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Business Process Modeling  and Analysis in Banks

Burkhard Weiß 10.3.2011, Brisbane

University of Muenster / ERCIS Research Network

University of Muenster

Department of Information Systems #1 in IS in Germany

Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks
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Burkhard Weiß

Relevance of Process Modeling & Analysis in BPM
… a simplified view on the BPM lifecycle [B k Kugeler, Rosemann 2008] i lifi d i th lif l [Becker, K l R

Redocumentation of Improved Processes p

As-Is Analysis

Process

Process

To-Be Process Modeling

Modeling

BPM

Analysis

To-Be Process Analysis

Initial As-Is Process Documentation
Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks
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Process Improvement

Burkhard Weiß

2007] l h [Spath l Problem statement: d) according t a BPM study in the financial sector [Becker et di to t d i th fi i l t [B k t al. J.. process weaknesses Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 3 Burkhard Weiß . there is a need to model and analyze processes more effectively and efficiently in banks in order to identify banks. banks. banks model their business processes and analyze these [S h et al. financial crisis.Motivation: Initial Situation and Problem Statement Initial situation: a) banks face increased competition. pressure to reduce costs. however.. have high modeling efforts [Mendling. J. 2010]. H. Reijers. banks try to optimize and reorganize or even industrialize their business. comes from process analysis that leads to optimization e) thus. Reckers. 2009] and fail to unlock the value of their models (utility) which primarily (utility). cherry-picking by customers. … b) as a response. c) and in doing so. A.

and if yes. b) while at the same time being efficient and effective in y g p g analyzing their business processes with regards to identifying process weaknesses. and thus enabling them to optimize p p their process landscape? How can obtained knowledge on efficient and effective business process modeling and analysis be disseminated into academia and industry alike? initial ? ? Burkhard Weiß core e follow-up Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 4 . operational risks and compliance issues. which? How can banks a) model their business processes efficiently and effectively.Research Questions D Design Science App proach ? What is the status quo of BPM in banks? Do banks face problems within their business process modeling p p g projects.

1995. Guizzardi et al.Related Work and Theoretical Background Research on Evaluation of SBBL in Public Administrations [Räckers 2010] Research on Semantic Theory on Semantic Process Analysis in Process Analysis in Public Administrations Public Administrations [Pfeiffer 2008] [Räckers 2010] Theory on Research on Design Construction and Application of of SBBL for Process SBBL for Process Modeling in Public Modeling in Public Administrations Administrations [Falk 2007] [Algermissen 2007] Theory on Semantic Building Block-Based Languages (SBBL) [Pfeiffer 2008] Theory of Conceptual Modeling and Conceptual Modeling Languages [Brekle 1972. Wand et al. Golin 1991. 2002] Theo & Artif ory fact Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 5 Burkhard Weiß Theo & Artif ory fact New DomainSpecific Approach to Process Modeling and Analysis – PICTURE Approach .

banks and public adminstrations have many similarities: a) both largely offer services and almost no physical products to their customers b) both largely deal with information c) both have high personnel costs and depend upon human labour ) g p p p d) nevertheless.Bridging Public Administrations and Banks For public administrations a solution to effective and efficient process modeling and analysis has already been found. For banks this is not the case yet! However. both also make use of IT to a large extent e) both have highly standardized business processes for most of their products / offered services f) both are under high cost pressure (banks largely due to competition / globalization and public administrations largely due to household deficits and insufficient tax income) g) … Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 6 Burkhard Weiß .

. Hevner et al. 2004. Deneckère. 2001. C 2003. Prakash. Ralyté. D. 2007] ConceptualR.. 2002] Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks Burkhard Weiß . Golin 1991.. J. Peffers et al. Rolland. Guizzardi et al. N. 2004. Deneckère. + Design ScienceLanguages Modeling and Conceptual Modeling + … [Gupta.Theoretical Background for Igniting the Research Process Dissemination Di i ti Evaluationand Research on Theory of SBPML for Banks in Terms of SBBL in Public Administrations Evaluationof Process Modeling and Analysis [Räckers [Rä k 2010] Research on Semantic Demonstration of Process Demonstration of Process Theory on Semantic Modeling Approach Process Analysis in Analysis Approach Process Analysis in in i and for Banks Public Administrations P bli Add fi i B tik t Public Add f i B tik P blii Administrations i t in and for Banks [Pfeiffer 2008] [Räckers 2010] 7 Desig Scienc Approa gn ce ach Theory on y Research on Design g Design & Development Design & Development Construction and Application of of Process of Process of SBBL for Process SBBL for Process Modeling Approach Analysis Approach Modeling in Public Modeling in Public for Banks for Banks Administrations Administrations [Falk 2007] [Algermissen 2007] Problem Setting + Objective of a Solution: Theory on Semantic Building Block-Based Languages (SBBL) Transferability of Domain Specific SBBL from Public Sector to Banking Sector Domain-Specific [Pfeiffer 2008] Theory ofTheory on Method EngineeringRolland. Ralyté. [Brekle 1972.. 1995. R. Wand et al.. C. J.

 Semantic BPML for Modeling 3. On Effort and Utility of Process Modeling in Banks 2.Agenda Business Process Modeling and Analysis 1. Semantic BPML for Operational Risk Management 5. Semantic BPML for Business Process Compliance 6. Outlook Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 8 Burkhard Weiß . Semantic BPML for Analysis 4.

Goal Setting: Need for A New Approach to BPM? ? Lack of Studies: Currently there have not been sufficient studies on the effort and utility of process modeling and analysis in the financial sector A New BPM Approach: Recently Recently. a new approach to efficient and effective process modeling and analysis was developed for public administrations with a high potential to be also useful to the financial sector Goal: Exploratory investigation of the effort and utility of process modeling and analysis in the financial sector to identify need for new BPM approach f b k df h for banks Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 9 Burkhard Weiß . however.

without direct utility creation. is spent for process modeling? How much utility is gained by „using“ process models for diff f different purposes? t ? Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 10 Burkhard Weiß .Studying BPM from a Process Model Lifecycle Perspective How much effort.

7%) Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 11 Burkhard Weiß .Investigating BPM in the Financial Sector – Database Dat ta Retriev and A val Aggregatio Proces on ss Database 1 2467 email contacts in German. Austrian and Swiss banks 1219 593 655 Response rate of 4% Aggre egation * 97 Responses * 72 Respondents with BPM initiatives •One instance per bank 2 3 Final Da ataset Final dataset: n = 60 banks (2.

Thus the 60 banks participating in our study seemed to be investing more on the effort side than they actually got back as a possible benefit from their business process modeling effort. Banks l B k only got a return of 45% t t f of the maximum possible utility.Data Presentation: Effort-Utility-Ratios Benchmarking of Banks regarding Effort-Utility-Positions 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% Utility Effort-UtilityRatio < 1 Banks i B k invested 61% of th t d f the maximum possible efforts. Effort-UtilityEff t Utilit Ratio > 1 Effort 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Satisfied Bank Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 12 Burkhard Weiß . Thus.

if a b k has a positive i fl bank h iti or a negative effort-utility-ratio? ! Idea: ! 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Is there an item in our survey. which can be used to explain why banks have a positive or negative effort-utility-ratio? Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 13 Burkhard Weiß .Data Analysis: Idea of Discriminating Variable ? Question: ? 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% What may be the factor that influences.

Data Analysis: Idea of Discriminating Variable a) the usage of individual (enhanced) modeling methods compared to standard modeling methods (without any enhancements) b) the satisfaction with the cost-effectiveness of creating business process models (modeling and validation) with respect to a certain used process modeling method c) the satisfaction with the cost-benefit-ratio of process model maintenance with respect to a certain used process modeling method p g 4 items with respect to business process modeling languages that could possibly explain the difference of banks having a positive or negative effortutility-ratio were analyzed from the original set of the questionnaire d) the satisfaction with analysis possibilities offered by the used process modeling method Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 14 Burkhard Weiß .

using standardized modeling methods without any extensions often seems to have a negative influence on overall satisfaction with process modeling initiative. Standardized Modeling Methods 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% Utility Effort-UtilityRatio < 1 Not good for explaining satisfaction with process p modeling initiatives.Data Analysis: Standard vs. However. Effort-UtilityEffort Utility Ratio > 1 Effort 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Banks using individual  modeling methods Banks using standardized  modeling methods Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 15 Burkhard Weiß . Specialized BPML Usage of Individual vs.

Effort-UtilityEffort Utility Ratio > 1 Effort 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Satisfied Dissatisfied Not known Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 16 Burkhard Weiß . many costs invested during initial process model creation seems to reflect negatively on overall satisfaction with process modeling initiative. However.Data Analysis: Cost-Effectiveness of Model Creation Due to BPML Cost-Effectiveness of Creating Process Models 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% Utility Effort-UtilityRatio < 1 Not good for explaining satisfaction with process p modeling initiatives.

low cost-benefit-ratio regarding process model maintenance seems to reflect negatively on overall satisfaction with process modeling initiative.Data Analysis: Cost-Benefit-Ratio of Process Model Maintenance Due to BPML Cost-Benefit-Ratio of Process Model Maintenance 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% Utility Effort-UtilityRatio < 1 Not good for explaining satisfaction with process p modeling initiatives. Effort-UtilityEffort Utility Ratio > 1 Effort 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Satisfied Dissatisfied Not known Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 17 Burkhard Weiß . However.

10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Satisfied Dissatisfied Not known Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 18 Burkhard Weiß .Data Analysis: Analysis Benefits Due to BPML Benefits of Analysis Possibilities Offered by Modeling Method 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% Utility Effort-UtilityRatio < 1 Effort-UtilityEffort Utility Ratio > 1 Effort Analysis possibilities of applied modeling method seems t b a d li th d to be fairly good indicator (with a few exceptions) for explaining or detecting satisfaction or dissatisfaction with overall process modeling projects and especially positive or negative effort-utility-ratios.

