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Determination Of Critical Process Parameters On The

Application Of An Aqueous, High Gloss Film Coating System
Charles F. Vesey and Kurt A. Fegely, New Products Development, Colorcon West Point, PA
Objectives
To use a statistically-designed set of experiments to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of critical process variables on
both the elegance of film coated tablets and the overall coating application process.
Methodology
Employing the use of a design of experiment (D.O.E.) technique, an experimental plan was developed to assist in investigating the
effects of several film-coating process variables on the elegance of film-coated tablets. An O'Hara Technologies Labcoat II 24''
side-vented coating pan, equipped with two Schlick nozzles (model # 930-33), was used for all coating runs.
Variable Name Units Low Level High Level
Atomization Air Pressure psi 15 50
Pattern Air Pressure psi 0 55
Gun-to-Bed Distance inches 2 5
Spray Rate gmin
-1
55 75
Inlet Air Temperature °C 60 90
Process Air Flow cfm 200 325
Coating Pan Experimental Process Variables
Range
The process parameter ranges selected were designed to encompass and exceed those settings typically used with the particular
coating equipment used in the study. All other process variables were held constant.
The CARD® software package by S-Matrix was used to generate a computer algorithm design. This design enabled our New
Products Development (NPD) group to quantify all significant variable effects, including linear, curvilinear, and non-linear effects.
The software generated an experimental design of 51 coating trials. Included in the design were five replicate pairs for purposes
of determining experimental error.
All coating trials in the experiment used 11 mm double radius, 500 mg placebo tablets. A total batch weight of 17.0 kg was used
for each coating trial.
The coating solution used in the experiment was a developmental high gloss film-coating system.
Response variables examined were gloss, surface roughness, product bed temperature, coating process efficiency (CPE), and
film coating uniformity (CU).
Technical Data
Poster Reprint
Response Variable Units
1. Gloss GU
2. Surface Roughness Ra
3. Product Bed Temperature °C
4. Coating Process Efficiency %
5. Film Coating Uniformity mg
Determination Of Response Variable Values
Gloss
Following the spray coating process, tablets were analyzed for gloss using a Model 801A Gloss Analysis System (Tricor Systems,
Inc). This system enables gloss measurement to be made regardless of the shape, texture, or color of samples to be analyzed.
This system provides the experimenter with a reliable and consistent means to undertake a quantitative analysis on a traditionally
qualitative property of coated tablets. Operation of this instrument is explained in greater detail elsewhere.(1)
Surface Roughness
Surface roughness measurements were performed on tablets using a Surfcorder, model
SE-40G from Kosaka Laboratory LTD.
Surface roughness of film coated tablets can be quantified by determining various characteristic values, the most commonly used
being arithmetic mean surface roughness (Ra). This may be defined as the arithmetic mean value of the departure of the roughness
profile above and below a central reference line over a measured distance.(2)
The following is a graphic illustration of this concept
Ra is calculated according to the following
[ [
dx x y
l
Ra
l
[
[
0
1
Following spray coating, twenty randomly selected tablets from each coating trial were used to determine surface roughness of
that batch. A 1.0 mm transverse length with a 0.1 mmsec-1 drive speed and 0.8 mm cutoff were used in all tests.
Product Bed Temperature
Product bed temperature data were obtained from an average of recorded values collected during each coating trial using an
infrared thermometer.
Coating Process Efficiency (CPE)
CPE is generally defined as a measure of the determined actual coating applied expressed as a percentage of the theoretical
amount of coating intended to be applied. CPE is computed as:
% 100 ×
(
¸
(

¸

=
t
a
wg
wg
CPE
where wgt is the theoretical percent weight gain and wga is the actual percent weight gain, which is computed as:
% 100 ×
(
¸
(

