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UNITED STATES

ARTILLERY AMMUNIT.

UNITED STATES ARTILLERY AMMUNITION

MUNITIONS BOOKS
COMPILED BY THE EDITORIAL STAFF OF THE

AMERICAN MACHINIST
Manufacture of Artillery Ammunition,
759 pages, 6x9, 648 Illustrations
$6 .00

Shrapnel and Other
92 pages,

War

Material,
$1 50
.

8% x 11)4,

Fully Illustrated

United States Artillery Ammunition,
97 pages,

8% x

11>^, Fully Illustrated

$2.00

UNITED STATES ARTILLERY AMMUNITION
3 3

TO

6 IN.

TO

6 IN.

SHRAPNEL SHELLS HIGH EXPLOSIVE SHELLS
AND

THEIR CARTRIDGE CASES

BY

ETHAN VIALL
Managing Editor American Machinist, Member American Society op Mechanical Engineers,

Member Franklin

Institute

First Edition

McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, Inc. 239 WEST 39TH STREET. NEW YORK
LONDON: HILL PUBLISHING
6

CO., Ltd.

&

8

BOUVERIE

ST., E. C.

1917

<^ 3

Copyright, 1917, by the McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.

FOREWORD
X (/organization could
lecting

have been better

fitted
col-

than the American Machinist for the task of

and presenting the manufacturing methods

of our arsenals.
realize the

The average reader does not enormous amount of detail involved
in

in a task of this kind.

The American Machinist has
demonstrated
its

this

work

public spirit and patriotism.

HOWARD

E.

COFFIN,

Chairman of Munitions Committee, Council of National Defense.

361955

PREFACE
The purpose
the present time
of publishing this material at
is

to give shop

men, engineers

and manufacturers an accurate knowledge of the sizes, tools, shop work and gages for the

more commonly used United States
cartridge cases.

shells

and

While a large part of the detail work connected with the gathering of the material incorporated in this book has fallen to my share, it is to the staff of the American Machinist as a

whole that the real credit belongs, as each member stood ready at all times to do his part and
more.

ETHAN
New
York,
July, 1917.

VIALL.

vi i

CONTENTS
Page

Foreword
Preface
I

v
vii

3 in.

Common Shrapnel
II

1

3 in.

Common Shells (High Explosive)
III

26

3 in.

Naval Shells
IV

48

3 8 to 6 in.
.

Shrapnel and High Explosive Shells

56

V
6 in.

Naval Shells

:

62

VI
3 to 6 in.

Cartridge Cases

71

Index

95

IX

The United States 3-in. common shrapnel, familiarly known as a 15-pounder, carries a charge of 238 hexagonshaped lead
at their
balls,

0.5

in.

guncotton also acts as an aid to ignition. The fuse ma] be set for time explosion, or it will explode on impact The dimensions of th(
->\

and Back

largest diameter 0.45 in. at the flats.
of

,<

-

8.4S+0.03!>8.0lt0.05"---

«*88fiSW£

n

60/ta03

----—^
-

case forging are given
>)

ii

-^ %-08hO3"Stra/ght

f-astaos"

Fig.

1.

the

balls

is

a

must

1180 grains of shrapnel powder. Screwed into the front end of the projectile is a combination fuse communicating with
charge of
the

be nealed and pass the follow
:

These forging! thoroughly an

0.08 R

V"*

"this forging is used for3 com

mm shrapnel

5"FA
1.

high-explosive shrapana'3"£hrhardt high-explosive shrapnel
'

View showing Case when' Tracer is Used

powder

chamber
-I6°30'

FIG.

DIMENSIONED FORGING FOR

3-IN.

COMMON SHRAPNEL
8.3

Elasti< ing physical tests limit, 60,000 lb.; tensili strength, 95,000 lb. ; elong ation, not less than 15 pe: cent.; contraction not lesi

1 0.03

\
Oj

5.58"±0.0Z"-

S'AlJ^

^° '.20 per inch

U.S.

Standard Thread

^V^fc **""» §1 7\-t.s"
-

St"
28;?

'jJ

*^h77777777JF77777Z^^
0.12 Drill after

-Remove sharp Corner
after Case is finished

Assembling Head

\

Stamp with 006Z"(tA Letters and 'ofShrapnef-— figures :- Lot NOrder Case, Purchase 0r~„, Dateoflssue_ of P0.(fiscal Year) and Initials of

§

;

: „,' 0375-~*i-ffl< ,uj/o -uui '005'R. _ Base of Shrapnel re when Traceris Used o.'ofMTep
.

'

Modification of Rear of Projectile for use in 3" Howitzer

Manufacturer The Stamping prescribed maybe stampecT/h on Band, ifalso stamped on Base within the Groove, in Lieu of Stamping in front
FinishjC Outside, Rough Inside except where marked jC Give the Powder Chamber a heavy Coat of non-acid Paint forged alloy steel Sreat care should be taken to remove all Burrs, sharp * Machine from Solid or hollow Corners and Scale. Eccentricity not over 0.01*

0.45;— ->f<0.04 R.

^

0.35

0.05%

k

7~
35°

forged%eel±00l''
2.

Detail of Grooves

FIG.
Waterproof
'Cover Groove•'.

DIMENSIONED FINISHED CASE
white

MATRIX

Press Metal of Fuse into Notch,
for Locking

Resin

and pure

Center of

'9?!TJV.?fciciiNapthalene

/Gravity

STOPPER, Dry fibrous Gun Cotton. Roll tightly info a Cylinder and press down until it rests on Shoulder of Diaphragm and is about I Inch long.

/A

Base of Shrapnel when Tracer is used.
I

1

WaterproofHE '. FILLER r~JU^Z2Z2ZZZZ^^Z^2. Cover ^-Slightly moisten these Joints with Cosmolene
'

Jl
*^~

X

^

_>1

-^BASE CHARGE Shrapnel Powder
10% of each Lot
will

L*


FIG.
3.

--8.310.84---->l

be

fitted with Tracer

DETAILS OF COMPLETE PROJECTILE
than 30 per cent.

through a small tube, the shrapnel powder being held in place by means of a small plug of dry guncotton. This
Copyright,
1917, Hill

The only requirement

as to

chemica

1

Publishing Co.
[1]

composition is that neither the sulphur nor phosphonu content shall exceed 0.045 per cent.

FIGS.
F1

4

TO

11.

VARIOUS OPERATIONS ON

3-IN.

machine. Fig. 5 Turn body on lathe. Fig. 6— Finish outside (without tracer support). -„ 8; 7 mi Finish interior on automatic. Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Turning the bands. &]&• , ~*L sh ,? utslde (with tracer support). Fig. 10 Hydraulic testing apparatus. Fig. 11 Tapping for head.

4—Centering
,

in drilling.

— —

COMMON SHRAPNEL, CASES

|2|

Former used on Grinding machine.
Fig.
12.

Fl - Former No.

1.

F2 - Former No.

2.

H-

High speed

steel.

C-

Carbon

steel.

STANDARD LATHE TOOLS FOR GENERAL SHOP USE

[3]

OPERATION
Transformation
Fig.
4.

of Operators per Machine One. Work-Holding Devices— Arbor, Fig. 14. Tool-Holding Devices Drill chuck. Cutting Tools No. 42 combination center drill. Cut Data 350 r.p.m. Production 1200 per 8 hr. Note A little red lead is used where drilled.

Number

1.

CENTERING
Machine Used

Fig-. 13.


2.

— — Drilling- machine, — —
16.

TURN BODY — Fig. Machine Used —Le Blond 17-in. of Machines per Operator — Three. Work-Holding Devices — Centering chuck, Fig. Cutting Tools — Left-hand turning Number of Cuts — One. Fig. Cut Data — 50 surface speed; 60 r.p.m.; 0.040-in. feed. Average — Life of Tool Between Grindings— 15 to 20 cases. Gages
Transformation
Fig.
5.

OPERATION
Number
15.

lathe,

ast n -P ; fZurnspeed and feed used for knurl and end Coolant— cutting oil. Special Fixtures— Internal bushing for collet, Fig. 25. Gages—Maximum and minimum width of band seat, Fig. 26; position of crimping grooves, Fig 27; combination snap, diameter of band seat, Fl lck ness of base and test piece, Fig. ?-^ 8; width of band seat, Fig. 30. Production— 300 29; position and per 8 hr.

1?„}S work.

r

m

;

split collet;

^

,

OPERATION

3-A.

tool,

12.

ft.

mum
is

Length from base to bourrelet, Fig. 17; combination maxiand minimum snap, Fig. 18; maximum, rear of band ring. Fig. 19; minimum rear of band ring, Fig. 20. Production 250 per 8 hr. Note Speed given is maximum, as lower speed

Transformation Fig. 31. Machine Used Fig. 7. Cutting ls F C ngr 2 Gages— Combination sheet gag* £?° 33. M \ ™-' Fie I Fig. ,T Note— This operation is exactly the same as operation 3, except for different facing tool and one gage.
-

TRACER SUPPORT)
-"

FINISH OUTSIDE (CASE WITH ™ a

used on harder cases.

OPERATION

3.

Transformation

ston automatic, Fig.

—Fig.
6.

TRACER SUPPORT)
Number
21.

FINISH OUTSIDE (CASE

WITHOUT

Machine Used Potter & Johnof Machines per Operator

4. FINISH INTERIOR (AND BOURRELET CASES ARE FINISHED AT FRANKFORD ARSENAL) Transformation — Fig. 34. Machine Used— Potter ston automatic, Figs. 8 and 9. Number of Machines & Johnper Oper-

OPERATION

WHEN

Q562"(i)TapStd
Bushing
0l"R,.T00L STEEL(Harden)

1.75'Deep

Without

Night Tracer

With Night
TracerSuppi

05,Drilh
I

Support^
FIG. 13

Stamp Name of Shrapnel, Part, Operation, Place of Manufacture, and Date-Year

Deep

OPERATION

FI6. 14

1

FIG. 15

^V0.046

Q4375'4

%

h QZ5
.

-,.75">i

V-OWS"

oM
.&

^fKVfl^
0%^%^7h
0.I3R.

h

--W5-.

*

,--.->WM37".-.>I
-7-"-

Lo.575*

"eoMeD STEEL

:^-o.5" I*
7?.|<. ZZ5 U.SStandard &

Wedge

$

Q.I(M-

S

FORGED STEEL

Jaw

MACH. STEEL (CaseHarden)

Bushing

0J87"(i")

ator Two. Work-Holding Devices Split chuck. Tool-Holding Devices Rough boring bar; finish boring bar; tool holder for rough bourrelet, Fig. 35; tool post. Cutting Tools Rough diaphragm-seat cutter, Fig. 36; rough boring tool, Fig. 36; rough facing tool,- Fig. 36; finish diaphragm-seat cutter, Fig. 36; finish boring tool, Fig. 36; finish facing tool, Fig. 36; chamfering tool, Fig. 36; rough outside beveling tool, Fig. 37; turning tool for bourrelet, Fig. 35; square-nose lathe tool, Fig. 12; finish beveling tool, Fig. 37; No. 2% geometric tap. Cut Data

— 50

ft.

28; maximum ring, bourrelet diameter, Fig. 43; minimum ring, bourrelet diameter, Fig. 44; maximum thread, plug, Fig. 45; minimum thread, plug, Fig. 45; maximum and minimum diameter,

ping speed; 20 ft. surface speed. Coolant Zurn oil. Gages Maximum and minimum depth of diaphragm seat, Fig. 38; combination maximum and minimum diameter diaphragm seat, Fig. 39; combination maximum and minimum diameter rear of thread, Fig. 40; combination length of case, Fig. 41; combination maximum and minimum outside diameter and taper of mouth, Fig. 42; combination snap, bourrelet diameter, Fig.

surface speed; 60 r.p.m. working speed; 35 r.p.m. tap-

Note

—powder chamber, Powder chamber

Fig.
is

46.

machined by forgers.
5.

Production

— 180

per

8

hr.

mmzz//

«#w%w

exactly the same as for the 3-in. common steel shell, except that only 1000-lb. pressure is used, on account of the thinner wall of the case.

Note

—This

OPERATION
is

ASSEMBLE BAND

OPERATION
Number
FIG. 31
3./25-"-

9*
,

HIGH SPEED STEEL
1.625-

(Finish XtOOrtlarcten)

»f

FIG.

32

of Operators One. Description of Operation Operator places case in fixture, mouth down, pours a cup of water in top of fixture over end of case, turns on 1000-lb. hydraulic pressure -and watches water and case for bubbles or jets. Apparatus and Equipment Used Special fixture, Fig. Production 1200 per 8 hr. 47; pressure pump.

6.

HYDRAULIC TEST

OPERATION

7.

>\QI2S

<

Transformation Fig. 48. Machine Used Finished band profile and position, Fig. 49.

TURN BANDS

same as

for 3-in.

common
8.

—Fig. —
9.

Note

Gages

Operation

steel shell.

JMDril/.

IB

OPERATION

\
FIG.

33

OPERATION 3A
K4.0-'H

51. Number of Operators per Machine One Tool-Holding Devices Tap holder, drill holder, recessing-tool 52. holder. Fig. Cutting Tools Drill, reamer, Fig. 53; Cut Data 334 r.p.m. recessing tool, Fig. 54; tap, Fig. 55. 58 r.p.m. tapping speed. Coolant Zurn oil. machinery speed; Gages Combination depth, Fig. 56; maximum and minimum thread, plug, Fig. 57. Production 185 per 8 hr.

Transformation— Fig.

50.

turret lathe, Fig.

TAP FOR NIGHT TRACER Machine Used —Warner & Swasey —

— —

U

325

"_

^u a75$

<— -/5"->K
*075'Wo.75^n
3.25">|
2,05'I.I25

-S5-t<~
1-25- ->\ n

r\:""*» Filisterhead \05%p,m. »pxr screws\
\r$~i

^,„Jt 6Z5

I

05UO SiZf.
Steel Setscrew

*f62Si*Ml& —
i

H —f^x

,4,0j"Ho/es,

QS'lkep

MACHINE STEEL
0.5*1.125

Sfd

Finish/ 1 0.005"

MACHINE STEEL
Finish/10005"

Steel Setscrew

Shank

MACHINE STEEL
Finish

MACHINE STEEL
1 Finish/ 0.005"

Locknut

J

't

0.005"

Head
f-IS62"Cif->\

Cap

kFIG.22

—sir—
l
I

*\

MACHINE STEEL
Finish/10.0/"

h-—3.l"
Z±^Zftil
I

h-

-30*
H/6H-SPEED STEEL

H

t

J/TTTT

FIG.2I

''-•043700000'"-0.005" \.®>

^>
</.o'£

I*

—7
^ l0
fi

Finish

/t0.005"Grind Cutting Edge
Facing Tool
FIG. 2c
90°->\04\<- .0.005"/?.

"0-55-%
•OOS"*

r 0.55--^^ mg^
35°

&?

-»r*- 0.5S"->\
~i'-0.059

\
.y

\+tol
i

—i

004 R^
lf

Stamp Number on each Piece

Dot and Dash
for

Tool for Cleveland Automatic Machine
fc

Angle on

Detail of Knurls
0.05">\\<-0.5">\

Bushing for Collet on P 8c
FIG. 25

J.

Automatic

'* -Potter ipf>

& Johnson Auto...

<sh<

20-

y_j£ HIGH-SPEED STEEL

*

I

.

Finish/ I0.005"and Harden

*<—-/95-—>i
*0.000" -0.003

—rwj'
H«Bft| -0*025
Drill

0062(0.

j£,J

Q075

>QO00*
'

^^^9^£M!£^^° MS"/?M Q065"
C
f

-Q025

R:

C ^o.o4"^v
mfoi)
FIG.

otfifXd

,-

U- —

Finish/tQOl'and Harden

Finish/I0.005 and Harden

n

055

HIGH-SPEED STEEL

SAW STEEL

h""


23

>!

Tool for Patter 8c Johnson Automatic

Knurling Tool FIG. 24

Band Seat Width and Depth FIG. 26

OPERATION 3
[5]

The forgings shall be free cutting and readily maThe machinability will be determined by turning the body of the forgings, as received, from the drawing
chined.

is

shown in Fig.

3.

This last weighs approximately 15
:

lb.,

divided as follows

Lb.

diameter to a diameter of 3.062 in. on an engine lathe. This turning will be done at an average rate of 14 shells per hour per lathe, and at this speed the tool consumption shall not exceed one tool for each 20 shells turned at this
rate.

Case

Lb.
Balls

Band Washer Head
Retainer

5.89 0.15 0.02
0.7

Matrix

(238)

Tube

0.01

(including-

inner
0.09

Head filler Diaphragm Base charge Fuse
Total weight
15

5.71 0.43 0.07 0.48 0.17 1.28

tube)

±0.15

for phosphorus

For the purpose of the test for physical qualities and and sulphur content the forgings will be separated into lots of 2000 each. From each lot of 2000

efficiency equals 38 per cent., and the velocity of the balls must be not less than 260 ft. per sec.

The

The night
on 10 per
it,

tracer referred to

is

a small device placed

the inspector will select six forgings for physical test, provided that additional forgings may be selected, if

cent, of the projectiles, for use at night. As the shell is fired, the tracer leaves a trail of fire behind

commencing a few seconds

after it leaves the

muzzle

Stamp Name of Shrapnel, Part, Gage, Dimensions gaged, Place of
(

f<—0/5--->H—

-0.3-r

->f<-— Ctf-s-k

Q2"

Manufacture

& Date (Year)
.

-^-^0.04"^

a

-is

bfc/.

/,r

fy

5
Enlarged View

MACHINE

I
f,FJnish=0.0.00S'

SAW STEEL
(Harden)
.

§ ¥
*

A
0.?5Drill(3\
"0.4R.

f9
fc
VI.2l"Max.

<$

_ Jt_

\Y-U9 Min>\

Q06?Qf$*

_s
FI6.27
045\
t0.02

kJb
fj
*\Q625fc-

& §

r*-Q7&

root steel
Harden

0.06M

|<-

1o

'Case Harden

6aging Surfaces'-

0.625"

PART

•Diamond Knurl J^^fa ~£\X"

*> Y
Yi
"0.375
\<0.75l\

ESsr
1 I

x>

Stamp Name of Shrapnel, Part, Operation, Dimension gaged, Place of Manufacture * Date (Year)
!

435

.-,&.
n

...^

Q?5 >\
^-/.0"->\

-^
-L

10

L

13

r DRILL

nsj
ROD
005 R/

TOOL STEEL
Finishfg.tQOf

Harden

±^L
FI6.29

Finish/ taOl" Gaging Point Finish Harden

Jg&

Diaphragm (Forging)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Assembling
1. 2.

and counterbore Heat-treatment Remove scale from counterbore Grind base
Drill

Paint base

3-A. 3-B. 3-C.
4.
5.

case in hot soda water Paint interior Assemble tube and diaphragm Fill case

Wash

Compress

balls

1,

Assemble tube Locking Pins (Bar Stock) Machine

6.

Cut out surplus resin Moisten threads with cosmoline, assemble head to case and insert inner tube Pin head to case

^^^^^^^^^^^

>\O6tC!0ff
-0.01'

k

FIG.34A&B
(<—

A= Rouah\ seats beve 'outside,
'

FIG.
>|

34 C
^-Z687"(z£)-^

B= Finish

q"

^

'

» [machine bourrelet machine face OOS^Y-

K0./5"

>\0.675'Uy%?»/0?5U
0.575

Tap.Std.^.yim^

FIG.

35

TOOL STEEL
(flan/en)
7.6"

Dp
/ £J0>Jk

and warn, of cutter Diaphragm Seat Cutter
+00001

Stamp name ofshmcT

VJS-I.5- *I

^OS"/0005

Mouth of Case Facing Blade

-^

,,

M6Z5&-0.005"

yV.56Z^{§")

*»<!U* I0?\

f

HIGHSPEED STEEL
±0.1"

4K

LZI
FIG.

T"
<\|

-A Max.
bfl

7'k- 1.5


B Min.

R

f
a
5;

36

t<

y-

-J

Mouth of Case
Bevel Blade

I—~
FIG.

OPERATION

SAW STEEL

38

4"Stud,Wroughtlronn

*
\-jr--

^Pipe,Com.ta05

flhrrad

:

U/«|

8U.S.StdJhrdperin.

QOS&
FORGED STEEL
Finish /tOOl'

Packing Not
"k

£J»§«.
I


Rod

4Mach.SteelCdlanl?5 „-„„-, c +0005 Supporting DetaibonRod

&«£/#
Thrdsperin.

i<-5"-->, vL,V - -'
^<ai

o

HM2.2S"SteelPin

037S Drill
0.2S"Deep

J
Assembled Views
steel

Top Nut --.jBtSf--.-

/^/

B o#omTuf

6US

perm.

Jf^0TS^\<-m^ US" TOOL STEEL "Harden
\<—4:S "-..^
Finish/± 0.02

Adjusting Screw

Adjusting Screw

Nut

MACH. STEEL. Fmish/tO.02"

^ ^/>U
7

LEATHE/ttO.05

OS"R

Packing
"I

-2-L.
0.5%pStud O/V^^i 05" Deep-^ ->i/V

Ream
~>US.Sid

force

>l.5&Drill . <,- ms"-

u
Bottom
Finish

AWSfl?

Bracket
CASTIRON

finishf±0.02

^ ?T3v r
577Tfl.
Details

Thrdsperin

Plcte

tQ05"

FORGED STEEL

OS^SS^Steel Rod. onCrossBar

f0.02"
FIG.

Cross

Bar

47
Drill

N375H
D.cb '-o.ooz,\

and counterbore for

OMtklStd.FilJsterheadScrevr.

U'i--\—- A,

«T

§

.
iT.'

«

s

K

3.02'

>|

K

***-

Wamff
MACHINE STEEL„ ±0.005* 3-0.312%^015'FilisterFinish/ ±0005* 3-0.31? head Steel Screws Standard

at r^ffi

B

p-0/5

-^

IF
V /y
.

Sib
niun-orccu JICLL HIGH-SPEED STEEL
-

FIG.

50

S! WO.l2S'OilHole

fZXpE? /g(HardenJ Finish/ 1Q0J *
"1q y&

B

FIG.53

Guide Block

r&cZA=X/

lto

Assembled Views
COLD-DRAWN STEEL
Finish

J±0.005"
.

0.I25"X025"Steel Pin Drive

H

Q75V

025"Ream ^counter(Sink for Riveting
•••-i--H-

C\J

Jj../l/'

J

/

0.5l2WX0c2'Nut

k—

</S25«f»

H

0375

:'oFoK

^^^^0.
0.062%)

T~
COLD-DRAWN STEEL
Finish

j ±0.005"

Handle

u

18

Threads per Inch
Left Hand

"yUSStd.

COLD-DRAWN STEEL
FinishJ* 0.005"

Handwheel
1/9,

K-

0.156 R.
-0.62-->\

FI6.55

T00LSTEEL(Hardenfjf%O00
"—-0.001" FinishjftQOl" 18 Threads per Inch

S?,

is
,

-*1
MACH. STEEL

•^

Stamp Name of Tracer, fbrf.
Place ofManufacture Date (Yea

USStd.

Left Hand

t^fCase Harden)

r^'-ro-

and

?

Finish/* 0.01'

>\ 0.45*f-

J

Jff-r
/A

/g

*
.35.".

0.I2SM

4.
I

w

0.629"Max. 0.625 Min.

^7

^
•>i k-0flS5*

V<7
u/si+aooo'.

-j&—
t •*\0.25\*--

Stamp Name of Shrapnel,
Part, Gage, Dimensions

••-->]

w-0.002
1-7"
.

gaged, Place of Manufacture and Date (Year)

COLD-DRAWN STEEL (Case Harden)
Finish/ ±0.01 FIG. 57

H
OPERATION 8

FIG.

56

HIGH-SPEED STEEL (Harden) Finish ±0005 Finish Cutting Edges/ft

J

FIGS'"

[8]

Fig. 59

—Machining

the head.

— Countersinking head. filling with resin. Fig. 63 — Facing
Fig. 60

FIGS. 59

TO

64.

VARIOUS OPERATIONS ON THE HEAD
Fig. 61
off resin.

— Crimping in —
Fig. 64

washer.

Notching head

Fig. 62

—inserting retainer and

[9]

shown
the

in Figs. 6 latter case a

and

7,

differs principally

in that in
left

The method
rotating bands

larger place has to be

on the

end for the tracer support, a special tool being used. Finishing the interior, Fig. 8, is done on both Potter & Johnston and Cleveland machines, as shop conditions at the time or as the sizes of the various shells dictate.

common
the band

steel,
is

assembling and turning the copper described in the article on the 3-in. or high-explosive, shell. The making of
of
is

also described in the article.
tools,

Standard cutting

operations, are charted in Fig. 12

which are used for all regular and will be designated
Crimping Groove;
,/

14

U.S. Stct.^ Th'ds.per Inch,

\

I

^

JfOJh-ds. perhch
J

USSfU

MSS.
\Thrdsper

mach srea.
finish fOOlXase Harden

^L-i "'"*"

65

/ I6USSM
Thrds.perin

v

mach steel

HANDLE(Mach
^<"-D

Body

Stomp: name ofmachmeand size.plaCe ofmanufacture and "' date (year) Fir 7/1 FIG.74

^shftOonase Harden
nZi.

Steel)

hAa Head

\"

finish >

Scr

DM Wft STEEL fOOr

finish

(Complete) riG.75 Harden} \5jST v l4US.Stdihrdperir!M5 ft 001"

O./sZof'Steelfin

Max.Diam of Fuze Seat Threuu

[10]

as leftindividually only by their common names, such The dimensions and shape of the hand lathe tool. various tools can be quickly obtained by reference to

in Fig. 59, each operator tending three machines.

The

the chart.

Work on the Head
Details of the head are illustrated in Fig. 58. This is machined from bar stock on automatic machines, as shown
2.5+aoos-

end of the bar is drilled, bored, counterbored, reamed, grooved, faced and tapped for the fuse. At the same time the outside is formed with a circle tool. The tap used is of the collapsing type, oil being forced to the work from the rear. As can be seen, ample provision is made
for supplying all the tools with oil. Owing to the size of the piece, the number of operations and the accuracy

oz'm",,

I

>|

'StdThrd
•"Drill

10
T<
-

M

r-06%0.85^ fO.lt

|<

S.2!0.0f~
S.2S"t0.0Z°

5

SAW STEFL
.jj

OPERATION

Thndsper Qtuf,

""

k

..J

hole

(Harden) Finish gaging Surfaces fa
FIG.

MACH. STEEL

77

Finish

ft

0.01 "Case

Harden

.^^
'

V>Q08"Max.
0.125 R.

Stamp Name of Shrapnel, Partfipemtioh,
Dimensions paged. Place of Manufacture,
"tea, and Date (war)
\*

0.125'

to

T
,-''0.25°
"'Steel

(Harden)-^ U-0.06"Min. Finish/ 1 0.Ol". Finish gaging Surfaces/g

SAW STEEL

Ream

O.I2S"X0.6ZS"

Rn Drive

O

Pin )f TOOL STEEL r tti
IQseHarden)

x

Stamp Name of Shrapnel, Part, Operation, Dimensions gaged. Place of Manufacture and Date (year) fig.82 «. f.'..

§p/2-"->j

§

Va—zm'Max.

002" -*jfl3£ Flnish/tQOf^ .

om^

The washer

is

made

of thin sheet metal

and

is

placed

in the head, and the edges are crimped down into the grooves of the head with a double roller tool, as shown in

operation

1.

Head (Bar Stock) machine without thread and

Fig. 60, details of the tool being given in Fig. 96.

After the head has been thoroughly washed in hot soda water, the inside is painted by hand then the short piece of tube, or retainer, is put in place and melted resin is poured in, as shown in Fig. 62. The resin is allowed to cool, and then the head is placed in a special screw chuck and the resin faced off, as shown in Fig. 63, details of the chuck being given in Fig. 101. The tool used is a standard left-hand facing tool. The purpose of milling notches in the head is to provide means for locking the fuse securely after it is screwed into the mouth of the case, metal on the fuse being forced The into these notches with a punch and hammer. notch milling is illustrated in Fig. 64, the fixture being a rather simple one, but answering the purpose perfectly.
;

Machine Used Gridley or Cleveland automatic, Pig. Number of Machines per Operator Three. Devices Split chuck. Work-Holding Tool-Holding Devices Circular form-tool holder, cutoff-tool holder, drill holder, rough-tool holder, combination groove-tool and reamer holder, tap holder and adapter. Cutting Tools Circular form tool, Fig. 66; cutoff tool, Pig. 67; twist drill, Fig. 68; roughing tool, Fig. 69; set (2) grooving tools, Fig. 70; facing tool, Fig. 71; combination counterbore and reamer, Fig. 72; tap, Fig. 73 Cut Data 50 ft. surface speed. Coolant Zurn oil. Special Fixtures Stop, Fig. 74. Gages Maximum thread, plug. Fig. 75; minimum thread, plug, Fig. 76; diameter and length of thread (operation 1), Fig. 77; length over all, Pig. 78; length of shoulder (operation 1), Fig. 79; depth of groove, Fig. 80; maximum and minimum inner diameter of crimp wall, Fig. 81; outer diameter and depth of crimp wall, Fig. 82; diameter of small end, Fig. 83; diameter of large end, Fig. 84. Production 115 per 8 hr.
Pig-. 65. 59.

Transformation

countersink

— —

OPERATION
Transformation

turret lathe, Pig. 60. Number of Operators per Machine One. Work-Holding Devices —-Special chuck, Fig. 86. Tool-Holding Devices Tool holder. Fig. 87. Cutting Tools Beveling tool, Fig. 88. Cut Data 210 r.p.m. Gages Diameter of fuse-seat

— Fig.

2.

COUNTERSINK
Machine Used

85.

bevel, Fig. 89; thread, Fig. 76.

minimum diameter
Production

—Brown —

& Sharpe —

— 800

of fuse seat
8 hr.

and fuse-seat

per

0.75 "WOO,

,..0.312
'

™?7£)W«-"ov Std.
(^0.625 Screw
,

P0RGED STEEL
FinishftQOl"
2.125"
>\

0.00?-.

^.fil/sterneaa

Q3I?(ifTap.Sfd
0.6"

~J4Jhds.perhch,U,S.Stcl,L.H, [^~\>-04

*\d9V-i F*k -/5-'>|03£ n

9A0Z5 Drill

^40"
Assembled View for
FIG.

0.6Z5"Tap,Std.
3.6"-

85

3-inch Shrapnel

Heads
-Q002-Three for each
Finish

12 Wds. per
US.Std.

inch,

[<l./">«/.0'*-*l0.8}<
:

>|

Nut

r*

6.95"

Finishf'3.01

>]

fiO.002"

Harden

-h(26k-

Body

for Lathe 27-LT-l
m"*o.oo(f-Qoo?

^fc V |?lPj3
I

MACHINE STEEL
Finish

ft 0.01"

Case Harden

Finish/

1 0.01 and Harden

MACHINE STEEL
'Case Harden

Bushing

Wrench Socket
OSIzUfTap,.

K
*«3«-

-!*-—*!
for' 3-inch.

$

Chuckscrew

Heads

SM0.6"
,,-x

•xDeep

,

"aw"(i)k6l5"FilisttrhtodSleel.&r*w. .

&** -^

j IS
iw
-0.75

i

v
"

->0.002--

7
-Engine Lathes

0.25 50°-' \lZTHds.---' y''--40° per-Inch', U5.Std'-'U/j">^/.o">\ '"

Ream
FinishfiQOl"

•$.0.75' 'Ream

^-f.J^-x
COLD-DRAW STEEL

4 Threads per Inch, US 5tH. Left Hand
Locking Nut

\*,l6&'li*t625S\ (*--'- 325*~»H
Finishf*0.0l

M>D"6TWds.perhttSS.Hot-Lathe 14-17-3

FORGED STEEL
Finish

\

0.45-A

A-ZS,g

.•••••

f±0.01"

\^}*

al5

fe& ~

\

«.*'?:$%>

Lacking Nut for 3-inch Shrapnel Heads

"winch *W5Ul&< 165**

l^h'ds.

."-iW

-^0.15" l-perlnch perlnch

A

lefiHand,F/^J5&ril
^.^.™™Q/i-/' 02-

H

:

For G34g)/yiisierhead Stf Sere*

,

^H.ih^

ktrsslfb"
Standard Threads Finish fiOOl"Case Harden
U.S.

FinishftO.01,

Harden

MACHINE STEEL

:

J00L
FinrshftO.Ol"Case-Harden

57K1
F1G 86
-

MACHINE STEEL
Chuckscrew

Chuckscrjewvfoc.Base-Pluga'

s+°fc

i-0*U
yo.4"*pz&-

s_
2,0.177'' 0.5"Filisterhead

Steel Screws
lr

\<0.6

->)

Finish

ft 0.01,

Case Harden

Stamp Name of Shrapnel, Part, Dimension gaqed, Race of Manufacture, and Date (Year)
FIG. 89

HIGH-SPEED STEEL
FinishftO.01"Harden
FinishftO.01" Harden

Chamfering Tool

OPERATION 2
[12]

FI6.88

Beveling Tool

.---'""n
->f?53K

1-0.000"

0.5"rapStdLtf

Oil

Drill

TOOL STEEL
(flarden)

nnishftOOl"

.O.I?SxO.S"steel fin-Daw;

Roller


ft

A

Stamp: narmor"

'*-'/-^

shmpnel, part,

Mqaqedimensions

-V

^jp^flbcpar
manufacture.
\anddate,(yedri

FIG.

94

n_^

H5
Assembled
Views

*!

Standard Thread

3.775 -("Case

U
^"^-hO.003

harden)

%'

YawW
FIG.

TOOL STEEL
(Harden) Roller Pin

FIG 96

Body

TOOL STEEL
nnish/t0.0l"t1arden

OPERATION 4

97

tool,
ft.

Fig. 93; diameter length of finished thread, Fig. 77;

TURN THREAD —Fig. Machine Used — Brown & Sharpe of Operators per Machine — One. Workturret lathe. Tool-Holding- DeHolding- Devices — Special chuck, vices — Chamfering-tool holder, holder for circular thread cutter. Fig. 91; chamfering Cutting Tools— Forming Cut Data— 200 circular thread cutter, Fig. Fig. Coolant — surface speed. put on with —Maximum thread, ring,Dard 93; minimum thread,brush. Fig. ring, Gages
OPERATION
3.

Transformation

90.

Number

and minimum length ot shoulder, Fig. 79. Production 250 per 8 hr. Note This is a thread-chasing operation, as can be seen from the illustration.

Pig-.

86.

tool,

88;

92.

oil,

maximum

MILL, NOTCHES —Fig. Machine Used — Brown & Sharpe of Operators per Machine — One. Toolmiller, Fig. Cutting Tools— Milling Holding Devices—Arbor, Fig. cutter. Cut Data— Cutter runs 370 r.p.m. Special Fixtures— —
9.

OPERATION
Number

Transformation
64.

102.

103.

-

Fig. 104.

Production

1400 per

8 hr.

f-0.25"

025"-:

0875 "+0.000„; u °fi>
-Q002-.

For 0.125*0.25*0.45
v<

Q37r
-

long, Steel Key

J

60i
-

...

15.25'-'--

TOOL STEEL

Fin!shftO.OI

Arbor
One A -7.5' FourA=0.75"

Stamp Name of Machine, Ptace of Manufacture and Date (Year)
'

J

j<-/J75->f

Finishj"±0.0/ Case Harden

Finish

J

'i

0.01

Case Harden

MACHINE STEEL
Bushing
Fl£. 102
Fie. 103

MACHINE STEEL

Nut

COLD-DRAWN STEEL
FimshfiO.Ol" r
1,

TOOL STEEL

,

0575*0.75' 5teel Pin-Drive

FinishpO.05 Harden

14 Th'ds.per

inch.USSfd,

ostew
0.31 Ream-' 5"

0.312"®

'jlh^f I* —
[=3
0.Ae

0375R.

