt 0.06018 Po5rel (kPa) 371.021361317 ρ5 (kg/m3) 0.Table G-7: Burner output value (Case 3).369539251 πtrel 0.799710092 P4 (kPa) 253.166692558 To4 (K) 1200 γ4 1.071508 β4 (deg) 84.466709557 A5/A4.6339543 τbrel 2.766859421 s4 (kJ/(kg*K)) 2.326257883 Po4 (kPa) 283.823512255 A5/A4 1.607773 r5/r4 1.5 1.820663 τtrel 1.1864066 U5 (m/s) 754.341938124 W5 (m/s) 917.9819685 U4 (m/s) 711.145266 Po4rel (kPa) 379.76084 To5 (K) 988.529142176 ρ4 (kg/m3) 0.0416408 f 0.6464899 T5 (K) 950.192265289 πt 0.5370987 γ5 1.020843961 πb 0.889971791 τb 1.235197655 To5rel (K) 1316.51580327 P5 (kPa) 100.6213979 Wt/m3 (W/kg/s) 257696.126352764 Po5 (kPa) 132.75986289 πbrel 0.8097775 W4 (m/s) 532.162667148 A4/A3 1.809722 Wb/m3 (W/kg/s) 310579. Output Values Output Values M5rel 1.2147063 Cp5 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.9241592 Cp4 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.020843961 T4 (K) 1162.2321 96 .

Figure G-2: Relative stagnation temperature (Case 3).437276618 mf/PTO (kg/s/W) 1.57612E-07 ηTH 0.10 5 1500 ⎡ r3⎡ ⎤r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢⎥ ⎥ ⎣ r2t⎣ ⎦r2t ⎦ 4 .Table G-9: Rotor overall properties (Case 3).151540461 r5/r2h 19.5 0 0 5 0 10 0 5 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 10 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure G-1: Relative Mach number (Case 3). 97 .10 5 P orel ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ 1000 To 5 2 . Figure G-4: Stagnation temperature (Case 3).5966 CTO 0.49295 1500 2 ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ 1. 6 .5 Mrel 1 ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ 1000 T orel 500 0.53388085 z2h/z5 12921. Output Values PTO/m3 (W/kg/s) 132248.10 500 0 0 5 0 10 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 0 5 10 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure G-3: Relative stagnation pressure (Case 3).

98 10 .106 ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ 1000 T 500 0 0 5 0 10 0 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 5 10 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r Figure G-5: Stagnation pressure (Case 3). 6 .10 6 1500 ⎡ r3⎡ ⎤r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢⎥ ⎥ ⎣ r2t⎣ ⎦r2t ⎦ P o 1 .10 5 4 ⎡ r3⎡ ⎤r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢⎥ ⎥ ⎣ r2t⎣ ⎦r2t ⎦ 4 . 100 deg 5 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 0 5 U 500 0 10 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ 0 5 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure G-9: Flow curvature (Case 3).2 . Figure G-6: Temperature (Case 3). Figure G-10: Rotor speed (Case 3). β 1000 ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ 50 0 10 Figure G-8: Density (Case 3).10 0 0 5 0 10 0 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure G-7: Pressure (Case 3).10 5 P ρ ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ 2 5 2 .

1200 1.106 0 0 1 2 1 ρ Figure G-15: Po-v diagram (Case 3).35 1. 2 .10 6 1 ρ4 1 ρ3 P o 1 . Figure G-13: Tangential velocity (Case 3). Figure G-12: Specific heat ratio (Case 3). 1000 1500 ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ 500 Cθ s3 s4 1000 To 0 500 500 0 5 0 1500 10 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 2000 2500 3000 s Figure G-14: To-s diagram (Case 3). 99 3 .4 ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ Cp 1100 1000 0 γ 5 1.3 10 ⎡ r⎡3 r⎤4 ⎤ ⎢⎢⎥⎥ ⎣ r⎣2tr⎦2t ⎦ 0 5 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 10 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r Figure G-11: Specific heat (Case 3).