¸

÷
=
b
b a
a
wt
wt wt
wg
where wtb and wta are the total batch weights before and after coating respectively.(3) All measurements were corrected for
moisture content.
Film Coating Uniformity (CU)
CU is generally defined as the variation in weight gain of coated tablets within a coating trial. For the purposes of this experiment,
CU will be expressed as the first standard deviation of the weight gain variation in milligrams and is calculated by:
( ) | |
1
2
÷
÷ ÷
=
¿
n
x wt wt
sd
b a
Where wta and wtb are the weights of the individual tablets after and before coating, respectively, n is the number of tablets
measured and x is the average weight gain of the n measured tablets from the coating trial. (3) Again, all measurements were
corrected for moisture content.
In each experimental trial, 100 tablets were marked to allow for tracking and retrieval of individual tablets by a method described
in greater detail elsewhere.(4)(5) This method provided an effective means of determining the coating uniformity in each coating
run thereby allowing the assessment of process changes on coating uniformity.
Response Variable Units Range
1. Gloss GU 160 - 248
2. Surface Roughness Ra 1.7 - 3.8
3. Product Bed Temperature °C 29 - 65
4. Coating Process Efficiency % 76 - 98
5. Film Coating Uniformity mgs 0.7 - 4.1
Results
Summary Of Ranges In Values Of Response
Variables Obtained
The CARD Analysis of Data software was used for the analysis of response data. As part of the analysis output, variable effect
terms are ranked based on the relative strengths of their effects on the response being analyzed. Pie charts are used to illustrate
this in each case. Response surface graphs were also generated comparing the interactive effects of the process variables on the
individual responses.
1. Gloss
Rank Order Of Influence Of Process Variables On
Gloss
Pattern Air
24%
Distance
23%
Atom. Air
15%
Distance x Inlet Temp.
10%
Distance²
9%
Air Flow²
7%
Pattern Air x Distance
6%
Distance x Spray Rate
6%
Influence Of Pattern Air Pressure & Gun-to-Bed Distance On Gloss
Atomization Air = 33 psi; Spray Rate = 65 gmin
-1
; Inlet Temp. = 75°C;
Air Flow = 263 cfm
0
11
22
33
44
55
2.0
2.6
3.2
3.8
4.4
5.0
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
G
l
o
s
s

(
G
U
)
Pattern Air (psi) Distance (inches)
240-250
230-240
220-230
210-220
200-210
190-200
180-190
170-180
Gloss values obtained ranged from 160 - 248.
Rank order of influence indicates that gun-to-bed distance, pattern and atomization air pressures accounted for the majority of
effects on gloss.
Increasing the gun-to-bed distance and/or pattern air pressure resulted in decreasing gloss values. This effect is likely to result
from an increase in the incidence of a condition known as "spray drying" which can produce a dulled tablet finish.
Increasing the gun-to-bed distance resulted in a longer distance a droplet of coating solution is required to travel, prior to
impingement with the tablet bed leading to increased drying of droplets. Increasing pattern air pressure, which changes the
shape of the spray pattern generated from a solid cone to an elliptical shape, will also increase travel distance.
Increases in atomization air pressure produced higher gloss values by increasing the momentum of the atomized droplet,
thereby reducing droplet travel time and potentially increasing impact spreading of the droplets, once they make contact with
the tablet surface.
Rank Order Of Influence Of Process Variables On Surface Roughness
Pattern Air
30%
Spray Rate
6%
Distance x Inlet Temp.
12%
Pattern Air x Spray Rate
9%
Distance²
5%
Pattern Air x Air Flow
5%
Pattern Air x Inlet Temp.
14%
Air Flow
13%
Atom. Air²
6%
Influence Of Pattern Air Pressure & Inlet Air Temperature On Surface Roughness
Atomization Air = 33 psi; Gun-to-Bed Distance = 3.5’’; Spray Rate = 65gmin
-1
; Air
Flow = 263 cfm
0
11
22
33
44
55 60
66
72
78
84
90
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
S
u
r
f
a
c
e

R
o
u
g
h
n
e
s
s


(
R
a
)
Pattern Air (psi)
Inlet (°C)
3.5-4
3-3.5
2.5-3
2-2.5
1.5-2
Rank order of influence indicated that no single process variable demonstrated a dominant effect on the resulting surface roughness.
However, pattern air pressure did figure prominently as an individual and interactive affector.
An increase in pattern air pressure resulted in a decrease in surface roughness. This observation is contradictory to results noted
elsewhere.(6) And to the results for the effect of pattern air pressure on gloss. Increases in pattern air pressures have been
associated with decreases in spray droplet momentum that can inhibit smooth coalescence of droplets.
To explain these results, it is postulated that an excessive droplet velocity may have led to a splattering of the coating solution at
the point of impact with the tablet bed. Droplet fragments which left the initial point of impact would have had a significantly lower
mean velocity than initially. It is these droplet fragments that may have impacted other tablets and not fully coalesced, which lead
to a rougher coating.
Other process parameters that could have led to droplet fragmentation are decreased gun-to-bed distance and coating solution
viscosity.
3. Product Bed Temperature
Rank Order Of Influence Of Process Variables On Product Bed Temperature
Inlet Temp
39%
Distance x Spray Rate
3%
Spray Rate x Air Flow
5%
Atom Air x Air Flow
6%
Atom Air x Inlet Air
6%
Distance²
3%
Atom Air x Spray Rate
3%
Air Flow
20%
Spray Rate
10%
Air Flow²
5%
Influence Of Inlet Air Temperature & Spray Rate On Product Bed Temperature
Atomization Air = 33 psi; Pattern Air Pressure = 28 psi; Gun-to-Bed Distance = 3.5’’;
Air Flow = 263 cfm
60
65
69
74
78
83
87
55
60
65
70
75
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
P
r
o
d
u
c
t