0"

?

MACHINE STEEL
Finishfi0.0l"

Stop
STEEL MUSIC

Spindle

WIRE
Free
0.051

.„

Height. 6 Coils

Finishjt0.05

Spring „,» Finish f

J,O.I9"*C75"Sty. Pivot Point

Headless Steel[ Screw

0.375"

L4.4
1

,

Base

\<~2.0~"">\
~Fi

'~Q3l2"(g)TapSta'.Q375
'

n

Deep
6,0.3l2W*!0"Std.FilisterheadSteel'Screws

''Table

of Milling Machine

BRONZE
FI6.

Finishft0.0l"

104

Gib

COLDDRAWN STEEL Pivot Stud

OPERATION 9
[13]

—Fig. CRIMP IN WASHER machine, Machine Used — Drilling of Operators Machine — One. WorkFig. — Special chuck.per Tool-Holding Devices — Holding Devices Tools — Crimping Cut holder. Fig. Crimping-tool Production^ Data — 260 r.p.m. Gages— Depth of disk, Fig.
OPERATION
4.

Transformation
61.

94.

Number

tool,

96.

97.

1400 per

8 hr.
5.

OPERATION
Number

WASH

of Operators One. Description of Operation Operator puts 40 heads into a dipping basket and sets it in cleaning solution; when grease is off, the heads are rinsed in hot water; if not too greasy, about 2 min. is enough time for cleaning. Apparatus and Equipment Used One tank of boiling Wyandotte metal-cleaner solution; one tank of boiling water; metal dipping baskets. Production 2500 per day.

IN

HOT SODA WATER

holder and bushing, countersink holder and bushing, counterbore holder and bushing. Cutting Tools Twist drill; countersink, Fig. 108; counterbore, Fig. 109. Gages Maximum diameter, ring, Fig. 110: minimum diameter, ring, Fig. Ill; maximum and minimum diameter counterbore, plug, Fig. 112; depth of counterbore, Fig. 113. Production 400 per 8 hr. Note These are forgings, trimmed outside in a die, and only have to be drilled and counterbored.
Drill


Number
1600 deg.
F.,

OPERATION
of

OPERATION

Transformation Fig. 98. Apparatus and Equipment Used
varnish.

6.

Production
7.

— 1200

PAINT INSIDE Number of Operators — One. —
Brush and pot of asphaltum

furnace until temperature reaches then taken out and placed in cottonseed-oil bath rumbled in hot soda water to remove scale, and are then drawn to 900 deg. F. in saltpeter bath. Apparatus and Equipment Used Furnace; perforated copper basket, 24 in. long, 15 in. wide, 12 in. deep; rumbling device. Production 4800 per 8 hr.
in

Diaphragms are kept
next, are

Operators

HEAT-TREATMENT —One. Description of Operation —
2.

to harden;

OPERATION
Drill chuck.

3.

OPERATION

— Fig. Description of Operation —Operator placesi head, small end down, on plate, then puts in retainer and pours in melted resin, Fig. Apparatus and Equipment Used — Metal plate, furnace and kettle, pouring —
Transformation
99. 62.

INSERT RETAINER AND FILL WITH RESIN

per day.

Machine Used
duction

Cutting Tools 1400 per 8 hr.

SCALE —REMOVEmachine. FROM COUNTERBORE— Drilling Tool-Holding Devices —
Twist
4.

drill,

ground

to suit.

Pro-

OPERATION
Transformation
Fig. —Operator
115.

ladle.

Production

1200 per
8.

8 hr.

OPERATION

Transformation Fig. 100. Machine Used. Small lathe, Fig. Number of Operators per Machine One. Work-Holding 63. Devices Special screw chuck, Fig. 101. Cutting Tools Lefthand facing tool. Cut Data 220 r.p.m. Production 1200 per

FACE OFF RESIN

— —

——

Number of Operators per Machine One. holds piece on disk until a flat seat is ground on the bottom; one operator generally grinds, paints and assembles with a total of from 800 to 1000 per day.
Note
grinder,

—Fig.

GRIND BASE
Machine Used

114.

—Diamond-disk —

OPERATION

8 hr.

Diapheagm (Forging) OPERATION 1. DRILL AND COUNTERBORE
Transformation Fig. 106. Machine Used Turret lathe. Number of Operators per Machine One. Work-Holding Devices Special screw chuck, Fig. 107. Tool-Holding Devices

Transformation Fig. 116. Description of Operation Operator applies asphaltum varnish to base with a brush. Production See grinding note.

5.

PAINT BASE

OPERATION
Transformation
presses

Description of Operation Operdiaphragm, as shown in Fig. 118. \oparatus and Equipment Used Fixture, Fig. 119. Gages Length, Figs. 120 and 121. Production See grinding note.
117.

— Fig.
into

6.

ASSEMBLE TUBE

ator

tube

K-0<5-->j
0.t5"->\

0.6- ->naoi"

fO.45^
ao5><Y<±aoo2Zt

cor-

0.05'^-tSMZT

>J

Vo.24^

:

- IS" -*U

1.25"-—

J

MIDVALE EXTRA HIGHSPEED STEEL Harden & Grind
±0.01'
r„

FIG. 108

---->,

corners
6ive bottom ofdiaphragm a tieayy coat ofnon-acidpaint

Great care should be taken to remove all burrs, sharp

and scale

FIG. 106

Diaphragm
rORGED steel
±0.005"
FIG. 109

FIG. 105

Stamp: name ofshrapnel, part, operation, place ofmanufacture

and date (year)


~K

0.5l2"(f) TapStil-^\<6

<~l.?5"y^ "
0.

22

0.2S"TapSfd.
0.152"Drill

FIG. 110 Stamp- name ofshrapnel, part,
operation dimension gaged, place ofmanufacture, and date (year)

4.875-"--

-0.25%'head

A04^-

Std.

Screw

Stamp: name ofshrapnel, part, name and size of lathe

$%% rm*£t&"*"-

v Round » O-Uld '^fyw'SttSteeimsterhead n p J( U.O/O „

Screws.

FJatMnt

"

3-OI5"x ft/'frass I- Steel Key

Loc*ms

-'$?. ...» tPOlntW
'

Harden ' n3ea Screm Used on
'

^ner & Swasey Hand Turret Lathe
OPERATION
I

MACH. STEEL

Body
FIG. 107
-2.S"

02l6"filisterhead

..STandand Screw
>i rt0.25"fieam

ALL MATERIAL TOOL STEEL EXCEPT

O
H375U

WHERE OTHERWISE NOTED
FINISH /±0.0l"hARDEN

hf U
\

A

FIG.
V-0.23"

Ill

QI2S"Stti.Tap

Stamp: name (fshmpne' parfgagr

K
t<— -2.875-A
MACH. STEEL

2.575

"
ooti

Arm

§!£( ""

003"^

SIZE

Pin

Assembled

Views

FIG.

113

3-0.216 xOTS'Std. fHisterheaa'Screws l-O.I25'xa28' " headless Pivot Point Steel Set Screw

operation
Transformation

automatic. Number of Machines per Operator Three. Cutting Tools Cutoff and form tool, Fig. 123. Coolant Zurn oil. Gages Length, Fig. 124. Production 2500 per 8 hr.

—Fig.

Locking Pins machine (bar stock) 1.
122.

Machine Used

— —

—Brown & — —

which
Sharpe

Work on the Diaphragm
Since a diaphragm is forged and then trimmed in a It die, the amount of machining work needed is small. is held in a special chuck, Fig. 107, in a turret lathe and

Following the heat-treatment, given in detail under the proper heading, the base is ground on a disk grinder in order that it may seat properly in the case. Removing scale from the counterbore is simply a scraping operation, and an old
drilled
is

and counterbored.

twist drill,

ground

The base
in

is

to suit, is used in a drilling machine. next painted, and the center tube is pressed

with the special fixture, Fig. 119. The work on locking pins, central tubes, inner tubes and retainers is all simple.

TOOLSTEEk
Finish

ftOOl"Harden

594*001.O.IR.

"dO'^OM"
=*f° 05
'

0/

—fee
0.375*0.002"

042^0.05"

SEAMLESS DRAWN BRASS TUBIN6
One

A-60 B'0.625

FIS.12.5

1.18-

-—

^H^_I
x

#

>^-0.52^

K^^
>
0.15

R

FinishftO.Ol"

Finish

Caging
'

L

Harden
-I.5-

k
COLD -DRAWN STEEL
Case Harden

Surfaces Jg
s.93

'

t

Min.—

-H

0.125

FIG. 129

Finishf*0.0l"

FIG. \zr

X* Stamp Name of Shrapnel, Parf,

Dimension gaged.

Place of Manufacture

and DatefYear)
0.125

HIGH-SPEED STEEL

f0.425>\

~T

Finish

J

't

0005
s 0.125 R.
2.0-

Harden
Finish Cuffing

Fdgefg

MACHINE STEEL

O.ZI2"(0.V:M
FIG. 128

FinishftO.Ol" Case Harden

FIG. 130
1

OPERATION

automatic. Number of Machines per Operator Three. ToolCutting- Tools Two Holding' Devices Four tool holders. countersinks, Fig. 126; two belling tools, Fig. 132; chamfering Cut Data 2400 r.p.m. tool. Fig. 133; cutoff tool, Fig. 134. Coolant Lard oil. Gages Overall length, Fig. 135; maximum and minimum diameter of bell, Fig. 135. Production 4200 per Note Seamless copper tubing is used. 8 hr.

Transformation

— Fig. —

Tube (Inner) operation 1. machine
131.

Machine Used

—Brown & Sharpe — — — —

Tube (Central) OPERATION 1. MACHINE
Transformation

automatic. Number of Machines per Operator Three. ToolHolding Devices Four tool holders. Cutting Tools Two countersinks, Fig. 126; two belling tools, Fig. 127; cutoff tool, chamfering tool, Fig. 128. Cut Data 2400 r.p.m. Coolant Lard oil. Gages Overall length, Fig. 129; maximum and minimum diameter of bell, Fig. 130. Production 2500 per 8 hr. Note Seamless brass tubing is used.

— Fig. — —

125.

Machine Used

—Brown —

& Sharpe

Sfamp Name of Shrapnel. Parf, Size, Place of Manufacfure and Da fe (Year)
\0.I8^<<102
14*0.002"

Stamp Place of Manufacfure and Dafe (Year)

.<-i0.233°:™£ 0.002

~T

005

R-

7\^'Dull Corner
I

m-

Finish

COLD -DRAWN STEEL ±0.01, Case Harden

J

Force into Tube

FIG. 132

Inner

Tube
Stamp Name of Machine, kind of Steel, Place of Manufacture and Date (Year)

FIG. 133
Stamp Name of Shrapnel, Part, Dimensions gaged, Place of Manufacture and Date (Year)

t<0.25*

iS

0Q2>

HIGH-

id ?0.I8< ft
FIG.
I

SPEED
STEEL

M^A.FinishpO^,^
FIG. 134

MACHINE STEEL

Finish f*00i Case Harden

FIG. 135

[16]

K-//Z5'-

i

IT
\j/

l2U.S.StdIhrU.

per in.
HIGH-SPEED STEEL (Harden) finish fa -t-OOn"r\c iu u.wa nG.138
nnisnjfg.

/^

n operation, place of manurac-

l^J™W£%W%CL

^ ^^ ^^

Retainer
Seamless Drawn Brass Tubinq 0.058" Tnick ±0.01"

Stamp- name ofmachine, kind of sreel, place ofmanufacture

and date{year)

UK

high-speed steel (Harden)
Finish

FIG 136

fg±0.01"
I

FIG. 137

OPERATION

FIGS. 144
Fig.

TO

149.

VARIOUS BULLET-MAKING AND POWDER-LOADING OPERATIONS
148

144—Casting

ingots.

wire

Fig.

145— Extruding
Fig.

reels.

—Roll

the wire. Fig. 146— Special ball-forming machine. Fig. feed and tumbler. Fig. 149 Powder-loading machines.

147—Press and

H8]

six-sided, as

lead balls used in shrapnel are both round and shown in Fig. 152, and are made in pracdifferent dies being used. tically the same way, only

The

DIMENSIONS

Commonly, however, the hexagon
the
special

balls

are

made on
on
the

machines and
for the balls
is

the

spherical

ones

press.

The mix
cast

melted in large pots and

furnace and a mold are shown ingots. in Fig. 144. The mold in the foreground is water cooled and so made as to be swung over on trunnions, allowing
into

A

the cooled ingot to drop out. As shown in Fig. 145, the wire

are

made

is

extruded in a hydraulic press.

from which the balls As the

wire issues from the die, it is carried down through a trough of water. At the farther end of the trough it runs over a large grooved pulley carried in a "floating" From this pulley the wire is run back toward frame. the press and is automatically wound on a reel. Friction drive is used in the reel-turning mechanism, adjusted so that the wire will be closely wound, but not pulled
so hard as to sever
it.

In making balls on the type of machine shown in Fig. 146 a reel of wire is placed in the bracket and A cam-operated slide cuts the fed into the machine. wire off into short slugs, which are carried over and fed This disk carries the slug between into a rotating disk. two forming punches, which compress and form the
lead into a ball.
is

As the disk again indexes, the ball carried to the next set of dies, where the flash is trimmed off. An extra punch in a slide removes all
lead particles that might cling to the dies and cause trouble as the disk indexes to the different positions.
FIG. 163

OPERATION Z

A, Put in Tube and Diaphragm

/y)Y/yyyy) YY)7?7?>//J/^/rrr

B, Put in 18 Balls andJ^OzpowderedResin

'6V&^<<%U^///S. V/(/.'sp**
}

C, Pour in. 4 Oz. melted Resin

D, Putin 108 Balls

and compress

F,Put in Balls to make Weight 12.625 lb.

and hammer down

G, Pour in 4 Oz. melted Resin

FI6.I64

FIG. 167

the balls are made on a punch press, as shown 147 and 148, twelve are made at each stroke The 12 reels are carried on a slanting of the press. frame in such a way that any individual reel may be removed and replaced without disturbing the others.

Where
Figs.

in

Final Operations
Assembling

operation
Number

1.

wash case

This

is especially necessary, as empty the reels all at once on account of varying lengths of
it is

impossible to

of Operators One. Description of Operation Operator places case in solution until grease is cut off, then rinses in hot water and drains it. Apparatus and Equipment Used Tongs, Fig. 161; tank of Wyandotte metal-cleaner solu350 per day. tion; tank of hot water. Production

in

hot soda water

wire.

After the balls are formed in the press, they drop into a tumbling barrel placed close to the machine, as shown at the back in Fig. 148. The balls are tumbled in this to remove the flash, the rubbing together accomplishing the desired result. After the case has been washed in hot soda water, the interior is painted and then is ready for assembling
.

Number of Operators — One. —Operator chucks case and applies the paint inside so as not to daub up the threads; machine runs 140 r.p.m. Apparatus and Equipment Used — Smali special machine, Fig. 163; pot of asphaltum varnish; long-handled brush. Production — 1000 per day.
Transformation Fig. Description of Operation
162.

OPERATION

2.

PAINT INTERIOR

OPERATIONS 3-A, 3-B AND 3-C. ASSEMBLE TUBE AND DIAPHRAGM, FILL CASE, COMPRESS BALLS
ators Two. Description of Operation- — First operator puts in diaphragm and tube, making sure the diaphragm seats firmly; then he pours in \i oz. powdered resin; next, he places a layer of 18 balls on the diaphragm and pours in 0.4 oz. of melted resin; 108 balls are put in and pressed down by second operator with 6 tons' pressure; 2 1 £ oz. of melted purs white commercial naphthalene is poured in; sufficient balls are next added to bring weight to 12.625 lb.; these balls are driven down with mallet, and 4 oz. of melted resin is poured in. Apparatus and Equipment Used Watson-Stillman hydraulic press. Fig. 165; scale, Fig. 166; melting pots for resin and
1

Transformation

— Figs.

164

and 164-A.

Number

of Oper-

and for receiving the

balls.

The standard shop

directions

for this operation are as follows : Make sure that the diaphragm seats very firmly on the shoulder; pour in 0.25 oz. powdered resin to seal joints and The powdered resin shake down well to fill all cracks. becomes plastic when the melted resin is poured in. Put in one layer of balls (18) and pour in 0.4 oz. of melted resin. Put in 108 balls and settle by a pressure of 6 tons. Pour in 2.25 oz. of melted pure white commercial naphthalene. Put in sufficient number of balls to bring the weight to 12.625 lb. Drive down with mallet and pour in 4 oz. of melted resin. After the mass has thoroughly cooled, face off matrix so that the depth from end of case shall be 0.35 in. to allow for screwing in of head, which should bear down hard on matrix.

/

naphthalene, Fig. 167; mallet.

Production

— 340

per 8-hr. day.

— Fig. Machine Used — Small lathe, Number of Operators per Machine— One. WorkFig, Holding— Devices— Special chuck, Fig. Tool-Holding Devices Shank for cutter, Fig. Cutting Tools — Resin Cut Data—250 r.p.m. Gages — Depth, Fig. cutter, Fig. Production — 1000 per
Transformation
169.

OPERATION

4.

CUT OUT SURPLUS RESIN
168.
170.

171.

172.

173.

8 hr.

Stamp Name of Shrapnel, Part, Place of Manufacture and Date (Year)

->V25&-

Stamp Name of Shrapnel, Part, Place of Manufacture and Date (Year)

One 0.5x1.0 Sfd. Steel Setscrew

One 0.228*2.5" Drill Rod, Drive

Chuck

TOOL STEEL n
FinishfiQOI

For 0M"(§)'kZ5"Sfd Steel Setscrew FIG. 172

}

FI6.I7I

o
^
J
-.\<:\as"Drill
'•0.3l2?i)"Force
i

Bushing

4.5-

1
One

MACHINE STEEL
"

A -1.987"For 3.0"Shrapnel
>"2.93f
-

FinishfiQOI"

j

2.95"

>

Case Harden t

-

L.„

t/j!

yJ

Stamp Name of Shrapnel, Part, Operation, Name and Size of Machine
Finish

0-9"-'^

QI25"0.6"Steel Pin Drive

MACHINE STEEL
FIG. 170

ft 0.0l"
OPERATION 4
[21]

&

Stamp Name of Shrapnel,
FI6. 173

Part, Dimension gaged. Place of Manufacture and Date (Year)

OPERATION

One. Description of Operation Operator brushes a little cosmoline on threads of head, places case in bench holding- block and screws head into place, Fig. 175; he then put s in inner tube and hammers it in place with hammer and special punch, Fig. 176. Apparatus and Equipment Used Holding block; wrench, Fig. 177; punch, Fig. 178; hammer. Production 515 per day.

COSMOLINE, ASSEMBLE HEAD TO CASE AND INSERT INNER TUBE Number of Operators Transformation Fig. 174.

5.

MOISTEN THREADS OF HEAD WITH

is

done.

in Figs. 177

Details of both the wrench and and 178.

punch are given

The pinning of the head to the case is done by one who first drills the two holes in a small drilling machine, using a special holding fixture as shown in
operator

OPERATION

Machine Used Small drilling Transformation Fig. 179. machine, Fig. 180. Number of Operators per Machine— One. Devices Drill chuck. Tool-Holding Cutting Tools No. 31

6.

PIN

HEAD TO CASE

twist
size

drill.

Production

and are driven

Special — 600 per

Fixtures
8 hr.

in

OPERATION
lathe.

7. TURN BOURRELET (WHEN CASES ARE FINISHED BY OUTSIDE CONTRACT)

by hand.
182.

Fixture to hold case, Fig. 187. Note Pins are supplied of correct

——

After Fig. 180, the details being given in Fig. 181. drilling the holes he drives in small pins, which are bought in quantities for the purpose.

Number of Operators per Machine One. Work-Holding Devices Special chuck. Fig. 184; steadyrest. Cutting Tools Left-hand lathe tool. Cut Data 50 ft. surface speed. Special Fixtures Split bushing; form and form follower, Fig. 183. Gages Maximum diameter, ring, Fig. 43; minimum diameter, ring, Fig. 44; diameter, nose thread, plug, Fig. 45. Production 180 per 8 hr.

Transformation

— Fig.

Machine Used

— — — —

— —Le

Blond

17-in.

No accurate spacing of the pin-holes is necessary, the operator drilling them approximately opposite each other. The turning of the bourrelet indicated in operation 7, is only done where the cases are finished by outside
contractors, as when they are machined at the arsenal the bourrelet is finished along with the point.

The grooving

for the waterproof cover

is

done in a

lathe, the shell being held in a special screw chuck, Fig.

all cases where two parts are screwed together it the practice to put on enough cosmoline to coat the This is simply slushed on with a small brush. threads. With the threads moistened with cosmoline, the head is

In

is

187, in conjunction with a revolving tail center, Fig. 189, the cutting tool used being shown in Fig. 188. Painting of the outside is done by chucking the shell in a lathe and applying the paint in broad bands with

screwed into the case, using the special wrench and holding block shown in Fig. 175. Following this the same operator forces in the inner tube with a punch and hammer, as shown in Fig. 176, the two transformations A and B, Fig. 174, showing what

a brush, the operator after a little practice judging the width of the bands with his eye. On' large shells they are held in a vertical position on a rotating fixture, the operator using pointers on an upright piece to indicate the width of the bands until accustomed to his work.

gp^^^p^^^^^^^??^

wm?M&zmmp77777,

D
FORGED STEEL tOOl"
QSTsUVsMfiHstirMead ^shft00l"U/.7"J
Steel Screws

-Y/v/////m &

FIG. 174

Body

^

25

"

0.375 "Tap Std030eep.

Bushing for 5.8 Shrapnei
„,_./>
,,

MACH. STEEL
(Ca5e fiarden} h*/*1

c- . nmsh «..,._. ±a0f

Bushing for
(Case

2.95

&

3 Shrapnel

FIG 175

FIG. 176

03"Dee

/

//ara/enjgr

>*04

^—>-i*(l75«-Ream\

4"-Finish

-

Punch

-J
A
=

Bushing MACtl. STEEL
(Case Harden) n A°9.4'R B- 3.4"for4.7 Shrapnel

Cap MACtt ste:el
0.75"x//"steef Rod Drive » 0375**3.25" - Pin
tf

TOOL STEEL (Harden Point)

ft 0.0/"

A = 0.25 "fbr 295 "and 3 "Shrapnel A =033"" 3.6,"4.7"»6" »
FIG. 178

IZ"R.B~3.5"

••

6"

OPERATION

5

operation, place

Stamp name ofshrapnel, part of manufacture and date (/ear)

FJGI77
[22]

two purposes: (a) To protect metal from corrosion, and (b) to identify different kinds of projectiles and contents. Eed indicates

The

paints

used

are

for

Body (Black)
Linseed
oil,

—1
.
;

Gal.:

Lampblack, dry

raw

Texene Japan drier

^ A
fa fa

1 lb.

a bursting charge, or high explosive; gray, forged-steel case ; yellow, explosive of low power ; olive green, cast iron ;

Copal varnish

gal gal gal gal

and so on. In some cases slushing put on back of the band; but where it is not to be immediately assembled with the cartridge case, red paint is used. The various colors and the method of mixing are here
oil
is

Lemon chrome
Chrome
Lampblack,
Linseed
oil,

Cast Iron (Light Olive Green) French yellow ocher, in oil
yellow, in oil green, in oil
in
oil

1 Gal.:

T?i lb. 15 oz.
6 oz. 3 oz.
fa gal.

raw

Texene Japan drier

given, the exact proportions being given in each case.

Copal varnish

Powder

("Vermilion)

% .. &
jfo

gal Kal gal

1

Gal.:
2 lb. 7 lb. lb. gal.

Deepfast vermilion, Red lead, dry Whiting, dry Linseed oil, raw

in

oil....

4y2
1 Gal.:

%

Japan drier
Priming Coat

•hs

gal

(Red) —

Red

lead, dry Whiting, dry Linseed oil, raw

10 lb.
4 lb.

%
fa
-1

Japan

drier
Gal.:
I

gal. gal.

Explosive D (Deep Yellow)un r icuuii jciiuw uvuci, French yellow ocher, in oil. English Venetian red, in oil Lemon chrome yellow
11

732

ID.

4

Linseed

Copal varnish
Cast Steel
/Front Block
FIG. 180
Q375"TapSfd

Texene Japan drier

oil,

raw

3 oz. lb. gal.. fa gal.

% %
^2

3*5

gal. gal.

(Warm Gray) — 1
oil

Gal.:
8 lb. 4

White

lead,

in


1

IT) 0.65'Deep //////** J!! ;!(hf°pjf/^rj
-Force
.

— vi
J

\=/ \p^


50

Whiting, dry French yellow ocher,

in oil

% %

lb.

lb.

Lampblack, in oil Lemon chrome yellow,
Linseed
oil,

y2

oz.

in oil

-

raw

Texene Japan drier

1 oz. fa gal. fa gal.

A
fa

Base
.:.

Copal varnish
Steel (Blue Gray)
in oil

gal. gal.

\<X

§
4.0'
4.75°-

f
9.5

r;.

if..-

05%^07&'" H

MX**

^75^--2.0"-^l.0%&
----,->k-

tori
. ,

k8SU-f-32E»" >w>

Forged White lead,
Linseed

1 Gal.: 7 lb. 5 lb.

0275— MO?*

U

**

^

For 0,575*10

SM Filisterhead Steel Screws

\

Whiting, dry

Lampblack,
oil,

in

oil

3 oz.

raw

MACHINE STEEL
fig. i8i

Texene Japan drier

OPERATION 6

Copal varnish

% & fa A

gal. gal. gal. gal.

\*Q75>\

<—!25-»f-

/<?'->K

225*->|<
'

l.75-->\<-

-1.25 -->

MACHINE STEEL
Finish/ t0.005 Harden

\j--For

0.512 (§) Filisterhead St'd. Setscrews.

r Q_<§
'Tor

OS

Bolt

Q
n

<8
-For 0.5 Bolt

7.5-

i yo/ Form

k- 1375-:
FIG. 182

2.5

M
Harden End.

Stam Name of Shrapnel, Part, Place of Manufacture and Date (Year)

Sp!i+ Bushing MACHINE STEEL
Finishf±0.0l

Body
CAST IRON
nnishfiQOI
Groove, for Faceplate Lathe to suit Chuck

Expansion Spring
of
FIG. 184

A- 2.98

for 5- inch

Common Shrapnel

A'2.935'" 2.95-inch Shrapnel

OPERATION 7
[23]

The powder charge
in Fig. 149. and a funnel
is

is

loaded in the machine shown

A second the center tube into the powder chamber. then takes the shell and pokes a small wad of operator gun cotton down into the center tube to hold the powder in place.
Following the loading, the shells go to a gang of three men, who put on the fuse. The first brushes cosmoline on the threads and partly screws in the fuse. The next man sets the shell in a bench chuck, Fig. 195, screws down the fuse and locks it in place with punch and

The shells are placed in rotating holders, is swung over them. The powder charge then poured into the funnel and runs down through

WATERPROOF COVER — Fig. 185. Machine Used—Le Blond 17-in. Number of Operators per Machine— One. lathe, Fig. Work-Holding Devices — Special screw chuck, Fig. Cutting Tools — Special lathe Cut Data — 50 surFig. face speed. Special Fixtures— Revolving center, Fig. 189. Gages —Position, scratch gage, Fig. 190; position gage, Fig. — 600 per hr. 191. Production
8.

OPERATION

GROOVE FOR
tool,

Transformation
186.

187.

188.

ft.

8

OPERATION

Transformation Number of Operators One. Fig. 192. Description of Operation Operator chucks butt end of case in small lathe and applies paint with wide brushes. Apparatus and Equipment Used Pot of black paint, pot of yellow paint, two brushes. Production 800 per day. Note Machine runs

— — — —
10.

9.

PAINT OUTSIDE

250 r.p.m.

OPERATION

hammer. fuse and

The
this

third

man

places the fuse setter over the

sets it to the safety point.

From

gang the

shell goes to the

crimping machine,

The operator paints the cover groove, slips a Fig. 19?. brass waterproof cover in the holder, places the shell The disk roller in the fixture and starts the machine.
revolves around the head

Transformation Fig. 193. Number of Operators Three (two loaders and a trucker). Description of Operation Cases are placed in the revolving fixtures shown, and 1180 gr. shrapnel powder is poured in through the funnels; a wad of gun cotton is pushed down through the tube tonext, retain the powder and assist ignition; powder is measured by means of the little dipper shown on the bench; the cases rotate about 200 r.p.m. as the powder runs in through a ^3 -in. opening in the funnels. Apparatus and Equipment Used Loading fixtures, Fig. 149; measuring dipper; trucks. Production 2200 per day per gang.

LOAD POWDER CHARGE

— —

OPERATION
Number

11.

BRUSH COSMOLINE ON FUSE THREADS

and securely crimps the cover Following this the edges of the cover and the junction with the shell are painted by hand with asphalin place.

of Operators One (three in gang). Production 1200 per day. Note Three men do operations 11, 12 and 13 in succession.

— —
12.

OPERATION
Transformation

tum

varnish in order that the joint

may

be water-tight.

Apparatus and Equipment Used Bench chuck, wrench, punch and hammer, as shown in Fig. 195. Proof

gang

— Fig.

SCREW
194.

IN FUSE

AND LOCK

Number

of Operators

duction

— 1200

three).

—— One

(in

per day.

a5tm z

I

T^n
l

Of/Grooves 0/ 'mde,x0.05"deep,xl,5''/onq >\QS"\t~-

0.625R:

FIG. 185

0.29

MACti. steel (Case Harden)
0.25x0.375'Std. Head/ess

Setscnew

A =Z55"» 3"

A°2.4"for2.95"&3"Com.Shrap ' /I.E. Shrapnel
FIG. 189

n/g/' pf-i/r

A

0J87"(2") hardened Ball Retainer BRONZE SteelBalls „

Ba//s heldin Retainerby two Set MarMs „

,

,

Section B*B

K

/Q

M

MACh. STEEL
(Case

Harden)
--

4.5"

Body
It

<5S

0.2*\

FIG. 190

0.19x0.1 "Std Headless steel Screiy

.--*

K-02

Y--^_

finish/ 0.01

SS Scratch

*^ k

— A3 —

"2
0.I25R
>J

Holder
MACh. STEEL
4-0.2SxO.3l2U/std. Headless Steel Setscrews

finish/tO.OI

TOOL STEEL (Harden) Used on l6"/7ather Lathe Stamp :name ofshrapnel,
part,

Ring

§ ^

Pin TOOL STEEL

(Harden)

0./2&

k

name andsize or machine

Stamp:name ofshrapnel, part, operation, place of
manufacture, dimensions

'jpjft**--

3.75

>\

SAW STEEL
(Harden)
FIG. 191

FIG. 187

gaged and date (year)

OPERAPON
[24]

6

SAFETY SET —OneFUSE of three). POINT (in gang Description of Operation —Operator places projectile in chuck, places fuse setter over the fuse nose, as shown in Fig. 196, and sets fuse to safety point. Production — 1200 per day.
OPERATION
13.

TO

Number

of Operators

will

OPERATION

14.

Transformation Fig. 196. Machine Used Lathe, Fig. 197. Method of Operation Operator spreads asphaltum paint in
Yellow

CRIMP ON WATERPROOF — ——

COVER

the groove with a brush, presses on waterproof cover and places in machine, as shown; he then sets lever so that roller press metal of cover into groove and starts machine; afterward he coats junction of cover and head with asphaltum paint to make water-tight; another slightly different form of machine is shown in Fig. 198; these machines run about 50 700 per day. r.p.m. Production

Operations That Have Been Omitted
In the foregoing article a number of operations of considerable importance have not been described in detail
for the reason that they are the same as those on the 3-in. common steel shell, which will be described in a

Black

For instance the making of the subsequent article. band will later be given in detail from the time copper it is cut from copper tubing through all the steps, such
as pickling, planishing, heating, pressing into place
-3

and

>H

finishing.

FIG. 192

Loading Powder

Chamber

Pulling In small

OPERATION 9
Plug

f Qun Qoffon

\

The night tracer will also be described and will be found of considerable interest. These tracers are made from brass rod, in automatic machines, so that the
machining is not as interesting as the process of loading, which must be so arranged that the trail of fire does not show until the shell is some distance from the muzzle of Otherwise the position of the piece would be the gun. revealed to the enemy and afford a well-located target.

The
FIG. 193

explosion of the propelling charge

first

ignites

a

OPERATION

10

slow-burning powder, which in turn sets off an ignition mixture followed by the blazing of the illuminant.

SectionC-D
FIG. 199

[25]

iiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii'iiiiiimiiiimriii

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii

iitiiiimi

iiiiuiiiiiitiiiiiitiiiiaiiiiiiiiiiiiiiaiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiJiiitiJiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiifiitiiiiitiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiitiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiifiii ainiitiiiiciiiiiiiit tiiiiiint

iiiiiitiiti|^

I

United States Munitions*
The
3-In.

I

Common

Steel Shell

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiim

United States 3-In.
The
high-explosive, or

Common
steel
shell,

Shell
as
it is

common,

shell's being dropped, would not be caused by the action of the detonator mechanism in any case unless the shell was fired from a gun, as it is the rotation of the shell in

called, is of the solid-point, base-detonating type, which explodes only on impact and cannot be set for time ex-

flight that sets the

mechanism for

active operation.

plosion.
toluol,

The

which

is

explosive carried by the shell is trinitroforced into the interior of the shell under

specifications for the steel used in these shells are practically the same as given for the 3-in. shrapnel; but since it is impracticable to determine the contour of the

The

heavy hydraulic pressure. the shell to explode when

The

base detonator that causes
so

it strikes is

made

that

it

only

front end of the cavity after the forging is closed in at the base, this part is inspected by the inspector at the
outside

Stamp, with 0./25 letters and figures, tot number or she/I, purchase order, date ofissue of purchase order (fiscal yeqr) and initials ofmanufacturer

diameter concentric with
cavity before closing in

Rough machine
base

U
>

c

./S*t42S'A
-0.1"

FORGED STEEL

-

3.05t0.05

k""

z'tQOS"
..
.

3
A.
7 c»1-0.3".... Z5 -0.0

I

k

g 35 "+O.I5„ yab -o.os"
-

ZJ^t

FIG.

< **?i!ff'THREE-INCH COMMON SHELL. FORGING 1.

-

-

becomes active after the

shell is fired

from the gun.

This

works after the projectiles are punched and before the
Details of the forging as received closing-in operation. The at the Government arsenals are given in Fig. 1.
finished projectile is shown in Fig. 2. As with the 3-in. shrapnel, 10 per cent, of these shells are fitted with night

makes
might

possible the safe handling of loaded shells, which be dropped point down for some distance without
if

exploding; the explosion,

one should occur from the

•Copyright, 1917, McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., Inc.
0.2

-^QI5^Crimping..* 6roov Mo5"R. *~~35?~j\

- 03- >¥0m
\AM\R.

l

Stamp
lot no.

with O.O62"fj0 letters
J,

& figures.

Crimping and
Lubricating
Groove.

of she/ purchase order, date of issue of p.o.(fiscal year) and initials of manufacturer \
i 0.1 to Center of

Volume -

Cavity Empty 2268 Fuse in Place '18.49 Without Fuse 22.4 » With 21.0

Cu. In.