672518 ζc 0.287 τd 0. Input Values β2t (deg) 49.905 M2rel 0.99 πd 0.Appendix H H.1 Complete results for Case 4 Input parameters Table H-1: Air and diffuser input parameter values (Case 4).2 100 .99 Table H-2: Compressor input parameter values (Case 4).399999 U3/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 0.999979 β3 (deg) 0 ec 0. Input Values M0 0 T0 (K) 300 P0 (kPa) 101.398 s0 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.619976 Cθ2t/(γ0*R*To2)^(1/2) 0 Wr3/U3 0.325 γ0 1.70203 R (kJ/(kg*K)) 0.

Input Values Y1 -1.1 nb 2000 Table H-4: Turbine and stress input parameter values (Case 4).98 CD 1.036995 nt 8000 σ/ρmaterial (kPa/kg/m ) 3 30 101 .434396 Y2 0 S1 6.7 KK2 0 B1 22.196379 KK1 1.5 hHV (BTU/lbm) 18000 r4/r3 1.Table H-3: Burner input parameter values (Case 4). Input Values K1 -7.766825 B2 0 r5/r4 1.855414 K2 1.332654 S2 0 To4 (K) 1200 ηb 0.

225591545 τc 1.H.1240383 P3 (kPa) 122.7174343 ηc 0.31377556 πc 1.7155002 P2t (kPa) 88.80371022 U2t (m/s) 174.572253502 U3 (m/s) 214.9250334 s3 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.94021 3 102 .07365206 W3 (m/s) 42.176808766 To2 (K) 297 Po2 (kPa) 100.152979356 b3/r3 0.6922554 Po2rel (kPa) 119.624696 T3 (K) 318. Output Values Output Values T2t (K) 286. Output Values Cp0 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.4348687 Wc/m3 (W/kg/s) -45803.898764101 Po3rel (kPa) 123.2 Output values Table H-5: Air diffuser output values (Case 4).00812309 τr 1 πr 1 ρ0 (kg/m3) 1.715663037 To3 (K) 342.34090334 M3rel 0.808737 To2rel (kPa) 312.604641308 M3 0.23730292 m3/A3 (kg/(m *s)) 57.3513274 Po3 (kPa) 2 157.119679011 (m3/ Po2)1/2*Ω/(γ0*R* To2)1/4 0.0185511 To3rel (K) 319.39563798 3 ρ2t (kg/m ) 1.31175 Table H-6: Compressor output values (Case 4).4319393 ρ3 (kg/m ) 1.610245611 r3/r2t 1.

504316032 m4/m3 1.266250485 Wt/m3 (W/kg/s) 44305.99985241 W5 (m/s) 316.326626093 To5rel (K) 1201.711062276 τtrel 1. Output Values Output Values Output Values M5rel 0.Table H-7: Burner output value (Case 4).165700874 πt 0.957271 A5/A4 0.1401293 β5 (deg) 84.023944159 T4 (K) 1179.324832124 πbrel 0.215682 Wb/m3 (W/kg/s) 19140.969131059 T5 (K) 1157.00149048 Po5 (kPa) 103.0527876 τbrel 3.036995 πtrel 0.439082 s5 (kJ/(kg*K)) 3.7297682 U4 (m/s) 235.746469231 A4/A3 0.169595183 To4 (K) 1200 γ4 1.8565604 To4rel (K) 1199.9026514 f 0.1286954 Po5rel (kPa) 117.476262371 To5 (K) 1162.325184899 Po4 (kPa) 117.304751534 U5 (m/s) 244.4564174 Cp4 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.6519401 r5/r4 1.283435 Po4rel (kPa) 117.751173898 ρ4 (kg/m3) 0.266250485 τb 3.103251 ρ5 (kg/m3) 0.947802185 s4 (kJ/(kg*K)) 3.4204062 W4 (m/s) 210.3265771 γ5 1.535271 τt 0.023944159 πb 0.315694 β4 (deg) 36.880422528 P5 (kPa) 101.254069 Cp5 (kJ/(kg*K)) 1.75403 103 .314921598 P4 (kPa) 110.00711 Table H-8: Turbine output value (Case 4). Output Values Output Values M4rel 0.