B
e
d

T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
°
C
)
Inlet (°C)
Spray Rate
(g/min)
55-60
50-55
45-50
40-45
35-40
30-35
25-30
Product bed temperatures ranged from 29 - 65°C.
Inlet air temperature, air flow volumes, and spray rates accounted for the majority of effects on product bed temperature.
Increases in inlet air temperatures or volumes resulted in increases in product bed temperatures, as expected.
Increases in coating-solution spray rates lead to decreases in product bed temperatures.
4. Coating Process Efficiency
Rank Order Of Influence Of Process Variables On Coating Efficiency
Pattern Air
38%
Distance²
13%
Distance
27%
Spray Rate x Air Flow
11%
Distance x Spray Rate
11%
Influence Of Pattern Air Pressure & Gun-to-Bed Distance On Coating Efficiency
Atomization Air = 33 psi; Spray Rate = 65 gmin
-1
; Inlet Air Temperature = 75°C; Air
Flow = 263 cfm
0
11
22
33
44
55
2.0
2.6
3.2
3.8
4.4
5.0
76
80
84
88
92
96
P
r
o
c
e
s
s

C
o
a
t
i
n
g

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
%
)
Pattern Air (psi)
Distance (inches)
92-96
88-92
84-88
80-84
76-80
Process coating efficiency values ranged from 76 to 98%.
Rank order of influence indicates that pattern air pressure and gun-to-bed distance accounted for 78% of the effects on coating
efficiency.
Not surprisingly a shorter gun-to-bed distance and lower pattern air pressures, ensuring complete delivery of coating material to
the product bed, resulted in higher process coating efficiencies.
5. Coating Uniformity
Rank Order Of Influence Of Process Variables On Coating Uniformity
Fan Air
24%
Distance
11%
Distance²
7%
Fan Air x Inlet Temp.
12%
Fan Air x Spray Rate
7%
Inlet Temp. x Air Flow
6%
Atom Air x Air Flow
8% Atom Air
8%
Air Flow
7%
Inlet Temp.²
4%
Distance x Air Flow
6%
Influence Of Inlet Air Temperature & Pattern Air Pressure On Coating Uniformity
Atomization Air = 33 psi; Spray Rate = 65gmin
-1
; Gun-to-Bed Distance = 3.5’’; Air
Flow = 263 cfm
0
11
22
33
44
55
60
69
78
87
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
C
o
a
t
i
n
g