-

\-5.0

Gravity— *,

r
FORGED STEEL
6.66 i0.05-

25 Scores

-

l-97/"t0.l"-

\<U i0.05

—->^-—~\>luol

4—3=—
3.05 1 0.05

per

Inch,

O.I5"Deep

Compress under Pressure

Scores

3 Notches eauallv

?r™roSt
'mtihes'forTocAing

spaced

/Z TWs.perlnch.tS.Sld

Lw/^fi-J
.^.i.^f^
jkt

10 per cent, of each lot
fitted with

will

be\f

I

L.^ ..>(<...._

IfH^MstoTjto***?*^ Cosmoline L.
lightly with

mght tracers?

\ '6^005*
-J

523±ar~~
-1 1.6"to/-

H

f

A


3.52 1 0.04-

tf-

4.

.Of-

J

IfcStwp

with' 0.062 fg) letters

& figures, PA lot
stamped en base

no.

& ammunition lot no.

if also

within the groove in lieu

The stamping prescribed may be rolled in on band, of stamping in front of band

Finish OutsidkftQOI,

Rough
2.

Inside except where

markedf> Coat Inside with Non-acid Paint

FIG.

DETAILS OF COMPLETE PROJECTILE?
[26]

PIG.

3.

CENTERING BASE OF FORGING IN A LATHE FITTED WITH CROSS-SLIDE TURRET

FIG.

4.

ROUGH-TURNING THE NOSE OF THE CASE ON A LATHE

FIG.

5.

ROUGH-TURNING BODY, USING A SPECIAL DRIVER AND CENTER

FIG.

6.

FINISHING THE BASE ON A CLEVELAND

AUTOMATIC SCREW MACHINE

FIG.

7.

ROUGH-FORMING AND FINISHING THE POINT AND BOURRELET ON AN AUTOMATIC

FIG.

8.

FINISHING THE BODY, WITH CASE HELD BETWEEN SPECIAL CENTERS

FIG.

9.

NOTCHING THE BASE ON A HAND MILLER FITTED WITH SPECIAL FIXTURE
[27]

FIG.

10.

BORING THE INTERIOR ON A LATHE USING COMMON BORING TOOL

wm
HIGH SPEED STEEL
(Harden)

L2///////////
FIG. II

Finishj±aor

MACHINE STEEL
ff

L .,,1

I

.

.~c -H

fCose Harden) FinishJl±0.0f, O.Z75"X0.875"Sfd 5teel 5etscrews\<

3---

sK
9.81'Ma*.

Holder PI - ,,
-361 Mia

Harden
t*ai25"'

JJt *y-0/f ^MaxEize)
Z7r///

Mot. (Size

l± Use thisEdpe ForWarp 6gge

0.5%

1

U
I

J&~ This Edge must be ground strd'ighr^^\To bear on Max.RadiusofBand Minus Bourre,e^ Max.Radiusof Bourre[et_ _ _ " , _ gr" 7c">\ -605SAW STEEL Finish ±0.005''"'
I

X

J

Depth of Cavity Rod and Warp Gage

A

>tfO.I2'D

FIG.I2

Aos\*Hr-

A
-*ifl8

-j§l<
-

a, «V5
Section

1.2-

-

SAW STEEL Finish/ ±0.005 Cross Bar (Depth of Cavity Rod) FIG. 14 OPERATION
I

—S£

A-A

JHprcten
'

/ y y / -j

's

s-s

v-^^^-L

-~—&55
.

7<?<?z

(Forge) r F/nish/±0.05 8a//s heldin Retainer by Two Set Marks,

Body 5/^/.
:f

A =3675 B = 3.f'3M.FShrapnet A =3.875" B=-S/r 3"Common » A =3.675" B= 3. 05," 2.95 "Shrapnel

H

\<-08±0002

_^fsfe$Fs

0.25

R
if.

A
'

^

-^ §&
...

"H

V-- 0.25

±0.002"
.

_£? ;wz
5*

§§

Race Ring
s/zzz

MarkOiJ-~\--'

Case

Holder

met/. ST£SL (Case t/arden)

^H rf /^-a-^E^
™%

'\

O-BapStcf. for

^
.

Ball
.,

Retainer

ttarcfentO.O/

BRONZE

\->',<-

-025 ±0.002

25 Q25

Firyshb±0.0t r
^Sfee/ Bat/5

„,* ^£±0.05" 0.05^f^^20t/.S.Sttt.rnr^. as 0.25x0.37S"Sttif1ead/ess Steef
Set Screw

perm. Race Rlnc 702: 5/zrz Holding Screw 7P0Z sr£l:L(/1arc/en) TfardenWO/" r/n/sn/saot"

FIG. 20

OPERATION

Transformation Fig. 11. Machine UseCt Prentice upright machine. Number of Operators per Machine One. Work-Holding Devices Table knee clamp, Fig. 12-A; bedplate center, Fig. 12-B. Cutting Tools Facing cutter with inserted blades, Figs. 12-C and 13. Cut Data— Spindle runs 65 r.p.m. Coolant None. Average Life of Tool Between Gnndmgs About y2 day. Gages Depth of cavity, Fig. 14. Production 400 per 8 hr. Note Operator must face base close to the maximum limit to allow for finish.
drilling

1.

ROUGH-FACE BASE

— —

Holding Devices Steadyrest; three-jaw universal chuck. Cutting Tool-Holding Devices Turret toolholder; Fig. 16. Tools Rough-centering tool, Fig. 16-A; centering reamer. Cut Data— 170 r.p.m. Coolant None. Average Fig. 16-B. Life of Tool Between Grindings About 2 days. Gages None. Production 400 per 8 hr.

— —


4.

— —

OPERATION
Transformation— Fig.
lathe, Fig.

3.

ROUGH-TURN POINTS
17.

OPERATION
Transformation
tig.
3.

Machine Used— Reed 18"-in. lathe, Number of Operators per Machine One. Work15.

—Fig.

2.

CENTER

of Operators per Machine One. WorkHolding Devices Drive dog and centers; red lead on tail center. Cutting Tools Tool-Holding Devices Toolpost. Lathe turning tool. Number of Cuts Cuts off scale and cleans entire point. Cut Data 95 r.p.m. Coolant None. Gages up None. Production 200 per 8 hr.

Number

Machine Used

—Le Blond —

17-in.

— —

[28]

tracers.

The weight

of the complete projectile

is

divided
Lb.

as follows:
Shell (empty), steel
12.355
0.15 1.38 0.215
0.9
v

Band, copper

Fuse Base cover (complete)
Trinitrotoluol
,

Total weight

15

±0.15

LIST OF OPERATIONS ON
1. 2.
3. 4.

THE CASE

Rough-face base
Center

Rough-turn point Rough-turn body Finish-machine base
Finish point

5. 6. 7. 8.

9.

Finish-turn body Notch base Bore interior

Rough base-cover groove Finish base-cover groove Assemble band Turn band on lathe 13-A. Turn band on special machine 14. Resize threads and counterbore; inspect
10. 11. 12. 13.
15. 16.

'

I

Vt- 1.808"Mi,..

.

all

over

U
iAWS TBI

Z«5'-

J "*"-

Sandblast Hydraulic test

Finish/ tQOl"Harden

FI6.40

*\
,

am-

T

025

K

0.201 drill. '

0.55^-12

•3 >

b
*>*'*

tYR
I

Bjh"
PART

MJT

The rough-facing of the base is done in a drilling machine fitted with a special cutter and holding fixture, The point of the case rests on a as shown in Fig. 12. centering block, and the body is held in a clamping dedetermined by the of the cavity, a depth gage being used to indicate depth The tool head is fitted with high-speed steel cutters this. that are easily reground when dull. When centering the base, the inside edge is first trued up with a single roughing tool ; and then the centering reamer and counterbore
vice.
off

when

it is explained that the point is centered by the comthat makes the forgings, in order to rough down the pany outside concentric with the cavity. The body is roughed

The amount faced

the base

is

a lathe as shown in Fig. 5, the point being held and driven by a special chuck, Fig. 19; and the base is held on a revolving center, Fig. 20. A standard highoff in

speed turning tool

is

used for the
4.

cut.

OPERATION

is

run in as shown

Eoughing
approximate
is held

in Figs. 3 and 16. the point consists mainly in turning it to shape, care being taken to get under the It will be observed that the case here
tail center,

— to % feed, —None. &Average —
in.

Transformation Fig. 18. Machine Used Le Blond 17-in. 5. Number of Machines per Operator Two. WorkHolding Devices Special drive chuck, Fig. 19; revolving plug center. Tool-Holding Devices Tool post. Cutting Tools Lathe turning tool. Number of Cuts One. Cut Data 0.040
lathe, Fig.

ROUGH-TURN BODY

— —

Gages

60 ft. surface speed, 70 r.p.m. Coolant Life of Tool Between Grindings 15 pieces. Combination snap, Fig. 21. Production 200 per 8 hr.
in. cut,

— —

scale all around.

OPERATION
Transformation
automatic, Fig.
6.

yet no mention has been made of the centering of the point. This will be understood

on the

Work-Holding
Devices

—Holder for combination

BASE — Fig. FINISH-MACHINECleveland 3% Machine Used — Number of Machines per Operator— Three. Devices— Split collet chuck. Tool-Holding
5.

22.

-in.

reamer and counterbore, Fig.

: *>\a49 f .-Taper0.25perft

Toper 0.25 per fF~>

12

_^

MACM. STEEL f~/nish/tO.O/"Case Harden FIG. 23
„ „

Pin
TOOL STEEL finish<f±0.005"Harden

13+0.05--

H?6Std. Taper P/n --->{

6.51-0.O5"-

—»

:

Y

*§ L. ,',7'A :U &»r„ 7/,y/oo^/ tS^~SZZL2ZZ3 0.25 Tap,50U.S.Sfd
-

/,

A-l.75"for2"C/eveland

'^05%

~ *0.225"

"•0.25"Dri/l

Thread er,n P

A'2

••

2.75

"

-

Body
MACM. STEEL
fimsh/tO.OI"
t

0.128

„_,*, ,-M

I
"J Reversing Clutch Spring Cover
fACM. MACM. STEEL

kd/S"

O025 HU~*
%\

Dn//~\Y y

*-0.39'
^

036

„„,;„^ <rn~,
fJl

^^„

ReversinqClutch Pin Plunaer MACM. STEEL

ish/f001 "Case

Harden

ahz

finish/ ±0.01

SUB-OPERATION 4

/oto.os-

Assembled

Views
10 f 0.05-

SUB-OPERATION 5
FIG.

<-l.45>\

-—7.I2S"-

22

1

SU,

*

^9

>f-2.37S-->\
\

.0.05^.0.19^^-

gggOTTO ysgas 4
'0.25 Drill

Stem
TOOL

STEEL

0.5 x/.25"Sta: SteelSet Setscrew Pivot Point 0/25"x 1.24"Steel Pin^Vrjtv

F/nish/?0.0/"Harden
0/25"fieam-.
->j [<-#//

*09s: •»*

§§

'•0.75'"Drill

I

Y-0.3

fferrwe offer

r
Holder
MACM. STEEL
fiinish/tO.Ol" 0,5x1 "Sltt.SteelSefSowr
FIG. 25

"AssemH/ng

Retainer Washer
FIG. 2-4

Retainer Collar

\<-6Coils -* l.875"rreeHt.

Stop Pin

Retainer Spring

OPERATION

§

[30]

Ma$
TapStcf.

x

3.5"

DrDl&CounterborefbrK
[

\~)

^flfl r'flnfi
i

(

) A Collar Head Stcf

6ody Bolt Nut MACH. STEEL
FinishftO.Ol"

Screws -2" ->\

,

\n\
~k

if ~i!m
idJji iLi—jf

Assembled

Views
0.375

s

<OM*f

-2.25"

'-

-^0375"I

rUgb*
OIK - 0.003
...^'
\

- t
--K-lO.STapStd:
0.175 10.003

&

\*<uety

Sfd. Threads

O
Dj
r-r-i
.-_-L-

CX-J

x_
--H Body
- ao/

Wedge Screw
fih/sfiftao/'

SS

L0rillfar0.5--->(~)

ittg fr

-ViTri ^ti
f

EORGED STEEL

*W5**OB*-eU2» 03l2"(£)FapStd.

l.75 'Deep f / 3-0.56Z'M)x 2.2 Std. Collar Head Steel Screws w 2-05V5 Sfd. Collar Head Steel Screws

^l%\,j£il-

^frVn^ * §

hQ6h

j&\sif%

s^-f-^-*- r

Q

-A

-_-

~

H H

0.23"t0.003

o"^T~0/25'-OOOofVa75^
*--ar

Clamp
fORGED STEEL tO. 01"
2-0.37s"x 0.625
St'd.

FIG.

26

Tool

Wedge
_

TOOL STEEL
Setscretrs.

Head/ess Steel

r/ar Po/nr

Finish/tO.Ol.

TT

< "- /g "" >

CO/.g-O^WV57gHJ

] te

^y45°

*]

|*tf2f"

§

f
i

i i

-325*Q0/"

k-

5.5"—
Bolt
"

3
TOOL STEEL
Finish

FinishftQOOS',' Harden

DRILL

ROD

Knurl Pin
-*

f

^ Q3l2"(§fSnug
:

\
FIG 27
k'" 1 95
-

&

Harden

Clamping Ring
'

+0.003"

n
MACHINE STEEL
*1
Finish

,

ir

P""

H

25--

f

10.01"

jrK"*" ->\0-875^

>]0.56Z

w

HIGH-SPEED STEEL
Finish/ ±0Ol" Harden

«£

2.

5

"--^
-\0.49^---\<-QO5

0.375

n
JUU
Taper 0.25 Inch per Foot

HI6H- SPEED STEEL
P

Finish/±O.OI Harden

fy

(No.8Std. Reamer)

Cutter

Stamp name of shell, place of manufacture and date (year)
FIG.

53

*<£a/25

Harden Point
j

U

&?5/f
.

-JL
075 <--

U-

-10.85"
-11.6"-

TOOL STEEL
FinishpO.Ol"

FIG.

36

Stamp Name of Shell,

'

Gage, Dimensions gaged. Place of Manufacture and Date (Year)

Stamp Name of Shell; Part, 6age, Dimensions
Place of Manu facture

^daged,

and Date(Year)

<i*"""

5.75'"""""""""-II*'

Engrave Lines
%o f^Jj.005" deep\

J>

&

>^^~

0.005' wide
0.5

_t
L- 1.08'

y
i

i^tt
+\<«0.Q3"
'

l.l6"d<-/2-"-^-/,2'-l\

*

[Straight'

4™4&
3.984'--

3|

-^cr -2.99 Max:—0.06"-AV\

•->

H
L

>|

SAW StEEL
FIG.

(Harden)

'Case harden gagingSurfaces MACHINE StEELfinish g+O.Oi'

Finishjr+O.Ol"

48

FIG. 50

PIG. 49 OPERATION 6

Ogive Cutter Slide
MACHINE fEELfinishf+QOl"

FIG.

45

0.431%) U6Z5"Standard

Headless Steel Screws

0M$$)TapSfd-@

1375 >W.25"*U- 1.875+0.000" -0.002"
.

Vff,

+aoo.
'0.01'

Of'

usr-

Snug

mmd-drwnsteclV
Q2S-..h

WW SPEED STEELlHardenL.-, /
Finishft doi'

•Bourrelet Cutter

<-J WIS- t<-—t'—. ->!<-— 2-I

<-J

UJ
j

FinishftaOl" 0.625'Nuts

-

-b.-l.ZS'A 08Z5" Washers

-,6"-

--->!

*

,*rf^%^Jg
{

'O.OtXf

O.I&U~l.87S"-

*o.ooz*-'

\<-20Z5

3.

C375"->

\4l5i<WE5' ^^<-l.875"-^
<Q875$<-l.5"---'\<-—22S~-^<-l375"<\

.1
0.875

Bourrelet Cutter Slide
MACHINE STEEL, Finish

U~

.

Ao.6"\*
+0.00" -0.01*

ft O.Ol"
0375'

0.457%) X.1.625" Standard
headless Steel Screw
'

Body
MACHINE STEELfinishftQOI*
0.5'xi.875"Standard Sfeel

Ogive Cutter
HIGH-SPEED STEEL, (Harden)
'Finish

Setscrews

46 OPERATION 6
FIG.

ft 0.01"

23; tap holder, Fig-. 24; tap-holder adapter, Fig. 25; cutoff toolholder, Fig. 26; form tool holder, Fig. 27; knurl holder, Fig. 28. Cutting Tools Tap, Fig. 29; cutoff tool, Fig. 30; form tool for band seat and groove. Fig. 31; knurl, Fig. 32; counterbore, Fig. Cut Data 80 r.p.m. 33; boring tool, Fig. 34; facing tool, Fig. 35.

Coolant Zurn cutting oil. Average Life of Tool r.p.m. Between Grindings 60 pieces. Special Fixtures Pusher stop; spring stop. Gages Profile, Fig. 48; maximum diameter of

—— —

Coolant

%-in. diameter stream. Average Between Grindings Tap, 3 or 4 days; forming tool, 1 day; reamer, 3 or 4 days; cutoff, J day; other tools, 2 days. Special Fixtures Stop in pusher tube; pusher stop, Fig. 36. Gages Depth of cavity, Fig. 14; position of band and grooves, Fig. 37; band-seat width and depth, Fig. 38; maximum ring, rear of band, Fig. 39; minimum ring, rear of band, Fig. 39; diameter and depth of fuse-flange seat, Fig. 40; maximum thread plug, Fig. 41; minimum diameter of thread and eccentric of counterbore, Fig. 42; combination snap-band seat, Fig. 43; position and width of band seat, Fig. 44. Production 32 per 8 hr. per machine.
Life of Tool

—Zurn

cutting

oil,

bourrelet ring, Fig. 49; minimum diameter of bourrelet ring, Fig. 49; combination. snap bourrelet diameter, Fig. 50. Production 64 per 8 hr. per machine.

;

—Fig. Machine Used — Reed 18-in. Jathe, —One. Work-Holdof Operators per —Universal three-jaw Machinewith extension—One. jaws. chuck, ing Devices Number of Cuts Cutting Tools —Lathe turning depth of surface speed; 150 r.p.m.; 0.045 Cut Data— 125 Coolant— None. 5Y feed; total length of cut; 0.024 Average Life of Tool Between Grindings — 20 pieces. Special Fixtures — Revolving center; center plug in spindle. Gages— —
Transformation
8.

OPERATION

7.

FINISH-TURN BODY
tool.

51.

Fig.

Number
In.

ft.

in.

cut,

2

in.

Combination snap-body diameter, Fig.
per
8 hr.

52.

Production

200

7. Two. Work-Holding Devices Split chuck. Tool-Holding Devices — Roughing toolholder, Fig. 46; finishing toolholder, Fig. 47.

Transformation —Fig.

OPERATION

automatic, Fig.

FINISH. POINT 45. Machine Used Cleveland Number of Machines per Operator
6.

3*4 —

-in-

OPERATION

Tool for roughing ogive, Fig. 46; tool for 46; tool for finishing ogive, Fig. 47; tool for finishing bourrelet, Fig. 47. Number of Cuts Two, and finishing. Cut Data 50 ft. surface speed, 57 roughing

Cutting Tools

Transformation Fig. 53. Machine Used Brown & Sharpe hand miller, Fig. 9. Number of Operators per Machine OneJ Work-Holding Devices Fixture, Fig. 54. Tool-Holding De-j
vices
in. in

8.

NOTCH BASE

roughing bourrelet, Fig.

Cut Data Cutter runs 370 None. Production 600 per

—Arbor. Cutting thick, diameter, — —
0.5 in.

Tools — Cutter,
8

standard 60 deg., 2.75 22 teeth. Number of Cuts Three. Coolant None. Gages r.p.m.

hr.

[33]

d.l5ft02"Standard Countersunk Head

k
>

Z8'—->\ Name p|at

f BronzeScrews .

Automatic machines

like the

finish-machine the base.

The

one in Fig. 6 are used to interior is rough-bored,

eounterbored, tapped and the end faced.

While these

operations are going on, the form tool for the band seat does its work, and the bottom of the groove is knurled with a knurling tool carried in the front tool block.

1

f

,

;

i^

MACHINE STEEL
,<~.3-->,
Finish

f±0.01" Case Harden n

.-.0.1

6.0
O.I8?\\<

O.I25 Drill

MACHINE STEEL

QZ5

r*0.S-M

Q05R.
a/25* H- Flfi e 7 7

rfj.U

Finish (±0.01"Case Harden

^A^ ?

•H0.5K
FIG.55

_k--/2-*t

T

,

/r

>

Rod

O.I25"Drill

Uo.5U
Q062'($\r

Cross Bor
•1*1

OPERATION 9
-2.5"

0625
Stamp name of shell, part,
operation-

kbk4' 1

For a575* l25 "$td

Square Head
Steel Setscrew

Gfc
5A7/77/3

-2Z5

/%».-

0375 TapStd.

place of manufacture and date (year)

0.3%
!\.

^-y 0.39 ±0.005
(t

name of projectile,

A
0.675

-&-

W7.125-

3.4371

J

7
X~ L.A

gage, dimensions gaged, place of manufacture and date (year)

TO
HQ35
i.
>i
Finish

fg
<20£Hh

H

/.tf"K

4.625"-"'

J

'

-HBK5J5Finishf±O.Ol"

l2J5"i0.03"-

HF0R6ED STEEL

22*

///>».

f ±0.01

Harden

PIS.56

£16.66
0.05 R.--

*

rf .

Taper Q562*(§}"

0.25"Square x 0.5* Steel Key Force in Holder, snug in Cutter

k
FIS.64

Inch per Foot

f
-

__

-

E^ f
025"-

ft

« g.1—
H
Holder MACHINE
STEEL

-0,002
I

1

W

V-0.35'

WW
Drill
fcfl£j.fl52l

k
v

^
--595"-

fl2 J

Cutter

Fimsh/m

r

"*1

HIGH-SPEED STEEL Finish/ ±001" Harden

Tap for 03l2 (i)xQ75"Std:
Hex. Head Steel Screw

(Taper Shank(shown in full) for Engine Lathe \ Straight Shankfshom in dot and dash) for hand Screw Machine

OPERATION

IO

FI6.65

BORE INTERIOR —Fig. Machine Used — Reed 18-in. lathe, Number of Operators per Machine — One. WorkPig. 10-in. three-jaw chuck; steadyHolding Devices—Universal— Tool-Holding Devices Toolholder, boring bar, Pig. Cutting Tools—Cutter for boring bar. Cut Data— 150 r.p.m. Coolant —None. Average Life of Tool Between Grindings — 30 pieces. Gages — Maximum and minimum length of thread, Production — 160 per Fig.
OPERATION
9.

Transformation
10.

55.

rest.

56.

57.

8 hr.

— Fig.ROUGH BASE-COVER GROOVE Machine Used — Bardons & Oliver Number of Operators per Machine —One. turret lathe, Fig. in diameter. Work-Holding Devices — Set collet pads, Cutting Tools— Tool-Holding Devices—Holder for cutter. Cut Data — 115 r.p.m., 50 Circular roughing cutter, Fig. cutting surface speed. Coolant—None. Average Life of Tool Between Grindings— 60 pieces. Gages — Diameter of groove, —
OPERATION
10.

Transformation

64.

58.

3

in.

-

65.

ft.

Fig.

66.

Production

240 per

8

hr.

PIG.

60.

BAND-ASSEMBLING GROUP

FIG.

61.

SPECIAL BAND-TURNING MACHINE

FIG.

62.

TURNING BANDS IN A LATHE
[35]

FIG.

63.

RESIZING THREADS AND COUNTERBORE

^04^-0.7^04%
•*,

-pQZ/S^Max.

G
-->J
->K--

9961?..

Stamp:name ofshell, name ofholder^ andmachine, place ofmanufacture

ana date

(year)

-0.062"(

I

*"

J

A

•5.5-

*3"ft
.

4025x0.75 Std. Steel Sefscretvs f/at/rm
FIG.

„MACJ1. i

STEEL

finish

ft

0.0/

68

cr~*r
Stamp: name ofpro/ectiles,

KflJ-H

N
! \

gage, dimensions gaged, place ofmanufactune and date (year)

"1/7

Inside Tool HIGHSPEED STEEL FIG. 69

&4£
->J

i
/<?

tj

>1
,-J

B

0/55Min.

V9°S'
M0.I9$< Mia

Outside Tool HIGH-SPEED STEEL FIG. 70

SAW steel

OPERATION
this machine the cases go to an automatic, Fig. where the point and the bourrelet are roughed and finished with similar tools carried in tool blocks on opposite ends of the same cross-slide. In finish-turning the body, it is held in a lathe just the reverse of that in the rough-turning, as shown in Fig. 8. The point rests in a centering plug in the spindle, and the base is held in a special revolving center. The base-notching fixture is shown in Fig. 9. The shell is held in a collar into which it is locked by means of a
7,

/7mshfr0.0l"tiarden FIG.7I

From

setscrew.

The outer end

is

supported by two

rollers.

the cutter runs, the operator works the feed lever with one hand and indexes the shell with the other. These
after it

As

notches are cut so that the fuse can be locked in place is screwed home. For the purpose of boring the interior the shell is

chucked base out in a universal three-jawed chuck, with the outer end in a steadyrest, as shown in Fig. 10. A strip of tin is wrapped around the shell where the chuck jaws grip, in order to give them a better hold and not mar
.

four 0.625*175 Belts

and Nuts

iMiii
0.5

T

>

r

^5"

KXT-

"oM\

*S

1 k

J
!K£

If

)rllTfo?Q625*Bolts^

\*25->*+Z!rA

so"
'Too Std.

#r
g?

^
'

0.625*Deep

C0LD- DRAWN STEEL
Finish/tQ0l' Two 0515'Nuts

75"---.H G1S7

§WStd.Thd
*wfl«*K;i,

^
'&

nnrf':.-.' IRON.

Punch Bolt

.tt^q

oo°H

\& itsbSH
COLD-DRAWN STEEL
FinishJtQOr
\

I.37S Countertxre

Surface
.

Four 0.3121$)'"Nuts

4-CASTSTFFL
tO.05"
)A-303fbr295Projectile A-3.1 for 3 Projectile
»

•*

SECTION A-B-C
Tap for Six 0.25" Q75"

Jq>3375*<W/|<- FmishpO.002 Marden f? AUX'QQOl'i?

Connecting Bolt
0.032


-----

" /A-3.9"° 3.6?
A-6.14'-

6"

A^.32'-47

»

<

Qtf
"vr
fj

FIO. 74
48.0'tai-

*

Cskhead Steel Screws,

1.875 * ft

r*h

*®L STEEL ^Q T00L
'Wtf$Drill
"

0375 Drill-

Subject to

* 55 Appro*,
!2Coils

--*\

Experiment

0.5

STEEL MUSIC WIRE (W.Ol)"

1437"

<£Wj?7,{

Bushing
0.375 Drill-

„^0.6"Rr

02\^r^MA3f(if

Spring

\_J

.1.25'

BRASS

JiV FinishfWI

-0.375".

^
45

"

si—S)
6.75
><

m"

0.25*^

^iy^ .Q.575
Finish

-^ J'ilPl "I Ql"-+^$ ^
^Approx*
Finish

T00L STEEL

a6

Guide

K
MACHINE STEEL
0.625 Std. Thd-..

ft 0.002" Harden
Punch
0675
0494
:

J tO.OI
Q655td.M

Strap
0.375r

(

-0.875"

t
.

&o.
8.75

>te«

y
°Sd.
Finish

A

-H H-<25

COLD-DRAWN STEEL
Finish tOOl"
'

^0.25"hl25.

0375 STD. STEEL

Tap.5td:'

PIPE

ltf$\-

0.8/5

4t0'

COLD- DRAWN STEEL

TOOL STEEL
Finish

J't'QOl"

Distance Piece

Two

Q3l2ti) Nuts

ft 0.002"Harden

Handle
FIG.

Pivot Stud

Cam

73
\Z

OPERATION
[36]

the work.

The boring bar is of The inside single-point cutter.

the ordinary type with a of the shell is trued up

for about 3 in. from the outer end, and the length of thread shoulder is machined back from the inside to the

required distance. The base-cover groove is first roughed out with a circular cutter, Fig. 58, the shell being held in a collet
,:I0°

60. The bands are placed in the furnace at the left by means of a long rod, about a dozen or more being handled at a time. The bands are heated to a low red heat; then one is seized with a pair of tongs and placed in a locating fixture in the arbor press. A shell is then set in and pressed down until the band is on a line with the groove. It is lightly pressed in and passed to the hydraulic banding press, where the band is forced securely into the
.

-6.35"

II $ <s V:>
t \3?°

groove.
-0. 002

aofmooz"

and width
-&HIGHSPEED STEEL
(Finish f±O.0l", Harden)

BASE-COVER GROOVE — Fig.FINISHMachine Used—Flather 16-in. Number of Operators per Machine —One. lathe, Fig. Work-Holding Devices — Universal lathe chuck, steadytool post. Tool-Holding Devices — Tool holder. Fig. outside Cut Cutting tools — Inside Fig. Fig. Data— 150 r.p.m. Gages— Diameter of groove, Fig. depth —
11.

OPERATION
59.

Transformation

67.

9

in.;

rest.

68;

tool,

69;

tool,

70.

of groove, Fig. 71.

Production

66;

OPERATION

35°

FIG.60

Transformation Fig. 72. Machine Used Banding press, furnace arbor press, Fig. 60. Number of Operators per Operation Two. Pressure Required 1300 lb. Special Fixtures Fixture to locate band in groove, Fig. 73; set of banding dies, 74; tongs, Fig. 75; bar for bands. Fig. Gages None. Production 150 per hr. Note First operator puts about 40 bands on a bar and inserts in furnace; when the bands are at red heat, the operator takes one out with tongs and drops into arbor-press fixture, then drops in shell butt first, slightly compresses band and passes shell to man at banding machine,

12.

ASSEMBLE BAND

160 per

8 hr.

— —

who
Fig.

finishes the operation.

JptiftpSiao5"±aoo5"

5S*I

HIGHSPEED STEEL

(Finish
FIG. 81

f±001", Harden)

OPERATION 13a

chuck.

From

this

in Fig. 59, finished to correct dimensions.

shown

machine the shell goes to the one where the groove is dovetailed and
is

—Fig. TURN BAND ON LATHE lathe, Machine Used — Reed 18-in. of Operators per Machine — One. Work—Universal ToolHolding Devices three-jaw chuck. Holding Devices— Two tool posts. Cutting Tools — Standard band-turning tool; standard band-facing tool; 10-in. mill Number of Cuts — Two, forming and facing. Cut Data— 330 320 surface speed. Average Life of Tool Between Grindings —About y day. Special Fixtures— Revolving cenform holder, Fig. form follower, Fig. ter; form, Fig. maximum diameter of band ring, Gages — Band Fig. minimum diameter of band ring, Fig. Production Fig. — 400 per Note — Band profile turned, faced, and then
OPERATION
Number
13.

Transformation
62.

76.

9-in.

file.

r.p.m.,

ft.

2

77; profile,

77;

77.

78;

79;

79.

8 hr.

is

smoothed with

file.

The work on
both the

common and

the copper rotating bands the shrapnel shells.

the same on

in assembling the bands to the shell case

The outfit used is shown in Fig.

tool, Fig. 81; finishing tool, Fig. 80; end scraper for hand use on rest. Number of Cuts Two. Cut Data Spindle runs 145 r.p.m.; 120 ft. per min. surface speed. Special Fixtures Outis
is

Machine Used Fig. Number —One. Cutting—Tools—Roughing — — — side swing bracket a stop; front swing bracket handProduction — scraper support. Gages— Same as operation
of

OPERATION

13-A.

Transformation Fig. 76. Machines per Operator

TURN BAND ON SPECIAL MACHINE
61.

13.

750 per

8 hr.

fifi:

Ttogwrncr

— 3FIG.

2
->]

--->]<- -0.56-">\

Q3IE(§)TapStd

Max. Height

76

ofProfile
0.06Z%JR. r (Harden) Finish/±0.005"
T00LSTEEL
'I

#
,

..J.pxa'.

TX
__¥

\J

V
Min.

*Q25'Drill

[

J

j

/
TOOL STEEL,

One A =0.05''(For5 Inch Com. Shrapnel) One K-0.04 (For 295Inch Shrapnel)
'End

Form

;

EngraveLines 0.005'Wide
0.005'Deep

Height

of Profile

->\FinishJ±Q005

*_
"

i_U
<Q3/U

>Jk -<QQ2"
(h)ao6&

MACHINE'STEEL FinishJ±0.005
,

<—-0£"—-^.---0£6-SRW STEEL, (Harden) Finish

0.3l2"(j§)X0.75"5ta Filisterhead Steel Screws

Q93f($H

j t Q 0?

FIG.7Q

0.5

k?5i

-f—T
'

*

i

toi
^MHCHINE STEEL
ForQ3IE"(gfFilisterheadJ '

Standard Screw

&?£ (%)XZ5"StandardFilisterhead SteelScrew
Holder

,Mcm£, STEEL.Finishf 10.01'

FI6.77

FinishJ±Q005' 0.5"Nuts

FIG.79

Tie Bolt

OPERATION
[37]

13

FIG.82.0RI4

FIG.89,

OR 15

Q75"Rad.

if": \/o"

-

5 "n*U# *"RF

Upper Ring

FORGED STEEL

FINISHft 0.01^

Punch

— — Swasey turret Machine — One. Work-Holding Devices —Pot chuck; steadyCutting Tools— Boring tool; — 80 r.p.m. Coolant—Lubricated counterbore; tap. Cut Data with lard put on with small brush. Gages— Thread gage and counterbore. Production — 280 per Note — The shells are now inspected
Transformation
rest.
oil
8

OPERATION

14.

RESIZE THREADS AND COUNTERBORE Machine Used 82. Warner & Fig. Number of Operators per lathe, Pig. 63.

OPERATION

hr.

all

over and divided into three weight classes: 12
4 oz., 12 lb. 4 oz. to 12 lb. 8 oz.,

and

12

these weights are then averaged in the loading process.

lb. 1 oz. to 12 lb. lb. 8 oz. to 12 lb. 12 oz.;

Transformation Fig. 89. Number of Operators One. Description of Operation The operator lays a row of shells on the special bench, Fig. 83, with open ends out, pulls the hinged cover nearly down and thrusts the end of sandblast nozzle into hole in shell, sandblasting the interior to remove scale. Apparatus and Equipment Used Paxson-Warren sandblast equipment, using No. 5% chilled-steel shot, made by Globe Steel Co., Mansfield, Ohio; 80 lb. air pressure, with %-in. diameter nozzle outlet. Gages None. Production 3000 per

15.

SANDBLAST

8 hr.

FIG.

83.

SANDBLASTING APPARATUS
[38]'

FIG.

84.

PRESS FITTED FOR HYDRAULIC TESTING

OPERATION

16.

Description of Operation Case is placed in a vise, and a _ug is screwed into the end to make it water-tight; the case pi is then placed in a special fixture, Figs. 84 and 90, in a 1500ton heading press; the pressure applied is 350 tons, or 20,000 Apparatus and Equipment Used 1500-ton headlb., per sq.in. ing press; pressure pump; testing fixture, Fig. 90; triplex chain drop; common vise. Gages None.

— HYDRAULIC

TEST

OPERATION

— — tion 1200 per

Number of Operators Two. Transformation Fig. 91. Description of Operation Operator pours case full of Cebaline anti-acid paint up to threads, then pours it out and sets case in rack, base down, to drain a minute or so; second operator takes a drained case from rack and wipes end and threads with waste, and places it in truck box to dry; paint dries rapidly in about 1 hr. Apparatus and Equipment Used Cans of paint, pans, draining rack, waste, Fig. 92. Produc-

1.

PAINTING INTERIOR BY HAND

OPERATION
Number

8 hr.

OPERATION

1-A.

