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Muscle Trapezius

Latissimus Dorsi

Levator Scapulae

Origin Supr nuchal line, ext occip protrub, spinous processes C7 & all T-vert, lig nuchae/ supraspinous lig in T-Vert T6-all lumbar spinous processes, thoracolumbar fascia, sacrum, iliac crest Post tubercles of transverse processes C1C4 Lig nuchae, spinous process of C7&T1 Supraspinous lig, T2-T5 spinous process Upper 8 or 9 ribs anteriorly, anterolateral

Insertion U: lateral third clavicle M: acromion L: upper border of scap spine

Action Innervation elevation Spinal FC: depression Accessory upward rotation retraction

Medial lip of bicipital groove and twists as it attaches here. Inf. ang of scap

Rhomboid Min

Rhomboid Maj

Serratus Anterior

Adducts arm, extends arm, arm IR, slight downward rotation when arm not moving Sup angle of Elevates scap, scap, spine of assists in scap, upper vert downward rot. border (grabs of scap sup angle) Medial border #1 Retracts at base of spine scap of scap FC: elevation & downward rotation Medial border #1 Retracts of scap from scap spine of scap to FC: elevation inf. < & downward rotation Upper 4 slips: #1 Scapular medial border protraction of scap from FC: base of spine to Depression & inferior < upward rotation Lower 5 slips: ant surface of inf < of scap


Cervical plexus primary ventral rami C3, C$, C5 dorsal scap & transverse cervical

dorsal scap & transverse cervical

Long thoracic


Lateral third of Deltoid ant clavicle, tuberosity acromion, spine of scap


Subscapular fossa



Teres Minor

Teres Major

Triceps Brachii


Crest of lesser tubercle & lesser tubercle of humerus Supraspinous Superior facet fossa of scap of greater tubercle of humerus Infraspinous Middle facet of fossa greater tubercle of humerus Inferior < of Inf facet of lateral border of greater tubercle scap Inferior third of Medial lip of lateral border of bicipital groove scap Long Head: Triceps tendon infraglenoid into the tubercle of scap olecranon Lateral Head: Post surf of humerus, supr to radial groove Medial Head: Post surf of humerus, inf to radial groove Lateral Lateral surface epicondyle of of olecranon, humerus proximal portion of ulna

#1 arm abduction Ant: arm flex & some IR Post: ext & some ER Arm IR, seats head of humerus

axillary (C5, C6)

U & L subscap

Arm abduction, Suprascapular seats head of humerus Arm ER; seats head of humerus Arm ER, seats head of humerus Arm IR and adduction Extension Suprascapular


Lower subscapular Radial

Extension, assists with pronation


Pec Major

Clavicular Part: medial third of clavicle Sternocostal Part: Manubrium and body of sternum, ant surface of 1st 6

Crest of greater tubercle of humerus (lateral portion of humerus)

Adduction, IR, Clavicular portion helps w/ shoulder flex & horiz add

Lateral & Medial pectoral nerves (chords) Lateral = C5, C6, C7 Medial = C8, T1

Pec Minor

costal cartlidges ant surface of Medial surface ribs 2-6 of coracoid process


Junction of 1st rib & 1st costal cartlidge

Inferior surface of clavicle

Coracobrachiali Lateral surface s of tip of coracoid process Biceps Brachii Long Head: supra glenoid tubercle Short Head: Tip of coracoid process Muscle Brachialis Origin Deep to biceps, distal half to 2/3 on shaft of humerus Ant tubercles of transverse processes of C3-C6

Medial surface at midpoint of humerus Radial tuberosity (by way of laccertus fibrosus aka: biceps apn Insertion Ulnar tuberosity

Assists w/ downward rot, depression; pulls tips of scap inferomedially Stabilizes SC joint, involved in rotation of clavicle Flexion in diagonal plane

Medial pectoral

Nerve to subclavius

Musculocutane ous

Flexion, assists w/supination

Musculocutane ous

Action Elbow flexion

Innervation Musculocutane ous

Anterior Scalene

Scalene tubercle of 1st rib

Superior border of brachial plexus

Middle Scalene

Posterior tubercles C2C7 Post tubercles C5-C7

Posterior Scalene ABDOMINA LS External Ab Oblique

1st rib behind subclavian artery 1st & 2nd ribs

Inferior border of brachial plexus

Fleshy part of lower 8 ribs (fibers run inf)