U
n
i
f
o
r
m
i
t
y

(
m
g
)
Pattern Air (psi) Inlet (°C)
1.6-1.8
1.4-1.6
1.2-1.4
1-1.2
0.8-1
0.6-0.8
Coating uniformity values ranged from 0.7 - 4.1 mg with an ideal coating level being 25mg.
Rank order of influence indicates that no single process variable demonstrated a dominant effect on coating uniformity.
Highest film-coating uniformities were achieved at moderate gun-to-bed distances and higher pattern air pressures.
Conclusions
The results obtained in this study illustrate how the coating process conditions selected can influence both product quality and the
thermodynamics of the coating process.
Results help identify some of the processing conditions necessary to produce the desired high gloss film coating, while maximizing
coating uniformity and coating process efficiency.
2002 Colorcon
Opaglos
®
2 is a trademark of BPSI
FC/TechData/Opaglos
®
2/Poster-ProcessParameters/06-02
World Headquarters
Colorcon
415 Moyer Blvd., P.O. Box 24, West Point, PA 19486-0024
Tel: 215-699-7733 Fax: 215-661-2605 Web Site @http://www.colorcon.com
Locations Telephone Facsimile
Asia/Pacific
Singapore 65-438-0318 65-438-0178
Fuji-gun, Shizuoka, Japan 81-5-4465-2711 81-5-4465-2730
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Mumbai, India 91-22-868-2537 91-22-868-4518
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Latin America
Buenos Aires,Argentina 54-11-4552-1565 54-11-4552-5158
Cotia, Brasil 55-11-4612-4262 55-11-4612-3307
Bogota, Columbia 571-418-1202 571-418-1257
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Locations Telephone Facsimile
United States
Santa Ana, California 714-549-0631 714-549-4921
Indianapolis,lndiana 317-545-6211 317-545-6218
Humacao, Puerto Rico 787-852-3815 787-852-0030
Europe
Dartford, Kent, England 44-1322-293000 44-1322-627200
Bougival, France 33-1-3082-1582 33-1-3082-7879
Idstein, Germany 49-6126-9961-0 49-6126-9961-11
Gallarate, Italy 39-0331-776932 39-0331-776831
Budapest, Hungary 36-1-200-8000 36-1-200-8010
Istanbul, Turkey 90-216-465-0360 90-216-465-0361
Barcelona, Spain 34-9-3589-3756 34-9-3589-3792
The information contained herein, to the best of our knowledge is true and accurate. Any recommendations or suggestions are made without warranty or guarantee, since
the conditions of use are beyond our control. Any information contained herein is intended as a recommendation for use of our products so as not to infringe on any
patent.
Information presented in this study also demonstrates that process coating conditions necessary to obtain one aspect of the
desired final dosage form appearance may not compare favorably with those needed to produce other appearance aspects.
Understanding such effects provides the foundation for designing a smooth, glossy, highly elegant film coated pharmaceutical
dosage form.
References:
Tricor Systems Inc., "Model 801A Surface Analysis System," User's Manual 1.1 (1996)
G. Cole, J. Hogan, and M. Aulton, "Film Coat Quality," Pharmaceutical Coating Technology 13, pp 363-406, 1995
C.A. Signorino and L.J. Forcellini, "Evaluating the Uniformity of Aqueous Film Coating," Pharmaceutical Technology 10, pp
48-53, 1996
S.C. Porter, R.P. Verseput, C.R. Cunningham, "Process Optimization Using Design of Experiments," Pharmaceutical
Technology 10, pp 60-70, 1997
G.L. Fourman, C.W. Hines, and R.S. Hritsko, "Assessing the Uniformity of Aqueous Film Coatings Applied to Compressed
Tablets," Pharmaceutical Technology 19(3), pp 70-76, 1995
T.L. Reiland and A.C. Eber, "Aqueous Gloss Solutions: Formula and Process Variables Effects On The Surface Texture Of
Film Coated Tablets," Drug Development And Industrial Pharmacy, 12(3), pp 231-245, 1986
Acknowledgments
The authors are grateful to Robert Gottschalk, Karen Hunsberger, and Susan Schriver for their assistance with this project.
The information contained herein, to the best of our knowledge, is true and accurate. Any recommendations or suggestions
are made without warranty or guarantee, since the conditions of use are beyond our control. Any information contained herein
is intended as a recommendation for use of our products so as not to infringe on any patent.
World Headquarters
Colorcon
415 Moyer Blvd., P.O. Box 24, West Point, PA 19486-0024
Tel: 215-699-7733 Fax: 215-661-2605 Website: www.colorcon.com
Locations Telephone Facsimile Locations Telephone Facsimile
United States Asia/Pacific
Santa Ana, California 714-549-0631 714-549-4921 Singapore 65-6438-0318 65-6438-0178
Indianapolis, Indiana 317-545-6211 317-545-6218 Fuji-gun, Shizuoka, Japan 81-5-4465-2711 81-5-4465-2730
Humacao, Puerto Rico 787-852-3815 787-852-0030 Shanghai, China 86-21-5442-2222 86-21-5442-2229
Stoughton, Wisconsin 608-887-8970 608-887-8984 Goa, India 91-832-288-3434 91-832-288-3440
Gyeonggi-do, Korea 82-31-296-2173 82-31-296-2178
Canada
St. Laurent, QC, Canada 514-337-8341 514-337-9159