Number of Operators One. Transformation Fig. 91. Description of Operation Using the spraying apparatus, Fig. 85, the operator thrusts the nozzle inside a shell, presses the valve lever and sprays the inside to the threads; he then shuts the valve and withdraws nozzle. Apparatus and Equipment Used Eureka spray and Cebaline anti-acid paint. Production 10 per min.

PAINTING INTERIOR WITH A SPRAY

of Operators One. Description of Operation Operator places case on scale platform, weighs it and chalks on side, Fig. 93, then places piece in tote box, ready weight for elevating truck. Apparatus and Equipment Used Small platform scale. Production 1600 per day.

2.

WEIGHING

OPERATION

3-A.

Transformation Fig. 94. Number of Operators Three in gang for filling and compressing. Description of Operation A complete fuse and base cover are kept on platform of scale; first operator weighs out enough trinitrotoluol in a tin container to bring total weight of case, fuse and base cover to 15 lb.; he then pours the trinitrotoluol into case on holding

FILLING WITH TRINITROTOLUOL

FIG.

85-

INTERIOR PAINT-SPRAYING OUTFIT

FIG.

86.

FILLING WITH TRINITROTOLUOL

F£G.

87.

COMPRESSING THE TRINITROTOLUOL
[39]

FIG.

88.

HOLDING FIXTURE AND RAMMER

block and rams down powder with brass rammer and heavy rawhide hammer; load is then compressed in hydraulic press; in case of a light-weight shell, more powder is added and again compressed, in some cases several compressions being necessary to get enough powder in to bring weight high enough. Apparatus and Equipment Used Small platform scale, rawhide hammers, brass rammer, holding blocks, Fig. 86. Production 320 per day.

OPERATION
hydraulic

3-B.

Transformation
press.

— Fig.

COMPRESSING THE TRINITROTOLUOL
95.

Number

Machine Used

Punches and Punch' Holders

— Bronze

of

—Riehle 40,000-lb. Operators in Gang — Three.
ramming punch,

Fig. 96.

revolving fixture, Fig. 98; cleans threads and counterbore with hook tool and scraper; then wipes with waste soaked in benzol and finally wipes with dry waste. Apparatus and Equipment Used Fixture, Fig. 107. Production 350 per 8-hr. day.

Machine Used —Small Number of —Reamer, Fig. Machines perStop collar on reamer. — Operator—One. CutGages Production — 1200 per OPERATION CLEANING THREADS AND COUNTERBORE Number of Operators- — One. Description of Operation — case on Operator
Transformations
104.

OPERATION

REAMING —Figs. 103 and
4.

FOR FUSE CASE

lathe. Fig. 97.

ting Tools

105.

8 hr.

5.

1

places

FIG.

97.

REAMING FOR FUSE CASE

FIG.

98.

CLEANING THE THREADS

FIG.

99.

PAINTING THE OUTSIDE

FIG.

100.

PUTTING IN FUSE AND BASE COVER

FIG. 101.

PRESSING ON BASE COVER WITH TRACER

FIG.

102.

PLANISHING THE BANDS
6.

Description of Operation Second operator takes filled case in hydraulic press; third operator then operates valve levers from outside of "bombproof," as soon as second operator is outside, and watches operation of press ram from a mirror placed as shown in Fig. 87; about 30 sec. is required for ram stroke each way; the punch is forced in 4% in. from end of case, which is 4% in. + y8 -in. allowance for end of detonator fuse. Pressure Required Pressure varies according to amount of trinitrotoluol needed to bring weight of case to 15 lb. oz. on cases weighing 12 lb. 2 oz., about 24,000 lb. pressure is required; from 12 lb. 4 oz. to 12 lb. 6 oz., 14,000 lb.; 12 lb. 14 oz., 8000 lb.; as a rule, 12-lb. 2-oz. cases are considered too light, as the pressure required to force in enough trinitrotoluol makes the work too dangerous. Special Fixtures— Case-holding fixture, Fig. 88. Production 320 per day. Note The bombproofs in which the presses are placed are of concrete about 7 ft. wide, 9 ft. long, 10 ft. high, with walls 1 ft. thick.

and puts

OPERATION
Transformation
Description of Operation

±2%

of Operators One. Operator chucks case in small lathe. Fig. 99, fitted with split centering chuck, pushing butt end in as far as the rotating band will allow; he then starts lathe, which runs 240 r.p.m., and applies paint with wide brushes. Apparatus and Equipment Used Black, red and gray paint; three brushes to suit. Production 350 per day.

PAINTING — Fig.— 108. Number

OUTSIDE

——

;

OPERATION

7 -A.

Transformation Fig. 109. Number of Operators One. Description of Operation Operator puts case in vise and sees that reamed cavity is clean and deep enough; if not, he puts in a reamer and pounds and rotates it until of the desired size; if the threads are tight, he retaps them; the threads of the detonating fuse are greased with cosmoline, and it is

PUTTING IN FUSE (WITHOUT NIGHT TRACER)

[40]

|*/3?>t<--2.45-''->f«/">|

FIG. 103
4Cuts0.62S"x

Afotefw

No.4Morse.$

H-(— - - kU_. ro^rP/>7_jlxi-H^ T TrV-rxi

0/87*1

H

IT.

0.575" Collar
;

->i

N3V--245 -*1T
.

JJ

No3 Morsel T^T

4 Blades*

=1

— —,
J

"I

*7-*

S
I

per Inch

••25-'

-><l*2Ce?fe£l<v

4.75"---

t
(For
v

*^_

^ STEELfHaraen A finish)

OPERATION 4

Reamer
Medium

with Stop

Caliber Base-detonating Fuse) FIG. 105

screwed home with a long spanner wrench, then locked In place by means of a punch used at the three milled notches in the case; the spanner holes are filled by pounding- in lead slugs, Fig. 110; lead disk and base cover are put on; lead calking washer is put in base-cover groove and pounded down all around, securely holding base cover in place, Fig. 111. Apparatus and Equipment Used Common vise, reamer, bronze hammer, tap, spanner wrench, cosmoline, complete detonator fuse, base cover, lead ring, boxes of lead slugs, Fig. 100. Production 160 per day.

Base of
'

Shell

Before and after
is

Caulking Wire

hammered down
C=76?

Dimensions of Disk,Cmer and Caulking Wire for

imch

Shell-

A*£25", B'O.Ol'and

FIG. 109

FIG. 106

Sy'
FIG.IIO

OPERATION 7A
fi6.ui

STEEL ' Steel J-

jL-4-J.Lft

Washers^

~*-

tyW** :: "

%

:

'^

CffSi lR0N\

V- Block with Rollers (Far cleaning Fuse-seat Thread)
FIG. 107
OSTIROM

(••3—-*l
f<-2/£5->|

^iamenei.

~1l
Finish

OPERATION

5

a

k

driv/ngn-

1

Oie fpr Caulking Shells
Solid

Punch for Caulking Shells

FIG.II3

OPERATION 7 B

K - 7f -+*---

Black

"3Red

Black

Cray

FIG.I08

OPERATION 6

OPERATION

7-B.

Watson-Stillman hydraulic press, Fig. 101. Number of Operators Two. Description of Operation The base detonating fuse is put in as in operation 7-A, then piece is taken by this gang; the helper puts on lead disk and night-tracer base cover and presses in the calking ring; press operator then takes it and presses down the ring, as shown. Pressure Required About 2000 lb. Special Fixtures Point-holding block; coverring nressvtnej block. Fig. 113. Production 300 oer 8-hr lav

Transformation

— Figs.

PRESSING ON BASE COVER WITH NIGHT TRACER
112-A and
112-15.

Machine Used


OPERATION
7-C.

FIG.II4

OPERATION 7C

Number of Operators One. Transformation Fig. 114. Description of Operation Operator clamps a night tracer asr the case in his hands, screws it ok thf a vise and, holding Common vise. tracer. Apparatus and Equipment Used

SCREWING TN NIGHT TRACER

[41]

SECTION

B-B

FIG. 116

OPERAflON

1

MACHINE STEEL

(Finish f±0.0l", 'Case

Haraen)

FIG. 17
1

0.375 "Tap

Std

FIQ. 118
A=3.35
r

B=35 b O0.5I

for

Four 0.375*1.2 Sfd. Steel Setscrews
Four 0.375"Jam Nuts

X

n

Ar425
0.5

B-4.4" C-0.66" for

Z95 8:3 Projectiles 58"Projectiles
Finish

COLD-DRAWN STEEL
4?"

f ±0.01*
1
0.125

Band Form
0.5>

MACHINE STEEL

±0.0l"

Lower Punch

Holde*-

<--£275"--

^ ,0} ^
'

1^
8*

\For 0.375 FHisterhead j

Std Screws ;

lib
FinishfiO.Ol" Harden

MACHINE STEEL

Lower Punch

0.375
'

Tap Sfd
For 0.375 FHisterhead Std Screws

1.0"Deep

C5">

MACHINE STEEL
Finish

f±0.01"
fig. 119

Upper Punch Holder
MACHINE 5TEEL
Finish f±0.01 Harden

OPERATION 5
[42]

Upper Punch

>\0.!45^-

<5S

FIG. 120

Detail

of Threads

H

1.5"-

H

0.65"'\*Q&r-

4.6"-0.IE5 >\ H-

L9S"— -*J -4
vfv

"to

X
_ HIGHSPEED STEEL(Harden) _pwc
Finishf±0.005",Finish Cutting Edges
'

\
J
I

Jg

F1G.IEI

/0°

1

1

f

1

o

1

Adjusting
- - -LH JttiHi^HW-tJ-U-tkRRfirUHJ tMJ

tllfp tim>Uti)tft|!jMi

1 i

»

i) n.(.t,.) 'ifilti-

/I Screws
<L.

0375

FIG. 130

-e.805"

H X U

#---.
FIG. 133

-

#FIG.I3I
'<?

OPERATION 2

Threads per Inch, Left Hand, US. Standard FIG. 132

OPERATION
Transformation
131.

Number of Operators per Machine One. WorkFig. Holding Devices Collet chuck. Cutting Tools Facing tool; die to cut 0.625 ( + 0.000, 0.004) diameter, 18. left-hand U. S. Standard thread. Cut Data Speed, 850 r.p.m. Coolant Lard oil. Gages Maximum and minimum thread gage, Fig. 132; length gage, Fig. 133. Production 1200 per 8-hr. day.

— Fig.

2.

FACING END AND THREADING
130.

Machine

Used

——

—Turret — — —

OPERATION
Transformation

lathe,

automatic. Number of Machines per Operator— Three. Cutting Tools Drill; countersink; formed tool; cutoff tool. Cut Data Spindle runs 2400 r.p.m. Coolant Zurn Cutting oil. Gages Combination, Fig. 141. Production 3500 per 8 hr Note Made from ^-in. diameter brass rod.

— Fig.

3.

TURNING IGNITION TUBES
140.

Machine Used

— — —

— Brown & ——

Sharpe

OPERATION
Transformation

Lubricant Mineral oil. Production Note Press flywheel runs 70 r.p.m.

Machine Used Small punch One. Punches and press. Number of Operators per Machine Punch Holders Fig. 135. Dies and Die Holders Fig. 136.
134.

—Fig.
2.

1.

PUNCHING INNER DISK

OPERATION

— —
— —

—-About

75,000 per

8

hr.

OPERATION
Transformation
press.

of Operators per Machine One. Punches and Punch Holders Fig. 138. Dies and Die Holders Fig. 139. Lubricant Mineral oil. Production About 75,000 per 8 hr. Note Press flywheel runs 70 r.p.m.

Number

— Fig.

PUNCHING OUTER DISK
137.

Transformation Fig. 142. Machine Used Hand miller. Number of Operators per Machine One. Work-Holding Devices Miller vise and formed jaws, Fig. 143. Cutting Tools Milling cutter, 1% n in diameter, 20 teeth. Cut Data Cutter runs 600 r.p.m. Production 4000 per clay.


j

4.

MILLING IGNITION TUBES

.

Machine

Used — —Small —

punch

OPERATION

5.

ASSEMBLING IGNITION TUBE TO

Transformation Fig. 144. Number of Operators One. Apparatus and Equipment Used Bench riveter. Fig. 145. Production 1600 per 8 hr.

OUTER DISK

aS5"tZ"Stk Steel Setscrews
OS
i

TOOL STEEL
t,


0.25"* 0.375"St"d.

J

MACHINE STEEL

Finish

f± 12002"

QcSVtfSfd.Steel Setscrews

CAST IRON ±0.01

FinishftO.005

-*

Harden

Filisferhead Steel Screws

Die Holder

5+op

Stripper
FIG.I36

OPERATION
[44]

I,

in order is a thorough inspection of the ena group of regular inspectors who also divide by the shells according to weight, after which the inside back
tire case

The next

pressure applied until
lb.

it is

equal to 350 tons, or about

20,000 per sq.in. on the surface of the shell. This test shows whether there are any flaws, weak spots or
blow-holes leading into the interior. The first operation directly connected with the loading of the explosive charge is painting of the interior with
acid-proof paint, the various loading operations being in the following order
:

of the threads

is

sandblasted, as

shown

in Fig. 83.

The

shells are laid in

a row on a wooden grating, open ends

out,

and

the operator thrusts the sandblast nozzle into

each in turn. This thoroughly cleans out the part of the cavity that has not been machined. The hydraulic testing is. done in the apparatus shown in Fig. 84 and in detail in Fig. 90. The test is an external one, a plug being screwed into the base to make it water-tight then the shell is hoisted into the testing cylinder by means of a chain block hooked to a screw-eye in the base plug. The testing cylinder slides on ways, so as to be moved from loading to testing positions under The moving of this testing cylinder is the press ram. accomplished by the operation of a small hydraulic cylinder at the back of the press, the connecting-rod of which Afis coupled to the cylinder, as can be seen in Fig. 84. ter the cylinder, full of water and with the shell inside, is in place under the press ram, the ram is lowered and
;

1.

Painting interior by nana 1-A. Painting interior with a spray
2.

3-A. Pilling with trinitrotoluol 3-B. Compressing the trinitrotoluol 4. Reaming for fuse case
5. 6.

Weighing

Cleaning threads and counterbord Painting outside

7-A. Putting in fuse (without night tracer) 7-B. Pressing on base cover (with night tracer) 7-C. Screwing in night tracer

Painting of the interior
:

may

be done in either one

of two ways By hand, using the outfit shown in Fig. 92, or with a spray, using the apparatus shown in Fig. 85. The hand method is slower, but may be used where a spray
is
fills

not available or when it is out of order. The operator the cavity to the threads with paint and pours it out,

r^
TI

•4% ~f3&YwSnu3

r

\<-aiS"

A
Outer Disk Punch
FIG.

©
0.25"TapStd.

a825
\<

k 0.69"A

"*\

-=z^^l
r+aooo.
0.002"

FIG. 140

138

h-

2.5"
0.0I8"~*\V

r

H \~-0.022Max

4
,

~rm~

TAT

-Pfffoilf)!
uj
uij

u

m aifeltpi
Mi
'Ml »

-~| 0.51'
3.375"-

r-

~-3"~
Finish f ±0002, Harden

a —

0.081 Drill

X
A.

tQ,
«1

(•T 0.8"---:

0.25"Drill

\<-Ream\

v**i

•5

TOOL'STEEL

MACHINE STEEL

Finish

f±0.01"

ai5±aor^

.-am" f^/ream *t\*-Ream

,

§

wssx.
.

*uc^

<-,

r,

-

esq
'•fa\>

~l

*,02

S3

'^05"

0.25""l.25"Std Headless Sieel Setscrews

0.25*05"Sfd. Headless Steel Seiscrews

r

r -

'

Hi

'

/

'

"

«- T"
' '

l_

"^-

|

*

~*W.308%Mi,

*\ f< -aoi*

:

X-Q95f±Q002"->\<-a952"±a002"^\

"&9

*

»\a3l2'U-Max.

MACHINE STEEL

Finish ±0.01" Case Harden

f

FIG. 141

0.5l"Diam.-

FIG. 143

FIG.I44

[45]

OPERATION

1.

Tracers are filled and mixture compressed in a bombproof with the same type of Riehle press used for trinitrotoluol loading; tubes are first filled with illuminant powder and placed 10 at a time in the fixture shown in Fig. 147 and given 40,000 lb. total pressure, equal Apparatus and to 4000 each; this is repeated three times. Equipment Used Riehle hydraulic press; holding fixture and

Transformation Pig. Description of Operation

— LOADING —
146.

ILLUMINATING POWDER
Number
of Operators

— Three.

OPERATION
Transformation
lathe.

— —

Machine Used Small turret per Machine One. Work-HoldCut ing Cutting Tools Fig. 154. Data Spindle runs 350 r.p.m. Production 2000 per day. Note Tracer is chucked and end of tube faced off until about 0.002 in. from outer disk; inside of mouth and disk is then coated heavily with nonacid paint, except opening in ignition tube: complete night tracer is shown in Fig. 155,

Number

— Pig.

5.

TRIMMING END

153.

Devices

of Operators — Collet chuck.

— —— —

*$£/^s^$%j$ft$isf

1

:•

M§±h -miMM;$$m0MZ$£&
:
:

H§.§ M 0.3^-05^

FIG. 153

FIG. 151

[*-—Q5"±0.0Ol"~--A

T 00LSTEEL(Harden)

Finish/ 1 0.005"

FIG. 146

_*
WIS6

FIG. 148

& 147 OPERATION & 149 OPERATION

I

2

Agr

«- 03' >*<Igniting Mixture-^

0.5"-

f
FIG. 154

T

FIG. 150 OPERATION 3 FIG.I5I&I5E OPERATION 4 FIG.I53,I54&I55 OPERATION 5

167--gr.

Illuminating Ponder--'

24-gr. Black Fbnc

FIG.I55

l?-gr Delay

Mixture

pressing punches for 10 tubes; small-handled powder measures or dippers. Production 1000 per 8-hr. day.

OPERATION
Transformation

lathe.

Machine Used Small turret Fig. 148. of Operators per Machine One. Work-Holding Devices Collet chuck. Cutting Tools Counterbore, Fig. 149. Cut Data Spindle runs 350 r.p.m. Production 2000 per 8-hr. day.

2.

COUNTERBORING

Number

——

— — — —

then passes the shell to another, who wipes the threads Avith waste. The spray method is far quicker and does not smear the threads so much, as the operator turns on
the spray after the nozzle off before removal.
is

inside the shell

and turns

it

OPERATION

Transformation Fig. 150. Number of Operators Three. Description of Operation 4 gr. igniting mixture is poured into drilled and counterbored hole and shaken down; 24 gr. black powder is then poured on top of this and a brass inner disk placed on top of the powder; each tube is given 4000 lb. pressure, using the same fixture as for illuminant; in loading, two holders are used with one set of punches in the press, and they are employed alternately, as the illuminating and igniting powder are loaded in turn. Apparatus and Equipment Used Same as for operation 1. Production 1000 per 8-hr. day.

3.

LOADING IGNITION MIXTURE

fillers,

of the case is for the guidance of the the weight being chalked on each shell, as shown in Fig. 93. The fillers work in gangs of three, one filling, one carrying
press. different

The weighing

and
as

refilling,

and one operating the

These operators

operations, balance the work.

positions or help on the occasion demands in order to
shift

OPERATION
Transformation

top of the inner disk is poured 12 gr. delay mixture; the outer disk is put on, the holes in the two disks being placed on opposite sides; two tubes are compressed at once at 14,000 lb. total pressure, or 7000 each, using the holders and shown in Fig. 152. Apparatus and Equipment Used punches Riehle hydraulic press in bombproof. Production 1800 Der 8-hr. dav

LOADING RETARDING MIXTURE —Fig. Description of Operation — On
4.

151.

The high explosive, or trinitrotoluol, is a yellowishwhite powder not dangerous in the ordinary sense, until compressed; but when compressed and fired by means of a detonator, it is one of the most powerful explosives

known.
[46]

Compressing the trinitrotoluol

is

done with a hydraulic

press placed in a concrete bombproof room, the operator watching the actual work by means of a mirror, as shell in the holding fixture with the shown in Fig. 87.

details,

A

operations is almost self-explanatory; the however, are given under the proper headings. The last operation, planishing, is really a sizing for width, as the band is pressed between two flat dies, as shown in
list of

The

punch or rammer ready to descend is shown in Fig. 88. The rammer presses the explosive solidly into the shell and leaves a cavity for the insertion of the detonator. This cavity afterward has to be reamed out to size, which The reamer is held in a is done as shown in Fig. 97. of a steadyrest, which not chuck and passes over two jaws
only steadies the reamer, but acts as a stop for the depth of the cut. Fig. 105 shows a stop collar on the reamer,

Fig. 102.

Making Night Tracer
1. 2.

Drilling, counterboring, tapping

Facing end and threading

Night tracers are made from brass rod in automatic screw machines ; the order of procedure is as given above and is the usual standard screw-machine practice in
every way.

but in the actual shop practice this is no longer used. The operator places a shell on the guiding block and presses it forward onto the revolving reamer until the end of the shell contacts with the steadyrest jaws. After being reamed out, the threads and counterbore have to be cleaned. This is done by placing the shell on the fixture shown in Fig. 98 and using the hook tool there

Facing and threading hand screw machine.

of the closed

end

is

done in a

Making Night-Tracer Disks
1. 2.
3. 4.

shown
shell

to clean the threads as the operator

rotates the

Punching inner disk Punching outer disk Turning ignition tubes

by hand.

The counterbore

is

scraped out with a

5.

Milling ignition tubes Assembling ignition tube to outer disk

scraper made from an old file. Following these operations the shell is painted from point to band, while held as shown in Fig. 99, the operator applying the paint with wide brushes. The detonator fuse is next screwed in, with the shell

by the punches and

held in a bench

A.

detonator vise, Fig. 100. If the threads are a little tight, a tap

A

a punch-press job, as shown 135, 136, 138 and 139. The ignition tubes are made on automatic screw machines from brass rod and are milled off at a sharp angle on the outer end in a hand miller. The assembling of the igof the disks
dies,
is

The making

Figs.

is

B

is

shown at run in.

nition tube to the outer disk

is

done by hand, and then

the tube
Fig. 145.

is

riveted fast in the disk in the bench riveter,

If the hole is not quite deep enough or has not clearance enough, it is made larger by pounding and rotating the reamer C in the hole. With everything clear, the fuse is screwed home with the spanner D and locked to the notches in the shell with a punch and hammer. In case no night tracer is to be used on the shell, lead plugs are

Loading Night Tracer
1. 2.

3. 4. 5.

Loading illuminating powder Counterboring Loading ignition mixture Loading retarding mixture

Trimming end
is

pounded into the spanner holes, and a sheet-metal cover E is put over the end with the edges in the cover groove.

A

calking lead ring

F

powder

is

then pounded into the groove

as indicated in Fig. 109. Where a night tracer is used, the fuse is put in in the same way, the lead slugs are pounded in, the special cover

put on and a lead ring put in place. This ring, however, is not pounded in as previously described, but is pressed
in as shown in Fig. 101, the process being graphically shown in Figs. 112-A and 112-B. Screwing in of the

of the night tracer with the illuminating done in a hydraulic press, using the holders and punches shown in Fig. 147. Several fillings and pressings are needed to complete the work. After the illuminating powder has been pressed in, it is machined out at the open end of the tracer in a small turret lathe, using the combination drill and counterbore, Fig. 149. The

The loading

night tracer consists in placing the tracer in a vise and screwing the shell onto it by hand.

object of drilling into the illuminating powder is to give the ignition mixture a better chance of surely doing its work. The ignition mixture is next put in and the inner disk pressed in. On top of this a slow-burning powder is
placed, and then the outer disk is pressed in. Finally, the end of the tracer is faced off with the tool shown in Fig.
154.

Making the Band
Operations on making the copper band are as follows: 1. Cut from tubing 2. Anneal
3.

The

tracer
It
is

of the shell. of the tracer

is now ready to be screwed into may be noted that the thread on

the base the base

Pickle

4. 5.

Wash

left-hand, so that there is no tendency to unscrew as the shell is fired from the £un.

Planish

[47]

Three-Inch United

Navj^Projectiles
ByLieut. A. G.Dibrell
*

SYNOPSIS—Shells

of the size described here are required in large numbers for use in guns on destroyers or on boats of the type known as submarine chasers. These shells differ placed considerably from the 3-in. ones used in field guns or coast artillery, which have been previThe various machine operations are given with considerable detail. ously described.

The manufacture of munitions in navy yards, an experimental enterprise, inaugurated last year, has proved signally successful at Puget Sound. As a general proposition in peace times, the Government unquestionably is wise in giving such contracts to private individuals, thereby releasing its own plants for the more important But the Government should repair work on ships. nevertheless be able to perform any class -of work necessary
for the proper supply of the fleet in all have definite information at
its essentials

crete actual

working examples of

all

the minute details

necessary for the proper and efficient manufacture of munitions.

and

Owing to the great number of 3-in. shells that will probably be required to supply the submarine chasers and patrol boats now building, a description of the method adopted at Puget Sound is here given. The machines used are common to all shops, and it is hoped that this description will enable private individuals to equip their
plants and be ready to start the work of machining as

hand for the use
uals,
arise.

of individ-

should an emergency In the machining of projectiles there is a great

soon

as

forgings

are

re-

TT

Fig. 1 gives the dimensions of the 3-in. forgceived.

amount

of preparatory

necessary special-tool manufacture, gage manufacture and the equipping of machines
tiles

work

ings furnished the navy yard by the American Car and

Foundry Company.
drill is

A

radial
first

—before

equipped for the

the

projec-

can be properly and economically machined. Evidence of this has been obtained in every munition
plant visited.
shells

operation for the 3-in. shells. The chuck shown in Fig. 2
is

a

universal

three-jaw

lathe chuck.

In the base of
a center point.
in

the chuck

is

Hundreds

of

The female center shown

were seen, rejected most of which were made

during the early stages of the shops' contracts. This

FIG.

1.

DETAILS OP UNITED STATES NAVY THREE-INCH male COMMON PROJECTILE

the nib on the point of the rough forgings fits over this
point.

The jaws
set

of the

chuck are then

up

to

was owing to the fact that the manufacturers had only drawings and specifications to guide them in the selection of necessary machines and equipment. The Government should furnish the American manufacturers with con•United States Navy, Submarine Division.

hold the forging, while the small hole in the base is drilled out to Jf in. in diameter. The center in the nib is concentric with the cavity of the forging, and the method of chucking and drilling the fuse hole in the base of the
shell brings this hole also concentric

with the cavity.

The

[48]

jaws of the chuck grip the

shell

about 2|

in.

from the

3 shows the
six

The surface of the forgings is somewhat distorted base. the dies in closing in the base, and the chuck must by
grip below this part of the forging. The swinging arm carrying a hardened bushing is closed to engage a permanent stop and fastened in place by a wing nut, as shown.

the operations.

Warner & Swasey lathe fitted The forging is held in a

for performing collet chuck of

segment
is first

segments, separated by small springs, and each is knurled to give a better The forging grip.
tested for eccentricity by means of the indicator A. finger travels back and forth on the walls of the

The

cavity

and moves the

pointer along the graduations shown. If the

movement of the
er exceeds

pointthe limits

of the graduations, the forging will not clean

up and

is

set aside.

marked and The base of

the shell
off

is next faced by the tool B on the turret head at-

tached to the crossfeed to suit the gage C on the lathe turret. This
establishes the

dimen-

sion 7.42 in.

from the

nose of the cavity to the face of the base.
fig.
5.

turning base and band score
diameter of 2.995
in.

About 3
is

in.

of the base
to a

twist drill running at 280 r.p.m. and with a J|" feed of 0.008 in. is used to enlarge the hole. This permits the gage rods, shown at A and C, Fig. 3, in operation •2 to enter, and also removes rough stock for chasing the
-

A

m

next turned

threads for the fuse. The lubricant is soap-water compound, which has proved very satisfactory for this work.

by the tool D, finished by the tool E to 2.980 in. and the band score cut to a diameter of 2.850 in. and 0.630 in. wide by the tool F. The tool G rounds the base to the fillet shown on the drawing. The stop is set for the tools D, F and G. This machine is shown in Fig. 4 ; the view of the shell A on the lathe turret and B, Fig. 11, show the machining done. The turret head at-

H

tached to the cross-slide
is

ret

an ordinary square turhead holding tools at

the corners.
tion
FIG.
3.

The

lubri-

cant used in this operais

a

compound

of

ARRANGEMENT FOR OPERATION

2

soap and water. The
sten tool steel.

cut-

ting tools are all of tung-

Two machines are equipped for performing the second operation, as this operation requires the greatest amount
of

The Jones

& Lamson

A 16 x 20 x 1^-in. Warner & time to complete. Swasey belt-driven turret lathe and an 18 x 24 x 3-in.
Jones

& Lamson

belt-driven turret lathe are used.

Fig.

Fig. 5, ously on operation 2, the tool layout being shown All selective in Fig. 6.

turret lathe, works continu-

removed from the spindle drive, and a single
gear
is

back-gear
stalled.

shaft

is

inis

The forging

gripped in a draw-in collet chuck, operated by hand lever, the female center hole in the nib of the forg-

FIG.

2.

DRILLING CENTERS
the rear of the chuck.

at ing fitting over a male center point The depth of the chuck allows about 3£ in. of the forging The diameter at the at the base clear for machining. A at 45 ft. per min. base is rough turned by the tool 0.01-in. feed and &-in. cut. (Where fins have

speed,

been
cut
FIG.
4.

left
is

of by the closing-in die at the base, the depth
'

more than

^

in.)

The
is

turret

is

indexed one

TURNING BASE AND BAND SCORE
[49]

position, a straight gage rod

inserted in the base hole,

and the forging is faced off at the base by the tool B the correct length, which in this case is 7.042 in. from the extreme point of the cavity in the shell.

center supported through the turret hole, suitably arranged for quick disengagement when the work is onThe roughing cut is taken over the body chucked. forward of the band score to the bourrelet, as shown in Two tools are used in the Fig. 8 and at C, Fig. 11.
special carriage mentioned above to shorten the distance of tool travel. speed of 55 ft. per min., ^-in. feed and

A

jj

A, Roughing Cut B. face off end to suit Gage C first Cut ofBand Score D, Second'Operation ofBandScore, Diam. 2S50>/Width 0.650" Rounding Corner r, finishing Cut b, Gage for Determining End Cut

E

FIG.

13.

TESTING FOR ECCENTRICITY

FIG.

6.

TOOL LAYOUT FOR OPERATION

2

cut.

The work runs at the same speed and feed with f^-in. The turret is again indexed, and the band score is

roughed out with the narrow tool C and finished with

3%-in. cut are adopted for this operation. Forgings are run through in lots of 100 on the roughing cut and then run through for a finish cut. In this manner, time is saved, owing to the rapidity with which forgings can be chucked and unchucked and to the fact that the roughing cut does not require accuracy. For the finishing

OPERATION
N?
I,

ROUGH TURN RADIUS POINT
/V.V,

4

kJ

l

Cutting off Tit Rough Turn Radius /bint

^\ OPERATION 5
\/7NISIf TURNING USING ONC TOOL

Fig.

7

— Details

FIGS.

7

AND

9. 3.

TURNING OPERATIONS
Fig.
9

for operation

— Turning
7,

operations on the point
is

the f-in. wide-nose tool D. The feed and cut are regulated by hand through a cutting-off lever. The turret is

cut the work
Fig.

rechucked as before; the tools

again indexed, and the tool

E

rounds off the corner of the base with the machine run-

finish cut the body, and the tool C finishes the bourrelet to micrometer sizez.

A and B, on the turret
On
the finish

90lb AirPressure

ning at the same speed. finish cut is taken between the groove and the base of the forging on the next index of the turret,

operation, are used.

175-ft.

^-in. feed and 0.007-in. cut Soap and water compound is employed in
speed,

The

both operations.

Operation 4 consists in roughing the radius point, and
operation 5 in finishing the point.

Both these operations

F being used. The speed of the work is 120 ft. per min., ^V* 11 ^ed, 0.007in. cut. The lubricant
the tool
-

m*^^^

is

soap-water
7

Fig.

compound. shows the Warner
lathe fitted for
3.

& Swasey

FIG.

14.

MARKING THE BASE

The lathe has operation a special turning carriage fitted to the ways, being pushed forward by a regular

turret

saddle,

which

furnishes the power feed. The forging is gripped by a draw-in chuck at the base end, which has been finished in operation 2. The female center in the nib of the forging runs upon the male

are performed in the same machine, a 2 x 24 x 13-in. Jones & Lamson turret lathe, from which the back gearing has been removed and a wide-belt drive connected The diameter of the spindle directly to the spindle. smaller than the diameter of the projectile, a being the special outboard bearing A, Fig. 9, is fitted to take

distance

from the center of the swivel D; both

tools,

therefore, cut in the same plane. By using the two tools the entire surface of the radius point is machined

when the tool block moves one-half the distance from the point to the bourrelet. Owing to the great excess of metal on this part of the forgings, it has been found

overhang forward

from

the

journal.
gripped

The

shell is

just back of the bourrelet in a collet chuck

B.

The

cross-slide

from an engine-lathe
carriage is bolted to of the swivel base

D

a

planer

vise,

and

this rig is bolted securely to the ways of

the

turret

lathe

in

correct

turning
point

position the radius

for

on

the

fixed

center, as Fig. 10.

shown in The crescasting,

cent-shaped

which
is

shown at E, bolted to ways to
is
10.

furnish a bearing surFIG. face beneath the tool slide F. It has a brass wearing shoe of greater radius than the cutting tool, to prevent springing; a link G connects the base to the turret saddle H, and the circular movement for radius turning is thus derived from the The ordinary feed straight-line travel of the saddle. mechanism of the turret lathe gives automatic power feed. The tool-holding block carries three tools, as shown. The
into position so that the cross-slide engages a stop screw fastened on the face of the outboardspindle bearing, and the cutting-off tool I is then in position to cut off the nib, the feed being made by hand screw.
is

TURNING RADIUS POINT

necessary to take two roughing cuts. Furthermore, the radius point is not forged concentric with the straight body. The machine runs at a speed of 200 r.p.m., and the

swivel

moved

roughing cut is approximately \ in. deep and For the second roughing cut, the machine runs at the same speed, which gives about 150 ft. per min. at the largest diameter, with a cut -^ deep. Lots of about 100 are rough turned, and the machine is
first

y-^^pin. feed.

m

-

shifted for finish-turning operation 5. For the finishing cut the forging is chucked as before

;

the feed

is

reversed so that the finishing tool

L

will

FIG.

11.

SHELLS IN DIFFERENT STAGES OF MACHINING
until the tool
travel

The

turret saddle II

is

moved by hand

from the bourrelet

to the point of the shell.

For

J

at the nose of the forging, the depth of the cut being adjusted by means of the regular crossfeed screw.
is

The

tools

K

finishing, a speed of 240 r.p.m. is used, about 180 ft. per min. at the largest diameter, 0.01-in. feed and 0.015in. cut.

and J are permanently

set

at the

same

The

lubricant for both operations

is

soap-water

[51]

compound.

may

A jet for each tool is so regulated that it be utilized on one or all tools, as desired. The shell at D, Fig. 11, shows the condition after leaving this
Operation
6*

Fig. 14 shows the device for marking the base, operation 7. It consists of the cast-iron base A supporting

machine.

the two uprights E, across the top of which is the yoke On top of is an air cylinder L operated by the lever

M

M.
K.

weighing and gaging to this point (outside of forging finished) and again after the
consists of

The marking
counterweights

die

D

The supported by the plate G. are attached to the plate G, which slides
is

J

on the two uprights
for lifting the plate and die after marking.

chuck
shell,

H

The

conical

holds up,

the
for

base

marking. The weight being up at the position shown by the
tion

dotted lines, the acis as follows:

The

die is placed over the base of the

upturned
secured.

shell

and
the

The
is

air ex-

haust

valve

in

cylinder

opened, permitting the

weight

B

to

fall

by

gravity from a height of 10 in. There is a
small
FIG.
15.