5 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 T orel ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 500 0 1 1.2 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 1.35724E-06 ηTH 0.058332232 mf/PTO (kg/s/W) 1.489291269 1500 1 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ Mrel 0.4 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r Figure H-3: Relative stagnation pressure (Case 4). Figure H-4: Stagnation temperature (Case 4).4 1 1.82093 CTO 0.4 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r Figure H-1: Relative Mach number (Case 4).017597931 r5/r2h 3. Output Values PTO/m3 (W/kg/s) 17641.15 .2 . 1.2 1.495072575 z2h/z5 2.105 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 To ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 500 1.25 .10 5 1500 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ P orel 1. 104 .2 0 1.10 5 1 1.2 0 1.Table H-9: Rotor overall properties (Case 4). Figure H-2: Relative stagnation temperature (Case 4).4 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 1 1.

5 .105 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1000 T ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 500 1 . 100 250 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 50 0 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 0.2 r Figure H-5: Stagnation pressure (Case 4).4 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 5 1.10 1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r 1 1.2 0 1.4 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1. Figure H-10: Rotor speed (Case 4). 1. 105 1.10 deg 1.10 5 P ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1 ρ 5 1 .4 Figure H-6: Temperature (Case 4).2 0 1.10 1 1.2 .10 5 1500 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ P o 1.4 . 8 .4 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure H-7: Pressure (Case 4).2 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ U 200 150 1. Figure H-8: Density (Case 4).10 5 1 1.5 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1.5 4 β 1.2 1.4 1 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 1.4 .2 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ Figure H-9: Flow curvature (Case 4).2 .

1200 1.4 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ r r Figure H-11: Specific heat (Case 4).4 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1.2 0 1500 1. 106 . Figure H-16: End of To-s diagram (Case 4).4 ⎡ r⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 2000 2500 3000 3500 s Figure H-14: To-s diagram (Case 4). Figure H-13: Tangential velocity (Case 4).35 1.4 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ Cp 1100 1000 1 ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 1. 400 1500 ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ 200 Cθ ⎡ r4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ s3 s4 1000 To 0 200 500 1 1.2 γ 1.2 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢r ⎥ ⎣ 2t ⎦ 1. Figure H-12: Specific heat ratio (Case 4).3 1. 1300 s3 s4 400 T o 1200 To 1100 1600 1700 1800 3200 s 3300 s Figure H-15: Beginning of To-s diagram (Case 4).

2 .10

5

P o 1.5 .105

1 .10

1

ρ4

1

ρ3

5

0

1

2

3

1

ρ

Figure H-17: Po-s diagram (Case 4).

107

4

Appendix I

Sample rotor for Case 1 with calculation program

⎡ A 4⎤

⎢ A ⎥ := 1.241744

⎣ 3⎦

⎡ A4 ⎤

⎢ A ⎥ := 1.03858

⎣ 4.5⎦

⎡ b3⎤

−4

⎢ r ⎥ := 6.39812× 10

⎣ 3⎦

⎡ r3 ⎤

⎢ r ⎥ := 16.324279

⎣ 2t ⎦

β 3 := 0⋅ deg

β 4 := 66.467768deg

⋅

ζc := 0.4

r2t := 2⋅ in

⎡ r5⎤

r5 := r4⋅ ⎢ ⎥

⎣ r4⎦

d 2h := 2⋅ r2h

⎡ b3⎤

⎥

⎣ r3 ⎦

b 3 := r3⋅ ⎢

⎛ ⎡ A4 ⎤ ⎞

A 4.5 := A 4⋅ ⎜ ⎢

⎥

⎝ ⎣ A 4.5⎦ ⎠

A 3 :=

d 2t := 2⋅ r2t

( )