Europe Latin America
Dartford, Kent, England 44-1322-293000 44-1322-627200 Buenos Aires, Argentina 54-11-4552-1565 54-11-4552-3997
Massy, France 33-1-6447-9750 33-1-6932-5983 Cotia, Brasil 55-11-4612-4262 55-11-4612-3307
Idstein, Germany 49-6126-9961-0 49-6126-9961-11 Bogota, Colombia 571-418-1202 571-418-1257
Gallarate, Italy 39-0331-776932 39-0331-776831 Caracas, Venezuela 58-212-237-9842 58-212-238-2259
Budapest, Hungary 36-1-200-8000 36-1-200-8010 Cuajimalpa, D.F., México 52-55-3000-5700 52-55-3000-5701 /02
Istanbul, Turkey 90-216-465-0360 90-216-465-0361
Barcelona, Spain 34-9-3589-3756 34-9-3589-3792
The information contained herein, to the best of our knowledge is true and accurate. Any recommendations or suggestions are made without warranty or guarantee, since the
conditions of use are beyond our control. Any information contained herein is intended as a recommendation for use of our products so as not to infringe on any patent.
© 2008 Colorcon, Inc. The information contained in this document is proprietary to Colorcon and may not be used or disseminated inappropriately.
Opaglos® 2 and the Colorcon ellipse are trademarks of BPSI Holdings, LLC.
fc_poster_opaglos2_process_prarmeters_06.02 Ver. 1

(1) Surface Roughness Surface roughness measurements were performed on tablets using a Surfcorder. texture. Surface roughness of film coated tablets can be quantified by determining various characteristic values.Response Variable 1. Operation of this instrument is explained in greater detail elsewhere. This system provides the experimenter with a reliable and consistent means to undertake a quantitative analysis on a traditionally qualitative property of coated tablets. the most commonly used being arithmetic mean surface roughness (Ra). Product Bed Temperature 4. Gloss 2. model SE-40G from Kosaka Laboratory LTD. This system enables gloss measurement to be made regardless of the shape. Surface Roughness 3. Film Coating Uniformity Units GU Ra °C % mg Determination Of Response Variable Values Gloss Following the spray coating process.(2) The following is a graphic illustration of this concept Ra is calculated according to the following Ra 1 l l 0 y x dx . Coating Process Efficiency 5. or color of samples to be analyzed. This may be defined as the arithmetic mean value of the departure of the roughness profile above and below a central reference line over a measured distance. Inc). tablets were analyzed for gloss using a Model 801A Gloss Analysis System (Tricor Systems.

0 mm transverse length with a 0.8 mm cutoff were used in all tests. n is the number of tablets measured and x is the average weight gain of the n measured tablets from the coating trial. In each experimental trial. A 1. Coating Process Efficiency (CPE) CPE is generally defined as a measure of the determined actual coating applied expressed as a percentage of the theoretical amount of coating intended to be applied. CU will be expressed as the first standard deviation of the weight gain variation in milligrams and is calculated by: sd wta wtb n 1 x 2 Where wta and wtb are the weights of the individual tablets after and before coating. CPE is computed as: CPE wga wgt 100% where wgt is the theoretical percent weight gain and wga is the actual percent weight gain.Following spray coating. respectively. Film Coating Uniformity (CU) CU is generally defined as the variation in weight gain of coated tablets within a coating trial. which is computed as: wg a wt a wt b wt b 100% where wtb and wta are the total batch weights before and after coating respectively. all measurements were corrected for moisture content.(4)(5) This method provided an effective means of determining the coating uniformity in each coating run thereby allowing the assessment of process changes on coating uniformity. For the purposes of this experiment. . Product Bed Temperature Product bed temperature data were obtained from an average of recorded values collected during each coating trial using an infrared thermometer. (3) Again. 100 tablets were marked to allow for tracking and retrieval of individual tablets by a method described in greater detail elsewhere. twenty randomly selected tablets from each coating trial were used to determine surface roughness of that batch.(3) All measurements were corrected for moisture content.1 mmsec-1 drive speed and 0.

Surface Roughness 3.65 76 . Coating Process Efficiency 5. 1. 10% Atom. As part of the analysis output.Response Variable Results Summary Of Ranges In Values Of Response Variables Obtained Units GU Ra °C % mgs Range 1. Gloss Rank Order Of Influence Of Process Variables On Gloss Distance x Spray Rate 6% Pattern Air x Distance 6% Air Flow² 7% Distance² 9% Pattern Air 24% Distance x Inlet Temp. Air 15% Distance 23% .98 0.4. Response surface graphs were also generated comparing the interactive effects of the process variables on the individual responses.7 . variable effect terms are ranked based on the relative strengths of their effects on the response being analyzed.1 4. Film Coating Uniformity The CARD Analysis of Data software was used for the analysis of response data.3.7 . Gloss 2.248 1. Pie charts are used to illustrate this in each case.8 29 . Product Bed Temperature 160 .