TURNING SINUSOIDAL WAVES
is

this

rebound, but does not affect

copper band has been finished. The leadingman and the inspector perform this operation. Fig. 12 shows the scale and various gages. Fig. 13 shows the gage for testing The shell is laid the 3-in. projectiles for eccentricity.

on the rollers; the finger of the gage is inserted through the fuse hole, as shown, and is held against the walls of the cavity by the small spring on the block C, which The pointer slides in a slot milled in the casting. indicates on the blocks A and B the amount of eccentricity, the graduations being in thousandths of The shell is revolved on the rollers by hand.

the marking. The air The die is turned on, lifting the weight. pressure the counterweights lifting the die and plate. removed, The shell is removed another one put in the chuck. Operation 8 is performed in an old-style wire-feed beltdriven Bardons & Oliver 1\ x 14 x 16-in. screw machine, In order to obtain sufficient diameter to grip Fig. 15. the base of the projectile, a special draw-in chuck was

made

for the spindle.

A

three-throw

steel is secured to the outside of the

cam of tempered chuck body, to give

an inch.

The

fol-

the tool the movement necessary for cutting the sinusoidal ribs in the copper-band score. Fig. 16 shows the tool

FIG.

12.

INSPECTING, WEIGHING
;

AND TESTING

lowing tests are made here Gage bourrelet for size gage body for size; test for eccentricity; gage length; weigh in rough and finished; gage copper band' test capacity
:

comb-shaped tool is held up for this operation. "When the in a block on the cross-slide, as shown at A.
set
slide is

A

moved forward,
to

this tool shaves the

body of the

of cavity; gage fuse-hole threads.

band score
[52]

the correct width and diameter, leaving

wide to permit the tool C to finish the The tool A travels underneath the forging until the slide engages an adjustable stop, at which time the undercutting tool B at the rear of the slide is
ribs sufficiently

sinusoidal waves.

engage the cam on the chuck previously described. The cam produces lateral motion in the tool C, which forms
the sinusoidal waves.
is

The

cross-slide is fed in until the

in position to function.

'

The operator turns

the small

reached, which is set for the correct diameter of stop the top and bottom of the waves. The distance of the

OPERATION 8
FIG. 16 A.Einishmdth and depth ofBandScore B.Undem/t Sides
C.Turn Sinusoidal haves

N!l. CuttingAir Escape through Sinusoidal
..„^JJJ"** -L Nf 2. flatten Band into Score
..

OPERATION 10 PRESSING COPPER BAND IN SCORE
FIG. IT

Fig. 16

—Set-up

FIGS. 16

AND

17.

OPERATIONS FOR BANDING
Fig. 17

for cutting the sinusoidal ribs.

—The

banding operation

handwheel

E

operating a wedge that forces the under-

cutting tools to the sides of the groove, the width and depth of undercut being regulated by suitable adjustable The operator reverses the direction of the stop screws.

band score from the base of the forging is permanently maintained by a shoulder in the chuck, which engages The nose of the forging the base end of the forging.
is

supported in a ball-bearing female center held in

and the undercutting tools collapse, permitting their withdrawal from the cutting position. The cross-slide is next fed in by means of the regular feed screw until the yoke and the rollers I) connected
handwheel,
to the wave-cutting tool

C

in the front tool-holding block

OPERATION
B, Finish Turn

II

A, Rough Turn Copper

Band

Band

FIG.

18.

TURNING THE COPPER BAND
The
tools are

the turret hole.
their shape.

made

of tungsten tool steel

and may be ground upon their faces without changing
of 35
ft.

Soap-water lubricant is employed. A speed min. is used, all feeds being made by hand. per siOperation 9 consists in cutting air vents in the nusoidal ribs and fitting the copper band ready for the

M5.Std.
Thrtispenh,


"5
FIG.

OPERATION
N?l, Reaming

12

and Counterborinq

UZJ

Fuse Hole N?Z. Tapping flole

21.

MACHINING THE FUSE HOLE

banding

press.

method
FIG.
20.

of performing

and the Fig. 17 shows the banding press In order to shift this operation.

COUNTERBORING AND TAPPING
[53]

to the 3-in., special 3-in. quickly from the 6-in. banding

dies were made to bolt to the regular 6-in. dies furnished by the manufacturers of the banding press. A gage pressure of 1000 lb. is used, which gives about 40 tons'

with this tool, which cuts full width and the exact contour of the band. A similar tool block is bolted tc the tool
slide at the rear

and holds the

tool B.

The

line of cut
is

of this tool

tangent

to the perimeter of the band and is set at the

correct

height

for

shaving the diameter to exact size. The cutting tools are made of tungsten special steel, are interchangeable and may be ground on their faces without

changing their shapes. The speed is 40 ft. per min. The feed is regulated by hand.
lubricant
is

The

soap-

water compound. Fig. 19 shows the machine
in operation.
dial drill

The

ra-

used for operis

ation 1
FIG.
23.

also equip-

LACQUERING INSIDE OP SHELL
shell
is

ped
held
in

for

performing

pressure on the band.
required.

Two

squeezes of the press are

a

three-jaw

12. operation universal lathe

The
chuck

Operation 11 consists in rough turning and finishing the copper band. This is performed in an old-style beltdriven 3 x 16 x 20-in. Pratt & Whitney wire-feed screw

mounted in a cast-iron elevating stand that is bolted to the drilling-machine table, as shown in Fig. 20 and in detail in Fig. 21. The bottom of the stand has a female
center hole in which the point of the shell rests. The jaws of the chuck grip the shell between the copper band and the base. A swing leaf that carries a hardened bushing is moved to a permanent stop and locked in place by ally nut. A counterbore, the body of which fits the hardened bushing, is fed down to the work by means of the

machine.

special chuck and a ball-bearing female similar to the ones described for the Bardons & center, Oliver machine, operation 8, were manufactured for this

A

machine.

A

rigid tool block, holding the

formed cutter

Tapi"Pipt

A

A, Spraying Manifbld
24, kt Nipples

%/ f

made fromS

%*

'Naval Brass

hand lever. The pilot end reams the fuse hole to the correct tapping size, and the recess is counterbored to the correct diameter and depth for the flange on the fuse. The shank of the counterbore fits in the drill spindle and is easily removed. The speed for counterboring is 100 r.p.m. The Soap and water compound lubricant is used. counterbore tool is removed, and the tap and socket are inserted in the drill spindle. The swing leaf is moved to one side, and the pilot at the end of the tap is entered in the reamed fuse hole, thus assuring that the threads will be cut concentric with the base. The tap is run
at 30 r.p.m., with pure lard oil as a cutting lubricant.

B, 3"She//Tray
C,

Hanger for fray

PIG.

22.

DETAILS OP SHELL-HOLDING TRAY

A, Fig.

The

18, is fastened to the front end of the cross-slide. line of travel of the tool is in line Avith the center

A

of the forging, the final depth of cut being regulated by a permanent stop to the slide. The roughing out is made
[54]

FIG.

19.

TURNING BAND

The washing and lacquering are done The tanks, tables and benches made for
tiles are

used for the 3-in.

shell.

in operation 13. the 6-in. projecFig. 22 shows the tray

made

to hold twelve 3-in. shells, each shell fitting over a nozzle that thoroughly washes the inside of the shell.

By means of the air-hoist cylinder the tray is suspended in the tank containing the washing solution; then it goes to the fresh water for rinsing, and afterward to the drain
board.

home, end of the pipe D is immersed in the lacquer previously poured in, just clear of the cavity point. The compressedair pipe is connected to B, which throws the lacquer out
against the inner walls of the shell, the excess escaping At E may be seen a shell by the discharge pipe A. that was cut to determine how well the surface was

the cavity through the funnel, and the pipe rig, shown in longitudinal cross-section of the forging, is screwed into the fuse hole. When the the plug is screwed

The

cavity

is

dried by compressed

air.

Lacquering the Cavity

When the cavity is thoroughly dry, the lacquering is The funnel in the base of done, as shown in Fig. 23. the cut shell has a long spout that extends below the fuse threads. A small amount of lacquer is poured into

covered; no bare spots could be found. The fuse hole is closed by waste or a fuse plug, and the projectile is painted on a turntable. The shells are then sent to the magazine for loading and stowing, ready
for issue to the service as acquired.

[55]

United States
The following
specifications

Common

Shrapnel and

Common

Steel Shells, 3.8, 4.7
and operation lists for the different projectiles shown, taken together with those already published for the 3-in. sizes, will give manufacturers and shopmen something definite to work from in deciding on the capacity of their shops in the production of munitions of this character.

and 6
seat;

In.*

depth of band seat; position of band seat and grooves; thickness of base and test piece; length over all.

maximum band

maximum and minimum width and

OPERATION 4. FINISH INTERIOR, ROUGH-TURN BOURRELET, ROUGH-TURN OGIVE
Tools Set of chuck pads; diaphragm-seat finishing cutter; diaphragm-seat cutter bar; tap; ogive cutter; right-hand rough-turning tool. Gages Maximum and minimum diameter of diaphragm seat; depth of diaphragm seat; maximum and minimum thread plug gage; maximum and minimum diameter of powder chamber; maximum and minimum root of thread.

The
Fig. 1

3.8-In.

Common Shrapnel

(30 Lb.)

shows the dimensioned forging for the 3.8-in. common shrapnel ; Fig. 2 is the dimensioned finished case,
while Fig. 3 illustrates the complete projectile.

follower special chuck; revolving center. Gages maximum and minimum ring gage; diameter of bourrelet; ogive profile
_;

OPERATION —Special wrench. ASSEMBLE HEADS OPERATION FINISH-TURN HEAD AND BOURRELET Tools— Right-hand turning tool; form; rear of cross-slide —
5.

Tools

6.

gage; diameter of nose thread plug.
7.

Operations on the Case (Forging)

operation
Tools and Fixtures and arbor.

—No.

1.

centering
chuck

42 combination center drill;
2.

OPERATION

TURN BODY

Tools and Fixtures Special arbor; right-hand lathe turning tool and arbor press. Gages Combination maximum and minimum snap for diameter of body; maximum and minimum ring rear of band; length from base to bourrelet.

OPERATION —Special wrench. DISASSEMBLE HEAD OPERATION HYDRAULIC TEST Special Fixtures — Test fixture. OPERATION ASSEMBLE BAND Equipment Used — Set of banding dies; pair of tongs;
Tools
8. 9.

gas

furnace.

OPERATION
Tools and Fixtures

of eight chuck pads; facing tool; circular form tool; circular form tool holder; knurling tool; holder. Gages Combination minimum and knurling-tool

— Set

3.

FINISH EXTERIOR

TURN BANDS OPERATION —Special chuck; steadyrest; form; rear of cross-slide follower; facing tool; band-turning tool; special stop; toolpost holder rear of cross-slide. Gages— Maximum and mini10.

Tools

mum

ring gage diameter of band; profile and position of band.

OPERATION
Equipment Used

—Pair

11.

WASH
12.

IN

HOT SODA

of tongs.

Copyright, 1917, McGraw-Hill Publishing

Co., Inc.

OPERATION

PAINT INSIDE

Stamp with Q/25Letters andfigures,

_J^nd/lmmuniti^Lot^~^^^^0/§tSO/5''.O5ho^

HI

L.VUiL?7/Sm&

m
^n}
W5''
ScoresJ2PerInch

mi
S&i
$>

Matrix

Head

Filler

RESINAND PURE WHITE COMMERCIAL

Stopper
.-GUN COTTON)

RESIN

NAPTH ALENE(Not Crystalled).

Y=l8hJrlnchUS Sta! Thread

Washer ,^>,

STEEL-WS^
_JS"/^-/f\<—Slightly moisten these Joints with

--I0.I2-

- _>|

Cosmokne

Correcting DefectNe^-238 "tQ005 Shnapnel Cases

a
Lock Pin

Assembly

\^STEEL,finish/m^

§*& 3% X-MRerlnch. US
Std. Thread

STEEL,FinishJtQ005"

czn

m
1
tr.z\
Jt
7>

Form of Scores $''$£
+
->\0S4\<---

Band
COPPER

Diaphragm
STEEL,t(W5"

o

(2W'
FIG. 2

Retainer BRASS

Inner Tube COPPERmi"
[56]

Ball

we

Diaphragm
5TEELia005"

^y\~,ri> assembling

<*

Tube
0:377%™
]n

4#
Head
ST£EL,FinishpQOl"

*

hC°Se

^ Locking Rn
STZLfinishfim"

w/%F$a°

[57]

Operations on the Head
After the head has been rough-machined, it is assemThe bled to the case, as the fifth operation on the case. head and bourrelet are then finish-turned.

tool;

Tools Stop; 60-d'eg. countersinks; belling tool; chamfering cutoff tool. Gages Combination length and diameter of bell.

Inner Tube operation 1. machine

OPERATION
shell

Tools and set drill holder twist drill stop pads and bushings rough grooving tools; set rough combination grooving tools; holder; set finish grooving tools; combination counterbore and reamer; collapsible tap and chasers; double-end fiat forming Gages Length tool; cutting-off tool and suitable holders. and diameter of thread; length from front to thread; inside diameter of crimping wall; maximum and minimum thread plug; depth of groove; length over all.
;
;
;

Fixtures — Set

1.

MACHINE FROM BAR
of chuck pads and bushings; feed
;

Tools
cutoff

tool; chamfered tool. Gages depth and diameter; inner-tube seat.

—Reamers

Central Tube operation 1. machine
for inner-tube seat; 90-deg. countersinks;

—Length;

combination

Washer
operation
Tools- -Punch and die.
1.

punch

Tools

—Chuck;
3.
;

OPERATION
beveling

2.

COUNTERSINKING
Gages

tool.

— Diameter
of fuse seat

of fuse-seat bevel; seat thread.

minimum diameter

and profile and fuse-

OPERATION
IN

OPERATION

leader Tools Chuck crimping tool circular thread cutter and follower. Gages Maximum and minimum thread ring.

THREAD AND CRIMP

STEEL WASHER
;

;

Tools Special chuck; twist drill; counterbore; countersink and holders. Gages Maximum and minimum plug; diameter of counterbore; depth gage for counterbore; maximum and minimum ring; outside diameter.

1.

Diaphragm DRILL AND COUNTERBORE

Press Metafof Fuse into

Notch for Locking

I

Slightly moisten these Joints with Cosrnolene
I

-

Y'—208"-^-

J"—

—>kAssembly
r

H ~%
r<2H

>^Q/Ef
UPerlnchUS^
5t'd.

Sty.

IdPerlnchUS. Thread

Thread

Base Cover
BRASS
tQ.QQ5"

Fuse Hole Plug DIE CAST WHITE METAL

NON
4.

CORROSIVE

FIG.9

Matrix STEEL

Fuse Hole Plug STEEL OR BROA/ZE

OPERATION
Special Fixtures

OPERATION

—Milling cutter and

MILL NOTCHES IN HEAD
arbor.

Tools Screw chuck; special lathe tool. Gages Waterproof-cover scratch gage; position of waterproof -cover groove.

5.

GROOVE FOR WATERPROOF COVER

OPERATION 6. PAINT INSIDE HEAD OPERATION 7. PUT IN RETAINER AND FILL HEAD OPERATION 8. CUT OUT SURPLUS RESIN
Tools

—Special

OPERATION 9. COAT THREADS WITH COSMOLINE OPERATION 10. REASSEMBLE HEAD TO CASE Tools— Special wrench. OPERATION 10-A. INSERT INNER TUBE Tools —Punch. OPERATION 11. PIN HEAD TO CASE
Tools

chuck and right-hand side-facing

tool.

-W" OPERATION 2. HEAT-TREATMENT, 1600 DEG. F. OPERATION 2-A. PLACE IN COTTONSEED-OIL BATH OPERATION 2-B. RUMBLE IN HOT SALT TO REMOVE SCALE OPERATION 2-C. HOT SALTPETER BATH, 900 DEG. F. OPERATION 3. REMOVE SCALE FROM COUNTERBORE OPERATION 4. GRIND BASE OPERATION 5. PAINT BASE OPERATION 6. ASSEMBLE TUBE
Special Fixtures

—Centering

fixture.

Gages

—Length.

Loading

—Drill

chuck; twist
12.

drill; fixture for

operation

final inspection

holding case.

Tools

—Stop;

Locking Pins (Bar Stock) operation 1. machine
cutoff tool;

Tools -Depth.

operation 1. insert diaphragm in tube operation 2. fill case operation 3. compress balls operation 4. cut out surplus resin —
Universal chuck; steady-rest; resin cutter.

Gages

form

tool.

Gages

—Length.
is

The

4.7-In.

Common Shrapnel

(60 Lb.)

Tools

—Stop;

Retainer operation 1. machine
cutoff;

A
Fig.
[58]

shown
5.

chamfer

tool.

Gages

—Length.

dimensioned forging of the 4.7-in. common shrapnel in Fig. 4, and a dimensioned case is given in

The complete

projectile is illustrated in Fig. 6.

the operations, tools and gages are of practically type as for the 3.8-in. size.

The

same

form for point; follower. Gages Combination snap maximum and minimum rough diameter of bourrelet; projectile profile;

The
In Fig. 7
shrapnel.

6-In.
is

Common Shkapnel

(120 Lb.)

OPERATION MILL. THREADS IN BASE Tools— Thread cutter; arbor; spring —Maximum threadmilling minimum thread plug chuck. Gages and eccentricplug;
4.

profile of point.

A

a dimensioned forging of the 6-in. common dimensioned case is shown in Fig, 8, and
is

the complete projectile
ations, tools

illustrated in Fig. 9.

The

oper-

— Toolholder MACHINE BASE-COVER GROOVES (fixed spindle); four roughing tools; toolholder; fixture on cross-slide with finishing tools; finishing toolholder and two tools. Gages — Inside diameter working
OPERATION
5.

ity of counterbore.

Tools

and gages are of the same type as for the

gage; diameter depth and width.

OPERATION
7.

6.

HEAT-TREATMENT

preceding

sizes.

(A) Heat in furnace; (B) cottonseed-oil bath; (C) heat in lead furnace.

The
Fig.

3.8-In.

Common Steel Shell, Model

1905

10 shows a dimensioned forging of the 3.8-in. common steel shell, and a dimensioned case is presented

FINISH-GRIND BOURRELET OPERATION Tools— Electric grinder; special chuck; steady-rest. —Maximum and minimum ring diameter of bourrelet. ASSEMBLE BANDS OPERATION Tools— Banding dies; tongs; gas furnace.
8.

Gages

lOThd,perlnch,LII,US.5td

^-a^^^
|<-

g^
\<-i.oo
->\

Finish outside f. Rough inside except where marked

-— -14.135 ±0.12"f Coat inside with non -acidpaint except nhere marked X
.

l2Thds.perlnch,LettHand,U.S.Std.

WThds perlnch.UfiHand,

o^'OOO"-..

F0R6ED STEEL (±0.0l") shell

USStd./^^qO?

g»|

.^r^t „;th Cosmokne before assembling
yo.2
12 Threads per Inch, Lett Hand,

USStandard-.

J notches equally spaced
Force fuse metal into notches
for locking

02

Zaooo^ 08 ^' 5
r
I

a

H- KJl

w 1-UKOtU
»

OWf \*-l.5"W3"A

^
of 1905

0.55-A

p-ass--* U:-!2".~>\

Weight 0.791b Steel 0.86 lb. Bronze

»

FinishftO.01

f0.8"AVai* \<-f.45"-A

Coat front end with non- acid paint

Die cast (White Metal) non-corrosive, tOOl

STEEL

OR BRONZE

Base Plug

Fuse-Hole Plug "fig.ii

Fuse -Hole Plug

The operations are practically the same as in Fig. 11. for the 4.7-in. shell.

The

4.7-In.

Common Steel Shell, Model

chuck; steady-rest; right-hand side-facing tools; band-turning tool; special stop; form and follower rear of cross-slide. Gages Maximum and minimum ring diameter of band; position and profile of band.
Tools

— Special

OPERATION

9.

TURN BANDS

OPERATION

may be obtained the .dimensions of the while Fig. 13 forging for the 4.7-in. common steel shell,

From

Fig. 12

Equipment Used 1500-ton heading press with pressure pump; testing fixture; triplex chain drop.

10.

HYDRAULIC TEST

shows a dimensioned

case.
1.

Base Plugs
Tools Stock stop; two twist drills; two drill holders; combination floating counterbore and reamer; forming tool; facing tool; cutting-off tool; chuck pads; feeding finger pads and

Tools Universal chuck; revolving center; right-hand lathe turning tool.

OPERATION
2.

ROUGH-TURN BODY

operation

1.

machine from bar

OPERATION

Tools Chuck pads; combination counterbore and reamer; recessing tool; circular form tool; knurling tool; right-hand lathe turning tool and holders. Gages Depth of cavity and warp; base plug flange seat; maximum and minimum ring diameter rear of band; combination snap diameter band seat; position of band seat and crimping grooves; combination snap diameter of body; position of grooves; length of base to

MACHINE INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR OF BASE AND FINISH-TURN BODY

\>f

toolholders. Gages Maximum and minimum plug diameter small hole; depth and diameter of counterbore; maximum and minimum diameter of flange; maximum and minimum snap diameter of thread; overall length of base; plug and width of flange; length of thread.


2.

OPERATION
Tools

Gages

bourrelet.

OPERATION

3.

FINISH-TURN POINT AND ROUGH-TURN

Maximum and minimum thread plug. OPERATION 3. CUTTING EXTERNAL THREAD ON

— —Combination milling arbor and cutter; spring chuck.

MILLING INTERNAL THREAD

chuck; steady-rest; left-hand lathe turning tool; former rear of cross-slide; extension bracket and roller;

Tools— Special

BOURRELET

attachment; chuck; circular thread cutter; chamfering tool. and minimum thread ring.
Tools
[59]

—Threading

TURRET LATHE

screw for chuck; Gages Maximum

h-

h—

W—

07S-'-

1

H

QI5y--Q45"~"->\ QI5'Y

.

vo45"m
I

k

"Tor

Comb. Center Drill

STEEL
|<- •y4454tQ0l"

'

-^

-5-00*03"

*l

u

-

-I9.6+Q4-QI-

ne. 12
Stamp with QI25 Letters'and Figures FA. and Ammunition Lot Na. „.*..*
.

=•1

Jfflfiy*. L^-I.OSl8Mn l/SStdM LH

^

Section of Band COPPEP

p?
*'

7'

^\4Slots equally
spaced,W49eep

i.9"-^^

oresimrIn
;,-9.94"

m m*Q&V^A<%7Wr
J '@9Z5
vr "»•
i'

Three Notches
equally spaced-

//mm
8 Per In, USStd.Thd.LH

-*r
-|

-18.521015

685*m Fuse

J *.

Band
COPPER

|

H
667Cu.In.

i

Capacity with Base Plug in place 70.78(70.98) Culn. " " " "
X*l2ferInUS.Sfd.Th'd.LH
Finish outside/. Rough inside except where marked /.Coat inside with Nonacid Paint

0"

i

except where

marked

/

-0.01"

~>\Y-0/&

A.
Coat this end with

*V0.I5\
'y-i?\0.4^Q9''^

Non-acid taint

Base Plug STEELFmish/m

\<--l45'--A

V~I0?"A te*

•H£5*"-//-'->l

k

I4?-M

FIG.I3

Fuse Hole Plug WROUGHT IRON OR BRONZE
Finish/A

Fuse Hole Plug
DIECAST WHITEMETAL (Non-corrosive)

Base Plug
FOROEDSTEELFinish

{or.
Fuse Hole Plug

WR0UGHTIR0N
Finish/100/"

OPERATION
Tools— Thread
chuck.

3.

CUTTING EXTERNAL THREAD ON
cutter;
4.

The

6 _ In<

Gages— Maximum and minimum

milling

arbor

for cutter; thread.

spring

A
a

flimprminnprl poop n f thp fi-in dimensioned case oi o-m.

COMMON STEEL SHELL pmnmnn <stpp1 me common steei

«Vip11 IS sneii ic

operation
5.

notch base

Toois— Fixture; milling

cutter; arbor.

OPERATION

MILLING

wrench

slots

in Fig. 14. The operations on this shell are practically the same as for the 4.7-in. size. j

shown

[61]

Ammunition tor American Merchantmen
ByLieutA. G.Dibvell
necessity that has forced us to either arm our merchantmen or give up our rights makes necessary the manufacture of shells for the guns to be used on merchantmen. The sinking of the numerous vessels without warning of any kind emphasizes the necessity for arms and ammunition with which to protect our commerce and the lives of American seamen. This article gives in detail the methods used by the navy yard at Puget Sound for making 6-in. common naval shells.
to
sail

SYNOPSIS— The
the seas

Owing to the great demand made upon this country, many shops are now thoroughly familiar with the process
of

of

powder

is

used and undue variation in the weight of

manufacturing British, French and Eussian
States

shells.

the projectiles affects the range; (2) the center of gravity must be maintained or the projectile will "tumble" in
flight;

The United

Navy

pro-

(3)

the

jectiles differ radically from the army shells of foreign

must be concentric or
wide dispersion.
listic

projectile it will

give an erratic flight, causing

countries and require a departure from the methods of

These bal-

manufacture of foreign

shells.

As

the time for shops to get started on this work may be

qualities a shell must have; but just how to obtain them and keep within all

short in case of war, it is believed that a description of

the small tolerances allowed in the dimensions is the mechanical problem to be solved. From experience gained at

a successful method of machining the navy projectiles
will

make

it

tractors

to

possible for conequip their ma-

the Puget Sound navy yard, and in other shops visited, it

may

be stated as a general

chines by the time forgings Furthercan be obtained. the ideas here set forth more,

rule that the ordinary threeand four- jawed lathe chucks

may

enable mechanics in the
to

United States

improve on

FIG.

this method, thereby decreasing the cost and increasing

1. ROUGH-FORGING AND FINISHED UNITED STATES NAVY 6-IN. COMMON PROJECTILE

cannot be successfully employed in the manufacture of shells. Draw-in, or pot chucks, collet chucks and expanding

mandrels must be used.

To

the output. There are three essentials in the machining of projectiles ( 1 ) They must be of a certain weight within a
:

save the cost of handling, as many operations as possible should be performed at one chucking; and where engine
lathes are
crossfeed.

very small tolerance, because a standard weight, or charge,

employed turret heads should be

fitted to the

United States Navy, Submarine

Division.

[62]

furFig. 1 gives the dimensions of the rough forging nished the navy yard, hut not the dimensions of the finIt was assumed that the steel billets ished projectile. would be punched

forging
radius,

is

pierced too

much

out of center or

flat

on the

marked and no machine work is wasted on it. The machine consists of a cast-steel stand with two
it is

in

the

forming

dies at one stroke.

In that case allow-

ance must be

made
punch
great

for the

running out of true in a

many

forg-

ings. Fig. 2

shows

the centering and

gaging machine. This machine serves two purposes
:

First, cen-

tering the outside of the forging
true with the cav-

Fig-. 2

—View

FIGS.

2

TO

4.

of centering

and gaging

CENTERING GAGE AND THE METHOD OP DRILLING THE CENTER Fig. 3— Six : inch projectile forging in centering and rig, operation 1.
Fig.
4

— Drilling

gaging

rig.

center in 6-in. forging, operation

1

ity,

for rough-turning the outside, and second, determining whether or not there is sufficient stock in the forging for finishing. If insufficient stock is found, or the

columns between which the forging is placed for centering and gaging. On top of the column is a swinging arm secured by a handle nut, containing the centering bushtilt about ing. The stop on the back allows the spindle to
65 deg. for slipping the rough forging over the spindle

FIG.

6.

RADIUS-TURNING ATTACHMENT FOR HAMILTON LATHE, OPERATION 2

fig.

5.

EXPANDING MANDREL FOR HAMILTON LATHE, OPERATION 2

of the shell on the cone forces the three out against the base of the forging, firmly holding the forging true with the cavity. The forging is thrown back into the frame and the top plate closed. The forging is removed by the forked handle shown.

The weight
rollers

[63]

A
when
sists

fitted to offset the forgings out of center for the machine. This conof handwheels on threaded stems operating the base

later

development was

too

much

be rough-turned the entire length concentric with the cavity. The mandrel is made of cast steel and fits over the

of the spindle

and

giving an offset of £$ in. Each forging is revolved on

lathe spindle. The forging is gripped by three dog wedges in Fig. 5, which are held in place of tool steel, shown at and 0. These dog and springs, shown at by pins

A

B

wedges are forced out by the medium-steel taper spindle shown. The rod screwed into the taper spindle runs through the hollow spindle of the lathe and is operated by a handwheel. The grip is over a length of 3 in., and the
shell is further

supported by the tailstock in the center

drilled in operation 1. In order to obtain a heavy cut and prevent chattering of the tool a positive radius-turning attachment was

made
6

and

for the roughing machine, in accordance with Figs. The frame consists of two arms of cast iron 7.

FIG.

7.

ROUGH-TURNING

6-IN.

FORGING, OPERATION

2

the centering spindle while the movable indicator pins are held against the forging. Should the stock pins, Figs. 2 and 3, show insufficient stock for finishing, the lines on the indicator pins pass beyond the established

secured to the back of the lathe bed, shown at A. The radius arm B is of medium steel on a radius of 45.5 in. and is secured to the tool carriage by a composition GIn order to remove the metal on the roughing cut bolt.
as quickly as possible, two tools were fitted; one to take the straight cut

marks.

good,

it is

If the forging is center-punched through the
3,

bushing, as shown in Fig.

and the

bench mark

is

established on the base

and the other to begin at the bourMarks relet and take the radius. established on the lathe face-

The forging is then of .the forging. removed and the center drilled in a
The bushradial drill press, Fig. 4. ing in the swing lever has recently
been enlarged,
is

and the base

of

the

casting that the drilling is done without removing the forging from the center-

bolted to the press table so

This operation has been found necessary, as the points of many Foi forgings dropped in cooling. operation 2, an old 32-in. by 8-ft. Hamilton engine lathe was fitted with an expanding mandrel and a radiusing machine.

turning attachment. The outside having been centered with the cavity, the forging may be held on a mandrel for rough-turning. The mandrel was designed to grip the inside of the forging firmly, so that it would

PIG.

9.

GISHOLT LATHE PITTED FOR PERFORMING OPERATION
plate
'

3

and a carriage indicator

is

used for setting each

A shell is accurately gaged from forging correctly. this machine once each day to determine whether the tools are properly set and that the forgings are leaving the machine in accordance with instructions.
is chucked on an expanding mandrel and with the tram in the bench mark and the established mark on the mandrel nut. The center line of the radius-turning bar is set 7.02 in. from the bench mark

The forging

accurately set

established in operation 1 ; at this point the indicator on the lathe carriage coincides with the established gage on the lathe. With the carriage set in this position, the

FIG.

8.

DETAILS OF BORING BARS AND BORING HEADS FOR GISHOLT LATHE, OPERATION 3
[64]

FIG.

10.

CUTTING AIR VENTS IN SINUSOIDAL OPERATION 4

RIBS,

radius-turning ^ool is accurately set with gages. The tool for turning the straight body is set 10.5 in. behind the The base of the forging is then radius-turning tool.
faced off to the bench mark. The f orgings are 6| in. in diameter in the 'rough, and to turn to 6 Tyn. requires a cut of £? in. on a side. This No cutting compound is used in TV in. to finish.

amount

of metal that the
is

machine

will pull.

The

finish-

ing head

shown

at

C and

the finish cutters at D.

These
of the

cutters leave a clean, smooth surface. shell is finished by the cutter E.

The point

The Cutting Compound
In order to obtain cutting compound on the point of the cutting tool f-in. holes (not shown in the drawing) were drilled through the bars, the discharge opening be-

gives

The cutting tools are made of £ x l-|-in. this operation. tungsten tool steel. A speed of 47 ft. per min. with a it is necessary to sharpen tools feed of 28 in. is used, and about every sixth shell. This operation is also shown in of the Fig. 7, which is a view taken from the back lathe to show the radius attachment. The outside having been rough-machined concentric with the cavity, the forging can now be chucked in a

V

universal pot-chuck for boring the cavity.

lathes

Gisholt turret the were

most available for
the
tion
boring, opera3, a universal

chuck, bolted to the
faceplate flange being used. This is a

draw-in chuck with
a 20-in. wheel, the

FIG.

12.

DETAILS OF MANDREL AND EJECTOR FOR BANDING PRESS, OPERATION 5

being made segments carefully machined.
collet

in

six

ing in the heads. A plug was fitted to each bar and the flexible hose connection made by means of a bayonet joint.
FIG.
11.

The segments
springs,
off

are

DETAILS OP PLATE

separated by small

which

release the forging

when

the nut

is

backed

the taper.

This is shown in Fig. 9. The cutting compound is a mixture of 2 lb. of borax dissolved in 10 gal. of boiling water, to which is added 2 gal. of boiling lard oil. The tools require changing about once a day or about every tenth forging. Each bar is fitted with an independent
stop and these are tested and adjusted once daily.

heads Fig. 8 shows the special boring bars and cutting The straight head A carturret lathe. for the Gisholt ries the cutting tools for boring, these being made of -J-in. Two heads were made for tungsten tool steel.
square each bar, so that the cutting tools could be changed

A

boring speed of 30 ft. per min. with a feed of 1 / 40
in.

per revolution

is

used.

In addition to the boring operations a turret head is fitted on the tool carriage of these lathes to carry tools for cutting

the copper band groove, undercutting, cutting the sinusoidal rib and round-

ing the base.
score
is

The band
rough-cut

first

to a diameter of 5.8 in.;

then the sinusoidal cam is thrown in and the
groove finished to 5.7 in. The the bottom. at is done undercutting

FIG.

13.

SIX-INCH PROJECTILE FORGING IN BANDING PRESS, OPERATION 5

and a reserve head remain always

The roughavailable. to boring bar removes g^ in. of metal, finishing a hole in. and leaving -fa in. to be removed by the finish3§£ diaming tool. The f orgings are received with an inside eter of 3| in. and must be finished to an inside diameter of 4 inches.

next and finally the base of the shell is rounded. This requires four tools on the turret head of the
being completed during the boring. The sinusoidal rib-cutting cam arrangement is shown in Fig. The cast-iron camplate A is bolted to the face9.
F1G.
14.

MARKING BASE,
6

tool carriage, these oper-

OPERATION

ations

are

The roughing radius head made of £ x £-in. and | x

is

shown

1-in.

at B. The cutters tungsten tool steel and

the lengths of cutters vary as shown in the illustration. These cutters are designed to remove the maximum

plate of the lathe,

ened to the lathe carriage.
[65]

and the cast-iron plate B is fastThe medium-steel arm C con-

nects the two pieces, the cam motion being positive, by means of casehardened rollers on each side of the camplate.

in about 0.015 in. in banding.

To

prevent this a special

dal ribs. Fig. 10.

Operation 4 consists in cutting air vents in the sinusoiThe copper band is slipped over the

mandrel was designed, Figs. 11, 12 and 13. A large hexagonal |-in. plate A, Fig. 11, was fitted inside of the rams of the press. Through this plate a hole was cut 7 in. in diameter. Underneath this plate are fitted two

12 Threads

Fig.

15

—Measure

FIGS. 15

TO

17.

GAGES AND METHOD OF WEIGHING FOR OPERATION
7.

weight and gage, operation

in operation 7

gage for operation and gages for base and base plug
Fig.
16

— Details

?

of

7.

Fig. 17

—Depth

gage used

base and struck a blow with a wooden mallet to seat the groove, operation
5.

it

in

Experiments conducted after the arrival of the banding press indicated that the base of the forging was crushed

hinged plates B with lugs sliding in slots cut in the upper The diameter of the plate B is 5f in. A plate A. spring slips over the lugs to hold the plate in place while the shell is being put in and taken out of the press.