2⋅ π⋅ r3⋅ b 3⋅ cos β 3

−1

b 4.5 :=

⎡ r4⎤

⎢ r ⎥ := 1.349041

⎣ 3⎦

β 4.5 := 66.922988deg

⋅

r2h := r2t⋅ ζc

Nb

⎡ A5 ⎤

⎢ A ⎥ := 4.012205

⎣ 4.5⎦

⎡ r4.5⎤

⎢ r ⎥ := 1.003707

⎣ 4⎦

β 5 := 89.433445deg

⋅

⎡ r3 ⎤

r3 := r2t⋅ ⎢ ⎥

⎣ r2t ⎦

d 3 := 2⋅ r3

⎡ A 4⎤

⎥

⎣ A 3⎦

d 5 := 2⋅ r5

Nb ⋅ A 4

b 4 :=

( )

2⋅ π⋅ r4⋅ cos β 4

⎡ A5 ⎤

⎥

⎣ A 4.5⎦

A 5 := A 4.5⋅ ⎢

( )

⎡ r4.5⎤

r4.5 := r4⋅ ⎢

⎥

⎣ r4 ⎦

d 4.5 := 2⋅ r4.5

A 4 := A 3⋅ ⎢

2⋅ π⋅ r4.5⋅ cos β 4.5

Nb := 8

⎡ r4⎤

r4 := r3⋅ ⎢ ⎥

⎣ r3⎦

d 4 := 2⋅ r4

Nb ⋅ A 4.5

⎡ r5⎤

⎢ r ⎥ := 1.187721

⎣ 4⎦

b 5 :=

Nb ⋅ A 5

( )

2⋅ π⋅ r5⋅ cos β 5

r2h = 0.8in

r3 = 32.649in

r4 = 44.044in

r4.5 = 44.208in

r5 = 52.312in

d 2h = 1.6in

d 2t = 4 in

d 3 = 65.297in

d 4 = 88.088in

d 4.5 = 88.415in

d 5 = 104.625in

b 3 = 0.021in

b 4 = 0.048in

b 4.5 = 0.047in

b 5 = 6.325in

2

A 4 = 0.665in

A 3 = 0.536in

2

2

A 4.5 = 0.64in

108

2

A 5 = 2.569in

89.4°= β5

67.0° = β4.5

Ø 104.624 = d5

Ø 88.416 = d4.5

Ø 4.000 = d2t

Ø 1.600 = d2h

Ø 88.088 = d4

Ø 65.298 = d3

r

θ

b4 = .048

.047 = b4.5

b3 = .021

b5 = 6.325

Figure I-1: Sample rotor for Case 1 with side view (starting at station 3).

109

116531deg ⋅ β 5 := 81.4 r2t := 2⋅ in d 2h := 2⋅ r2h r2h := r2t⋅ ζc d 2t := 2⋅ r2t ⎡ b3⎤ ⎥ ⎣ r3 ⎦ b 3 := r3⋅ ⎢ ⎡ A 5⎤ ⎥ ⎣ A 4⎦ A 3 := d 3 := 2⋅ r3 ( ) 2⋅ π⋅ r3⋅ b 3⋅ cos β 3 Nb ⎡ r3 ⎤ r3 := r2t⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ d 4 := 2⋅ r4 ⎡ r4⎤ r4 := r3⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r3⎦ d 5 := 2⋅ r5 ⎡ A 4⎤ ⎥ ⎣ A 3⎦ A 4 := A 3⋅ ⎢ b 4 := Nb ⋅ A 4 ( ) 2⋅ π⋅ r4⋅ cos β 4 Nb ⋅ A 5 A 5 := A 4⋅ ⎢ b 5 := r2h = 0.00398 ⎣ 4⎦ β 3 := 0⋅ deg β 4 := 81.56in d 2h = 1.020949 ⎣ 3⎦ ⎡ A 5⎤ ⎢ A ⎥ := 0.513in 110 d 5 = 5.031in r4 = 2.015415 ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ b3⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 0.49in ⎡ r5⎤ r5 := r4⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r4⎦ ( ) 2⋅ π⋅ r5⋅ cos β 5 2 2 A 5 = 2.6in d 2t = 4 in d 3 = 4.12in .834297 ⎣ 4⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ := 1.460075 ⎣ 3⎦ ⎡ r4⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 1.Appendix J Sample rotor for Case 2 with calculation program ⎡ A 4⎤ ⎢ A ⎥ := 2.378184deg ⋅ Nb := 8 ζc := 0.255677 ⎣ 3⎦ ⎡ r5⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 1.55in r5 = 2.8in r3 = 2.934in b 4 = 9.062in d 4 = 5.738in b 5 = 8.012in A 3 = 1.336in 2 A 4 = 3.1in b 3 = 0.