Influence Of Pattern Air Pressure & Gun-to-Bed Distance On Gloss Atomization Air = 33 psi. = 75°C.6 22 11 3. This effect is likely to result from an increase in the incidence of a condition known as "spray drying" which can produce a dulled tablet finish. prior to impingement with the tablet bed leading to increased drying of droplets. which changes the shape of the spray pattern generated from a solid cone to an elliptical shape. Increasing the gun-to-bed distance resulted in a longer distance a droplet of coating solution is required to travel. Increasing the gun-to-bed distance and/or pattern air pressure resulted in decreasing gloss values. Increasing pattern air pressure. pattern and atomization air pressures accounted for the majority of effects on gloss.0 44 33 55 Pattern Air (psi) Distance (inches) 240-250 230-240 220-230 210-220 200-210 190-200 180-190 170-180 Gloss values obtained ranged from 160 .4 5. once they make contact with the tablet surface. Increases in atomization air pressure produced higher gloss values by increasing the momentum of the atomized droplet. Spray Rate = 65 gmin-1. will also increase travel distance.8 4. thereby reducing droplet travel time and potentially increasing impact spreading of the droplets.2 3.248.0 2. Air Flow = 263 cfm 250 240 Gloss (GU) 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 0 2. Inlet Temp. Rank order of influence indicates that gun-to-bed distance. .

Rank Order Of Influence Of Process Variables On Surface Roughness Distance² 5% Pattern Air x Air Flow 5% Spray Rate 6% Atom.5-3 2-2. 12% Pattern Air x Inlet Temp.5 2. To explain these results. 14% Air Flow 13% Influence Of Pattern Air Pressure & Inlet Air Temperature On Surface Roughness Atomization Air = 33 psi. which lead to a rougher coating.5 3.0 3.5-2 0 11 84 90 22 33 72 78 44 55 66 60 Inlet (°C) Pattern Air (psi) Rank order of influence indicated that no single process variable demonstrated a dominant effect on the resulting surface roughness.0 2. Air Flow = 263 cfm Surface Roughness (Ra) 4.5 3. It is these droplet fragments that may have impacted other tablets and not fully coalesced.5-4 3-3. Air² 6% Pattern Air 30% Pattern Air x Spray Rate 9% Distance x Inlet Temp. Gun-to-Bed Distance = 3. Droplet fragments which left the initial point of impact would have had a significantly lower mean velocity than initially. . This observation is contradictory to results noted elsewhere.5 2. Spray Rate = 65gmin-1.5 1.(6) And to the results for the effect of pattern air pressure on gloss. pattern air pressure did figure prominently as an individual and interactive affector.5’’. it is postulated that an excessive droplet velocity may have led to a splattering of the coating solution at the point of impact with the tablet bed. However.0 1. Increases in pattern air pressures have been associated with decreases in spray droplet momentum that can inhibit smooth coalescence of droplets. An increase in pattern air pressure resulted in a decrease in surface roughness.

Other process parameters that could have led to droplet fragmentation are decreased gun-to-bed distance and coating solution viscosity. Gun-to-Bed Distance = 3. Air Flow = 263 cfm 60 Product Bed Temperature (°C) 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 55 60 87 83 78 65 74 69 65 70 60 Spray Rate 75 Inlet (°C) (g/min) 55-60 50-55 45-50 40-45 35-40 30-35 25-30 Product bed temperatures ranged from 29 . Increases in inlet air temperatures or volumes resulted in increases in product bed temperatures. .5’’. Inlet air temperature. Pattern Air Pressure = 28 psi. Increases in coating-solution spray rates lead to decreases in product bed temperatures. 3. air flow volumes.65°C. as expected. and spray rates accounted for the majority of effects on product bed temperature. Product Bed Temperature Rank Order Of Influence Of Process Variables On Product Bed Temperature Distance² 3% Atom Air x Spray Rate 3% Spray Rate x Air Flow 5% Air Flow² 5% Atom Air x Inlet Air 6% Distance x Spray Rate 3% Inlet Temp 39% Atom Air x Air Flow 6% Spray Rate 10% Air Flow 20% Influence Of Inlet Air Temperature & Spray Rate On Product Bed Temperature Atomization Air = 33 psi.