Data Interpretation and Key Findings Existing BPM languages are not ideal: 51% of banks were not satisfied with available methods and partially even willing to create own methods Many general purpose modeling languages (e.g. EPC. Combining both ease of modeling and analysis and integrating these aspects into the methods used and tools seems to be a promising approach. BPMN) support automated analysis only to a very limited degree and consume many human resources for modeling. UML AD. Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 19 Key Findings Burkhard Weiß .

 Semantic BPML for Business Process Compliance 6. On Effort and Utility of Process Modeling in Banks 2. Outlook Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 20 Burkhard Weiß . Semantic BPML for Analysis 4.Agenda Business Process Modeling and Analysis 1. Semantic BPML for Modeling 3. Semantic BPML for Operational Risk Management 5.

. BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten p progra mm g BEC_ A tra gn s tel ler ko m mt für zus ätzli ch e Kos te n auf BEC_ A tra gn s teller ko mm t n ich t fü r zu s ä tzlich .. ob A ntrag s te llers tam m daten erfas st s ind BEC_ Schü lerfah rkos tene rs tattu ng .... o b Schülers pezialverkeh r wirts chaftliche r BEC_A ntrags tell ers ta mm da te n BEC_V erg leiche ents t ehende Kos te n m it ÖPNV -Kos ten BEC_ÖPNV-Preis lis te BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_ÖPNV-Preis lis te BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Sch üle rs pezialverkeh r is t w irtschaftliche r BEC_Sch üle rs pezialverkeh r is t nicht wirts chaftliche r BEC_Prüfe ...Problems of Traditional Approaches Universal Business Process Modeling Languages P roz essablauf O. BEC_Prüfe An tra g auf V olls tänd igke it BEC_ Schü lerfah rkos tene rs tattu ng .und A us s tiegs haltes telle BEC_Läng e is t aus reichend genau mes sbar BEC_Läng e is t n icht aus reichend genau mes sbar BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Ste lle V erm es s ungs antrag BEC_V erm es s ungs antrag BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Routen pl aner/Topo grap hieprogramm BEC_Busfahrplän e BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Erm ittle zu benutzende n V erkehrs trä ge r BEC_V ermes s ungs daten s i nd eingegangen BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Bus fahrplä ne BEC_Entscheide ob Sch üle rjahres karte aus ges tell . BEC_ ÖPNV is t n ich t ve rfü gb ar BEC_ ÖPNV is t ve rfüg ba r BEC_ÖPNV-Preis lis te BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_ Karte is t n ich t zu teu er BEC_ Karte i s t zu teu er BEC_Prüfe Z m utb arke it u der ÖPNV-N utzu ng BEC_ ÖPNV is t nicht zum utba r BEC _ÖPNV i s t zu m u tba r BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_ Prü fe. o b Ans pru ch fü r angegebene Klas s e bes teht Kein A ns pruch fü r Berufs s ch üle r BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A s p ruch n is t generell gegeben BEC_A s p ruch n is t nich t gegeben BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Prüfe ...... rBEC_Schü lerfah kos tene rs ta ttu ng .. o b An tra g Mitfa h re r eins chließt BEC _M itfa hrer s in d im Antrag mit eingeschlos s en BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC _Antrag is t oh ne M itfa hre r BEC_Ers ta tte Fa hrka rte n nachträ glich BEC_ A tra g is t n o hne M itfah rer BEC_ M itfah re r s in d im A ntrag m it eingeschloss en BEC_Lege Mitfa h re r An trä g e zu Grund e BEC_Lege M itfa h rer An trä g e zu Grun de BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A ntrags tell ers ta mm da te n BEC_Prüfe ... ob An tra g M itfa h rer eins chließt BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_ Prü fe. BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_ A tra g i s t n volls tänd ig BEC _Antrag is t unvolls tän dig BEC_Schülers tam m date n BEC_Prüfe . BEC_ Sach bearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A lle n eu en Schülerdate n s ind ei ngepflegt BEC_Bes telll is te BEC_ Expo rti ere Bes tellli sten pro Schule un d V erkehrs träg er BEC_Bes t elllis te BEC_V ers end e Bestelllis te(n) BEC_Schülerjahres karten-Bes tellung BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC E-M ail-P rogram m BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Dru cke A blehnungs be s cheid(e) BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_V ersend e A blehnungs be s cheid(e) BEC_A blehnungs bes cheid V ers and s ol lte wenn m öglich el ektronis ch erfol gen BEC_A blehnungs bes cheid BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Dru cke Bewilligungs bes cheid(e) BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_V ers end e Bewilligungs bes cheid(e) BEC_Bewilligungs bes cheid BEC_Bewilligungs bescheid BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Bes te lllis te(n) s ind vers and t BEC_ A leh nb ungsbes cheide s ind vers an dt BEC Ersta ttungs beschei(e) s ind vers a nd t BEC_Schü lerjahres karte(n) is t(s ind) eingegangen BEC_Bes t elllis te BEC_Gle iche Kontrollboge n a b BEC_Kontrollis te BEC_Kontrollis te BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Bes tellung is t korrekt BEC_Bes tellung i s t n icht ko rre kt BEC_V eranlas s e Nachbes s erung BEC_Ers telle A us zahlun gs anordnung BEC_Kontro llis te BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_ Prü fe Überweis ung zuzahl un gs p flich tig e .... BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC _Antrag s teller is t bereits erfas s t BEC_ A tra gn s teller is t noch nicht erfas s t BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Erfas s e/ Übernehme A ntra gs telle rdaten BEC_ Schü lerfah rkos tene rs tattu ng ..... Problems of traditional approaches BEC_Routen pl aner/T op og ra p hi eprogram m BEC_Fehlende Daten s ind ermittelt BEC_Fehlende Daten s i nd nicht zu e rm itte ln BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_A ns pruchs lis te n BEC_Prüfe. o b zu bes tellende Karte teu rer al s Ers tattu ng s g r. BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A ntragstel lers ta mm d ate n BEC_Prüfe .. BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Ents tehe nde Kos ten s ind nicht höher als ÖPNV-Ko s te n BEC_Ents tehe nde Kos ten s ind höher als ÖPNV -Kos ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_V eranlas s e Schülers pezialverkeh r BEC_ Ta xi b ei volle r Ers ta ttun g is t erforderlich BEC_ Ta xi b ei volle r Ers ta ttun g i s t nich t erforderlich BEC_ Ers tatte Beförd erun g m it eigenem Fah rze ug BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Ers ta tte Beförderun g in angem ieteten Fahrzeu ge n BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_ Ermittle ents t ehende Kos ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Kos tenaufs tellun g BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Bearbe ite An tra g ni ch t weiter BEC_Bewillige An tra g (Schülerjahreska rte) BEC_Bewi llige An tra g (Kos teners ta ttu ng ) BEC_Lehne An trag ab BEC_Schülerd ate ns atz BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Pfle ge Bewilli gungs art und -höhe BEC_Schülerda ten s a tz BEC_Kos tenaufs tellung BEC_Schülerd ate ns atz BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Sch üle rdatens atz is t eingepflegt BEC_ Prü fe Exis te nz weite re r Anträ ge BEC_ Schü lerfah rkos tene rs tattu ng ... ob A tra gs tel ler für n zus ä tzliche Kos te te.. ob Schule nä ch s tgelegene Schule is t BEC_A ntrags tell ers ta mm da te n BEC_Schulangebots lis te BEC_Schu lwe glänge is t nicht bekannt BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Entfernungstabell e (verke hrs ü blich) BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Schule is t nächs tgelegene mögliche Schule BEC_Schu le is t nicht nä ch s tgelegene m ögliche Schule BEC_V erm es s e Länge des verkehrs üblichen Schulwegs BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Routen pl aner/T op og ra p hi eprogram m BEC_ Prüfe Eins tiegs .. ob A bl eh nu ng zu ers t ellen is t BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Überp rü fe A ns pruchs voraus s etzungen BEC_Geb e A s p ru ch n ich t n s ta tt BEC_ A leh nb ungs bes cheid ist zu ers tell en BEC_ A leh nb ungs bes cheid is t nicht zu ers telle n BEC_A ns pruchs vorau s s etzungen s ind e rfü llt BEC_A ns pruchs vorau s s etzungen s ind nich t e rfü llt BEC_V rwerfe e An tra g BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Erm ittle gewüns chtes V erkeh rs m itte l BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Ben utze s V ekeh rs mi ttel i s t ÖPNV BEC_Benu tzes V erkeh rs mi ttel is t n ich t ÖPN V BEC_A ntrags tell ers ta mm da te n BEC_Entfernungs tabelle (ve rkeh rs üb lich) BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_ Erm ittle Länge de s verkehrs üblichen Schulwegs zur BEC_ Prüfe . ob außergewöhnliche Ums tände Ta xie ins at. ob Jahres karte wirts chaftl ich er BEC_Schu lwe glänge is t bekannt BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Prüfe ob ÖPNV fü r d ies e Strecke ve rfüg ba r BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Bus fahrplä ne BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Sch üle rjahres karte is t wirts chaftl ich er BEC_Schü le rjahres karte is t n icht wirts chaftlicher BEC_A ntrags tell ers ta mm da te n BEC_Prüfe. BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_V erm ess ungs antra g BEC_Sch üle rjahres karte is t aus z us t ell en BEC_Sch üle rjahres karte is t nicht aus zus tellen BEC_ Ergä nze Weglängenlis te (verkeh rs üblich) BEC_Entfernungs tabelle (verkeh rs ü bl ich ) BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Entfernungstabelle (verke hrs üb lich) Is t beis piels weis e ein m ehrwöchiges Praktikum vorges ehen BEC_ Prüfe ... BEC_Überweis ungen s ind noch nicht eing egangen BEC_Hal te zuzahlun gs pflichti ge Ka rte n zu rü ck BEC_Überweis ungen s ind eingegangen BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_A us zahlungs ano rdn un g BEC_A s za hlu n u gs anordnung i s t weitergeleitet BEC_Nachbes s erung is t veranlas s t BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Überweis ung is t eingegangen BEC_V ers ende Schülerjahres ka rte(n) an Schul en BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rj ahres karte(n) s ind vers an dt  hard to understand (domain neutral)  hard to compare (high freedom degrees)  hard to explain (expert knowledge neccessary vor modeling) g)  hardly affordable (very detailled modeling / not economically)  hardly usable (missing semantic analysis capabilities) Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 21 Burkhard Weiß .hrBEC_ Sch üle rfa kos ten ers ta ttun g. ob A ntrags tel ler bereits A tra g n ges tellt h at Doppelantrags stel ler werden aufges pü rt BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_ A tra g is t n berei ts gestel lt worden BEC_ A tra g i s t n noch nicht ge s tellt worden BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Gle iche A ntrag s te llerda ten mi t Schülerdate n a b BEC_Schülerda ten BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_ A tra gn st ellerdaten s ind va lidie rt BEC_Antrags te ll erdaten s ind n i ch t zu validieren BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Überp rüfe Klas s en.. Bei elektronis chen A nträgen s o llte die V olls tändigkeits prüfung automatis iert ges ch eh en BEC_ A tra g a uf n Schül erfahrkos teners ta ttu n g i s . BEC_ A tra g a uf n Schüle rfa hrkos ten is t elektron is c. BEC_Prüfe .. BEC_A us zahlungs ano rd nu ng BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Haus h alt skass ens y te s m BEC_ A s za hu lungs anordnung is t ers tel lt BEC_Le ite A us zahlu ng s anordnung an Sta dtka s s ..und Schulangaben BEC_Schulangebots lis te BEC_Klas s e liegt a n angegebener Schu le vor BEC_Klass e liegt an angegebener Sch u le n icht vo r BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Halte Rücks prache m it An tra gs teller/Schule BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm Input O utput Führt aus & unterstütz t IT F ü.. . r.

BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_V erm ess ungs antra g BEC_Sch üle rjahres karte is t aus z us t ell en BEC_Sch üle rjahres karte is t nicht aus zus tellen BEC_ Ergä nze Weglängenlis te (verkeh rs üblich) BEC_Entfernungs tabelle (verkeh rs ü bl ich ) BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Entfernungstabelle (verke hrs üb lich) Is t beis piels weis e ein m ehrwöchiges Praktikum vorges ehen BEC_ Prüfe . ob A bl eh nu ng zu ers t ellen is t BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Überp rü fe A ns pruchs voraus s etzungen BEC_Geb e A s p ru ch n ich t n s ta tt BEC_ A leh nb ungs bes cheid ist zu ers tell en BEC_ A leh nb ungs bes cheid is t nicht zu ers telle n BEC_A ns pruchs vorau s s etzungen s ind e rfü llt BEC_A ns pruchs vorau s s etzungen s ind nich t e rfü llt BEC_V rwerfe e An tra g BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Erm ittle gewüns chtes V erkeh rs m itte l BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Ben utze s V ekeh rs mi ttel i s t ÖPNV BEC_Benu tzes V erkeh rs mi ttel is t n ich t ÖPN V BEC_A ntrags tell ers ta mm da te n BEC_Entfernungs tabelle (ve rkeh rs üb lich) BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_ Erm ittle Länge de s verkehrs üblichen Schulwegs zur BEC_ Prüfe .und Schulangaben BEC_Klas s e liegt a n angegebener Schu le vor BEC_Klass e liegt an angegebener Sch u le n icht vo r BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Halte Rücks prache m it An tra gs teller/Schule BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Fehlende Daten s ind ermittelt BEC_Fehlende Daten s i nd nicht zu e rm itte ln BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_A ns pruchs lis te n BEC_Prüfe. ob A ntrags tel ler bereits A tra g n ges tellt h at Doppelantrags stel ler werden aufges pü rt BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_ A tra g is t n berei ts gestel lt worden BEC_ A tra g i s t n noch nicht ge s tellt worden BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Gle iche A ntrag s te llerda ten mi t Schülerdate n a b BEC_Schülerda ten BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm Input O utput Führt aus & unterstütz t IT F ü. o b zu bes tellende Karte teu rer al s Ers tattu ng s g r. Bei elektronis chen A nträgen s o llte die V olls tändigkeits prüfung automatis iert ges ch eh en BEC_ A tra g a uf n Schül erfahrkos teners ta ttu n g i s . BEC_ Sach bearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A lle n eu en Schülerdate n s ind ei ngepflegt BEC_Bes telll is te BEC_ Expo rti ere Bes tellli sten pro Schule un d V erkehrs träg er BEC_Bes t elllis te BEC_V ers end e Bestelllis te(n) BEC_Schülerjahres karten-Bes tellung BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC E-M ail-P rogram m BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Dru cke A blehnungs be s cheid(e) BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_V ersend e A blehnungs be s cheid(e) BEC_A blehnungs bes cheid V ers and s ol lte wenn m öglich el ektronis ch erfol gen BEC_A blehnungs bes cheid BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Dru cke Bewilligungs bes cheid(e) BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_V ers end e Bewilligungs bes cheid(e) BEC_Bewilligungs bes cheid BEC_Bewilligungs bescheid BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Bes te lllis te(n) s ind vers and t BEC_ A leh nb ungsbes cheide s ind vers an dt BEC Ersta ttungs beschei(e) s ind vers a nd t BEC_Schü lerjahres karte(n) is t(s ind) eingegangen BEC_Bes t elllis te BEC_Gle iche Kontrollboge n a b BEC_Kontrollis te BEC_Kontrollis te BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Bes tellung is t korrekt BEC_Bes tellung i s t n icht ko rre kt BEC_V eranlas s e Nachbes s erung BEC_Ers telle A us zahlun gs anordnung BEC_Kontro llis te BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_ Prü fe Überweis ung zuzahl un gs p flich tig e .Requirements for Solving the Process Modeling Dilemma Universal Business Process Modeling Languages P roz essablauf O.... ob A ntrag s te llers tam m daten erfas st s ind BEC_ Schü lerfah rkos tene rs tattu ng . BEC_Prüfe . BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A ntragstel lers ta mm d ate n BEC_Prüfe ... o b An tra g Mitfa h re r eins chließt BEC _M itfa hrer s in d im Antrag mit eingeschlos s en BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC _Antrag is t oh ne M itfa hre r BEC_Ers ta tte Fa hrka rte n nachträ glich BEC_ A tra g is t n o hne M itfah rer BEC_ M itfah re r s in d im A ntrag m it eingeschloss en BEC_Lege Mitfa h re r An trä g e zu Grund e BEC_Lege M itfa h rer An trä g e zu Grun de BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A ntrags tell ers ta mm da te n BEC_Prüfe . ob An tra g M itfa h rer eins chließt BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_ Prü fe.. ob A tra gs tel ler für n zus ä tzliche Kos te te. ... BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_ A tra g i s t n volls tänd ig BEC _Antrag is t unvolls tän dig BEC_Schülers tam m date n BEC_Prüfe . o b Schülers pezialverkeh r wirts chaftliche r BEC_A ntrags tell ers ta mm da te n BEC_V erg leiche ents t ehende Kos te n m it ÖPNV -Kos ten BEC_ÖPNV-Preis lis te BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_ÖPNV-Preis lis te BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Sch üle rs pezialverkeh r is t w irtschaftliche r BEC_Sch üle rs pezialverkeh r is t nicht wirts chaftliche r BEC_Prüfe ... BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC _Antrag s teller is t bereits erfas s t BEC_ A tra gn s teller is t noch nicht erfas s t BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Erfas s e/ Übernehme A ntra gs telle rdaten BEC_ Schü lerfah rkos tene rs tattu ng ... Solution Modeling  predefined building blocks  domain-specific languages  decentral and distributed modeling activities  direct interaction with business specialists  simple syntactical rules Use / Analysis  comparison of models g g  goal-focused modeling (relevance / economically) BEC_ A tra gn st ellerdaten s ind va lidie rt BEC_Antrags te ll erdaten s ind n i ch t zu validieren BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Schulangebots lis te BEC_Überp rüfe Klas s en. ob Schule nä ch s tgelegene Schule is t BEC_A ntrags tell ers ta mm da te n BEC_Schulangebots lis te BEC_Schu lwe glänge is t nicht bekannt BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Entfernungstabell e (verke hrs ü blich) BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Routen pl aner/T op og ra p hi eprogram m BEC_Schule is t nächs tgelegene mögliche Schule BEC_Schu le is t nicht nä ch s tgelegene m ögliche Schule BEC_V erm es s e Länge des verkehrs üblichen Schulwegs BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Routen pl aner/T op og ra p hi eprogram m BEC_ Prüfe Eins tiegs . BEC_ ÖPNV is t n ich t ve rfü gb ar BEC_ ÖPNV is t ve rfüg ba r BEC_ÖPNV-Preis lis te BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_ Karte is t n ich t zu teu er BEC_ Karte i s t zu teu er BEC_Prüfe Z m utb arke it u der ÖPNV-N utzu ng BEC_ ÖPNV is t nicht zum utba r BEC _ÖPNV i s t zu m u tba r BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_ Prü fe. ob Jahres karte wirts chaftl ich er BEC_Schu lwe glänge is t bekannt BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Prüfe ob ÖPNV fü r d ies e Strecke ve rfüg ba r BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Bus fahrplä ne BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Sch üle rjahres karte is t wirts chaftl ich er BEC_Schü le rjahres karte is t n icht wirts chaftlicher BEC_A ntrags tell ers ta mm da te n BEC_Prüfe.... BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Ents tehe nde Kos ten s ind nicht höher als ÖPNV-Ko s te n BEC_Ents tehe nde Kos ten s ind höher als ÖPNV -Kos ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_V eranlas s e Schülers pezialverkeh r BEC_ Ta xi b ei volle r Ers ta ttun g is t erforderlich BEC_ Ta xi b ei volle r Ers ta ttun g i s t nich t erforderlich BEC_ Ers tatte Beförd erun g m it eigenem Fah rze ug BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Ers ta tte Beförderun g in angem ieteten Fahrzeu ge n BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_ Ermittle ents t ehende Kos ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Kos tenaufs tellun g BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Bearbe ite An tra g ni ch t weiter BEC_Bewillige An tra g (Schülerjahreska rte) BEC_Bewi llige An tra g (Kos teners ta ttu ng ) BEC_Lehne An trag ab BEC_Schülerd ate ns atz BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Pfle ge Bewilli gungs art und -höhe BEC_Schülerda ten s a tz BEC_Kos tenaufs tellung BEC_Schülerd ate ns atz BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Sch üle rdatens atz is t eingepflegt BEC_ Prü fe Exis te nz weite re r Anträ ge BEC_ Schü lerfah rkos tene rs tattu ng .. BEC_Überweis ungen s ind noch nicht eing egangen BEC_Hal te zuzahlun gs pflichti ge Ka rte n zu rü ck BEC_Überweis ungen s ind eingegangen BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_A us zahlungs ano rdn un g BEC_A s za hlu n u gs anordnung i s t weitergeleitet BEC_Nachbes s erung is t veranlas s t BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Überweis ung is t eingegangen BEC_V ers ende Schülerjahres ka rte(n) an Schul en BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rj ahres karte(n) s ind vers an dt Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 22 Burkhard Weiß .. BEC_A us zahlungs ano rd nu ng BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Haus h alt skass ens y te s m BEC_ A s za hu lungs anordnung is t ers tel lt BEC_Le ite A us zahlu ng s anordnung an Sta dtka s s .. BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten p progra mm g BEC_ A tra gn s tel ler ko m mt für zus ätzli ch e Kos te n auf BEC_ A tra gn s teller ko mm t n ich t fü r zu s ä tzlich ..und A us s tiegs haltes telle BEC_Läng e is t aus reichend genau mes sbar BEC_Läng e is t n icht aus reichend genau mes sbar BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Ste lle V erm es s ungs antrag BEC_V erm es s ungs antrag BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Routen pl aner/Topo grap hieprogramm BEC_Busfahrplän e BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Erm ittle zu benutzende n V erkehrs trä ge r BEC_V ermes s ungs daten s i nd eingegangen BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Bus fahrplä ne BEC_Entscheide ob Sch üle rjahres karte aus ges tell .. o b Ans pru ch fü r angegebene Klas s e bes teht Kein A ns pruch fü r Berufs s ch üle r BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A s p ruch n is t generell gegeben BEC_A s p ruch n is t nich t gegeben BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Prüfe .hrBEC_ Sch üle rfa kos ten ers ta ttun g.. BEC_ A tra g a uf n Schüle rfa hrkos ten is t elektron is c......... BEC_Prüfe An tra g auf V olls tänd igke it BEC_ Schü lerfah rkos tene rs tattu ng . r.. ob außergewöhnliche Ums tände Ta xie ins at. rBEC_Schü lerfah kos tene rs ta ttu ng ....