Internal Ab Oblique

Rectus Abdominis

Transverse Abdominis

Flexion of trunk, brings R. shoulder to L. hip or vice versa Iliac crest, Lower 3-4 ribs, Flex trunk and thoracolumbar rectus sheath rotates trunk to fascia (fibers same side run as if putting flexing hand in back pocket Pubic crest Lower ribs, Trunk flexor, xiphoid process draws ribcage to pelvis or vice versa Iliac crest, Rectus sheath Compression thoracolumbar of abdominal fascia & cavity inguinal lig BIG TRUNK STABILIZER

Rectus sheath, iliac crest, inguinal lig

Primary ventral rami of thoracic nerves

Primary ventral rami at same level as muscle

Primary ventral rami

Primary ventral rami


MUSCLE INTERMEDIA TE Serratus posterior superior ORIGIN BACK Inf portion of lig nuchae, & spinous processes C7T2-3 Spinous processes T11&12 & L1&2 INSERTION MUSCLES Sup border of ribs 2-4 or 5 ACTION LEVEL II Elevates rib cage; primarily proprioceptive input Depresses ribs, prevents upward displacement of lower ribs, helps flare lower ribs Intercostals nerves 1-4 (primary ventral rami) Intercostal nerves 9-12 (primary ventral rami) INNERVATI ON

Serratus posterior inferior

Inf border of lowest 2 or 3 ribs

SUPERFICIA L LAYER Splenius capitus

IN THE NECK: Inf 1/3 of the lig nuchae, spinous processes of C7-T3

SPLENIUS Lateral portion of sup nuchal line to mastoid process Bilateral: extends cervical spine & head Unilateral: flexes & rotates head to same side Same as above Spinal n C1-6 (post rami, lateral branches)

Splenius cervicis

Spinous processes T4-5 or 6 IN BACK:


Post tubercles of transverse processes of C2-4 ERECTOR

Same as above


Iliocostalis cervicis

Iliocostalis thoracis

Post surface of sacrum, sacrotuberous lig, post portion of iliac crest, spinous processes T11L5 Same as above

From angle of upper 6 ribs into transverse processes of C4,5,6

Bilateral: extends spine Unilateral: bends spine laterally to same side

Iliocostalis lumborum

Same as above

Longissimus capitus

Longissimus cervicis

From tendons of insertion of the long. cervicis & articular processes (costal elements) of C4-7 Rib & adjacent transverse processes of T1-T4 or 6

From angle of lower 6 ribs into angle of upper 6 ribs From common origin into angle of lowest 6 ribs Mastoid process

Same as above

Same as above

Bilateral: extends head Unilateral: flexes & rotates head to same side

Post tubercles of the transverse processes of C2-6

Bilateral: extends spine Unilateral: bends spine laterally to same side Same as above

Longissimus thoracis

From common mass/lumbar region

9-10 ribs & adjacent transverse processes

Spinalis Spinous cervicis processes C5(spino to spino) T2

Spinous processes C2C5

Spinalis thoracis

MIDDLE LAYER OF Semispinalis capitus (fibers span 4-6 vert segments)

Spinous processes, lateral surfaces T10-L3 BACK: Transverse processes of T1-6 vert & articular processes of C5-7

Spinous processes, lateral surfaces T2-T8 TRANSVERS OSP Base of the skull, b/w sup and inf nuchal line

Bilateral: extends cervical & thoracic spine Unilateral: bends cervical & thoracic spine to same side Same as above

Semispinalis cervicis Semispinalis thoracis

Multifidus (fibers span 2-4 vert segments; spans length of spine)

Transverse processes of T1-6 Transverse process of lower 6 thoracic vert Sacrum

Spinous processes of C2-5 Spinous processes of C6&7-T4 C2

INAL MUSCLE Bilateral: extends thoracic & cervical spine & head Unilateral: bends head, cervical & thoracic spines to same side, rotates to opposite side Same as above


Same as above

Bilateral: Extends spine Unilateral:flexe s spine to same side, rotates to opposite side


Lumbar Thoracic & Cervical Levator costarum (muscle spans 2-4 segments)

Deep to common origin of erector spinae Deep to lumbar portion Deep to semispinalis Transverse process


Bilateral: Extends spine Unilateral: bends thoracic spine to same side, rotates to opposite side

DEEPEST LAYER OF Interspinalis cervicis (b/w consecutive spinous processes) Interspinalis lumborum

BACK: C1-C7 (b/w spinous processes of adjacent vert) L1-L5 (b/w spinous processes of adjacent vert)


TRANSVERS OS Extends cervical & lumbar spines


Intertransvers arii (b/w adjacent transverse processes)