Spray Rate = 65 gmin-1. .4 5. Air Flow = 263 cfm 96 Process Coating Efficiency (%) 92 88 84 80 76 2. ensuring complete delivery of coating material to the product bed. Coating Process Efficiency Rank Order Of Influence Of Process Variables On Coating Efficiency Spray Rate x Air Flow 11% Distance x Spray Rate 11% Pattern Air 38% Distance² 13% Distance 27% Influence Of Pattern Air Pressure & Gun-to-Bed Distance On Coating Efficiency Atomization Air = 33 psi.0 2. Not surprisingly a shorter gun-to-bed distance and lower pattern air pressures.8 33 22 4.6 92-96 88-92 84-88 80-84 76-80 11 0 3. Inlet Air Temperature = 75°C.0 44 55 Distance (inches) Pattern Air (psi) Process coating efficiency values ranged from 76 to 98%.4. Rank order of influence indicates that pattern air pressure and gun-to-bed distance accounted for 78% of the effects on coating efficiency.2 3. resulted in higher process coating efficiencies.

Highest film-coating uniformities were achieved at moderate gun-to-bed distances and higher pattern air pressures.6-0.2 0.1 mg with an ideal coating level being 25mg. Results help identify some of the processing conditions necessary to produce the desired high gloss film coating.² 4% 6% Inlet Temp.7 .6 1. 12% Distance 11% Influence Of Inlet Air Temperature & Pattern Air Pressure On Coating Uniformity Atomization Air = 33 psi.6-1.5’’.4.6 87 1.4 1-1.2-1.8 0 11 22 33 44 55 60 Pattern Air (psi) 69 78 Inlet (°C) Coating uniformity values ranged from 0.4 1.8 0. Spray Rate = 65gmin -1.8 Coating Uniformity (mg) 1.5. while maximizing coating uniformity and coating process efficiency. . Rank order of influence indicates that no single process variable demonstrated a dominant effect on coating uniformity.2 1. Coating Uniformity Rank Order Of Influence Of Process Variables On Coating Uniformity Distance x Air Flow Inlet Temp.4-1. x Air Flow 6% Fan Air x Spray Rate 7% Fan Air 24% Air Flow 7% Distance² 7% Atom Air x Air Flow 8% Atom Air 8% Fan Air x Inlet Temp.8-1 0.8 1. Air Flow = 263 cfm 1. Gun-to-Bed Distance = 3.0 0.6 1. Conclusions The results obtained in this study illustrate how the coating process conditions selected can influence both product quality and the thermodynamics of the coating process.