Bei elektronis chen A nträgen s o llte die V olls tändigkeits prüfung automatis iert ges ch eh en BEC_ A tra g a uf n Schül erfahrkos teners ta ttu n g i s . o b Schülers pezialverkeh r wirts chaftliche r BEC_A ntrags tell ers ta mm da te n BEC_V erg leiche ents t ehende Kos te n m it ÖPNV -Kos ten BEC_ÖPNV-Preis lis te BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_ÖPNV-Preis lis te BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Sch üle rs pezialverkeh r is t w irtschaftliche r BEC_Sch üle rs pezialverkeh r is t nicht wirts chaftliche r BEC_Prüfe .. ob außergewöhnliche Ums tände Ta xie ins at. BEC_Prüfe An tra g auf V olls tänd igke it BEC_ Schü lerfah rkos tene rs tattu ng . ob A ntrags tel ler bereits A tra g n ges tellt h at Doppelantrags stel ler werden aufges pü rt BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_ A tra g is t n berei ts gestel lt worden BEC_ A tra g i s t n noch nicht ge s tellt worden BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Gle iche A ntrag s te llerda ten mi t Schülerdate n a b BEC_Schülerda ten BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_ A tra gn st ellerdaten s ind va lidie rt BEC_Antrags te ll erdaten s ind n i ch t zu validieren BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Überp rüfe Klas s en.. ob A ntrag s te llers tam m daten erfas st s ind BEC_ Schü lerfah rkos tene rs tattu ng .. BEC_ A tra g a uf n Schüle rfa hrkos ten is t elektron is c..Solution: Domain-Specific Semantic BPML Universal Business Process Modeling Language P roz essablauf O. o b An tra g Mitfa h re r eins chließt BEC _M itfa hrer s in d im Antrag mit eingeschlos s en BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC _Antrag is t oh ne M itfa hre r BEC_Ers ta tte Fa hrka rte n nachträ glich BEC_ A tra g is t n o hne M itfah rer BEC_ M itfah re r s in d im A ntrag m it eingeschloss en BEC_Lege Mitfa h re r An trä g e zu Grund e BEC_Lege M itfa h rer An trä g e zu Grun de BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A ntrags tell ers ta mm da te n BEC_Prüfe .. ob An tra g M itfa h rer eins chließt BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_ Prü fe.. BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_V erm ess ungs antra g BEC_Sch üle rjahres karte is t aus z us t ell en BEC_Sch üle rjahres karte is t nicht aus zus tellen BEC_ Ergä nze Weglängenlis te (verkeh rs üblich) BEC_Entfernungs tabelle (verkeh rs ü bl ich ) BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Entfernungstabelle (verke hrs üb lich) Is t beis piels weis e ein m ehrwöchiges Praktikum vorges ehen BEC_ Prüfe .. rBEC_Schü lerfah kos tene rs ta ttu ng ..... BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten p progra mm g BEC_ A tra gn s tel ler ko m mt für zus ätzli ch e Kos te n auf BEC_ A tra gn s teller ko mm t n ich t fü r zu s ä tzlich .. . BEC_Überweis ungen s ind noch nicht eing egangen BEC_Hal te zuzahlun gs pflichti ge Ka rte n zu rü ck BEC_Überweis ungen s ind eingegangen BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_A us zahlungs ano rdn un g BEC_A s za hlu n u gs anordnung i s t weitergeleitet BEC_Nachbes s erung is t veranlas s t BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Überweis ung is t eingegangen BEC_V ers ende Schülerjahres ka rte(n) an Schul en BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rj ahres karte(n) s ind vers an dt Forward Document / Information Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 23 Burkhard Weiß .und Schulangaben BEC_Schulangebots lis te BEC_Klas s e liegt a n angegebener Schu le vor BEC_Klass e liegt an angegebener Sch u le n icht vo r BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Halte Rücks prache m it An tra gs teller/Schule BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Fehlende Daten s ind ermittelt BEC_Fehlende Daten s i nd nicht zu e rm itte ln BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_A ns pruchs lis te n BEC_Prüfe. ob A tra gs tel ler für n zus ä tzliche Kos te te. r. BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A ntragstel lers ta mm d ate n BEC_Prüfe . BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_ A tra g i s t n volls tänd ig BEC _Antrag is t unvolls tän dig BEC_Schülers tam m date n BEC_Prüfe ..hrBEC_ Sch üle rfa kos ten ers ta ttun g.und A us s tiegs haltes telle BEC_Läng e is t aus reichend genau mes sbar BEC_Läng e is t n icht aus reichend genau mes sbar BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Ste lle V erm es s ungs antrag BEC_V erm es s ungs antrag BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Erm ittle zu benutzende n V erkehrs trä ge r BEC_V ermes s ungs daten s i nd eingegangen BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Bus fahrplä ne BEC_Entscheide ob Sch üle rjahres karte aus ges tell ... ob Jahres karte wirts chaftl ich er BEC_Schu lwe glänge is t bekannt BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Prüfe ob ÖPNV fü r d ies e Strecke ve rfüg ba r BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Bus fahrplä ne BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm Enter Data into IT BEC_Sch üle rjahres karte is t wirts chaftl ich er BEC_Schü le rjahres karte is t n icht wirts chaftlicher BEC_A ntrags tell ers ta mm da te n BEC_Prüfe.. o b Ans pru ch fü r angegebene Klas s e bes teht Kein A ns pruch fü r Berufs s ch üle r BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A s p ruch n is t generell gegeben BEC_A s p ruch n is t nich t gegeben BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Prüfe .. BEC_A us zahlungs ano rd nu ng BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Haus h alt skass ens y te s m BEC_ A s za hu lungs anordnung is t ers tel lt BEC_Le ite A us zahlu ng s anordnung an Sta dtka s s ....... BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Ents tehe nde Kos ten s ind nicht höher als ÖPNV-Ko s te n BEC_Ents tehe nde Kos ten s ind höher als ÖPNV -Kos ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_V eranlas s e Schülers pezialverkeh r BEC_ Ta xi b ei volle r Ers ta ttun g is t erforderlich BEC_ Ta xi b ei volle r Ers ta ttun g i s t nich t erforderlich BEC_ Ers tatte Beförd erun g m it eigenem Fah rze ug BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Ers ta tte Beförderun g in angem ieteten Fahrzeu ge n BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_ Ermittle ents t ehende Kos ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Kos tenaufs tellun g BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Bearbe ite An tra g ni ch t weiter BEC_Bewillige An tra g (Schülerjahreska rte) BEC_Bewi llige An tra g (Kos teners ta ttu ng ) BEC_Lehne An trag ab BEC_Schülerd ate ns atz BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Pfle ge Bewilli gungs art und -höhe BEC_Schülerda ten s a tz BEC_Kos tenaufs tellung BEC_Schülerd ate ns atz BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Sch üle rdatens atz is t eingepflegt BEC_ Prü fe Exis te nz weite re r Anträ ge BEC_ Schü lerfah rkos tene rs tattu ng ... BEC_ ÖPNV is t n ich t ve rfü gb ar BEC_ ÖPNV is t ve rfüg ba r BEC_ÖPNV-Preis lis te BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_ Karte is t n ich t zu teu er BEC_ Karte i s t zu teu er BEC_Prüfe Z m utb arke it u der ÖPNV-N utzu ng BEC_ ÖPNV is t nicht zum utba r BEC _ÖPNV i s t zu m u tba r BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_ Prü fe.. o b zu bes tellende Karte teu rer al s Ers tattu ng s g r.. ob Schule nä ch s tgelegene Schule is t BEC_A ntrags tell ers ta mm da te n BEC_Schulangebots lis te BEC_Schu lwe glänge is t nicht bekannt BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Entfernungstabell e (verke hrs ü blich) BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Schule is t nächs tgelegene mögliche Schule BEC_Schu le is t nicht nä ch s tgelegene m ögliche Schule BEC_V erm es s e Länge des verkehrs üblichen Schulwegs BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Routen pl aner/T op og ra p hi eprogram m BEC_ Prüfe Eins tiegs .. BEC_ Sach bearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A lle n eu en Schülerdate n s ind ei ngepflegt BEC_Bes telll is te BEC_ Expo rti ere Bes tellli sten pro Schule un d V erkehrs träg er BEC_Bes t elllis te BEC_V ers end e Bestelllis te(n) BEC_Schülerjahres karten-Bes tellung BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC E-M ail-P rogram m BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm Verification of Document / Information BEC_Dru cke A blehnungs be s cheid(e) BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm Domain-specific process building blocks for public sector which resembles banking sector in many ways BEC_V ersend e A blehnungs be s cheid(e) BEC_A blehnungs bes cheid V ers and s ol lte wenn m öglich el ektronis ch erfol gen BEC_A blehnungs bes cheid BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Dru cke Bewilligungs bes cheid(e) BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_V ers end e Bewilligungs bes cheid(e) BEC_Bewilligungs bes cheid BEC_Bewilligungs bescheid BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Bes te lllis te(n) s ind vers and t BEC_ A leh nb ungsbes cheide s ind vers an dt BEC Ersta ttungs beschei(e) s ind vers a nd t BEC_Schü lerjahres karte(n) is t(s ind) eingegangen BEC_Bes t elllis te BEC_Gle iche Kontrollboge n a b BEC_Kontrollis te BEC_Kontrollis te BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Bes tellung is t korrekt BEC_Bes tellung i s t n icht ko rre kt BEC_V eranlas s e Nachbes s erung BEC_Ers telle A us zahlun gs anordnung BEC_Kontro llis te BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_ Prü fe Überweis ung zuzahl un gs p flich tig e .... Semantic BPML BEC_Routen pl aner/T op og ra p hi eprogram m BEC_Routen pl aner/Topo grap hieprogramm BEC_Busfahrplän e BEC_A ns pruchs vorau s s etzungen s ind e rfü llt BEC_A ns pruchs vorau s s etzungen s ind nich t e rfü llt BEC_V rwerfe e An tra g BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Erm ittle gewüns chtes V erkeh rs m itte l BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Ben utze s V ekeh rs mi ttel i s t ÖPNV BEC_Benu tzes V erkeh rs mi ttel is t n ich t ÖPN V BEC_A ntrags tell ers ta mm da te n BEC_Entfernungs tabelle (ve rkeh rs üb lich) BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_ Erm ittle Länge de s verkehrs üblichen Schulwegs zur BEC_ Prüfe .. BEC_Prüfe . BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC _Antrag s teller is t bereits erfas s t BEC_ A tra gn s teller is t noch nicht erfas s t BEC_A ntrags telle rs tam m da ten BEC_Erfas s e/ Übernehme A ntra gs telle rdaten BEC_ Schü lerfah rkos tene rs tattu ng .. ob A bl eh nu ng zu ers t ellen is t BEC_Sachbearbeiter BEC_Sch üle rfahrkos ten progra mm BEC_Überp rü fe A ns pruchs voraus s etzungen BEC_Geb e A s p ru ch n ich t n s ta tt BEC_ A leh nb ungs bes cheid ist zu ers tell en BEC_ A leh nb ungs bes cheid is t nicht zu ers telle n Input O utput Führt aus & unterstütz t IT F ü.