The spring and

the lugs are better shown in Fig. 13.

In Fig. 12, A is an expanding mandrel of medium steel which slips into the base of the forging and is forced C out against the inner walls by the taper spindle B.

zzzr
FIG.
19.

GAGE FOR DETERMINING ECCENTRICITY OF
WALLS, OPERATION
8

Section

is

a

screw

X-Y

sleeve

D.
lever.

The guide

hand

bushing which screws into the telescopic for the mandrel is operated by a This guide works in the inner sleeve E
:

FIG.

18. EXPANDING MANDREL FITTED TO LE BLOND ENGINE LATHES FOR FINISH-TURNING, OPERATION 8

The plates of the telescope. The action is as follows The forging is set are closed and locked by the spring. on its base on this plate and the mandrel handle lifted,
forcing
the

B
B

mandrel into the

cavity.

The

plates

[66]

are thrown out
position,

and the forging lowered
is

to the handing-

which

determined by a stop.

The band

is

given four squeezes of the press, the forging being slightly

ing press and set nose down in the chuck shown. The letter die in the dieplate is placed over the base of the shell and the weight of 550 lb. dropped from a height
of 2 feet.

The forging is next weighed and gaged in accordance with Fig. 15. The length is taken by the gage shown in Fig. 16 and the depth of cavity by the gage shown in Fig. 17. The diameter is taken with micrometers and all the dimensions are marked on the forging as indicated in
Fig. 15.

The

forging, therefore, goes to the finishing

lathes, operation 8, with the necessary information for an The man in charge of the job checks accurate finish.

the gaging, operation

7,

before the finish-cuts are taken.

Fitting 24-in. LeBlond lathes for finishing the forgings, operation 8, was one of the most difficult and costly equip-

ments made.
first

Eef erring
;

to Fig. 18, the

mandrel block was

but the castings would either take a set or be so porous that they would spring. The block, as fitted at present, is made of forged steel. This block screws over the hollow spindle of the lathe. Through the
of cast steel

made

FIG.

20.

FINISH-TURNING, SHOWING RADIUS ATTACHMENT, OPERATION 8

rotated after each squeeze. gage pressure of 2500 is applied, which gives a total pressure of 100 tons

A

lb.

on
the

hollow spindle from the back of the lathe runs a forged steel rod that screws into the expanding mandrel A, which The jaws B are is made of forged steel casehardened. of tempered tool steel and are 7 in. long, thus giving a
grip practically the entire length of the cylinder cavity.

the copper band.

The hand

lever

is

again

lifted,

thrown under the base of the plates forging, and the mandrel withdrawn. The device for marking the base, operation 6, consists of a cast-iron base to

B

which are secured the two uprights,
Fig. 14.

The

letter die slides

dieplate containing the up and down on the

The dieplate is secured to uprights. the base of the shell by means of a setscrew.
die

The counterweights

lift

the

and plate after marking. On the base of the marker is mounted a conical
ing,

chuck for taking the nose of the forgwhich is protected from burrs by

thin copper sheets. On top of the uprights is a yoke supporting the airhoist cylinder, which lifts, the weight
after the blow has been delivered.

The

FIG.

22.

WEIGHING AND GAGING, OPERATION

8

weight, when

released by opening the

air-exhaust valves, drops by gravity. The letters shown in the pocket at the right are for marking the lot and serial

The diameter
enough
size.

numbers by hand. The forging

is

taken from the band-

A

of the jaws is slightly less than 4 in., to enter the forging, and is accurately ground to handwheel at the end of the lathe fits the mandrel

By turning this wheel the mandrel A is drawn back, the taper forcing the jaws B hard out against the mandrel cavity of the shell and giving a good grip. The is tested daily for trueness; a few forgings are tested
nut.
daily for eccentricity by

s

maximum
age
is

means of the gage, Fig. 19. The obtained was 0.015 in.; the avereccentricity about 0.005 in. This small eccentricity is due
is

to the spring in the turret head

hard forging
stiffness

being machined.

when an exceptionally The cutting tool being

at the corner of the turret does not give the required

when working on hard forgings. These lathes were not large enough to
radius-turning arm

fit

a positive-

similar to the one fitted to acting the Hamilton lathe for the rough-turning, so the profiling
iron radius

attachment shown in Fig. 20 was designed. The castform A is bolted to the taper attachment at

FIG.

21.

FINISHING, OPERATION

8

the back of the lathe. bolted to the tool carriage.
[67]

A

cast-steel guide bracket is Other brackets are bolted to

the bedplate at the back of the lathe and support the bar B, which acts as a trolley for the rollers of the guide bracket. The cast-steel roller bracket C inside the guide
.

The sign to those fitted to the Gisholt turret lathes. chuck head screws on the lathe spindle instead of bolting
to the faceplate, as with the Gisholts.

The other

features

bracket

is

bolted to the crossfeed screw.

f-in. wire cable is attached to the roller bracket, is led over the pulley

A

D

and made

at the back of the lathe.

fast to a 200-lb. weight The base-

plug forgings shown in the photograph were added to increase the The design works perfectly weight. on ordinary forgings, but some of the forgings are so hard that the pull is insufficient to hold the tool to a full This tendency of the cutting depth. tool to leave the shell has been overcome by using a second plate and roller below the one shown, with the
curve away from the lathe. When the roller tends to leave the radius form the second form takes the pressure. A
well

spring was tried out, and it worked when the tension was maintained,

but some operators were careless and the form was substituted for the spring.

The

turret

head

fitted

to

the

tool

carriage of these lathes is an ordinary square turret head made of cast
steel

and

is

tions

by means

secured in the desired posiof the lock screw.
tool

PIG.

23.

THREADING THE BASE

IN

A LE BLOND LATHE, OPERATION
all

9

The wide copper cutting

and gang
of the design are similar in for the Gisholt machines.
this
rest

copper band are secured near the middle of the side, while the steel cutting tools are secured at the corners. Referring to Fig. 21, the sequence of operations and tools used is as follows Cut groove in rear of copper band, tool marked
tools for cutting the grooves in the
:

On

respects to those described account of the weight of

G; shape copper band,

tool

B;

cut grooves in copper

in.), the steadyin Fig. 23, is used. The turret head for holding the tools is similar to the one used in operation 8. In this design, however, all the tools are held at the corn-

chuck and the great overhang (17

shown

band, tool C ; remove burrs and finish copper size, tool B; turn bourrelet and radius, tools

D

band to and E;

ers and the head is bolted to the crossfeed for working in the cavity of the shell. Fig. 24 shows how the shell is held and how the turret

head
Counterboring
Tool,

is fitted

with cutting tools and

stops, also the se-

Qages and Guides

quence of operations in threading. chasing tool with six chasing threads has been substituted recently for the
fitted

A

single-point thread-cutting tool B, and tool C has been with a lip that cuts the counterbore for the base so that the counterboring tool on the tailstock is plug,
of a forming tool.

more

These changes were made to in-

crease the production.

The

tool

A

is

shown in the

shell

;

— 1-6
Inside

---.

—>

FIG.

24.

TOOLS USED IN THREADING THE BASE OP 6-IN. PROJECTILES. OPERATION 9

ft

r a~

weigh and gage as per Fig. 22, correct weight by turning cylinder of shell between copper band and bourrelet, tools A and F; turn point of shell, tool G, reweigh and mark weight on shell. Turning tools D, E, A, F and G are of f x 1^-in. Mid vale tool

remove

shell,

is of carbon steel 2|xl in. ; the ; gang tools are of tungsten special. The cutting compound previously described is used in these machines. The speed of

steel

B

each machine

80 r.p.m. and the feed 1 / 40 inch. by 8-ft. LeBlond lathes were fitted with collet chucks for cutting the threads in the base of the These chucks are similar in deforging, operation 9.
is

The

18-in.

PIG.

25.

TANKS AND NOZZLES FOR WASHING 6-IN. PROJECTILES, OPERATION 10

3-

AMP

[68]

and the The sizing tap the head revolves clockwise. The are inserted in the tailstock. master rectifying tap
sizing counterboring tool
is

E

shown

at F.

projectile is next thoroughly solution of soda and lye water to

The

washed in a boiling remove all oil and
fitted for

cone on each end is so centered that when revolved by hand, these cones will alternately engage the driving disk. A spring stop is provided for holding the arm in place while the shell is being painted. While one shell is

Fig. 25 grease, operation 10. both 6- and 3-in. projectiles.

shows the tanks

The pump shown on the

being painted, the shell that has already been painted removed from the idle disk by the tongs, Fig. 29, and a fresh shell put on. From here the shell goes out to the
is

column in Fig. 26
boiling

forces the

shipping station, where
final

it is

given

its

mixture

through

the

inspection and stamped before being racked. The only special equipment made for machining the base plugs was a mandrel for finish-turn-

ing the outside of the plugs this mandrel was fitted to the engine lathe. Operation 14 consists in rough-turning
;

the face

of the base plug. The held by the flange in a four-jawed chuck of a 2-in. Jones &

and body
is

forging

Lamson

turret lathe.

The

inside face

of the base plug is first turned to about Iff in. from the inner face of the FIG.
26.

VIEW OF WASHING TANKS AND DRAIN BOARD, OPERATION

spraying nozzle shown for washing the cavity. This illustration also shows a forging in the tongs just lifted from This the washing tank by means of the air cylinder. The shell air cylinder travels on an overhead trolley. is next suspended in the second tank, which contains clear, boiling water for rinsing.

Next the thread space is flange. turned the entire length, leaving the diameter of the forgings about A.\ in.; 100 forgings are finished in this operation and the machine is then changed for operation 15. The forging is chucked on the thread space and the flange and the fuse hole finished. A small drill press is used for drilling the holes in the
10

The

lacquering, operation 11, as originally designed was

forging

base plug for the spanner wrench, operation 15. The is bolted to the table and two |-in. holes drilled,

on a tipple. A thread guard bushing was screwed in the base, the lacquer poured in hot, the shell revolved and the lacquer poured out. The guard did not prevent the lacquer running into the threads. Also the time required for screwing the bushing in and out was as much as was required when using a brush and painting by hand. No time is lost, because another shell is being washed while the lacquering is being done. The base plugs are next installed, operation 12, the in projectile is dropped into the swinging chuck shown 27 and the base plug screwed in by means of a special Fig.
to be done

stops for depth being used. The base plugs are threaded, operation 16, in

a Le

Blond engine

lathe,

a special mandrel being employed.

FIG.

2 9.

DETAILS OF TONGS USED IN HANDLING FRESHLY PAINTED 6-IN. PROJECTILES, OPERATION 10
is

The

flange

turned to 4.748
0.35 in.

in. in

diameter and faced
relief

to a thickness of

The thread

and the

FIG.

27. TRUNNION STANDARD CHUCK FOR INSTALLING BASE PLUGS, 6-IN. PROJECTILES, OPERATION 12

threads are then cut 7 thread, left hand, IT. S. S. form, each plug being tested with a ring gage. The plugs are The cost of equipping fitted in projectiles in operation 8. all the machines was less than $5000, including labor and
All the special equipindirect and material charges. ment was installed and the machines ready to start work when the first shipment of forgings was received. The manufacture of projectiles at the Puget Sound

Fig. 28 shows the layout of these tables and the sequence of operations. After the plug is installed, the forging is weighed on the scales

wrench which

fits

the two holes.

hand.

shown and the final weight is stamped on the base by The number of the plug is also stamped by hand to This illusagree with the number of the projectile.
tration also shows the painting rig, operation 13, at the left. Briefly, it consists of a constant-speed motor which

runs at 1200 r.p.m. and is geared down to drive a conical disk at 88 r.p.m. A swinging arm carrying a cast-iron

navy yard is secondary to the regular routine repair work on ships and only a few machines were utilized. The output of eleven machines is 18 projectiles per 8-hour day and the average cost for direct labor $1.75 per shell. In view of the large amount of detailed information already published in these columns on the making of pro[69]

jectiles of various sizes, it

has not been considered necesdetails of

large

supply of
necessary,

shells

be-

sary to go into the
operation.

minute

each and every

come

as

now

The operations described and the equipment

however, give sufficient information to enable work with very little delay and anyone with comparatively slight modifications of his present equipment. With these methods as a basis and the inwill,

shown

to proceed with the

seems likely to be the case. By carefully studying the needed modifications of standard machines, it will
be found that these changes can probably be made before
forcing's

formation as to cost as a guide in making estimates, there should be no delay in getting contracts started, should a

can

be

obtained.

FIG.

28.

WASHING, LACQUERING, INSTALLING BASE PLUGS AND PAINTING

[70]

Copyright, 1917, McOraw-HIll Publishing Co., Inc

The Ordnance Department requirements
:

for brass cart-

ridge cases of all types used by mobile artillery are given in the following specifications 1. All cartridge cases will be constructed in accordance with drawings provided or approved by the Chief of Ordnance, and no deviation therefrom will be allowed without his
authority.
2. The necessary working gages, templets, etc., will be furnished by the contractor except such as the Ordnance Department may furnish for inspection purposes exclusively. The working gages furnished by the contractor will conform to the inspection gages. 3. The manufacture of the articles contracted for -and of all material therefor .shall be open to inspection by the officers and employees of the Ordnance Department assigned to duty for that purpose and shall in all its details and in all its stages receive the approval of the inspector or such of his assistants as he may designate. 4. A lot of cartridge cases of calibers up to and including 3.8 in. will consist of 20,000 cases. A lot or cartridge cases of 4.7 in. or greater diameter will consist of 10,000 cases. 5. Before beginning the manufacture of cartridge cases in quantity, the contractor will be required to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the inspector, in the case of at least one caliber, by the actual firing test prescribed below and by microscopic examination that he has established such methods of manufacture as will produce cartridge cases that will be satisfactory in service and of a crystalline structure in all parts satisfactory to the inspector. 6. This ballistic test will consist of firing three cases, five rounds each, at a pressure 12 per cent, above the maximum powder pressure allowed by the powder specifications in the particular gun or howitzer for which the cartridge cases are intended. The cases will be resized after each round; and after five rounds have been fired and the cases have been resized four times, none of them shall show longitudinal or transverse cracks, bulges or other defects that will prevent complete obturation or in any other way affect their serviceability for further use. 7. If during the firing any case swells to such an extent that it cannot be extracted by the service extractor of the cannon, it shall be considered unfit for further use. In addition to the preliminary ballistic test prescribed in the preceding paragraphs, not less than five cases will be sectionalized and microscopically examined to determine whether the various mechanical operations and subsequent heat-treatments have been such as to leave the crystalline structure of the material in proper condition for storage. These sectionalized cases will also be examined to see whether the walls or heads of the cases show any folds either external

8. As the object of the preliminary test is to determine whether the manufacturer has so regulated the mechanical and heat-treating operations as to produce satisfactory cases, and as it is not a question of accepting or rejecting a lot as the result of this test, any further preliminary tests that he

made at his expense. analysis will not be required of the materials used in making the brass, but the finished brass will be analyzed and must in all cases show a total copper and zinc content not below 99.88 per cent, with a lead content not above 0.12 per cent, and an iron content not above 0.02 per cent, with negative results as to tin, antimony, bismuth and cadmium. Any spelter and copper that will give the above results may be used by the contractor at his own risk subject to the chemical, ballistic and microscopic tests herein prescribed. The chemical analysis of the brass used in cartridge cases 3.8 in. in diameter and under will have a copper content of 68 per cent, plus or minus 1 per cent, and a zinc content of 32 per cent, plus or minus 1 per cent. The brass used in cartridge cases of 4.7-in. diameter and larger must show a copper content of 70 per cent, plus or minus 1 per cent, and a zinc content of 30 per cent, plus or minus 1 per cent. 10. Eight cartridge cases will be selected from each lot for microscopic examination and a chemical examination and for ballistic test. Five of these cases will be sectionalized, polished, etched and examined microscopically to determine Chemical samples the crystalline condition of the material. for analysis will also be selected from these five cases. The remaining three cases will be subjected to the same ballistic test as prescribed for the preliminary test in paragraph above. 11. Should any or all of the cases selected fail on the ballistic test, the contractor is entitled to a retest at his own In this event five cases will be selected by the expense. inspector, and the ballistic test as prescribed above will be repeated. If the retest is satisfactory as to all the cases, the lot will be accepted; and if not satisfactory, it will be finally rejected and no further retest allowed.

may

desire will be

9.

An

t>

or internal

12. The contractor must have at his works or convenient thereto the necessary apparatus for making the chemical analysis prescribed and must in addition have a satisfactory, modern, metallurgical microscope and the necessary equipment to enable microscopic examination of the metal in the cartridge cases to be made. 13. The manufacturer must have installed the necessary suitable pyrometers to enable the inspector to check at any time the temperature of the annealing operations. 14. The upper portion, of the case after the last drawing: operation will be annealed at a temperature of from 400 to 450 cleg. C. In the annealings between drawings the temperature will in no case exceed 650 deg. C.

[71]

'

Stamp

Lot

Number of
0.02"Deep'<

H03&Buff inside of Case
before Soldering. Solder with soft Solder

Ammunition

-Finish

fappro*.

0.2" back,

from Shoulder
-^
inR 10.8
'^0.00"
llb'Straight

Qi4tS'-m
Stamp Name and Model of Gun, Place and year of
Manufacture 0.02"Deep
7v// with'Red Paint to

k

_

KSeat for I/O 6rain Percussion Primer
is fitted

m

,

with a Tracer

Alter assembling, paint Groove as follows

Rough Bore to 0.375 "Diam. Mandrel to 0.44"Diam. Finish Bore Taper 0.4698"at large End. Taper 0.00fin
Diam.

Crimp Cartridge Case at four Places in each of two Grooves in Projectile.
Crimps 45°apart
CARTRIDGE BRRSS ±0005

Red for HI. Shrapnel.
Yellow for Com. Shrapnel,

per Inch of Length

Cartridge Case

Black for H.L Shell

*~~

Composition of SoldersSoft Solder' 3 Parts Lead,
3 Parts Tin, I Part Bismuth.

Hard Solder- 50% Lead,

50% tin.

tracers.

The

various steps in the evolution of this case

are as follows:
1

Punch primer hole 21-A Drill primer hole and rough head
21

5per In.

t*

US.Std. Fitto taper

9M"(9j)—--^\
05 Drill
l"deejz

§£

Ib

\5perln.U.S.Std. ^Thread Fit to

taper

..0.5"DrW, I'deep

0.5" Rad.'

Thready Gouge*,

.GaugeX^

W/5

,

|.

-ST—. ^
tupping Punch
FinishJg±0.005"(Harden)

Cupping Die 7Dat57ra

1.625' ^3.312 (3? 6

Al£25i? .0O5' F/nlshfg t O
Harden

^--4.937'HJt")

)-A~ — -^-

2.75?-

A~.-E.75"-- -A

First

5.5"-Draw Punch _.

A
,

.

.

n „„ r „,

TOOL STEEL

F/nishjgt 0.005 (Harden)

X= Stamp Name ofCartridge
Case, Name ofOperafion,

Diameter of Die, Place of Manufacture andDote

Guide Ring
7T00Z.

STEEL

Finish} ±0.005"

FIG.9 OPERATION

1

//.^//£^'Mi'*&.

3^

Fit to taper

Gauged

V^
7.

r0.45"Rad.

ins
f*i

5perln.-y

*

>0.25"

«-

US.Std. p Thread. A/.62.

t—

c ,-A-^-055"\ -A~— 3.75--J3eferJ>4<- 2.5"
'

-0.375"
0.5"Dri//,t"deep

4.937"(4p-

*1»

-<525

''-

-

m'totaoer'--'

„.„,,., l5A37(l5

'

05621%)

Second Draw Punch 7<?oi 57ra

Finish fg±0.005"(tiarden)
. \ SperlnUiStd. > Thread 6) -^.625"^33lf(3j 'r>--A«

^m

Tztzjrmm 6 A
-

OA'Rad.

4.937"(4'f ")--A« b

&5
Finishfg±Q005"(Hardtn)

TOOL STEEL

Third Draw Punch

OPERATION 7 vrtrvMiun /

Second Draw D <e
TOOL STEEL

*kl25 \<r>i W.-0.5
FIG.I2

k

FinishJg±0.005"(Harden)

Third Draw Die TOOL STEEL

OPERATION
Finishfg±0.005"(Harden)
7.

10

OPERATION
Transformation Farrel rack press. Punches and Punch Required 22 tons. water. Production

— Fig.

4.

FIRST

DRAW

Number Same as before.

— 4300 per OPERATION WASH AND ANNEAL of Operators — Three. — Description of Operation—
8

Used WaterburyNumber of Operators per Machine Two. Holders Punch and die, Fig. 10. Pressure Lubricant New Era No. 4, 2 lb. to 1 gal.
2-C.

Machine

OPERATION

——

Transformation Fig. 2-D. Number of Operators per Machine- -Two. Punches and Punch Holders Punch and die, Pressure Required 9 tons. Production 3700 per Fig. 11.

SECOND

DRAW

8 hr.

hr.

5.

Production

OPERATION
6age

Number of Operators Two. Description Same as before. Production — 3500 per 8 hr.
.hit to Taper „
-

6.

PICKLE AND WASH
of

5600 per

8

hr.

Operation

Farrel rack press.

—Three. Production — 6000 per hr. PICKLE AND WASH Number of Operators — Two. Production — 3300 per hr. THIRD DRAW OPERATION Machine Used — WaterburyTransformation — Fig. 2-E. —
Number
of Operators
8

OPERATION

8.

WASH AND ANNEAL

OPERATION

9.

8

10.

Number
2
1

of Operators per
«'

Machine

Two.

,FittoTaper6aqe

$SThredd5 per Inch

/8-^ 7 (^ls)

.Sri

AM'Drill

^
0.25

RAi

I'Deep

|mi|
025*
I

Wsf^U-perlncr-

^^
,

*n

t.
^'---"-d"

\<ij6z$*-33etejj)

>k

---

YH6t&<

-32J2'(o$-

U-^S37fyg|*— *<-

14"'-

k-4937"0ff—A---Fifth

18''---

tool steel, (Harden) Finish/g ± 0.005

TOOL STEEL, (Harden) Finishfg ±0.005

Fourth Draw Punch

X = Stamp Name of
Cartridge Case,

Draw Punch

Name ofOperation,
Diameter of Die,
Place ofManu facture and Date.

+005"^

j

1.125^-A Y-0.5"
TOOL STEEL,(HardenjFinishJg±0.005"

high speed STEEiJlHarden)
I.IZ5Y

Y-0.5

FinishJ±0.O/"

Fourth Draw
FIG. 13

Die,

ne. 14 OPERATION 14

TOOL STEEL, (Harden) Finish jg±0.0Q5"

Fifth

Draw

Die

FIG. 15

OPERATION

13

OPERATION
[74]

17

— 1700 per hr.PICKLE AND WASH OPERATION FIFTH DRAW Description of Operation — Heat to 1300 deg. F. for 50 min. Transformation — Fig. 2-G. Machine Used — Hydraulic or hr. Production — 3400 per rack press. Number of Operators per Machine — Two. Punches and Punch Holders— Punch and Pressure ReOPERATION Fig. hr. quired — tons. Production — 1900 per — 2400 per hr.PICKLE AND WASH Production OPERATION TRIM OPERATION FOURTH DRAW Transformation — Fig. 2-H. Machine Used —Lathe, Fig. Transformation — Fig. 2-F. Machine Used — Rack press, of Operators per — Two. Punches and Number— Three-jaw universal Machine—One. Work-Holding Number of Operators per Machine Fig. Devices lathe chuck. Cutting Tools — Pressure Required — Punch Holders— Punch and Fig. Cutoff tool, Fig. Cut Data — 420 r.p.m. Production — 1350 hr. 7 tons. Production — 2400 per
Punches and Punch Holders Punch and die, Fig. Required 7 tons. Production 3400 per 8 hr.

——

12.

Pressure

OPERATION

16.

Production

8

OPERATION
8

11.

WASH AND ANNEAL

17.

12.
8

die,

15.

3

8

13.

18.

8.

6.

die,
8

13.

14.

of Operators per Machine One. Cutting Tools Cutoff tool, Fig. 14. Production 1200 per 8 hr. Note Trim off 20 per cent.

OPERATION 14. TRIM Machine Used — Pratt & Whitney, Fig. 7. Number — —

per

8

hr.

OPERATION
washing compound

19.

Description of Operation

to 75 gal. water.
20.

WASH —Wash FOR HEADING 25 in solution of —
Production
hole.

lb.

6-B
8 hr.

3500 per

OPERATION
Number
Heat

15.

to 1300 deg. F. for 50 min.

of Operators

WASH AND ANNEAL — Three. Description—of Operation — — Transformation —Fig. Production 3600 per Hr. 1000-ton hydraulic press,
8

OPERATION
2-1,

HEADING
Number
Machine Used
of Operators per

minus primer

Fig. 16.

Fig.

16,

FIGS. 16 TO 21. VARIOUS PRESS AND MACHINING OPERATIONS -Heading the small-size cases. Fig. 17 Heading large cases. Fig. 18 Punching primer hole. and roughing head. Fig. 20 Sizing primer hole. Fig. 21 Burring primer hole

——

——

Fig.

19— Drilling

[75]

PUNCH Transformation — Fig. Machine Used— Small press, Fig. Number of Operators per Machine —One. Punch and Die — —2800 per hr. Production Fig.
OPERATION
21.

Machine One. Punches and Punch Holders Punch, Fig. 22. Dies and Die Holders Die, Pig. 23. Pressure Required 600 tons. Gages Snap gage, diameter of head, Fig. 45, operation 25; thickness of head, micrometer gage, Fig. 24. Production 800 per 8 hr.

the

left. After washing, the work is ready for the first draw, the punches and dies for which are illustrated in

PRIMER HOLE

Fig. 10.

2-1.

18.

25.

8

The washing, annealing, pickling and washing follow each drawing operation with but slight variations and

OPERATION

21-A.

BROACH OPERATION — Number of Operators per Machine drift or broach, Fig. Special Production — 2800 per Fixtures Fig. OPERATION 22-A. BURR OUT Number of Operators per Machine Machine Used — Fig. Cut Data — Tool —One. Cutting Tools — Burring Fig. runs 750 r.p.m. Special Fixtures— Fig. POINT ANNEAL OPERATION Number of Operators— One. Description of Operation — A
22.

Machine Used Potter & Johnston turret lathe, Fig. 19. Cutting Tools Tool for turning under heacl, Fig. 26; drill, Production 800 per 8 hr. reamer. Cut Data 270 r.p.m. Note This is only done when punch press is not available.

— ——
28.

ROUGH HEAD

DRILL PRIMER HOLE AND

Machine Fig. 20. —One. — Used — Sizing Tool Used
21.

27.

Wr:-o.i"r. i
I
!

'

8 hr.

>Q.M4"M--—1.5"-

—A
0.5

U

tool,

29.

£A?---~J
tool STEEL,(Harden)FinishJg±0005

^

30.

23.

Punch

FIG.25 OPERATION

TOOLSTEujHarden) Finish fg 1 0.005"
21

Die
,„

nv-3

is placed as shown in the machine, Fig. 31, the gas jets being so regulated as to heat the case a low red on the open end with the heat gradually lessening toward the head; the holding spindle revolves about £0 r.p.m., and a case will heat 1200 per 8 hr. in about 1 min. Production

case

r-

-2.95"-

;yj

A

t

The cups are next washed in plain hot water to remove the soapy drawing solution and are then annealed. This is done by placing the cups in trays, as shown in Fig. 4, and pushing the loaded trays into a furnace. Here they
tray
are heated to about 1300 deg. F. for an hour; then the is pulled out onto the truck and run out into the

-LIS
QIS"»

* i
HIGH-SPEED STEEL, Finish

§

J

±0.005

FIG. 26 OPERATION 2IA

v^L

open air. The tray shown is filled with fourth-draw cases, but the method of procedure is the same in the other
annealing operations. After annealing, the cups are pickled to remove the The pickling scale and are then washed in hot water.
r

need not be further described. Details of the punches and dies for the second draw are given in Fig. 11. Figs. 12 and 13 show those for the third and fourth draw. The
latter is also illustrated in Fig. 6.
Head
Fini5

--'

//»

Here a tank for the

>1

0.75'

Pin

*-2.l25—

-2"~->\<--2-'--»n--2 rd c, \3 SectkA2" Sect«» n\

\2.7&y->i

TOOLSTEEl/Harden) "

0.3*^ ^'7^,0.15'' (

^Z^05

t
52

0.03fa

-ii±o.or

Stamp Name of
-J
Cartridge Case Operation, Placeof_ Manufacture and

UPOJ
Bolf

___y

-j?ft7i;"±n dp-I2.875"±0.02----

--'''TOOL STEEL. (Harden). Finishfg ±0.005"

COLD DRAWNSTEEL
RnishftQOI

Punch

FIG.

22
Y"2.5\ ^-075"

KSK^gg*"*
Ring

rOOL 5 TEEL(Harden)nn,sh
FIG.

f *0.005' g

23

ZS^Sg^^""^^'

*•
<5>

a
,

0.375' Tap5fd.

-05 Drill MACHINE STEEL. Finish/±O.Ol"

075"-0000'

m'
}

.

Rod Base

&
5 .,

fbrQO&tsunk
.

COLD DRAWN STEEL. Fnishf±QOl" Rod
i--

-0.003

+0000 "0002"-.

O.I2i"TapStd:

3JS7M
:.;
..;.-.,.

^S

G^jft

2.2"-0.000".

+0002

^

f

-fc£3:;;

n ;,jfo

WlOIFlfStd
0.562ffl*
TOOL STEEL (Harden)

nmshfffid.005"

Scale

Assembly
„---

A

_

fifth-draw punches and dies are illustrated in and the trimming operation, which immediately After the case is trimmed, follows, is shown in Fig. 8. it is washed in a special solution; then it is headed in a

The

F/ig. 15,

hydraulic press, as shown in Fig. 16. Two dies are used in this press, so that the work is practically continuous. A case is placed in one die, as at A, while the heading

punching operation, and the drift is shown in Fig. 27. Burring of the primer hole is done from the inside on a small lathe fitted as shown in Fig. 21. The burring tool, detailed in Fig. 29, is carried on the end of a long rod chucked as shown. The case is placed on an adjustable carrier that slides along the lathe bed. The adjustment of the V's allows the fixture to be used for all sizes of cases. Details are given in Fig. 30.

punch
is

B is descending on the one at C. The die at C then pulled back and the one at A pushed into its place, and so on. Details of the die are given in Fig. 23. A press, Fig. 17, is fitted differently for heading and is used principally on the larger sizes. The case is held in
Note-.

Point annealing of the cases
chines, Figs. 31

and

32.

The

is done in special macase to be annealed is placed

on the revolving
a

table,

and the gas

way

as to heat the

mouth end

jets play on it in to a good red heat.

such This

Material Cold-drawn Steel, Finishf± O.OI", except where marked

18.

A^U
TOOL STEEL

0.067?.

F/nish/±Q005"(Harden)
0365r

T
6perln. USStd.Threod^.

U -3.375^-3^•:.

1>>

U

Is
U-~
0.25"Std. Brass

7*-

*l

025*l"5td.FilisterheadSteelScrews

Washer
037yDrive-**-'ri±
;

V

*\
-*\0455

\<-0.%"

*i

V'0.95'

0375"'*'**'
'
;

S

laoof

Plug for
•£"•3
*•

2.95" Mtn.Gun

Case

Plug for 3"Mtn.Howitzer Case

Plug

for 4.7"6un

& How. Cases
03"

Drive

'-t&

•+aooo"..*\ ^ \----8J5 -0.005"
Finish/

^

$§§
'

& $

0.43"

2
•5

Shaft
0675".

1

0494"

-4 0.4'

U--A
FIG.27
>\0.43"Y-

-1

1 l"U-3£p-'W-4.25"-^

a25ia005 325 ».T

0375"Std. Wrought Iron Pipe

A-6.45"andO.B5"

\-„4gf!-4
Gun Case
Plug
for 3.8'How.

FIG.28

Distance Piece

~T^«nPlug

I

for 3"Field
*!*"

Case

Plug for 6*How.Case

L/27A* U-0375

TT

t5"^r-;: 5 --i%
37
'

V?

r-

MS?

m

"

0.&
Q'

M-az"
^^-0.6^05^
[<..-//». -4

.l^M^j'K
0.&5"*'

Tfo
'°\

%
*9-

'0375^

^
End

-fr-

925"
6 Teeth
TOOL STEEL

A

Cv;^:.... 5

^V^^
-3.75-

H
.

%
TOOL STEEL

MACHINE STEEL , Q75*0.65"5td.Fi/isterhead SteelScrews

Tie Plate
"W.TOOL STEEL

^ Finishf±aOl"(Harden)

Finishf±0.0l'(Harden)

Mill

(aZ5^0375"Std.Steel Setscnw)

Pilot

Assembled Views

I-

W~\^A5"

J225%pStd.
.

3

For 0.?5"FilisterheadStd.Screw
'

Qfi\

i

I-

iv

Visas'
Finishf±QDl"(Harden)

\
E4"

Roller
j

OI87'(&")Ra>m

U- 7.375
0.375"-A-V-

taoo5

Holder

(O.I67?j$")xG875"5teel Pin-Drive

nv^
0375-

7£n4 *^Q49

T

J°w Support
attyrstdfilisterhead SteelScrews

FIG. 30

Guide Plate

MACHINE STEEL

FIG. 29

NOTE: FIG.27,28 OPERATION 22.
is held in a carrier B, which slides run in or out by means of a small hydraulic cylinder and piston at the back. Primer holes are punched in the small press, Fig. 18. The die is carried in a post hinged at the bottom so that the work and the die may be swung in or out under the punch. Details of the punch and die are given in Fig. 25.

FIG.29,30 OPERATION 22a.

the die at A.

The

die
is

on the

rails

C and

heating gradually lessens toward the head of the case, so that the case is left hard on the head end, but increasingly soft toward the mouth, so that as the case is forced into the tapering die, as shown in Fig. 33, the head end does

Ordinarily, all primer holes in this type of case are punched; but where no press is available, the hole is drilled and the head roughed off in a turret lathe, as shown in Fig. 19. An ordinary twist drill and a turn-

not buckle under the pressure and the case is tapered toward the open end. The tapering die is illustrated in The heads are finished in a semi-automatic, Fig. 37. In this machine the head is faced, chamfered, Fig. 34.
the paint groove cut and the primer hole reamed and counterbored. The tools used are given in detail in Figs. 38, 39, 40, 41, 42 and 43. The gages are given in Figs.
24,

ing tool, Fig. 26, are used. Following either the punching or drilling of the primer hole, a broach or drift is forced through as shown in Fig. 20, to size the hole accurately.

44 and 45. Following the finishing of the head,

it is

stamped in a

The

fixture

used

is

made

like that for the

hydraulic press, Fig. 35, details of the fixture being given in Fig. 46. The final trimming to exact length is done

[77]

The head is in a specially fitted turret lathe, Fig. 36. and pressed to the revolving held in a turret chuck

Gages
45;

A

Primer-hole gage, Fig. 44; diameter under head, Fig. primer-hole counterbore, Fig. 44; thickness of head, Figs. 24 and 44; diameter of head, Fig. 45. Production 500 per 8 hr.