062 = d3 Ø 4. 111 .3°=β 5 Ø 5.81.100 = d4 Ø 4.738 =b4 8.934 Figure J-1: Sample rotor for Case 2 with side view (starting at station 3).336 =b5 b3 = .594 = d2h r θ 9.120 = d5 Ø 5.000 = d2t Ø 1.

5⋅ cos β 4.5 := A 4⋅ ⎜ ⎢ ⎥ ⎝ ⎣ A 4.5 = 29.886in r5 = 15.5⎦ ⎠ A 3 := ( ) 2⋅ π⋅ r3⋅ b 3⋅ cos β 3 −1 b 4.0099 ⎣ 4⎦ ⎡ r4⎤ r4 := r3⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r3⎦ d 4 := 2⋅ r4 ⎡ A 4⎤ ⎥ ⎣ A 3⎦ d 5 := 2⋅ r5 ( ) 2⋅ π⋅ r4⋅ cos β 4 ⎡ A5 ⎤ ⎥ ⎣ A 4.308in .236in 2 2 A 4.581712× 10 ⎣ 3⎦ β 4 := 84.910798deg ⋅ r2h := r2t⋅ ζc d 2h := 2⋅ r2h ⎡ A5 ⎤ ⎢ A ⎥ := 1.89313 ⎣ 2t ⎦ β 3 := 0⋅ deg ⎡ b3⎤ −3 ⎢ r ⎥ := 1.5⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 1.254in b 3 = 0.069184 ⎣ 3⎦ β 4.786in r4 = 14.76084deg ⋅ ⎡ r3 ⎤ r3 := r2t⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ d 2t := 2⋅ r2t Nb ⎡ r4⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 1.5 := d 3 := 2⋅ r3 ⎡ r4.5⎦ ( ) ⎡ r4.5 = 14.022in b 4 = 0.145266deg ⋅ ζc := 0.5 = 0.5 Nb := 8 d 4.235198 ⎣ 4.5⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 6.5 = 0.772in d 5 = 31.092395 ⎣ 3⎦ ⎡ A4 ⎤ ⎢ A ⎥ := 1.218in b 4.4 r2t := 2⋅ in ⎡ r5⎤ r5 := r4⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r4⎦ ⎡ b3⎤ ⎥ ⎣ r3 ⎦ b 3 := r3⋅ ⎢ ⎛ ⎡ A4 ⎤ ⎞ A 4.24in b 5 = 1.036009 ⎣ 4.573in d 4 = 29.8in r3 = 13.74in r4.627in d 2h = 1.5 ⎡ r5⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 1.159in 2 A 4 = 0.249in 112 2 A 5 = 0.5 := 84.5⎤ r4.06018 ⎣ 4⎦ β 5 := 88.48in d 4.5⋅ ⎢ 2⋅ π⋅ r4.5 := 2⋅ r4.258in A 3 = 0.5 A 4 := A 3⋅ ⎢ Nb ⋅ A 4.5 := r4⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r4 ⎦ Nb ⋅ A 4 b 4 := A 5 := A 4.5⎦ b 5 := Nb ⋅ A 5 ( ) 2⋅ π⋅ r5⋅ cos β 5 r2h = 0.6in d 2t = 4 in d 3 = 27.Appendix K Sample rotor for Case 3 with calculation program ⎡ A 4⎤ ⎢ A ⎥ := 1.