Comparison of SBPML and EPC 51 Elements  11 Elements  Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 24 Burkhard Weiß .

Sample Process from a Bank Using SBPML Method Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 25 Burkhard Weiß .

Views of the SBPML Method Organizational View „Who carries out an activity?“ Organizational Model Business Unit Role Dep. 1 Office 10 Dep. 2 carried out b i d t by Decedent’s Estate Specialist Business Object View „What is being processed / produced?“ Enter Data in IT nto Process View „What is being done how?“ input Applicatiion Credit Application Business B i Object Model output Enter credit application data into IT system Process Building Block Resource View „What is being used / required?“ IT-System m SAP Resource Model uses / requires Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 26 Burkhard Weiß .

Modeling Using Views of the SBPML Method Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 27 Burkhard Weiß .

Concept of a Process Building Block Type Process Buildin Block ng Type Define amount of types (building block set) Evaluable semantic Association of a definite symbol Free short name Free vocabulary / higher readability Open meaning Attribute types Configurative attributes Definite semantic / details of the building blocks g Operational attributes Evaluability / measurement of model evidence Descriptive attributes Free additions like comments and notes Relationship types Organisation (internal/external) Business objects B i bj t Resources Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 28 Burkhard Weiß .

g. „Where in the present process does the integrity check take place?“ Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 29 Burkhard Weiß .Introduction of Configurative Attributes Precise description of activities with regards to content p g Reduction of the number of process building blocks Unchanged analyzability E.

Introduction of Operational Attributes Faciliation of the evaluation of process elements Allowance of complex analysis across multiple processes E.and output channels in different organisational units Dependent on the modeling objective modifications are needed E.g. capturing of time or of information about the degree of utilisation It has to be checked if it is possible to capture data in advance Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 30 Burkhard Weiß .g. comparison of input.

Integration of Information about the Control Flow by the Use of Attributes Verification Components Completeness Reasonability Data Reconciliation XOR Documents have to be checked for completeness Missing documents were handed in Determine channel of additional claim Responsibility Missing documents have to be requested via mail Missing documents have to be requested via fax Missing documents have to be requested via phone Perform a Formal Verific cation Deadline Verify Completeness of documents XOR Request documents via mail Request documents via fax Request documents via phone Perform a Formal Verification Verification Results Documents are complete Documents are incomplete XOR 80% 20% Request Channel Documents were not handed in 70% 20% 0% 0% 10% Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 31 Burkhard Weiß .

g.Element Types in the Process View Process Atomic (entirely or not at all) utilised by the client Basis: product documentations of the organization Concerning inner (support processes) and outer tasks (core processes) Sub-process Specific for a process (no reutilisation) Basically within one organisational unit (e. one functional area) Alternative sub-process Relevant differences in the used building blocks with valuable amount of occurrences Process building blocks Encapsulates the type of activity Charged with several attributes B i ll sequential chain ti l h i Basically Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 32 Burkhard Weiß .

deposits. people y in South Russia. cards and payments • banking activities spread over multiple regional branch offices • it employed over 2.000 depositors and • issued credits in a volume of 94.000 p p in 2008 in 132 subsidiary offices p y . had over 160. • 813 variants and documented • 2.897 activities in the form of PBBs • universal bank from Russia.9 billion euros.2 billion roubles Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 33 Burkhard Weiß Case Synthesis e . • 258 process variants and • 693 activities in the form of PBBs • specialised bank. • who served 37. credits. including cash services.000 2008 • who altogether as a bank served 443.000 small and medium enterprises. focusing only on instalment credits (1product) • bank was operating in Germany and Austria with 60 subsidiary credit shops in different cities • it employed over 1 000 people in 2008. which comprised • 334 subprocesses. Universal Bank: • 227 process models.Evolutionary Development of Bank-Specific Modelling Notation Applied Design Science pp g Research Methodology (DSRM) Problem Objective of Identification a Solution Design and Development of Artefact p Demonstration of Artefact’s Application pp Case 1: Specialised Bank Case 2: Universal Bank Evaluation of Artefact Conclusion Specialized Bank: • 34 banking processes with • 84 subprocesses. offering a wide range of products. • totalling a credit volume of 4.000 customers. 1.