— Fig. 2-K. Machine Used — 30-ton hydrauOne. Fig. —See Fig. Number of Operators per Machine—FixPressure Required — 13 tons. Special lows, some of the gages for this purpose being shown in tures — Fig. Production — 2500 per Figs. 50, 51 and 52. OPERATION FINISH TRIM Machine Used — Turret lathe, Fig. Number of Operators OPERATION TAPERING —One. Work-Holding Devices— Special chuck. per Machine —Punch press, Fig. — Fig. Tool-Holding Devices — Fixture (tool holder), Fig. Number of Operators Machine Used outside chamferCutting Tools — Inside chamfering, Fig. Presper Machine— One. Dies and Die Holders Die, Fig. Cut Data— 950 r.p.m. Gages — ing, Fig. facing, Fig. hr. sure Required— 12 tons. Production — 1800 per Production — 1800 per Length, Fig. OPERATION FINISH HEAD OPERATION INSPECTION Machine Used —Potter & JohnTransformation— Fig. Apparatus and Equipment Used— Fig. Gages— Mouth — plug gage, Fig. 51; primer-hole gage, Fig. 44; primer-hole ston automatic, Fig. Number of Machines per Operator Two. Cutting Tools — Circular form thickness of head, Fig. Fig. facing diameter of counterbore, Fig. Fig. 40; grooving head, Fig. 45; diameter under head, Fig. 45; length gage, Fig. Fig. 39; chamfering Fig. 41; Cut Data— 250 r.p.m. reamer, Fig. 42; counterbore, Fig. 52; cylinder gage, Fig.
Transformation
press,
35. lic

on the spindle. This chuck and tool are shown tool in detail in Figs. 47 and 48 respectively. Inspection fol-

B

OPERATION

26.

STAMP
8 hr.

Stamp

1.

46.

27.

24.

36.

33.

47.

48.

37.

48;

8

48;

48.

49.

8

hr.

25.

28.

25.

50.

34.

tool,

tool,

38; tool,

tool,

44;

44;

43.

50.

Fig. 31

—Point-annealing

FIGS. 31

TO

36.

ANNEALING, PRESSING AND MACHINING

machine open.
the head.

Fig. 32 Same machine closed. Fig. 33 Tapering the case. Fig. 35 Stamping the head. Fig. 36 Finish trimming [78]

——

— —

WORK
Fig. 34

— Machining

Stam^name ofcase
Stamp: name of cartridge
case, operation

d/men&on'Alp/ace of

and die,

manufacture and
dateiyear)

place

ofmanufacture and
date

TOP SECTION-^

"••MIDDLE

SECTION

Thperinq ?

Die

TOOL STEEL
finish /<at0.005"harden

nO.37.OR24

A * 1.980fbrZ95Mt.GjnCartCase A =2007^r3TieldQ/nMxt.i902pt
,

—1
HIGH SPEED STEEL
finish ftO.O/"Harden

1905 Cart Case

A'm7"for3"Mt.tfmMod./m'//347tiotY. A-Z007ror3.8"h'OMMod./908.CartCase A=2.002"for47"Gun Mod. 1906 Cart Case

FIG.

38
.,

P

„ A-/.997%r6'fio>Y.Mod 1906. 08 Cart. Case n J.l t0.002' 2'-

T
@^ I
-P-SJU-

*i

-jW"^

TOOL

STEEL

fin/sh/tOOi,"Harden

finishj^taofrlarden

HIGH SPEED..STEEL
ffn/shjf±0.0/ttorden

FIG

40

FIG.4I

J
02&
[

to
a,\
i

FIG.

39

K^

"•^i f*omfei" 1 1 B .JaperaOM'ttam. ' ^ y V per/n.of/enffth f| fun fa)
j

0/87t£y\> \^D/am

I

y$

c
-•3*S?
7 ,,,/r,.j«i -I

A.

$\
j^Gr/nd

^

*$: J!

£/-//*/

r^
-tag

^i§

CutbymBSS.

4<zk-//2*'---£

U...;...^must.^-' Section
•*

>

(

U

Reamers

-38/2(3%)--''-

><

A -A

10
Counterbore Stop
_

r%>

>l

Section B-B
r

Rea m e
FIG. 42

Counterbore
(finish,

TOOL STEEL (f/n/sh, Harden)

Harden)

finish

OPERATION 25
MACHINE STEEL

Q25x0.25"i/eadlessStd.SetScrenr

FIG
FinishftO.Ol"
"

43

O
-

it*— /-2»

---*i

I-— --/4--

—-

|^
1

l^^/^t/Wj
Tj_»

.25ii.fl5^-H2 K"« hi

^--8.9"-^^-,

m:-«-

§!§ FinishJtaOl"

/9

MACHINE STEEL

kMl ^^^--TapforO.25^0.75"

$
J ,U

&\ Filisterhead

\\5teel'Screws

8

„ Bottom Pbst

6perkUS.5td.Thredd '^ iftOOOg" -0.003 . , (MACHINE STEEL) 4.7"Howitzer&6"Howitzer

i^^ffi JT*" ^.H? 0.562(f)^-^ Plunger 6
255"
_ u , ruluP<rrra

a

^

'-

/a?°-

Punch Holder Bracket"^'

MACHINESTEEL

FMsh/tOOl"
',

,jU^I

2S£0.00f

yftfjjjf.

^"

f

"f\i

'

0/^5^TapfbrQ25*/.O
I

'ftN\Filisterhead

aS^y r=

V§! IS
?,f
''..

V2J4JsSHs
MACHINE STEEL
0.15 Jnmi'

^ JLpieelScrews*
*

(^Fin/shftaOl"
'--120

-,;,•<

l*6!CW

«5'1"*-*l

,g

075"Rdd

<*2'H--.

""§

0.15

°t0.005
»

Punch Holder
Post Base
^ / ,,crjT, j 6perln.U.5Std.Thread^

FinishftO.Ol"

FinishJtaOl"

^?os\(3"Mtn.HoW.)

^i

-0.00" om 3 -0.002"/ pj^OOO;

Post

(3"FieldGun)

Fin'ishf±aoi"^~<^

r!-%Si'

.n5'Wad

IC'+O.OOO" '? -0.003

c^_ MACHINESTEEL

1

3U
Top Pos+
Assembled Views
_

©:
Finish ±0.01"

rw/ym
\

1.5"

^2.1^-- -8.75"
S*
,-

*¥?'

f

.7."-.. ^

MACHINESTEEL

-12.85"-

Filling

Piece (4.7"Gun)

.WSJ

^05%

.

Finish/tO.OI

Bottom Post

%\^.^.Q95'
$3/

1

(3S"Hm,2.95"Htn.Gun,4.7"6un,3Mtn.How)

%£Pa -f>^ W^\^ ?)i^
-^mach/nesteel

"

+0.01"

V+0.01" FinishjiO.01"

Qb+0.0i
FinishftaOl"(MACHINE STEEL)

_

0-15,0.01"

ao5%

*-&"

*=i"*=2.75"for3"Field Guns e \ Note for n 1 ^3ltt"'Q-2.875"for3"Mtn.Hm.M How 6"How\p h=5.5"&=3.25"for4.7"How. Holder A=2.5"B=Z25"for47"Gtm&2.95"Mtn.Gun )
\

uTf

F/n/W±QOr
(2.95"MountamGun)

Top Post^.7^6%^;
Oi.56" D-0375%r47"howitzer Z~6J6" U-0.25" „ 6" „

To P pos+ f<7

"W

Top Post

FIG.46 OPERATION 26

I

Max>

f? ±

f

^XM/

'0.b52"DnW

^

'

Si
...:-„ -v.^.J
.^.^TTi-fi :
'

^r

,^
Hr*
'

X
'

Jt.JTi,
.

/^.rF rOf/t/OGRA/NP/t/ME/f
G


.

Lf5t

isW5m
H&G.

u&%.

j^.r-Jm"

****&'

'j'"'[1

r Head Gage

""'J'

^rj,it!I^K

Primer Hole Counterbore
FORGED STEEL A/ox

Primer Hole Gage FORGED STEEL N? 5
finish.

FORGED STEEL ALfJ
(tiarden&GrinJ)

^EOfi 20G.RA1N PltkrR Primer Hole Gcyje Primer Hole Counterbore FORGED .STEEL N! Gage finish tt.&G. FORGED STEEL N° 3
fin,st>.

^ ,'

F® *
1
'

^fmJMg

FIG.44.0P.25
[79]

H.&G.

p
,

8per In. U.S.Std. Thread -A.-M Finishf +0.01°

N
'

^
~^*aos"
L.

^amf)
Holder
Finishft 0.01"

Tr^»"

machine steel

YRad.

-Jt.L-Q25" COLD DRAWN STEEL
'

Assembled View

.ZgMOj-A

Finishf±aOl"(Case Harden)

k=2.95"for3"FieldCuna3"Mtn.Ho*.

b=2£9"for2.%"Mtn. Gun

FIG.47
4.5*>

^"" **'MACHINE STEEL
Drill ForO/5'Boft

'0.01

101

0.656"(&)DriH0.75"deep

?^'^

-4-1-05,
6>»7/7. US'StdJhreaa^T.43"^

a,5

±

V-^05+0.00',,

r-o-o'"
te339"for3"Mtn.Howitzer

MACHINE STEEL

(Finish

J10.0/")

TapStd.

A=3.4"forZ95"Mtn.6un

a'ps'-o.ooo'' u

" +0.002"

Chock
\*

r\=3.45"for3"Field Gun

2.25"+0.0i"—-

qo6 »-0.0O

i

t
I

>

FinishfiOO!'-

\

HIGH SPEED STEEL
Finishfg (Harden)

a*:
HIGH SPEED STEEL
Finishfg(Harden)

-''

./20

+0.000

.=-1/7^

Facing Tool

.' */.

J/iPik +0000" -&?<2?"
I

k"^
I

Finishfg (Harden)

|VX
y-^>
-J-fO \

f
I
1

MACHINE STEEL —ilQ$~'0312 (%)x/"5fd. Hexagonal Head Steel Screws

Collar

^5"
+0.01"

HIGH SPEED STEEL

*Sfi20\

Inside

Chamfering Tool

Ou+side ChamferingTool
QOrfprill NO.40W.&S.W.6.
h*
•/'

FIG. 48
'

Maximum

-H

a098"Drill No.40 T.D.&S.W.G.

0,098'Drill

No.40 T.D.
Max.

8c S.W.G.

0.098"Dri/l

No.40 TD.&S.W.G.

_u -/
(3/7?.

Max.

"J

.__

dS
0.05"R'.\

r^
0.25"
I*

>t

H

-Max.---M

U

Minimum—^\
A

-Min.
JZ5
fORGED

U

-

%j

-<lu
ao5"H.\\.... Minr ..

i

C
and Grind )

A

.J\$£, 4

ai"R'\

FORGED STEEL (Harden and Grind)

STEEL (Harden

FORGED STEEL (Harden and Grind)

*H* fl2? MW.----J J U c FORGED STEEL (Harden and Grind)

u

I

Length .Gage

Length

Gage

F1G.49

Length Gage

Length Gage

OPERATION 27

The Diaphragm and the Tube
The diaphragm
are:
is

for Tracers

made

of sheet brass; the operations

M>

Operation

Blank and form
Pierce for tracer tube

The punches and dies used for the first operation are shown in Fig. 54, but the second is a simple piercing
operation.

^?^k

Max. kA Case Harden Gaging
Surfaces

The tube
ta02'^\i
is

is set is

into the

used.

It

also

made
:

of sheet brass

diaphragm when a night tracer and is evolved in

A sHead Diameter B=UnderfieadDiam.
C'Rim underHead D/am. MACHINE Sr££L
FIG. 45, OP.

25

the following order Operation 1 Blank and first draw 2 Anneal 3 Pickle and wash

IIS±

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r.^C,

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Fie.5i

FI6.50
[80]

4

9

10
11 12 13

First draw; punch and die, Fig. 62; pressure required, 15 tons; production 4300 Wash and anneal; production, 5700 Pickle and wash; production, 3600 Second draw; punch and die, Fig. 63; pressure, 12 tons; production, 3700 Wash and anneal; production, 6000 Pickle and wash; production, 2400 Third draw; punch and die, Fig. 64; pressure, 7 tons; production, 3400 Wash and anneal; production, 3600 Pickle and wash; production, 1800 Fourth draw; punch and die, Fig. 65; pressure, 5 tons; production, 2400
v

DIAPHRAGM
Operation
1 2 3 4

Blank and form; punch and

die

Shear soldering strip; production, 3000 Shear, blank and form clip; production, 6000

same as

for field

gun

Form

5 6

soldering strip; production, 1000 Solder soldering strip to diaphragm; production, 300 Scrape solder from diaphragm; tools, chuck and scraper; production, 1000 Cut cords; production, 12,000 Tie and paraffin cords; production, 3500 Solder cords to soldering strip and clip; production.
500

5po+
ForCl^7S

,

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a

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(harden)
..

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TOOL STFEL (HARDEN) '
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TOOL STEEL

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Assembled
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For 0.375x0.875 SrH
Filisferhead

Stripper
=?

She/Screws-0.0l"5heef Brass

2.97"

->\

^0.25x1 5feel
Drive

\<i75^
0.03R:

Dowel Pin,

FIG.

55 OP. 2

(FIRSTDRAW)

k.

I

Night Tracers

^tjL
(HARDEN)
,.]S.

-

O.&fap.
0.5'Ueep-

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6.85
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\<~4U2 +$$!!'*[ <&?

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Die

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ForO.Z5"Dowz/Pin
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CAST IRON (harden)

W5~

isAssembled View
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Holder

&&£?&
Key

U

MACHINESTEEL Finish/±007

H-

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o

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8'4.75"

>\

>\
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STEEL

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0.03 H

SAW STEEL
j

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£..

TOOL STEEL
jj

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euide
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(HARDEN)
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TOOLSTEEL(HARDEM) Flnish/±0.01

^-,WI
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~A

ti\

J£X,

5e

OP.

1

Blanking

Punch

Forming

14 15 16

anneal; production, 3800 Pickle and wash; production, 2000 Fifth draw; punch and die, Fig. 66; pressure, 2 tons; production, 1900 17 Trim; production, 1350 18 Wash for heading; production, 3500 19 Heading; punch and die, Fig. 67; pressure, 600 tons 20 Punch primer hole; production, 2800 20-A Rough head and drill primer hole
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Wash and

Cartridge Case for 3-In. Gun, 15-Pounder,

Model 1898-1902 operation 1. cupping

Broach Burr out

Details of Cartridge Case Fig. 70. Punch and Die Fig. 71. Pressure Required 73 tons. Size of Blank Maximum diameter, 8.505 in.; minimum diameter, 8.500 in.; maximum thickness, 0.469 in.; minimum thickness, 0.459 in.; weight,

— —

8.125 lb.

Point anneal Tapering; die. Fig. 68; production, 1800 Finish head

SUCCEEDING OPERATIONS
Operation
2
3

Stamp
67

Finish trim; length gage, Fig. 49 Inspection; gages are same as used for field-gun cartridge case except length and cylinder case. Fig.

Wash and

4 5

Wash and

Pickle and wash First draw; punch and die, Fig. 72; pressure required, 47 tons

anneal

anneal

[82]

8 7
8 9

Pickle and

Second draw; punch and
quired,

wash

34
die,

Fig. 73; pressure re35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

Wash

tons and anneal
45

Pickle and

wash

10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Third draw; punch and
quired, 42 tons

die,

Fig. 74; pressure re-

First point anneal; approximate heat, 1300 deg. F.: 6 min. First tapering; die, Fig. 81; pressure, 45 tons Second point anneal Second tapering; die, Fig. 82; pressure. 45 tons Final trim

Wash and

anneal

Pickle and

wash

Fourth draw; punch and

die, Fig. 75;

pressure re-

Finish-turn head Stamp head; pressure required, 15 tons Final anneal Inspect

Wash and

quired, 31 tons

Wash and

Pickle and wash Fifth draw; punch and die, Fig. 76; pressure required, 26 tons Pickle and wash Sixth draw; punch and quired, 15 tons

anneal

Cartridge Case for 3-In. Gun, 15-Pounder,

anneal

Model 1903 operation 1. cupping
Details of Cartridge Case
84.

19

die.

Fig. 77; pressure re-

Pressure

— 60

tons.

Disk

—Fig. —MaximumPunch and diameter,
83.

Die

—Fig.

9.380 in.;

®
COLD-DOWN STEEL

tool STEEL, (Harden)

FinlshJ± 0. 005"

finishfiQOi" _.
I.Z5

,

Clamping Screw

^ n raw
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F,nishp0.005 ciSTiROHWl"QW(i)Top$td Collar Die Holder ,, ^ FIG.57 Night-tracer Tube, 21d and3 r T
,

|§.

Draw

MU&td lnc U 5fd \£tl / W7?m" %.^^pfo .,.Ty l6Threads*\rb
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i

P^ches and
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re

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m§J^
TOOLSTEEL,(Harden)FinishpH0l"

' m,STEEL,Fini^C.O," inch-guide Ring

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'^'+1
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Finish f+QOI
l"

^

3&Drzm

U-F?*** Night Tracer

r,0M"TaP Std.

^rTk^

o

Trimming Operation Flange Operation ASSEMBLED VIEWS

COLO-ommsTEEL,FmishftWf mLSTEEL,(Harden)FinishJ±aOl" FVjnch Holder Clamping Screw

^
tool STm/Harden)

•-0000"

r

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IL
Assembled View
^£38!

d

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jj

A

%^..W^.. J CUST
.

7MSTEEL,(Harden)FinishJ±Q0l"

^

OneA-084" &Q.8',4 *Draw OneA-0.69" B-0.65 "5*'Draw
i
I

5 ^

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m'DrilF

m

I

mCH.STEEL,Finish/±C

IRON i 0.01"

Collar
MT+0OW*.

One A-0.87",4*J> Draw

*

Die Holder
v.

8m/*Q.7i:5>- DraM

h

|§ £

£

</S>-

Q!87

M $"

per Inch, US.Std. HUCH.STEEL, FinishjtQOI"

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Finishf±

01

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.

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„„,,„„

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tSKSw
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J

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TO0lSTEEL~(Harden)FinishJiQ.0l"

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HUCH.STEEL, FinishftOOl"

FIG.

Holder, 4^> Draw 59 Fixture for Trimming and Flanging OPERATION 146c 15

20 21 22 23
24 25 26 27 28

Wash and

Sixth-draw trim; trim anneal

off 20

per cent.
78;

Pickle and

Seventh draw; punch and
quired, 10 tons

wash

minimum minimum
pressure re-

diameter, 9.375 thickness, 0.428

in.; in.;

maximum

thickness, 0.438
lb.

in.r

weight, 9.25

die. Fig.

SUCCEEDING OPERATIONS
Operation
2 3
4

Seventh-draw trim Wash and anneal Pickle and wash Eighth draw; punch and
auired,
7

die,

tons

Fig. 79; pressure re-

5
6 7

29 30
81 32 33

Eighth-draw trim Wash for heading Heading; punch and
850 tons

die,

Pig. 80; pressure required.

Rough-turn heads and Broach primer hole Burr out

drill

primer hole

R 9 10
11

anneal Pickle and wash First draw; punch and die, Fig. 85; pressure required, 45 tons Wash and anneal Pickle and wash Second draw; punch and die, Fig. 86; pressure, 40 tons Wash and anneal Pickle and wash Third draw; punch and die, Fig. 87: pressure, 30 tons Wash and anneal

Wash and

[83]

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Wash and
Wash and

tons

Pickle and wash Fourth draw; punch and

27
die,

Fig. 88; pressure,

30 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

Eighth draw; punch and

die,

Fig. 92; pressure, 5

Pickle and wash Fifth draw; punch and

anneal

20 21 22 23
24 25 26

Pickle and wash Sixth draw; punch and die, Fig. 90; pressure required, 10 tons Sixth-draw trim; trim off 20 per cent. Wash and anneal Pickle and wash Seventh draw; punch and die. Fig. 91; pressure required, 8 tons Seventh-draw trim Wash and anneal Pickle and wash

anneal

die, Fig. 89;

pressure, 20 tons

Eighth-draw trim Wash for heading Heading; punch and die, Fig. 93; pressure, 1050 tons Rough-turn head and drill primer hole Broach Burr out
Second point anneal Second taper; die, Fig.
Final trim Finish-turn head
First point anneal First taper; die, Fig. 94; pressure, 50 tons
95; pressure, 50 tons

Stamp
Final anneal Inspect

Q5"Drill,0.75'Deep

^LongSolid braided I

CordN s 3i Dipm hot -Paraffined 1

white Cotton

I

r

-^-as
TOOLSTEEL, (Harden) Finishfy±u005

Long-

hardSolderZ

-

-

Section

1£y

sW
%

A-A

Third Draw Punch
FIG.

64
10

4 Crimps,
Equally spaced

\
-^

Third Draw Die

,

OPERATION

± 0005" .Jr 0M'*\

N Seat for 110 6rFkrcussion
Primer Rough Bored, Oils' " to 044 Oiani., Mandre/ed
Diam. finish Bore Taper
\

— VX$>&-\sharp ™
'

w Remove
Corners

|| 5Threadsper /Taper6age

_
\;
y

an inch.usstd) *

_ _JZJ:

^OS'DrillM'Deep
:

**.

Omtfat large End.
Taper OOOZ'in Diam. per

Inch

of Length

) CfSRrirj

Stamp Name and Model of Howitzer, Place and Year of
Manufacture. Letters

1

b '

TOOL5TEEL,(Harden)Finishfgt0005

Fourth Draw Die
.

Fourth Draw Punch

and

fig.

65
13
p/

OPERATION

Figures OOZ'Deep

v Remove T $5"-?.-sharp
-^j~k
Corners

ft
,k
I0.5---.
15.43/(15%)

T0OLSTECL,(Harden)FinishJgiQOQ5'
r-.^.,

ifth

r,

Draw Punch

r>

_,_ __ rlo.66

mLSTcFL,(ndrden)FinishJg±0.005'

Fiflh
16

OPERATION

Draw

Die

Ik'StampName of Cartridge Case, Operation, Place of Manufacture and Date (Year)

Y- Stamp Name of Cartridge Case.Operation.Diameter of Die, Place of Manufacture and Date (Year)

I

W5*m.

3?
;

k
tool

—* Removesharp
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Stul,( Harden)

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T00LSTEEl,(Harden)' 1

k--4SSl'(4%f-A<

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TOOL STEEL, (Harden) Finish<fgtQ005

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!•—

67 OPERATION
FIG.

Finishjgmi'
19
-6.403'

^

,—« % -... R „„ w
F0R

%%

EL

mf(9lf-

Cupping Die
, ,

finishf±0.0t'

Shrink on offer
Die is hardened

Cupping Punch

Fie. 6i

OPERATION

I

Remove sharp
'.Corners

r^l^Y
5Threadsper /'Taperbage

5.158'—

>m&
3-in Howitzer

StampNameof
Cartridge Case,
Operations: Die,

Body Gage for
,

Case

Mis-

place ofManufacture

*] and Date (Year)

k
k

SZ'—^rrfr
iz"

^

Body 6agefor3B-in. Howitzer Case

2
TOOL

Vm^A
Tapering
FIG. 68

'TopSection

STEEL.(Harden)FinishJgta005'

k

6.48"---M

k~4.937'(t§"----

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;

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H
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mi'tii)

OPERATION ZA

Body Gage for4.7-in. Howitzer Case Stamp Name of Cartridge Case, Sage, Dimensions gaged Place of Manufacture and Date (Year)
FIG.

Second Draw Punch

TOOLSTEEL,(Harden)FinishfgiQ005'

Second Draw

Die

69

FIG. 63

OPERATION 28

OPERATION 7

[84]

34/3 Mar.

,,£.

%i05'u x a

jrfir**

Chamber
-

20.02+002

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y////////////////////////////////A

«

IT" %£

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CartridgeCase^ ^83^00)0-0003-^ Operation.PlaceofManufacfureir^—'^ry \ ('^(STS'Wf ffiX

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i
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5

FIG.76.0P16

TVOLSTai(Harden)Finishfy!Q005"

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Diaphragm

Note:- This Cartridge Case is used in 15Pdr Cartridqe 3 Guns.Model of l902,Bethlehem Design and 6uns Model of m.Driggs-Seabury Design

o

Buff inside of Case before Soldering.
Solder with Soft Solder alter Assembling Soft Solder Composition .-

'

3 Parts

Tin.3 Parts Lead, I Part Bismuth

Case
Donot harden this end.' lobe turnedafter other end
has been hardenedandground.
Operation.Place ofManufacture

FI6.70

r

*«J"
^s

i

005"

and Date(Year).
(

*apj«__ <*'*

V&»

TOOL$TEEL(Horden)Finishfy!Q005"

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37

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^

Stamp Name of CartridgeCase.\

Do not ha/den fhisend.
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%"?%'"?' <??_..% UaWe°7-

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£5*

*

Stamp Name ofCartndgeCase...y
Operation, Place ofManufacture

Ss
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lobe turnedalter other end

12.55"--

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Punch

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TO0LSTEEL(Harden)Finishfg!0O05"

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andDate(Year). TOOL STEEL TOOL STEEL (Harden)Fnishfg tQ005 (Harden)Fin<shfgtQ005" Die ?uncb» f; c?&>5"Dr,ll FIG.78.OP23 ,^»
,

K
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>'...'.

J 'Stamp Name of Cartridge Case,
Operate
Place ofManufacture^
"."<* Date (Year).

C

£__4ei«

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x

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Do not harden this end'
Tobeturnedafterotherend

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^

Stamp Name of

has been hardened andground.

.^'"^L rKW™ »T U «%V Wj Cartage Operatbn.Place ofManufacture ^

"-/"•3wa*v /

^ ^Ljfeib r
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TOOL STEEL (Harden)Finishfa iQ005'

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FIG 72
XjFrttoTaper Gage

OP 4.

005-^5.995 ^ TOOLSTEEL(f/arden)Rnish&0005
. .

.jS 7Tj ^l"Dia-gPerInckuJ5rdThrr<id

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u
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QxomwNSTt

%55"
0"SteelPnsO25iO5O"

Punch

Do not harden this end.
has been hardened and
ground.

Stamp Name of Cartridge Case,
and Date(Year).

*.

L

Tobeturnedafterotherend Operation.Place ofManufacture*.

1

^ V

TOOLSTEEL(Harden)Fnishf tQ005" 3

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Punch

FIG.73.0P7
<Q6Z5"Dnll

1

T00LST€EL(Harden)Fnish/gTlW5' Head Pin

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f
.

FIG.80.OP3O

fQ01"/Si TOOLSTEEL(Harden)Finish/g-im" FirishfcQOl "/StampNameofCartridgeCase._ Ear \r Operation. OieNumber. Place of Die

/

IS

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\

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\

I

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Do not harden this end.

'

Stamp Name ofCartridge Case.
Operation.PlaceofManufo

Tobe turnedafter other end

has been hardened andground.

ana DatefYearJ.

ill
Ir^.f.HJ
i

102
^.?.^j.
665"23.95
TOOL STEEL(Harden)Fimshf t0.005"

TOOL STEEL(Harden) Finish

fa 10005
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Punch

OP 10

T00LSTEEL(Harden)Finishf*QO05"

665"---

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FIG.8I.OP35

9

4 m Sectbn

"

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Stamp Name ofCartridgeCase Operation. DieNumber.Place of Manufacture, and Da/rOkir).

i

/ \0B—*y
u
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11"--/—- *k-- -35"/- -^USStd. Thread.

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-/--J

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%
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has been hardenedandground, andDate(Year).
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Punch

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-^ht^*"*i —?5f"——H

9

FIG.82.OP37

F!G.75,OP13

[85]

e&ymJ
"U V*i '£&3?"
.

tough bored Q375"dkim. tfandvkct toQ44

/

*-/2J8!~**fJ8t
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*-— £$**?
*l

Punch
FJ6 89, OP.
16

Tapering

Die

(?*» OPERATION)

FIG. 95. OP. 37

[86]

The operation
the

lists,

mation on the other cartridge cases up to 6

dimensions, dies and other inforin. in both
:

5
6

Wash and
Pickle and

anneal

wash

7
8

Second draw; punch and

gun and howitzer

types are as follows

Wash and
Wash and
tons
tons

tons

die, Fig.

110; pressure, 20

anneal

9

Pickle and

wash

Cartridge Case foe 3.8-In. Howitzer,

10 11 12 13

Third draw; punch and
anneal
Pickle and

die,

Fig. Ill; pressure, 16

Model 1908
Details of Cartridge Case
108.

wash

Maximum diameter, 6.005 in.; minimum diameter, imum thickness, 0.431 in.; minimum thickness, 0.421
3.739 lb.

Pressure

—Fig. Required — 50 tons.

operation

1.

cupping
107.

Punch and Die
of

Dimensions

Disk

— Pig. —
max-

6 in.; in.; weight,

14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24

Fourth draw; punch and die, Fig. Wash and anneal Pickle and wash Fifth draw; punch and die, Fig.
tons

112; pressure, 13

113;

pressure, 10

SUCCEEDING OPERATIONS
Operation
2 3

Wash and

4

Pickle and wash First draw; punch and die, Fig. 109; pressure required, 30 tons

anneal

Fifth-draw trim Wash for heading Heading; die, Fig. 114; pressure, 1000 tons Rough-turn head and drill primer hole Broach Burr out Point anneal Taper; die, Fig. 115; pressure, 20 tons

Ammunition OO/berp Stamp Lot No of 0J0jTap-4Jfr//r.l/SSfd -A\<005''Q0l'' +1)000' Thread,OJS%ep_ -y-lUsyft jW"-0MZ" ~?
.

/

0.000"

3FilisterHeadScrews eaually spaced.
H/\H- W7U)^>\ C

Q045"-a00A

-&*

,;

m

nireS7M

*Mff0Ol
,

U Cup, Rate

....W-.

SJS---'
10.15"tk m TuTTmli Model ofHmitzer Stamp Name and andPtaceand Year ofManufacture. Letters and FiguresOOf Deep.

r ,/ ///>/• ^^mS+OOOO'-u Seat for 110brain' 0.14 -/£wc"T
Percussion frimer.Pough
*
|

•*"

f '*OZ" 0OOS"*'FinishfApprox.O2"k>ck from'shoulder
"

U--

---/ois"ooo/'

-4
I

"j«
j${
'001'

»+0000

TOOL5TEa(Harden)FinishJ[^^0i

Cupping

,

Bored 03JS"Diam.MandreledtoQ44"
,
,

\^

ems

«-/.65tr

T00L5TEELfinish/-L

T00L5TECL

]

Punch Holde

(Harden) hnishfy?0005"

FIG.II3

Tapering

FIG. 115

[87]

25
26 27 28 29 30

Finish-turn heads
Drill for screw-eyes Tap for screw-eyes

19
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

Stamp

Wash and
tons

Sixth draw; punch and die, Fig. 123; pressure tons Sixth-draw trim; remove 20 per cent.

20

anneal

Final trim Inspect

Pickle and wash

Seventh draw; punch and

die, Fig. 124;

pressure, 15

Cartridge Case for 4.7-In. Gun, Model 1906

operation
Details of Cartridge Case
117.

Pressure

— 65

— Fig.

1.

cupping
116.

diameter, 8.630 thickness, 0.505
8.987 lb.

in.; in.;

minimum minimum

tons.

Dimensions

Fig. of Disk Maximum diameter, 8.625 in.; maximum thickness, 0.495 in.; weight,

Punch and Die

Seventh-draw trim "Wash for heading Heading; die, Fig. 125; pressure, 1400 tons Rough-turn head and drill primer hole Broach Burr out
Point anneal Taper; die, Fig. 126; pressure, 45 tons Finish-turn head Stamp; pressure, 15 tons Final trim Inspect

SUCCEEDING OPERATIONS
Operation
2
3

32 33 34 35

"Wash and anneal

4

Pickle and wash First draw; punch and die, Fig. 118; pressure, 60 tons

Cartridge Case for 4.7-In. Howitzer, Models of
1907, 1908

Wash and
tons

anneal

Pickle and

wash

operation

Second draw; punch and

die, Fig. 119: pressure, 45

Wash and
9

anneal

Pickle and

10
11 12 13 14 15 16

Third draw; punch and

wash wash

Details of Cartridge Case Fig. 127. Punch and Die Fig. 128. Pressure 90 tons. Dimensions of Disk Maximum diameter, 7.105 in.; minimum diameter, 7.100 in.; maximum thickness, 0.465 in.; minimum thickness, 0.455 in.; weight, 6 lb

1.

and 1912 cupping

die,

Fig. 120; pressure, 40

9 oz.

Wash and

tons

anneal
die, Fig.

SUCCEEDING OPERATIONS
Operation
121; pressure, 30
2
3

Pickle and

Fourth draw; punch and

Wash and

Wash and
Wash and

tons

Pickle and wash Fifth draw; punch and tons

anneal

4

die,

Fig. 122; pressure, 25

5

Wash and
tons

Pickle and wash First draw; punch and die, Fig. 129; pressure, tons

anneal

5

anneal

6

Pickle and

wash

17 18

anneal

Pickle and

wash

Second draw; punch and

die, Fig.

130; pressure, 4o

A

'f05'-'cW5

•^Harden 7Appro*. k/j2h//

r*

~r-atS---M

I

^W-0675"/f Yq05 Ru,.. \

;

^mV-}75"**5"~>MW5^

££r
SHEETBRASS
TOOLSTEEL. Fnish/glOOOS"

S7^

¥ 1.125"

l-

n#.

m "^
3
58?"-

z*WQ"_ \J^X°"j
/ "

W

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J?

TDOLSTZEL(Harden)F,n,d,/gl(XW

3^ Draw
Y
h

^rd-n

FIG.I20

Dra "

Diaphragm

Kitt'mz*

r -;,-->\

>|
.1

V

SoftSolderComposition:-5Parts Tin^&rtsLeadJRirtBismuth xi

j.

fT
* I7Sk-375"*h- 325 *< - -575" •>) /V--7*
TOOL STEEL(Horden)Fmshfg -0005"

Capacity 25/Cuhic Inches

Wight ofCase 7875Lbs Weight ofCharge 584Lhs.

U
>K J'
>\
'

15.5-

4th Draw
'&

iMenterofCrwtyfote^Wf'
I

U
|

TOOLSTEEL. Finish/

l452

»

IfiBfJmto/tieU,
Seat for 110 Grains ftrcussion Primer

Kgf-^SS. «~-

----"----,

/^Vl&Sr§±\>-QB6'
atfburlhntsineachoftheTwoGrooves.
Crimps located 45"apart. 067

g 4*Draw

FIG.I2I

>t >^ ChrfrjaeCasefobecnmped

C02"Deep.filled*ithRedlbntt

IndicatesthaflOZofthe

Rough BoredQ575"DamMandrelcd toQ44"
Finish Bore fopers 0.6% Large Fnd.
u-....

Shrapnelire fitted mth a
ShellTracer

mo0esmlT^e&M®g$ «*& f

$** -- Harden 12'faro*--- 4j
-115%-

+\*044
>

Taper

0007'in D/am. per Inch in Length
'

ForQfiflatFil.
-*i

LTfU 375">*--475" <+*
-

- 725" - VU\«,

V
FIG. 122

I02"--;

•«=-— —-H

Stdim

5frlKhUS, -*

\yV* _± $ M'Deep" *''"', W5W^~ P " V 75^-175 *<3375* U
025"hpStd.
',

K-

185"

•;

v

4"

TOOLSTEELlHardenJFnish/g -'0005

5fK Draw

TOOLSTEEL.Fmishfg 1Q005

W--S.5 --'!*<— -5— -A
TOOLSTEEL.Fmishfg 10005

m

5+h
I2.5t0.002----

° raW

-

-

A
I

Operat^.flaceof
Manufacture and

FIG.II7
.

T00LSTEEL(Harden)FinishfytQ005

0625"DrillfPeep

0525 Drill

M m m l"Dm..^0en4^^V

u

^, *

,,,,.„,, er

r069»i5"

f

.1

%:

Cupping

-OP-

H

-Wft
ri&-jft
-x/V-^"
k.
'

'jf.