8° = β 5 Ø 29.84.600 = d2h r b4 = .5 b3 = .000 = d2t Ø 1.572 = d3 Ø 4.254 = d5 Ø 29.218 θ .1° = β 4 88.772 = d4.480 = d4 Ø 27.5 Ø 31.159 = b5 Figure K-1: Sample rotor for Case 3 with side view (starting at station 3) 113 .240 = b4.022 1.

036995 ⎣ 4⎦ 2 A 4 = 1.902in b 3 = 0.769in b 4 = 0.696in r5 = 2.393in 2 A 5 = 0.592in .535271deg ⋅ ζc := 0.Appendix L Sample rotor for Case 4 with calculation program ⎡ A 4⎤ ⎢ A ⎥ := 0.85656 ⎣ 3⎦ ⎡ A 5⎤ ⎢ A ⎥ := 0.268in d 4 = 5.796in d 2h = 1.283435deg ⋅ β 5 := 84.4 r2t := 2⋅ in d 2h := 2⋅ r2h r2h := r2t⋅ ζc d 2t := 2⋅ r2t ⎡ b3⎤ ⎥ ⎣ r3 ⎦ b 3 := r3⋅ ⎢ ⎡ A 5⎤ ⎥ ⎣ A 4⎦ A 5 := A 4⋅ ⎢ A 3 := b 5 := d 3 := 2⋅ r3 ( ) 2⋅ π⋅ r3⋅ b 3⋅ cos β 3 Nb ⎡ r3 ⎤ r3 := r2t⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r2t ⎦ ⎡ r5⎤ r5 := r4⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r4⎦ d 5 := 2⋅ r5 ⎡ A 4⎤ ⎥ ⎣ A 3⎦ A 4 := A 3⋅ ⎢ b 4 := Nb ⋅ A 4 ( ) 2⋅ π⋅ r4⋅ cos β 4 Nb ⋅ A 5 ( ) 2⋅ π⋅ r5⋅ cos β 5 r4 = 2.6in d 2t = 4 in d 3 = 4.312in 2 Nb := 8 ⎡ r4⎤ r4 := r3⋅ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ r3⎦ d 4 := 2⋅ r4 r3 = 2.451in A 3 = 1.225592 ⎣ 2t ⎦ ⎡ b3⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 0.743in b 5 = 4.481in ⎡ r5⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 1.1 ⎣ 3⎦ β 3 := 0⋅ deg β 4 := 36.313776 ⎣ 3⎦ ⎡ r4⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 1.902in 114 d 5 = 5.711062 ⎣ 4⎦ ⎡ r3 ⎤ ⎢ r ⎥ := 1.

000 = d2h r θ 4.592 = d5 Ø 5.312= b4 .743 = b5 b3 = .600 = d2t Ø 4.392 = d4 Ø 4.β 4 = 36° 85° = β 5 Ø 5.769 Figure L-1: Sample rotor for Case 4 with side view (starting at station 3).902 = d3 Ø 1. 115 .

graduate student and completed his defense in Summer II. in Mechanical Engineering in Fall of 2000. His early education up until high school was in Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia. R. They both served as an agricultural officer and teacher. respectively. He plans to continue with his studies by pursuing a PhD degree in Aerospace Engineering. He then transferred to Louisiana State University and completed his B.Vita Manoharan Thiagarajan was born to Malaysian parents in Baton Rouge. 116 . 1977.S. In the Fall of 2001. he enrolled at the Mechanical Engineering Department of Virginia Tech as a M. After completing high school at Cochrane Road Secondary School (Malaysia).S. Louisiana from 1995 to 1996. G. Thiagarajan and mother. Easwari are Malaysian Government employees. His father. Louisiana on August 23. he enrolled in McNeese State University at Lake Charles.