T Process Building Block Sequence 0.T Disjunctive.1 1.n Value Chain Context Process Sequence 0.n Parallel Process Triggers Process Building Block Synchronizers 0.n Document Information Relation 0.n 0.n D.1 0. relates Process Building g Block Type is executed by Process Building Block Type Attribute Resource Type Organizational View Business Object View Supervising Job Position D.n Information Board Members Job Position Type in Organizational Unit 0.1 Process Building Block Variant Instance Legend regarding Changes between SBPML Metamodel for Public Administrations and Banks New or Changed Element (Former Element) New or Changed Element Eliminated Element Eliminated Element Eliminated Element Only b O l subprocesses of th f the same process 0.1 Business Area 1.n Product / Service List 0.1 Job Position (Planned) 0.Transferring the PICTURE Approach to Banks Process View Symbol Legend Entity Type Process Map 1.1 0.n 0.n 0.n encapsulates l t Value Chain Network 1.T Executing Job Position Job Position Type Hierarchy in Organizational Unit 0.n Job Position Employee Relation D.1 Resource Type Relation 0.n Material Object Communication Partner D.n comprises i 1.n Process Building Block Process Building Block Attribute New or Changed Element 0. max) Variant 1.1 Resource View has Relation Type 0.n Organization Hierarchy 0.1 Resource Type Hierarchy 0.n Activity Operating Employee Job p y Position Type Only employees of the specified job position type for an activity Business Object D.1 Parallel Process 0.g.1 1.n Related Element D.1 11 N.n 0.1 .1 is part of contains is value creating part of 1.T Organizational Element 0.T Job Position Type 0. Necessity to be able to model customer processes.T Process 0. Necessity to model subprocess bundles for purpose of offering not only complete processes to external service providers (e.n Subprocess Bundle Generalization / Specialization Types D.n 1.n 0.1 0.n Employee Job Position Type Relation is instantiated by Document Board Organizational Unit Employee 0.T 0.1 Product / Service Reinterpreted Relationship Type Constraint Necessity to model process maps / frameworks for managerial view on process landscape.T Non-Disjunctive.1 Subprocess Variant Only process building blocks within one subprocess variant D. Necessity to enhance the original control flow concept to make all process flows not only traceable on the subprocess but variant or process building block level.1 Cardinality (min.n Relationship Type Core Process N.n 0.1 is executed by 0. Support Process Only subprocesses within same process Subprocess Sequence 0. Complete Complete 1.1 0.T 1. Variant Sequence 0.n Only variants within same process Subprocess 1. but also partial processes in terms of finegranular business services (coherent parts of processes with a well-defined economic input and output).n Process Output is supervised by 0. Necessity to construct domain specific process domain-specific building blocks and corresponding attributes for financial service providers including possibility to model system activities.T External Partner Customer (formerly Citizen) Business Company Governmental Institution Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 34 Burkhard Weiß 5 key changes y .n Model Relation instantiates has instantiates Resource 1.n Activity Activity Operator Operator N.T 1. other banks).

Introducing the Concept of Process Maps to SBPML Process Map Business Area Steering Bank Control Credit Risk Portfolio Develop New Credit Product Sales Bank Process Credit Application Production Bank Perform Credit Workout Perform Credit Consulting Sell Credit Close Credit Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 35 Burkhard Weiß .

Introducing the Concept of Value Creating Subprocess Bundles Abstraction and Aggregation Levels Value Creating (Sub)process ( )p Bundle Control Flow External Process Subprocess Subprocess Variant Process Building Block Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 36 Burkhard Weiß .

Introducing the Extended Control Flow Concept Old Control C l Flow Concept Subprocess I Variant A Variant B Variant C Variant A New C N Control l Flow Concept Subprocess I Variant B Variant C Subprocess II Subprocess II Variant A Variant B Variant A Variant B Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 37 Burkhard Weiß .

1 PBB was eliminated (as it was not used in banks) and 5 PBBs were added (as these described frequent activities in q banks). Original PICTURE specification included 163 attributes.38 Archive Document / Information Edit Document / Information Crea New Document ate / Information Burkhard Weiß Destroy Document / Information Record / Document Verif fication of Document / Information Sight Do ocument / Inform mation Reproduce / Copy C Document t Print Interruption of Work Document / Information Comes In Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks Scan Enter Data into IT Record Data on Data Storage Device System Activity Document / Infromation Goes Out Make Accounting Transaction Perform Consultation Perf form Investigation Make / Receive Payment Calculate Preparation Activity Req quest Document / Information Change Location Introducing New Semantics to SBPML From originally 24 PBBs from public administration sector 8 were merged into 4 PBBs. In new SBPML specification 11 attributes were changed. . 17 attributes (specific to public administrations) were removed and 149 attributes were added. This resulted in 304 analyzable attributes.

Agenda Business Process Modeling and Analysis 1. Outlook Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 39 Burkhard Weiß . Semantic BPML for Analysis 4. On Effort and Utility of Process Modeling in Banks 2. Semantic BPML for Operational Risk Management 5. Semantic BPML for Modeling 3. Semantic BPML for Business Process Compliance 6.

Potential Process-Based Weakness Identification? ? 40 How can potential process weaknesses be detected in an automatic way? y First idea: by systematically analyzing wellstructured information that business process models contain – esp. those that are semantically enriched Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks Burkhard Weiß .

Lack of transparency and  traceability Different IT systems are used for the same process by different  Redundant use of IT departments/people The usage of many systems that are baldy integrated leads to inconsistent data. Too much time is spent on waiting times. documents get  lost or media breaks occur channels Process progress is not transparent. etc. etc. Unclear specification of competency in master data management can lead e. e.Typical Process Weaknesses in Banks Process Weaknesses ocess ea esses Media break Redundant use of documents Lack of standard templates Unclear storage location for  U l t l ti f documents Description esc pt o Change in medium or channel.g. to  Redundant data sets a o e an overwriting of data g o da a The same information is stored on multiple formats/media Multiple formats Many checks and document signatures are there for historic reasons but do not  Needless checks and signatures have a function anymore Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 41 Burkhard Weiß . As a result.  Lack of system integration outdated information. via postal services may result in long transport times  Inefficient output channels and media breaks Incoming documents and information come in through inefficient channels such  Inefficient input channels as postal mail Lack of integration of different  Incoming and outgoing channels are not integrated.g.g. from electronic format to paper Creation of various copies of a document Availability of different templates for same document Place for storage of original document is not defined and leads to increased  Pl f t f i i ld ti t d fi d d l d t i d search time Transport of documents e.

42 Pattern Types s Burkhard Weiß Com mplex Pattern Simple Pattern e Print Scan Fo orward Document / Information Doc cument / Information Goes Out Documen / nt Information Co omes In Enter Data into IT Document / tion Informat Comes In E Enter Data into IT Make Inquiry Verificatio of Document / on Inf formation Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks Print Scan Request Document / Information Verificatio of Document / on Inf formation Per rform Investigation Mak Inquiry ke Request Docu ument / Informatio on Verification of Document / Information Document / tion Informat Comes In Calculate Record / Document Verification of Do ocument / Informatio on Process Weakness Types Formalized in SBPML Notation Archive Document / Information .

l to allow the bank to validate which of all the detected weaknesses were actually detected correctly by the different groups and even probands Phase 3: Validation of Detected Weaknesses Group D: „Validators“ Validation of Weakness Detection Results: the BPM department manager in conjunction with the head of the production department from the participating bank. as well as the laboratory environment and materials to be given to each participant were prepared Goal of Lab Experiment: Demonstrate that process weakness analysis is easy using SBPML and Gather data as proof for effectivity and efficiency Phase 0: Preparation Group A: „Manual EPC Analysis“ Manual Analysis of EPC Model: probands from this group (4 BPM experts) each individually and manually analyzed the given EPC process model and tried to detect textually predefined process weaknesses in the process model Group B: „Manual PICTURE Analysis“ Manual Analysis of PICTURE Model: probands from this group (4 BPM experts) each individually and manually analyzed the given PICTURE process model and tried to detect textually predefined process weaknesses in the process model without knowing about weakness patterns Group C: „Automatic PICTURE Analysis“ Automatic Analysis of PICTURE Model: the proband from this group (BPM expert) used a computer to automatically detect our predefined weakness patterns formalized in the PICTURE notation within the digitally available PICTUREl process model Phase 1: Individual Process Model Analysis Phase 2a: Group Consensus Group A: „Manual EPC Analysis“ Consensus Finding for Manual Analysis of EPC Model: probands from this group teamed to find a consensus on the weaknesses they detected Group B: „Manual PICTURE Analysis“ Consensus Finding for Manual Analysis of PICTURE Model: probands from this group teamed to find a consensus on the weaknesses they detected Phase 2b: Consolidation Experiment Supervisors Consolidation of Weakness Detection Results for Validation: all weakness results from previous group phases of each group were consolidated into a final EPC process mode. as well as gave a reason for each validation result regarding each weakness (i. why a weakness was actually a weakness according to the bank or not) Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 43 Burkhard Weiß .e. as well as a process to study Process case selection and preparation: a typical banking process was chosen and translated into the PICTURE notation since the process was given in the EPC notation Participant selection: participants for analysis of process models were chosen and allocated to three groups. validated each detected weakness and gave a feedback if it was correctly identified as a process weakness.Lab Experiment Design for Automating Process Analysis Phases of the Laboratory Experiment for Demonstrating and Evaluating y p g g the Weakness Detection Approach Based on PICTURE PBB Patterns Experiment Supervisors Banking case selection: a bank institute was chosen. as well as experts from bank for validation of analysis results Experiment setup: instructions for all participants were developed. who was responsible for the everyday execution of the business process.