com Locations United States Santa Ana.R. Hines." Pharmaceutical Technology 10. World Headquarters Colorcon 415 Moyer Blvd. J. California Indianapolis. pp 60-70. Hogan. since the conditions of use are beyond our control. pp 70-76. C. Puerto Rico Europe Dartford. India Seoul.Information presented in this study also demonstrates that process coating conditions necessary to obtain one aspect of the desired final dosage form appearance may not compare favorably with those needed to produce other appearance aspects. 1996 S. Any information contained herein is intended as a recommendation for use of our products so as not to infringe on any patent. 1995 C. is true and accurate. Aulton. Shizuoka. to the best of our knowledge.A. pp 231-245. Germany Gallarate. References: Tricor Systems Inc.Argentina Cotia." Drug Development And Industrial Pharmacy. 1995 T. "Film Coat Quality. "Evaluating the Uniformity of Aqueous Film Coating. Any recommendations or suggestions are made without warranty or guarantee. West Point. Venezuela Santa Fe. Cunningham. and Susan Schriver for their assistance with this project. Turkey Barcelona. Understanding such effects provides the foundation for designing a smooth. Hungary Istanbul. "Assessing the Uniformity of Aqueous Film Coatings Applied to Compressed Tablets. P.. Verseput. Spain Telephone 714-549-0631 317-545-6211 787-852-3815 44-1322-293000 33-1-3082-1582 49-6126-9961-0 39-0331-776932 36-1-200-8000 90-216-465-0360 34-9-3589-3756 Facsimile 714-549-4921 317-545-6218 787-852-0030 44-1322-627200 33-1-3082-7879 49-6126-9961-11 39-0331-776831 36-1-200-8010 90-216-465-0361 34-9-3589-3792 Locations Asia/Pacific Singapore Fuji-gun.J. The information contained herein. to the best of our knowledge is true and accurate. Japan Shanghai. Cole. Kent. Any recommendations or suggestions are made without warranty or guarantee. since the conditions of use are beyond our control.O.S." User's Manual 1.P. highly elegant film coated pharmaceutical dosage form.1 (1996) G. 1986 Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to Robert Gottschalk. Signorino and L.lndiana Humacao. "Aqueous Gloss Solutions: Formula and Process Variables Effects On The Surface Texture Of Film Coated Tablets. 12(3).L. "Process Optimization Using Design of Experiments.W." Pharmaceutical Coating Technology 13. Box 24. R. pp 363-406. pp 48-53. Reiland and A.. Brasil Bogota. Columbia Caracas. Porter. Korea Latin America Buenos Aires. 1997 G. glossy." Pharmaceutical Technology 10. and M. Mexico Telephone 65-438-0318 81-5-4465-2711 86-21-5442-2222 91-22-868-2537 82-2-2057-2713 54-11-4552-1565 55-11-4612-4262 571-418-1202 58-212-442-4819 525-292-1611 Facsimile 65-438-0178 81-5-4465-2730 86-21-5442-2229 91-22-868-4518 82-2-2057-2179 54-11-4552-5158 55-11-4612-3307 571-418-1257 58-212-442-8724 525-292-1750 The information contained herein.C. Forcellini. Any information contained herein is intended as a recommendation for use of our products so as not to infringe on any patent. "Model 801A Surface Analysis System.L. C. 2002 Colorcon Opaglos® 2 is a trademark of BPSI FC/TechData/Opaglos ® 2/Poster-ProcessParameters/06-02 . Fourman. Hritsko. China Mumbai. Karen Hunsberger. Italy Budapest. England Bougival." Pharmaceutical Technology 19(3). PA 19486-0024 Tel: 215-699-7733 Fax: 215-661-2605 Web Site @http://www. France Idstein. Eber.C.colorcon. and R.

D. to the best of our knowledge is true and accurate. LLC. The information contained in this document is proprietary to Colorcon and may not be used or disseminated inappropriately. P Box 24.World Headquarters Colorcon 415 Moyer Blvd. Argentina Cotia. © 2008 Colorcon. France Idstein. A Tel: 215-699-7733 Fax: 215-661-2605 W ebsite: www. V enezuela Cuajimalpa. Hungary Istanbul.F. Indiana Humacao.. Wisconsin Canada St. Laurent.com Locations United States Santa Ana. Any information contained herein is intended as a recommendation for use of our products so as not to infringe on any patent. Puerto Rico Stoughton. 1 . England Massy. Any recommendations or suggestions are made without warranty or guarantee. since the conditions of use are beyond our control.02 Ver. Opaglos® 2 and the Colorcon ellipse are trademarks of BPSI Holdings. Korea T elephone 65-6438-0318 81-5-4465-2711 86-21-5442-2222 91-832-288-3434 82-31-296-2173 Facsimile 65-6438-0178 81-5-4465-2730 86-21-5442-2229 91-832-288-3440 82-31-296-2178 44-1322-293000 33-1-6447-9750 49-6126-9961-0 39-0331-776932 36-1-200-8000 90-216-465-0360 34-9-3589-3756 44-1322-627200 33-1-6932-5983 49-6126-9961-11 39-0331-776831 36-1-200-8010 90-216-465-0361 34-9-3589-3792 54-11-4552-1565 55-11-4612-4262 571-418-1202 58-212-237-9842 52-55-3000-5700 54-11-4552-3997 55-11-4612-3307 571-418-1257 58-212-238-2259 52-55-3000-5701 /02 The information contained herein. Shizuoka.colorcon. P 19486-0024 . Canada Europe Dartford. México Locations Asia/Pacific Singapore Fuji-gun. Turkey Barcelona. Germany Gallarate. Brasil Bogota. Japan Shanghai. Kent. West Point. QC. California Indianapolis. Spain T elephone 714-549-0631 317-545-6211 787-852-3815 608-887-8970 514-337-8341 Facsimile 714-549-4921 317-545-6218 787-852-0030 608-887-8984 514-337-9159 Latin America Buenos Aires. India Gyeonggi-do. China Goa.O. Colombia Caracas. Inc. fc_poster_opaglos2_process_prarmeters_06.. Italy Budapest.