82:

-

T00LSTEa.(rbrden)FInish/gW5'

W^jU^l75^375"^2.75W75^:m K
'

K-

1244-

•-,

*r SharpCorner
on all Dies. „

\<-55"
TOOLSTEEL Finish th
,

TV0a7m(Harden)Fnishfy- a005''

fg 10005"

FIG.I23
*<z0575"

6 +h Draw

TOOLSTCEL,RnishfglOW5"
st
I

FIG.II8

Draw
±0625"

— L025W02-

Draw

6

Draw
22" Appro*
-

mmi
tuts**

-*&,-- --Harden

-+?

•SFj

:/•';

i"mp

to

-—10"

>K---

-A 175^-575 ->*- -4"- -^-5'-^t~....jrc~tL. ->4<-.

- -

X

069

'-

H
FIG.II9

Of-- J»
2

H--55"->i<-

23"

"

//"-

—:«ft
~---A
Stamp Nameof&rtridge
Case.0peration.Pfaceof

TOOL STEEL, Finshfy -'0005

-7^ ~-

-

.->-J

70a Jr«Z (Harden)Finish/g 107X75

2J

7
StampNameofCarlndv

Draw

TOOLSTEB. Finish

fy -'0005

nd Draw

a

^r^j
\

FIG. 124

A
"

''

Manufacture andDateifear).

2

nd

Draw

I

FMnUSMThd,^^

P
MtOtlNE STEEL
,i

f-—825*0002

^^/-/i/i^vr^

Case.Operation.Hace ot Lose.Vperomn.nace of

*]
.

S

*!,,„„/„<;,«( and
,

MM.
t*

waj^— ga
,ESf^
J*.*
a25yeam.Q3Veep':

,,.//

»J *

~"'2S?fS!l

i

Fimsh/iiVl" Bolt

Wfiyv. ^^If/J-W/"-;,
.

U

f

fef'' ..,

«/

497-:^ -W^ *l.
fg 10005*

wyw" ^"T

r*

i65"----~---'~-',\ M4CHWEJriTL,

K

7WLSmL(Harden)F^fymf'^JlOOI
lj..j.._ Heading.
Ring
*i//5T.

TOOLSTEEL (Harden)Finish

L25K^hj»^,,2U.

"

•»///k
1975"-

*i//A

mX-SfEElfHarden)

~4iM
FIG. 125
_, _ ,__

Fnish/a SCW5

/

7*- Draw
FIG.I24B

FIG.I253

TOOLSTEEL (Harden)Fmishfyl0O0S

Tapering

T0CL5TEEL(Harden)F,n,shfyi0005

Head Rn

Head RjncK

A
[88]

.

FIG.

I

8

i<-

-075'- ->it«

45Th reads per

St**
bmss,±QW5'
Cartridge Case
IZIb.

Stamp Lot N°
:

lnch,US.Std.

ofAmmunition

Screw Eye

Charge
Total

L9JL
41 lb.

Solder with soft Solder. Tear otf after

Assembling

/

in

Cartridge Case

X- ffoLgA forec/ 0.37$"Diam.
Mandreled to 0.41 "Diam.
Finish Bore Taper 0.4698"

at large End.
ai'Tap

Taper 0.002'in Diam. per Inch in Length

jji
i

Solder with

|!

M'Deep

i^soff Solder
\<--3.5"W3-->
CARTRIDGE BRASS
Total Length ?2J6'iW'-

**
SHEET BRASS.0.01" Thick

Stamp Name and Model of Gun, Place and Yearof Manufacture.
Letters

and Figures OM'Deep

Cartridge Case
FIG. 136

Composition of soft Solder 3 Parts Lead, 3 Parts Tin,
I Part

Diaphragm

Bismuth

Diaphragm to press /against Charge Bag

Stamp Home and Model of Howitzer and Place and
Yearof Manufacture. Letters
>ndFigures QOc'Deep

e..

[Ammunition

S*.«mp Lot N* of QOZ Seep

Y-.'^T
*\\

'Solid

braided white
e

Cotton Cord N 3i

DipinhoiParaffine

1

n"/.

Flat
Filisterhead

U-


„,
z.-

MACH.STEEL

li

0.615

tf3^«k£*rfc L *8S m
<5r

M'Approx* Harden
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I?'*

Std.Screw\y^
ne?n»
-:

JCup Plate I §
%

finish

/tt'vf
;

„„

.

Ik-

y/,r

**«3gif&
hO->i V :v •& 5*

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i_
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Cartridge Case

.

Jfanrihrdtn* n5", 30°
'•*

h

ly

" ±0
7,0
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h .*'

r 5?

srrrrrA—rsSz i^r->

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k-

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k-

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^1/75^375 m*^MZ?'^5.575'*I

£

""_;

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K— 55

•tf-

5 +-

h

aw»

Draw

^^

i4"i

FIG. 155
0625'Dhll

Jt

^

\<—
I* Draw
FIG.I5I

-

13.94-

r -->4/75l'375'»f--55 ->t< -^--•></5t<"« -55"-->^ >t 13ht, _ -

§
6

Draw
,

FIG. 156
f<

16.5"-

H
J

0.625 Drill
,

|

K

ki;'a~^.u~~i~~.

*\4"Apprmf Harden

3";

-1

^T~i^\-

M

f
2
nd -

WTR.

*

^

^|;75V-3.75-+-

- 75 ? --4c-

-^175^ 575" ^2.65 -l

t<-55"->* -5*

Draw
-

K-5.^-^
*
I

FIG. 152
12.5'tBOOZ'—-^ -75'— -"— „-H
I

,^ J/;, -#.375"--6Threads per Inch.
'

1S""-M^-{).5"R. FIG. 157
-

7* Draw

»

•,

.

USStandard
15.5"-

^fc

h-0.875'

ftS d 'H0^5

±-

"\5Apprm.\* Harden u r r-JL QfiZL,

r*

l°S'i,%

WW5>

|h^ v v

-7^y-^_^

4

m"R.
*i /75^ 3 75M25f5>337/>
;

3 "^ Draw
FIG. 153

**l
-

Bolt--''"t37^/7/^54&r^^ _-- iam"- --~>\ mcHSTta^- ^--^u Finish f+/)0l ,„ Heading Punch
-//iWf----H
7.3"

^ m%
x
'
"'v

-HeadPlug
j

%

.

r-ffl

lApprox.Hankrf'
-» i

t<—

r-H

x

!f-flgy'

K(?55'

r
»•--

^j|?5" #'-

-..j
Ring
MACHSTEELFinish/tSOl' Shrink on Die

i--r--l .;^ he
FIG.I59

Heading
FIG.I58

Tapering

r

I

^->J/.75l--37/Hi375K-^^'4\#^
I

iStamp Name of Cartridge Case, Operation, Place of Manufacture and Date (Year) on each Punch •and Die Fit all Shanks to Taper Gage. All Threads 5per Inch, U.S. Std. Pound off shtrp, Comer on all Dies.

Deec

4- Draw
[90]

Cartridge Case for 6-Ix. Howitzer, Models of
1906 and 1908

10
11 12 13 14 15 16

Third draw; punch and

Wash and
Pickle and

tons

die,

Fig.

153;

pressure,

35

anneal

operation
Details of Cartridge Case

Pressure diameter, 9.680
150.

— 75

— Fig. cupping Punch 149.
1.

wash

thickness,
9.0524 lb.

0.405

in.; in.;

minimum diameter, 9.675 in.; maximum minimum thickness, 0.395 in.; weight,

tons.

Dimensions

of

and Die Fig. Disk Maximum

Fourth draw; punch and

SUCCEEDING OPERATIONS
Operation 2 "Wash and anneal
3

4
5

6
7

Pickle and wash First draw; punch and tons Wash and anneal Pickle and wash

17 18 19 20

die,

Fig.

151;

pressure,

50

21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Second draw; punch and

die,

8 9

Wash and
Pickle and

tons

Fig. 152; pressure, 45

Pickle and wash Fifth draw; punch and die, Fig. 155; pressure, 25 tons Fifth-draw trim; trim 50 per cent. Wash and anneal Pickle and wash Sixth draw; punch and die, Fig. 156; pressure, 25 tons Sixth-draw trim Wash and anneal Pickle and wash Seventh draw; punch and die. Fig. 157; pressure, 15 tons Seventh-draw trim

Wash and

tons

die,

Fig. 154; pressure, 30

anneal

anneal

wash

Wash

Heading;

for heading die, Fig. 158; pressure, 1800 tons

Fig. 160

—Polishing
lot

FIGS. 160 TO 165. PREPARING FOR THE LOADING OF THE PROPELLING CHARGE the mouth. Fig. 161 Inserting primer. Fig. 162 Spot drilling for tracer mark. Fig. 163 number. Fig. 164 Weighing and putting in the powder. Fig. 165 Inserting the diaphragm

—Stamping-

[91]

28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

Rough-turn head and Broach Burr out

drill

primer hole

case the

Point anneal Taper; die, Fig. 159, pressure, 40 tens Finish-turn head Drill for screw-eyes Tap for screw-eyes Stamp; pressure, 13 tons Final trim Inspect

powder is put loose into the case, but in others, especially in the howitzer types, the powder is placed in one or more bags. In the howitzer these bags are tied in
of the head.

Loading the Propelling Charge and Assembling to Projectile
Like the various drawing and other operations on the cartridge cases, the loading of the propelling charge follows pretty closely along the same general lines, so that only one size will be followed through. In this particular

by means of cords run through screw-eyes placed inside In a large number of cases the assembling is done in the field or just previous to actual use. This, however, has nothing directly to do with the manufacturing or machining processes, so will not be expanded upon here. The example chosen to illustrate the loading
is the case and projectile for the 3-in. field gun, models of 1902, 190-1 and 1905, and the operations are: Polish mouth 1.

process

2. 3.

3|.

Insert primer Fill color groove Spot for tracer paint

mark

Fig. 166

—Soldering

FIGS. 166
in the

TO

171.

VARIOUS ASSEMBLING, SOLDERING AND TESTING OPERATIONS
Fig. 168—-Creasing machine. Fig. 167 Pressing in the projectile. Packed in boxes Fie. 171 lid. Fig. 170 Testing for leaks.

Soldering on the can

diaphragm.

— —

Fig.

169-

[92]

4.
5. 6.

Stamp
Put
Fill

lot number in propelling

OPERATION
charge

7. 8. 9.

Insert diaphragm Solder in diaphragm

10. 11. 12. 13.

crimping grooves Press in projectile Crimp and drop in can Solder on can top Test and solder small hole Varnish and box

Machine Used Lathe, Fig. 160. Number of Operators Machine One. Work-Holding Devices Chuck; work runsper at 475 ft. surface speed. Production 800 per day. Note No. 2 emery cloth is used, and workman presses it inside of mouth to polish for soldering in diaphragm.

1.

POLISH MOUTH

— —

OPERATION

Machine Used Small hand press, Fig. 161. Number of Operators per Machine One. Production 1850 per day.

2.

INSERT PRIMER

The mouth of the case is polished to provide a clean diabright surface for the soldering in of the retaining The case is chucked as shown in Fig. 160. As phragm. it turns, the operator holds emery cloth so as to polish

OPERATION

3.

Number of Operators One. Description of Operation Operator sets case on end and applies paint to the circular groove in the head. Apparatus and Equipment Used Small round brush and can of paint. Production 2000 per day. Note Colors: Red for high explosives, yellow for shrapnel and black for shell.

FILL COLOR GROOVE

mouth back for several inches. Waste on the end of a stick is also used to wipe the surface clean. Primers are inserted by means of a small hand press, as shown in Fig. 161. They are carried to the bench on board trays holding 200 primers. All cartridge cases intended for use with projectiles having night tracers must be spotted with a blunt-end drill and the spot filled with red paint, as a distinguishing mark. The spotting of the head is done as shown in Fig.
out the
162.

OPERATION

Machine Used Lathe, Fig. 162. Cutting Tools Blunt-point Cut Data Spindle runs 600 r.p.m. Production |-in. gun drill. 200 per hr. Note Ten per cent, of the cases are drilled just enough to hold a dab of red paint to identify those

3 J.

SPOT FOR TRACER PAINT

— —
4.

— MARK

carrying night tracers.

OPERATION
Machine Used
per day.
.

—Hand
5.

STAMP LOT NUMBER
'

press,

Fig.

163.

Production

—1700

OPERATION
of

PUT IN PROPELLING CHARGE

ward

The case is held in a guiding fixture and fed foronto the drill by means of the tailstock spindle.

A

Operators One. Description of Operation Operator weighs and pours charge of smokeless powder into each cartridge case, the amounts being 10,336 gr. for 3-in. shrapnel and 10,910 gr. for 3-in. common shell for field guns.

Number

is used stop bolted to the top of the front lathe bearing to gage the depth of the spot. The lot number is stamped in a hand press, as shown

Apparatus and Equipment Used- Scale, measure and funnel. 950 per day. Fig. 164. Production

OPERATION 6. INSERT DIAPHRAGM Number of Operators One. Apparatus and Equipment —Wooden plug inserting tool, Fig. 165. Production.— Used

The order of some of these minor operain Fig. 163. tions is occasionally varied according to changing shop
conditions, but this is not important. In loading the propelling charge into this case, the required amount of pow-

110 per hr. Note The shoulder on tool the end of the plug.

is

1 J§

in.

back from

OPERATION
Description
of

7.

SOLDER IN DIAPHRAGM

Operation

—Operator

diaphragm
Fig. 166.

Production
8.

to the inside of the cartridge case, 550 to 575 per day.

solders edges of as shown in

der

is

weighed out and poured into

ing shown in Fig.164. The the powder is the pressing in of the diaphragm, which is done with the handled gaging plug illustrated in Fig. 165. In getting ready to solder in the diaphragm the operator first polishes the inside edges of the diaphragm slightly with emery cloth and then proceeds to solder the edges to the case, using ordinary soldering coppers heated in a

the outfit used benext operation after pouring in
it,

OPERATION
1 lb.

FILLING CRIMPING GROOVES OF

PROJECTILE
Description of Operation Operator brushes a mixture of beeswax to 3 lb. of tallow into the crimping grooves at the base of the projectile; this forms an air- and moistureproof seal as the projectile is pressed into the cartridge case. Note Operations 8, 9 and 10 are done by two men, with an output of 875 per day.

OPERATION

9.

PRESSING IN PROJECTILE

bench furnace as shown in Fig. 166. Following the work on the diaphragm, the projectile is pressed in, as shown in Fig. 167, and then the case is

Description of Operation Operator places case in the holding fixture, sets a projectile in place and presses it down until the end of the case contacts with the copper band, as shown This is the same for both the 3-in. common in Fig. 167. Note and the 3-in. shrapnel shell.

OPERATION

10.

CRIMP AND DROP IN CAN

crimped into the grooves at the base of the projectile,' using the machine shown in Fig. 168. Continuous creases all around .are not produced, but indentations like those After crimping, the assembly is thrust at A are made. into the gaging chamber B and then dropped into a tin
can.

Description of Operation The crimping machine, Fig. 168, does not crimp continuous grooves all around the case, but makes eight indentations, staggered as shown at A; after crimping, the shell is thrust into the cylinder gage B, which is the same size as the chamber of the gun; the operator next drops the shell into a tin can.

OPERATION
and places

11.

Description of Operation Operator puts lid on top of can it on the rollers of the fixture shown in Fig. 169; he then securely solders the edges of the top to the can. Production 350 per day.

SOLDER —

ON CAN TOP

next put on and soldered in place in the bench fixture, Fig. 169. The can is tested for leaks with the device illustrated in Fig. 170; and after varnish has been applied wherever the can has not been coated,

The can

cover

is

left

it is

this size, four cans are

ready for packing in boxes, shown in Fig. 171. Of packed in each box. The boxes

Description of Operation A small open air hole has been in the bottom of the can; the operator places the can bottom up and thrusts the nozzle of an air hose into the air hole, as shown in Fig. 170; about 5 lb. air pressure is carried, and the air valve automatically opens as the nozzle is pressed to the can; as the operator presses down the nozzle, he watches the air gage; if it remains stationary the can is it tight, the nozzle is removed and the air hole soldered up; the can leaks, the place is located and soldered. Production 800 to 900 per day.

OPERATION

12.

TEST AND SOLDER SMALL HOLE

are then covered

and nailed ready for shipment.

OPERATION

13.

VARNISHING AND BOXING

Loading

Cartridge Case and Assembling to Projectile for Field Gun
3-In.

is Description of Operation After being soldered, the can varnished wherever it has not been previously coated, and then the cans are placed four in a box, as shown in Fig. 171. Production 1500 per day.

[93]

INDEX
(*

Indicates Illustrations.)

3-in.

Common

Shrapnel, 1-25
*

Diaphragm

:

— Continued
*

Assembling:
Balls, compressing,
20, 21

Heat-treatment, 14 Operation sequence, 7
Scale,

Case,

*
filling,

20, 21

removing from counterbore,
*

14,

15,

15

* * 24 pinning to head, 22, 23, * 22 to head, 22,

Cosmoline, brushing on fuse threads, 24 moistening threads of head and case, 22, * 25 Cover, crimping on, 24, 25, * Crimp on cover, 24, 25, 25 * Diaphragm and tube, 20, 21 * 24 Grooving for waterproof cover, 22, 24, to case, 22, * 23, * 24 Head, pinning to case, 22, * 22 Lead powder charge, * 18, 24, * 25 Lock fuse, 24, * 25

22

Tube, assembling, Weight, 6 Forgings: Chemical tests, 1
*

14,

15, 15

1 Dimensions, Phosphorus content,

1

Physical tests,
Testing, 6

1

Sulphur content,

1

Tool Fuse:

life

turning, 6
case, 24,
*

Assembling to
Description,
Setting, 1
1

25

Operation sequence, 7
* 25 21 interior, 20, Resin, cutting out surplus, 21, Screw in fuse, 24, * 25

Painting, 22. 23, 24,
*

*

21

to safety, 25, * 25 Threads, brushing on cosmoline, 24 Weight, 6

Set fuse to safety, 25,

* * *

25
20, 21

Head:
Assembling to
Countersink, * 10 Details,
*
9, 11, 12,

Tube and diaphragm,
inner, inserting, 22,
*

*

case, 22,

22
*

22
*

12

Turning bourrelet, 7, 22, Wash case in soda water, *

23

20. 21

Balls

:

Locking fuse to, 12 * * 10, Machine, 9,

Casting ingots,

*
18, 19,

*

Compressing in assembly, 20, 21 * * Extruding wire, 18, 19, 19, 20 on punch press, 18, 19, * 19, 21 Forming on special machine, * 18, 19, * 19, 20

19, *

20

* 11, 12 * * 13 Notches, milling, 9, 12, 13, 11 Operation sequence, 6, * Painting, 11, 12, 14 to case, 22, * 23, * 24 Pinning

Production, 11
Resin, facing
filling,

Number

used,

1

*
off,

11, 12,

14
*
9, *

Operation sequence, 7 * Rumbling, 18, 19, 21
*

see "Head-retainer."
11, 12,

Size,

1,

19

Retainer, insert and fill with resin, * Tapping case for, 2

14

Weight, 6

Band:
See also under

"Common
5,

Steel Shell."

Assembling,

10
*

Description, 25

Turning, Weight, 6

* 2, 5,

10

Case:
* 22 Assembling to head, 22, * * 4 Body, turning, 2, 4,

Thread, turning, 11, * Washer, crimp in, 9, 14 Washing, 12, Weight, 6 Head Filler: Weight, 6 Lathe tools, * 3 Locking Pins:

*

11, 13 * 13, 14

Machining,

*

15,

15

Matrix

:

Bourrelet, finishing,
turning,
*
7,

* 4,

7

Weight, 6
Paint, proportions
of,

22,
*

*

Centering,
*

*
2, 4, * 1

23 4

23

Powder:
Amount,
1

Dimensions,
Filling,

20, 21
*
2, 4,

Interior, finishing,

*
7,

10

Loading, Weight, 6

*

*

18, 24,

25

20, 21 Operation sequence, 6

painting,

*

Retainer:
* *
5,

Outside, finishing,

*
2, 4,

6, 7,

10

25 Painting exterior, 22, 23, 24, * * 24 Pinning to head, 22, 23, * Tapping for head, 2 for night tracer, 5, * 8 * Testing, 2, 5 * Washing, 20, 21 Weight, 6
Charge, see "Powder." Cover, waterproof, grooving case
for,.

*

* 17 Machining, 17, Weight, 6 * Tools, standard lathe, 3, 10

Tracer:
Description, 6 Making, 25; see also

"Common
*

steel shell."

Tapping case Tube:

for, 5,

8
* *

Assembling with diaphragm,
Central, machining, 16,
22, 24,
* *

14, 15,

15,

20, 21

16

24

Diaphragm

:

Inner, machining, 16, Weight, 6

*

16

Assembling with tube,
Base, painting, 14,
Drill
*

*

20, 21
*

Washer:
Punching, Weight, 6
[95]
*

15, 15 14, 14, 15

17,

17

and counterbore,

3-in.

Common

Steel Shell, (High Explosive), 26-47
3-in.

Loading '.—Continued
Tools

Band:
See also

"Band" under

Common

Shrapnel; also

under

41, 47 * Tracer, screwing into place, 41, 41, 47
for,

*

"Case."
Annealing, 43
* * 35, 36, 37 Assembling to case, from tubing, * 42, 43 Cutting Operations in machining, 47 Pickling, 43

Weighing

*

case,

39, 39,

46
*

Night Tracer:
Assembling with case, 41, 41, 47 Counterboring, drilling, and tapping,
Drilling, counterboring,
*

43,
*

and tapping,
*

43,

43 43

End, facing and threading,

44,

44

Planishing,

*

*

40,
*

42, 43,
*

47

Tools used,

35, 43
37, 43

Turning,

*

35, 37,

Washing, 43 Weight of, 29

Base Cover:
See also "Loading."

Assembling to Weight of, 29 Case:

*

*

case,

40,

41, 41,

47

* 46 trimming, 46, end and threading, 44, * 44 Facing Loading, counterboring powder, 46, * 46 ignition mixture, 46, * 46 illuminating powder, 46, * 47 operations, 46, * 46 retarding mixture, 46, in machining, 47 Operations

*

46

Tapping,
*

drilling

and counterboring,
*

43,

*

43

Trimming end,
*

46,

46

Band, assembling,
seat, knurling,
*

35, 31, 33,

36,

37

Use

of,

26

34
43
* *

Night Tracer Disks:
Ignition tube, assembling to outer disk, 44, *45

turning,
turning,
*

*

32, 33,
*

34
37,
*

35, 37,
*

Ignition tubes, milling, 44,
34, 36,

*

45

Base cover groove,
roughing,
*

finishing,
35,
*

37

turning, -44,

*

45

34, 35,

37
*
*

facing,
finishing,

32, 33,
*

34
29, 30,
*

27,

*

30,

31,

32,

34

notching,

*

27, 33,
*

34.

rough facing, Body, finishing,
roughing,
*

28,
* *

28,
*

36 30
*

Inner disk, punching, 44, * 44 * * Operations on, 45, 47 44, Outer disk, assembling to ignition tube, 44, * 45 punching, 44,
Painting, see "Loading." Trinitrotoluol, see "Loading." Weight of various parts, 29

*

45

27, 33,
28,

34,

36

27,
*

29,

30

Bourrelet, roughing, 36

29 * 35, 38 Counterboring, 34, * 33 Gaging, 28, 30, Inspecting, 45
Centering, 28,
Interior, boring,
*

United States Navy Projectiles, 48-55 Air vents, cutting in sinusoidal ribs, 53, * 53
3-in.

27,

*

32, 33,
*

36

rough boring, sand blasting,
Point, finishing,

34, 35,
*

35 38, 38, 45
*

American Car & Foundry Co., 48 * Band, fitting, 53, 53 and finishing, * 53, 54, * 54 roughing score and base, turning, 49, * 49, 51
cutting sinusoidal ribs
in, 52,
* *

52,
*

53

Operations on, 29
*

32, 33,
*

roughing,

*

27, 28,

29,
*

33 36
38, 39,

Tapping,

*

30, 33,
*

34
*

Testing, hydraulic,

36, 29, 33,

45

maintaining position of, 53 Base and land score, turning, 49, * 49, * 49 facing, 49, hole in, drilling, 48, 49 * marking, 50, 52

51

Thread shoulder,
*

37

35, 43 Threading, 31, * Threads, resizing, 34, 35, 38 * * Tools used, 29, 30 27, Weight of, 29

*

reaming, counterboring, and tapping, * 50 Body, finishing, 50,
roughing, 50,
* *

*

53,

54

50,
*

51

Bourrelet, finishing, 50,
*

50

Carriage, special for roughing body, 50

Cover, base, see "Loading."
Details of complete projectile,
*

26

Detonator, 26
Explosive, see "Loading."
Forgings, details
*

49 Centering, 48, * 49 Centers, drilling, 48, Cuts, drilling base, 49
turning base, 49
'

of,

26
* *

facing base, 50

Fuse:
Assembling with case, 40, 40, Case, reaming hole in explosive Weight of, 29
41,

47
*
*

for, 40,

40,

41,

47

roughing band score, 50 band score, 50 roughing body, 50
finishing

Holding devices for various parts, Loading: Cover, attaching and calking,
Explosive, 26

30, 36,
*
*

37
41, 41, 47

40,

body and bourrelet, 50 roughing and finishing point, 51 cutting sinusoidal ribs, 53 turning band, 54 Dimensions of projectile, * 48
finishing

compressing,
filling

*

39, 40,
*

case with, 39,
of,

47 39
*

Eccentricity, testing forging for, 49,

*

49

Facing base, 49,
41, 47
* *

nature

46
*
in, 40,

reaming hole weight of, 29

40,

50 Feeds, drilling base, 49 turning base, 49 facing base, 50
49,

*

40, Fuse, screwing into place, 40, Operations involved, 45 * * Painting exterior, 41, 47 40, 40, * interior, 39, 39, 45

41,

47

roughing band score, 50
finishing

band

score, '50

roughing body, 50
*

Threads and counterbore, cleaning,

*

40,

40,

41,

47
[96]

finishing body and bourrelet, 50 roughing and finishing point, 51

Feeds, cutting sinusoidal ribs, 53

Case:

— Cordinued
;
'

\ •.••••»
"

l":*\


a

*

turning band, 54
Forgings, details of, distortion of, 49

counterboring fuse hole, 54 * * 51 48,
*

Washing, 56 Diaphragm, operations on, 58 * 56 Forging, details of, 56,

. . •

'•*.?'•?

Head:
49

testing for eccentricity, 49,

Fuse

hole, reaming, counterboring
*

and tapping,

*

53,

54

Countersinking, 58 Filling, 58

Gaging,

50, 52,

52
*

for facing base, 50,

50
* *

Holding
*

projectile,

methods

of, 48, 49,

49, 50,

50, 51, 52,
*

Grooving for cover, 58 Inspect, 58 Machining from bar, 58
Notches, milling, 5S Painting inside, 58 Pin to case, 58

52, 53,

54
53,

Hole for fuse, reaming, counterboring and tapping, Hole in base, drilling, 48, 49 * 54, 55 Interior, lacquering, * washing, 54, 55 * 54, 55 Lacquering interior, Loading, 55 Lubricants, drilling base, 49 turning base and band score, 49 finishing band score, 50 finishing body and bourrelet, 50 roughing and finishing point, 51 cutting sinusoidal ribs, 53 turning band, 54 tapping fuse hole, 54 Machines, type necessary, 48

54

Reassemble to

case,

58

Resin, cut out surplus, 58

Retainer, placing, 58 Threading, 58 Threads, coating with cosmoline, 58 Tube, insert, 58 Washer, crimping, 58 Loading operations, 58 Locking pins, machining, 58
* 56 Projectile, details of complete, 56,

Retainer, machining, 58
\

Tube:
Central, machining, 58 Inner, machining, 58
inserting in head, 58

Marking base,
Painting, 55

*

50,

52
*

Point, finishing, 50,

50,

*

51

Washer:
Crimping, 58 Punch, 58

* * 51 50, roughing, 50, Pressure for landing, 54 Sinusoidal ribs, cutting, 52, cutting air vents in, 53,

* *

*

52,

53

53

Speeds, drilling base, 49

turning base, 49
finishing

band

score, 50

Common Shrapnel (60 lb.), * 57, 58 Common Shrapnel (120 lb.), * 57, * 58, 3.8-in. Common Steel Shell Model 1905, 59, 4.7-in. Common Steel Shell Model 1905, 59
4.7-in.

6-in.

*

59 59

roughing body, 50

Band:
Assembling with
Turning, 59
case,

body and bourrelet, 50 roughing and finishing point, 5l
finishing

59

cutting sinusoidal ribs, 53

turning band, 54

Base Plug: Machine from

bar, 59
lathe, 59

counterboring fuse hole, 54 tapping fuse hole, 54
Testing, 50, 52,
Tools, turning
*

Notching base, 61 Thread, external, cutting on
external, milling, 61
*

52
score

band

and base,
*

*

49,

49,

50

internal, milling, 59

* turning point, 50, 51 sinusoidal ribs, 52, turning * turning band, 53, 54

Wrench
53,

slots, milling,

61

53

Case:
Band, assembling with
turning, 59
case,

59

reaming, counterboring and tapping base. 54 * Washing, 54, 55

Weighing, 52,
3.8, 4.7

*

52

and

6 in.

Common

Shrapnel and High Explosive Shells,
lb.),

56-61
3.8-in.

Common Shrapnel (30 Band, see "Case."
:

56

Base cover grooves, machining, 59 machining interior and exterior, 59 Body, finishing, 59 roughing, 59 Bourrelet, finish grinding, 59 roughing, 59 Dimensions of, 59, * 60

Case

Heat
case,

treating, 59
test,

Band, assembling with turning, 50 Body, turning, 56
Bourrelet, finishing, 56

56

Hydraulic

59

Point, finishing, 59 Threads in base, milling, 59

Forging, dimensions
6-in.
*

*

of, 59,

60
.

roughing, 56
Centering, 56

Common

Steel Shell, 61

Dimensions, finished, 56, Exterior, finishing, 56 Head, assembling, 56 disassembling, 56 finishing, 56 Hydraulic test of, 56 Interior, finishing, 56 Ogive, roughing, 56 Painting interior, 56

56

Naval Shells, 62-70 Band, cutting grooves in, 68 finishing, 68 score, 65 * Banding, 65, 66 Base, counterboring, 68 * marking, 65, 67
6-in.

plugs, installing, 69,

*

*

69,

70

machining, 69
[97]

V
Base, plugs mnnboi-mg, rounding, 65
threading, 68,
*
(V>

I

Diaphragm

:

—Continued
*
*
*

68
*

Blanking, 81, Details of, 72,
interior,

Boring heads and bars for Bourrelet, finishing, 68
Cavity, see "Interior."

64,

65

Forming, 81, Operation sequence, 80 * 82 Piercing, 81,
Solder to tracer tube, 81

82 72 82

Center of gravity, 62 Centering forgings, 63,

*

63 64

Drawing,

*

*

72,

*

*

*

73,
*

74,
*

75, 76,
* *

76

* 63, Centers, drilling in forging,

Finish trim, 78,

78,
*

80
78;

Chucks

for holding shells, 62

Head,

finishing,
*
*

76, 77, 75,
*

79

Concentricity, 62 Cost of equipping machines, 69 Cost of shells, 69 Counterboring base, 68 Cuts, roughing body, 65

roughing,

76
75,
*
*

Heading,

72, 75,
*

76
*

Inspecting, 78,

79,
*
in,

80,

81

Loading and Assembling to Projectile:
Can, placing
92,
*

93

roughing and finishing interior, 65 * 66, 67 Eccentricity, gaging for, 62 Essentials of machining, Feeds, roughing body, 65 finishing outside, 68 * * 67 66, 67, Finishing outside, * 63 Forgings, centering, 63, * details of, 62, 65
setting correctly for turning outside, 64

* soldering test hole, 92, 93

soldering top,

92, 93

* 92, 93 testing for leaks,

Charge, nature
placing,
*

of,

92
93

91,
*

93

Color groove,

filling,

Crimping,
grooves,

92,

93
93
*

filling,

Diaphragm,
soldering,

inserting,
*

91,

93

Gaging, 63,

Groove
Holding

66, 67, 67, 63, 64, at rear of band, cutting, 68 projectiles,

*

*

*

68
69

92, 93
*

methods
*

of, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68,

Mouth, polishing, Number, stamping,

91,
*

91,
*

93 93
92,

Interior, boring,

65 70
*

Operation sequence, 92
Projectile, pressing in,
*

lacquering, 69,

93
*

70 Lacquering interior, 69, Lubricant, turning body, 65 boring interior, 65 finishing outside, 68 Machines, methods of setting-up, 62 * Marking size before finishing, 66, 67 * * 67 66, 67, Outside, finishing, * * rough turning, 63, 64, 64 * 70 Painting, 69, * * 70 69, Plugs, installing base, 69,
machining base, 69 numbering base, 69
Pressure applied in banding, 67

Primer, inserting, 91, 93 Spot for tracer point mark, Operation sequence, 73

91,

93

Ordnance department specifications, 71 Pickle and wash, 72, * 73, 74, 75, 76 Point annealing, 77, * 78 Primer: Hole for, broaching, 76, * 77
burring,
drilling,
*
*

75, 77,
*

77
*

75,
*

76
*

punching,
Position
Specifications, 71

72,
*

75,

76,

77

of, 72,

72
*

Radius, finishing, 68 turning attachment, Sinusoidal ribs, * 64, 65

Stamping head,
*

*

*

72, 77,
*

78,

79

63,

64

Tapering, 77,

*

78,

79

Tube for Tracer:
Annealing, 81 Assemble with diaphragm, 81 * 82 Blanking, 81, * * 83 Drawing, 81, 82,

* 64, 66 cutting air vents in, Size, marking before finishing, * 66, 67

Speeds, roughing body, 65

roughing and finishing interior, 65 finishing outside, 68 * Threading base, 68, 68 * for handling shells, 69, 69 Tongs Tools, for turning outside of body, 64, 65 for boring interior, * 64, 65

Operation sequence, 80
Pickling, 81

Solder to diaphragm, 81

Trimming, 81, Washing, 81
ribs,

*

83

rounding base, cutting band score and sinusoidal finishing outside, 68 * * 70 Washing, 69, 69, * * Weighing, 66, 67, 67, 68, 69 Weight, 62

65

Trim,

Trimming,

* * finish, 78, 78, * * *

80
* *

72,

73,

74, 75, 77, 73, 74, 75,

78,

80

Wash and Wash and

76 * 73, 74, 75, 76 pickle, 72, Washing for heading, 75
anneal, 72,
3-in.

*

3- to 6-in. Cartridge Cases, 71-93 3-in. Field Gun Case, Models 1902, 1904, 1905, 72-80

Mountain Howitzer Case, Models 1907 and 1911,
*

*

80,

Anneal and wash, 72, * 73, 74, 75, 76 Assembling to projectile, see "Loading." * 77 Broaching primer hole, 76, * * * 74 72, 73, 73, Cupping, 72,
Detailed drawing, 72, *72

Diaphragm:
Assemble with tube for tracer, 81

* 85 Pounder, Model 1898-1902, 82, 83, Model 1903, 83, * 86 Pounder, 3.8-in. Howitzer Case, Model 1908, 87, * 87 * 4.7-in. Gun Case, Model 1906, 88, 88 * 4.7-in. Howitzer Case, Models 1907, 1908 and 1912, 88, 89, 89 * 90 6-in. Gun Case, * 6-in. Howitzer Case, Models 1906 and 1908, 90, 91

81, 82, 3-in. Gun Case, 15 3-in. Gun Case, 15

84

[98]

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