Demonstration: Results of Lab Experiment – EPC EPC Model of the Banking Process „Credit Application via Postal Mail“ (Part 1) EPC Model of the Banking Process „Credit Application via Postal Mail“ (Part 2) Credit order arrived in electronic inbox (via postal mail) Legend Part 1 Unnecessary Control Activity Production Employee Information Deficit Production Employee Database Function with actual weakness Event Function System Activity Sys 1 Media Break Document Management System IT System Organizational Unit External Person Access credit order and screen credit documents Ext (2) 0 Weakness Type Credit System customer in client database 3 Search for Function with potential weakness (0) Weakness Type Control Flow Exclusive OR Connector Credit decision is green Credit decision is gray Credit decision is red No credit decision due to missing documents New customer applied for credit Existing customer applied for credit Complementing documents for existing credit order arrived Credit System Perform automatic rework for gray credit decision Sys Credit System Request complementing documents from customer 19 Information Deficit Production Employee 4 Credit System Automation Potential Production Employee Credit System Record customer data Transfer / complete customer data 5 Automation Potential Production Employee Credit System 6 Rework customer data Automation Potential Production Employee Request sent Gray due to technical problems Gray due to contentual problems Credit System Notify call center Sys Intermediate results of Lab Experiment: Process weakness analysis with EPCs is manually possible but time-consuming No 2nd credit applicant 2nd credit applicant Customer data completed Remaining data completed Credit Rating Agency Employee Ext Customer Ext Automation Potential Document Management System Information Deficit (14) Check and correct error 8 Media Break Document Management System Check customer approval for credit rating agency inquiry Credit System Record 2nd credit applicant data 7 Automation Potential Production Employee (15) Initiate credit decision Execute credit decision Credit System Service (16) Center Employee Organizational Break Service Center Employee 9 Automation Potential Production Employee Credit System Credit decision is green/blue No customer approval for credit rating agency inquiry Customer approval for credit rating agency inquiry Credit decision Credit decision is red is gray 17 Credit System Finalize credit order Automation Potential Service Center Employee Credit System Check for credit fraud Sys Execute 1st credit decision Sys Credit System ▪ Agency inquiry ▪ E-Mail to production employee Legend No credit fraud detected Credit fraud detected Credit decision is green Credit decision is gray Credit System Credit decision is red Event IT System 11 Create credit rejection Automation Potential Production Employee Function Organizational Unit External Person Credit System Communicate credit fraud to legal department and police (22) Potential Automation A t ti Production Employee Ext Credit System Complete remaining credit applicant data (10) Automation Potential Production Emloyee ▪ Income / spendings ▪ Credit discharge / further obligations Correspondence File Service System Create and send correspondence Sys System Activity Sys Credit System Organizational Break Create credit offer Production Employee 18 20 Credit System Automation Potential Create credit rejection Production Employee 21 Organizational Break 13 Media Break Document Management System 12 Archive credit order Automation Potential Production Employee Database Control Flow Exclusive OR Connector Correspondence File Correspondence File Credit System Credit order rejected Function with potential weakness Service System Create and send correspondence Sys Service System Create and send correspondence Sys (0) Weakness Type Function with actual weakness Credit System Execute 2nd credit decision Sys Document Management System 23 Archive credit order Automation Potential Production Employee 0 Part 2 Weakness Type Credit offer sent Credit System Credit order rejected Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 44 Burkhard Weiß .

Demonstration: Results of Lab Experiment – Semantic BPML PICTURE Model of the Banking Process „Credit Application via Postal Mail“ (Part 1) PICTURE Model of the Banking Process „Credit Application via Postal Mail“ (Part 2) Collect Credit Application Data Production Employee Part 1 Perfom Follow-Up after 2nd Credit Decision is Gray New Application from New Customer Communication Channels New Application from Existing Customer Communication Channels Existing Application Communication Channels (16) Service Center Employee Request Missing Documents Request Missing Documents Production Employee Technical Problems New credit order arrived in electronic inbox 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 100% Contentual Problems New credit order arrived in electronic inbox 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 100% Complementing documents for existing credit order arrived 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 100% 19 Perform automatic rework due to gray credit decision Credit System (2) Access credit order and screen documents Document Management System 1 (2) Access credit order and screen documents Document Management System 1 (2) Access credit order and screen documents Document Management System 1 Perform automatic rework due to gray credit decision Credit System Request complementing documents from customer Credit System Credit System Credit System Credit System 3 Search for customer in client database Credit System 3 Search for customer in client database Credit System 3 Search for customer in client database Credit System Execute credit decision Credit System Credit System Notify call center (14) Check error ? Credit System Type of Verification 4 Record customer data Credit System 5 Transfer / complete customer data Credit System 6 Rework customer data Credit System Formal verification Content verification (15) Credit Rating Agency Employee Intermediate results of Lab Experiment: Process weakness analysis with Semantic BPML is manually and automatically possible and less time-consuming Customer 7 Record 2nd credit applicant data 50% 7 Record 2nd credit applicant data 50% Correct error Credit System Credit System 8 Credit System Credit System 8 Credit System 9 Check customer approval for credit rating agency inquiry Document Management System 9 Check customer approval for credit rating agency inquiry Document Management System Initiate credit decision Credit System Type of Verification Formal verification ? Content verification Type of Verification Formal verification ? Content verification Finalize Credit Order Service Center Employee Perfom Follow-Up after 2nd Credit Decision is Red 21 Production Employee Execute 1st Credit Decision Execute 1st Credit Decision Credit System Execute 2nd Credit Decision Execute 2nd Credit Decision Credit System Finalize Credit Order No Credit Fraud Detected Credit Fraud Detected 17 Finalize credit order Credit System Trigger manually Check for credit fraud Credit System Check for credit fraud Credit System Communication Channels Execute 1st credit decision Credit System Execute 2nd credit decision Credit System 20 Create credit rejection Credit System (22) 0% 0% 0% 100% 0% 0% Create and Send Credit Offer Part 2 Perform Follow-Up after 1st Credit Decision Production Employee 18 Production Employee Communicate credit fraud to legal department and police Trigger manually Correspondence File 20 Create credit rejection Create and Send Credit Offer Credit System Create and send correspondence Service System Credit Decision is Green / Gray Credit Decision is Red 23 Create credit offer Credit System Credit System Credit System Document Management System (10) Complete remaining credit applicant data Credit System 11 Create credit rejection Archive credit order Correspondence File Create and send correspondence Service System Correspondence File Credit System 23 Archive credit order Document Management System Correspondence File Create and send correspondence Service System Create and send correspondence Service System Credit System 12 Archive credit order Document Management System 13 Credit System Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 45 Burkhard Weiß .

23 11. 7.6.5.8 18 23= 17+(6) 17= 13+(4) 6= 4+(2) 100% 100% 8 11= 9+(2) 10= 8+(2) 1= 1 100% 100% 82% 80% 100% 0% 50% 53% 62% 25% 67% 100% 76% 76% 75% 100% 50% 94% 100% 75% 67% 100% 74% 76% 67% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Sum for Simple and Complex Patterns Correctly + (Incorrectly) Detected Weaknesses for Simple Patterns Correctly + (Incorrectly) Detected Weaknesses for Complex Patterns Correctness: % of correctly identified weaknesses of detected "potential" weaknesses Completeness: % of all "actual" weaknesses that were also detected Detected “Potential” Weaknesses: The numbers correspond to the numbers from the potential weaknesses (results from phase 2a of the laboratory experiment) as depicted in the process models in Figures 6. which the bank did see as actual weaknesses.19 3 (2) 4.(14) 12/13. which the bank did not see as actual weaknesses.(10) 9.19 3 (10) 12/13.20 (22) Detected Complete"Potential" ness Weaknesses 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% (15).(14) 12/13.6.5.21 1. 7.8 and 9. Numbers in parentheses indicate detected weaknesses. 18.20 (22) 17 100% 100% 17 (16). 23 11.19 3 4.21 1 21= 17+(5) 17= 13+(4) 4= 3+(1) 100% 100% 17 (16).7.Evaluation: Effectivity of Process Weakness Analysis Effectivity Pattern Types Weakness Types Information Deficit Unnecessary Control Activities Weakness Patterns Request Document / Information g Perform Investigation Sight Document / Information Enter Data into IT Simple Patterns P Formal Verification of Document / Information Archive Document / Information Automation Potential Create New Document / Information Document / Information Goes Out (triggered manually) Document / Information Goes Out (not 100% electronically) Complex Patterns Organizational Breaks Media Breaks Change in Executing Organizational Unit for Process Two different IT systems in a process flow Group A: “Manual a ua EPC Analysis” Detected "Potential" Weaknesses (15).(10) 9. 18.20 Correctness 50% 100% 100% 0% 100% 100% 100% 100% Group B: “Manual a ua Semantic BPML Analysis” Correctness 50% 100% 100% 80% 50% 100% 100% 0% Group C: “Automatic uto at c Semantic BPML Analysis” Correctness 50% 100% 0% 80% 50% 100% 100% 0% Completeness 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Detected Complete"Potential" ness Weaknesses 100% 100% 100% 0% 0% 100% 100% 100% (15). Numbers without parentheses indicate detected weaknesses. Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 46 Burkhard Weiß . 23 11.

Min 43:25 Min. ~ 20:00 Min. Min 24:25 Min. ~ 0:10 Min. 26:20 Min. 44:54 Min. 18:30 Min. ~ 0:10 Min. 26:06 Min. ~ 60:00 Min. Phase 3: Validation of Detected Weaknesses W k Efficiency Proband A (BPM Student) Proband B (BPM Student) Proband C (BPM Student) Proband D (BPM Student) Proband E (BPM Student) Proband F (BPM Student) Proband G (BPM Student) Proband H (BPM Student) Proband I (BPM Research Assistant) Proband J (Head of BPM Department of Bank) Proband K ( (Head of Production Department of Bank) Average Phase 2a: Group Consensus Sum (of Phase 1 and Phase 2a) ) Group A: “Manual EPC Analysis” Group B: “Manual PICTURE Analysis” Group C: “Automatic PICTURE Analysis” ~ 0:10 Min. Group D: “Validators” Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 47 Burkhard Weiß . 25:00 Min.Evaluation: Efficiency of Process Weakness Analysis Phase 1: Individual Process Model Analysis 20:22 Min. 17:05 Min. 11:53 Min. Min 20:05 Min. 29:34 Min. Min 35:45 Min. 20:29 Min.

•Automatically identifying weaknesses in business processes possible Limitations: • SBPML method focuses on core banking processes (mainly “production banks“).Evaluation: Findings & Limitations Modeling: • Identification of a stable set of building blocks for core banking processes • Simple modeling due to the limited set of building block p g g alternatives • Fast modeling compared to traditional modeling Analysis: Evaluation: • Process models useful for analyzing IT investment decisions. accounting. not tested for modeling Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 48 Burkhard Weiß . for WFMS and DMS because building blocks focus on information and document flows) flows). Not yet proven in “sales banks” (upcoming case study this year) or “steering banks”. • Typical (domain-neutral) supporting processes like HR. and for IT implementation analyses (esp. IT department etc. for process comparisons.

 Semantic BPML for Operational Risk Management 5. Semantic BPML for Modeling 3. On Effort and Utility of Process Modeling in Banks 2. Semantic BPML for Analysis 4.Agenda Business Process Modeling and Analysis 1. Outlook Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 49 Burkhard Weiß . Semantic BPML for Business Process Compliance 6.

Integrating a Risk View into SBPML Organizational View „Who carries out an activity?“ y Organizational Model is monitored by Business Object View „What is being processed / produced?“ Business Object Model input output Process View „What is being done how?“ Process Building Blocks Process Variants Subprocesses Processes afflicted with monitored / controlled b i d ll d by afflicted with Risk View „Which risk is inherent?“ Risk Model with hierarchical Risk Types (Basel II) and Attributes afflic with cted afflic with cted carried out by Resource View esou ce e „What is being used / required?“ Resource Model uses / requires Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 50 Burkhard Weiß .

check Risk Attributes Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 51 Burkhard Weiß . delivery and process management Risk Pictogram Risk Description Entering wrong credit limit Manager credit process.g. 4 eyes principle) Risk Picture Risk Category Risk Type Execution.plaus. Autom.Operational Risks Building Blocks and Attributes Risk Character Risk Attribute Likelihood of Occurence Average Damage Risk Label Risk Classifier Risk Manager Risk Type dependent attribute (e.

activities. p processes Resources (systems. activities. products. business conventions Execution. processes. assets). activities. process landscapes Business interruptions/ system failures Material damage Resources (Systems: IT and communication). processes. sub processes. sub processes. sub processes. process landscapes p Customers. process management Resources (job positions). processes. processes. document falsification).g. delivery. cesses process landscapes Internal fraudulent actions Safety in the workplace Resources (job positions). sub processes. process landscapes Resources (job positions). activities. external stakeholders (suppliers. processes process landscapes. activities. external stakeholders (customers) Activities. activities. customers) Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 52 Burkhard Weiß . sub processes. sub processes. process output activities output. processes.Risk Type Annotation Related to Basel II Risk Categories External fraudulent actions Business objects (e.

Relating Risk Types to SBPML Constructs Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 53 Burkhard Weiß .

n 1 1.n 0.1 0.n 0.1 0.n 0.1 0.Extended Metamodel of SBPML with Operational Risk View 8 7 6 5 0.n 0.n 4 2 1 3 .n 1.1 1.n 0.n 1.n 0.1 Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 54 Burkhard Weiß 0.n 0.n 0.

Operational Risk Modeling in Banks Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 55 Burkhard Weiß .

Operational Risk Analysis in Banks Kernprozess „Nachlassbearbeitung“ Teilprozess „Nachlassunterlagen sichten sichten“ Beispielprozess in PICTURE-Notation Attribute Teilprozess „Nachlassunterlagen sichten“ Dokument/Information geht ein Fallzahl p. er ch tis us ma nitt a ell he d Sc ssch smo u es A oz Pr Stelle NachlassBearbeiter 2. a.500 Eingangskanäle Nachlassfall liegt vor 35% 10% 5% 20% 30% Dateneingabe in die EDV Teilprozess „Erben ermitteln“ Variante „Erbe ermittelbar“ Variante „Erbe nicht ermittelbar“ Dauer Profil des Kunden auf „verstorben“ setzen 1min Dokument/Information anfordern Ausgangskanäle Beglaubigte Kopie der Sterbeurkunde anfordern 100% 0% 0% 0% 0% Likelihood of Occurence 3 Risk Map Bearbe eitungsunterbre echung Transportund Liegezeit Dokument/Information geht ein Teilprozess „Forderungsausgleichsanfrage erstellen“ Auf beglaubigte Kopie der Sterbeurkunde warten 2 Tage Eingangskanäle Beglaubigte Kopie der Sterbeurkunde geht ein 65% 10% 5% 20% 0% Dokument archivieren Neues Dokument/ Information erstellen Kopie der beglaubigten Sterbeurkunde archivieren Dauer Dokum ment/Information geht aus Teilprozess „Forderungsausgleichsrückmeldung bearbeiten“ Variante „Konto durch zwischenzeitVariante lichen Zah„Übernahme lungseinder Ratengang auszahlung wird geglichen von Erbe und gegewünscht“ schlossen“ Saldo des Kontos des Verstorbenen für Finanzamt ermitteln 5min Ausgangskanäle Saldo des Kontos des Verstorbenen an Finanzamt übermitteln Variante „Übernahme der Ratenzahlung wird nicht vom Erben gewünscht“ 100% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2 2 3 4 Kernprozess „Kreditüberwachung“ Teilprozess „…“ Teilprozess „…“ Variante „…“ Variante „…“ 1 1 5 0 1 2 3 Extent of Loss Operational Risk Category Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 56 Burkhard Weiß .

Agenda
Business Process Modeling and Analysis
1. On Effort and Utility of Process Modeling in Banks 2. Semantic BPML for Modeling 3. Semantic BPML for Analysis 4. Semantic BPML for Operational Risk Management 5. Semantic BPML for Business Process Compliance 6. Outlook

Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks
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Burkhard Weiß

Control Flow Compliance Business Rules
Process (Control Flow) Compliance Business Rules
Global Scope leads to

(a)

leads to Activity A

(b)
Activity A

Before Scope

precedes Activity A Activity B

leads to Activity B

(c)

(d)
Activity A

Legend Process Start Process End leads to precedes Successor Constraint Predecessor Constraint Not Existant Constraint

Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks
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Burkhard Weiß

Control Flow Compliance Business Rules
Process (Control Flow) Compliance Business Rules
After Scope

leads to Activity A Activity B Activity A

leads to

(e)

(f)
Activity B

Between Scope

leads to Activity A Activity C Activity A

precedes Activity C

(g)
Activity B

(h)
Activity B

Legend Process Start Process End leads to precedes Successor Constraint Predecessor Constraint Not Existant Constraint

Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks
59

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Control Flow Compliance Business Rules Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 60 Burkhard Weiß .

Temporal Compliance Business Rules Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 61 Burkhard Weiß .

Organizational Compliance Business Rules Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 62 Burkhard Weiß .

Organizational Compliance Business Rules Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 63 Burkhard Weiß .

Tool-Support for Business Process Compliance Checks Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 64 Burkhard Weiß .

 Outlook Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 65 Burkhard Weiß . Semantic BPML for Business Process Compliance 6. Semantic BPML for Analysis 4. Semantic BPML for Modeling 3.Agenda Business Process Modeling and Analysis 1. On Effort and Utility of Process Modeling in Banks 2. Semantic BPML for Operational Risk Management 5.

Limitations and Outlook BPM Study: limited number of banks and countries were analyzed Process Modeling: limited types of banking processes analyzed and more financial services processes may be necessary for further refinement Process Analysis: Semantic process weakness patterns are only first step. detailed catalogue needs to be made Risk Modeling: Ri k M d li approach is hi limited to modeling of operational risks in relation to Basel II Contribution Limitations & Outlook Risk Analysis: information need for risk analysis reports still needs to be explored Compliance Modeling: business rules may not yet be complete and efficiency of modeling approach remains to be tested pp s s Compliance Analysis: more processes with expert knowledge on compliance rules need to be evaluated g g Engineering and Behavioural Research: Research coming from design science could inspire new theories on information modeling and analysis Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 66 Burkhard Weiß .BPM Study: contributed to research on status quo of BPM in banking sector through research study Process Modeling: created and evaluated a purposeful semantic business process modeling language designed to the needs of the banking sector Process Analysis: defined and evaluated a method to systematically and automatically identify process t ti ll d t ti ll id tif weaknesses in business process models using semantic patterns Risk Modeling: created and evaluated a new approach to automatically analyze business process models using semantic patterns Risk Analysis: suggested first operational risk analysis reports enabled by an integrated approach to BPM and operational risk management Compliance Modeling: defined semantic business rules for process-oriented modeling of compliance-related business rules Compliance Analysis: evaluated an IT artifact with regard to automatic evaluation of business p process model compliance p Design Science Research Method: Validated the design science research methodology in a series of research projects to engineer purposeful artifacts for business process modeling and analysis Contribution.

Summing Up – Overview of Research Areas for Joint Research Risk Modeling Ri k M d li Dissemination Risk A l i Ri k Analysis Process-oriented Operational Risk Management Process Modeling M d li Modeling BPM in Banks Status Quo Study Analysis Process Analysis Compliance Modeling Business Process Compliance Management Compliance Analysis Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 67 Burkhard Weiß .

Wirt.de Tel. Burkhard Weiß E-Mail: burkhard.weiss@ercis.-Inform.uni-muenster.Contacts Dipl.: Tel : +49 (0) 251 83 38089 83-38089 Business Process Modeling and Analysis in Banks 68 Burkhard Weiß .