Bilateral: stabilizes & extends cervical & lumbar spine Unilateral:bend s cervical & lumbar spines laterally to same side C2-C7 ( (b/w ant tubercles of adjacent vert) Primary ventral rami

Anterior cervicis

Posterior cervicis

Medialis lumborum

Laterales lumborum

C2-C7 (b/w post tubercles of adjacent vert) L1-L5 (b/w mamillary processes of adj vert) L1-L5 (b/w transverse processes of adj vert) Bilateral: extends thoracic spine Unilateral: rotates spine to opposite side From transverse process of 1 vert, skip 1 vert segment Transverse process of 1 vert Base of spinous process

Primary dorsal rami

Primary dorsal rami

Primary ventral rami

Rotatores (1 segment to the next. 1-1 or maybe 2)

Primary dorsal rami

Rotatores longi

Dorsal rami

Rotatores brevis

SUBOCCIPI TAL DEEPEST MUSCLE Rectus capitus posterior major Rectus capitus posterior minor

Base of spinous process of the next, sup, adj vert MUSCLES: (EXTENSOR S) LAYER: SEGMENTAL : Spinous Occipital bone, process of C2 just lateral to the midline Post tubercle of Occiptal bone, C1 just medial to RCP major. Closer to the midline


REGION C1 dorsal rami (Suboccipital nr)

Obliquus Transverse capitus superior process of C1

Obliquus capitus inferior

Spinous process of C2

Occiptal bone, deep to insertions of splenius and semispinalis capitus Post aspect of transverse process of C1

PREVERTEB RAL CERVICAL REGION Longus colli (C1-T3 vertebral levels) Longus capitus (overlaps longus colli) SCALENES Anterior Middle Posterior LUMBAR REGION ILIOPSOAS Psoas Major

MUSCLES FLEXORS Ant surface of Ant tubercles vertebral bodies of transverse process Ant tubercles Inf surface of of C3-6 basilar portion transverse of occipital processes bone Flexes & variably rotates neck Flexes head Primary ventral rami C2-7 Primary ventral rami C1-3


Superficial: T12-L4 & associated IV disks (lateral surfaces) Deep: L1-L5 vert (transverse processes) Iliac fossa

Lesser trochanter

Hip flexion (most powerful hip flexors)

Branches from lumbar plexus (l2-L4)

Lesser trochanter

Hip flexion (most powerful hip flexors)

Fibers from femoral nr.

Quadratus lumborum

Border of 12th rib and tips of lumbar transverse processes

Iliolumbar lig Lateral trunk Primary ventral & internal lip of flexion, rami (T12-L4) ilac crest stabilizes pelvis in gait, hip hike


MUSCLE Anterior Scalene ORIGIN Ant tubercles of transverse processes C3C6 Post tubercles of transverse processes C2C7 Post tubercles of transverse processes C5C7 Sternum, clavicle INSERTION Scalene tubercle of 1st rib 1st rib behind subclavian artery 1st & 2nd ribs ACTION Elevates ribs during forced inspiration Same NERVE Cervical & brachial plexus (C3-C8) Same

Middle Scalene

Posterior Scalene



Sternocleidoma stoid

Mastoid Unilateral: tilts process of skull head to same side, rotates head to opposite side Bilateral: extends head; aids in respiration when head fixed

Motor: Spinal accessory Pain&Proprioc eption Cervical plexus: C2, C3


INFRAHYOI DS Sternohyoid

Sternal: sternum Costal: costal cartilages ribs 7-9 Lumbar: L1,2,3 (crus of diaphragm) Quadratus lumbroum, psoas major STRAP MUSCLES Manubrium of sterum on post surface Scapula (just medial to scap notch) Manubrium (posterior surface) Thyroid cartilage

Central tendon: it inserts on itself

Respiration, aids in compressing abdominal viscera





Sternothyroid (deeper)

Thyroid cartilage


Hyoid bone

Depresses hyoid, terminal phase of swallowing Depresses hyoid, terminal phase of swallowing Depresses hyoid, terminal phase of swallowing Depresses and fixes hyoid, raises larynx during swallowing

Ansa cervicalis

Ansa cervialis

Ansa cericalis

Ansa cervicalis



Anterior belly: mandible Post Belly: Mastoid notch on temporal bone Mylohyoid line of mandible

Ant Belly: hyoid Post Belly: lateral hyoid Mylohyoid raphe

Elevates hyoid; assists in opening mandible

Ant Belly: Trigeminal Post Belly: Facial

Draws hyoid bone forward; elevates oral floor;



Styloid process


Elevates hyoid; swallowing


TMJ Lateral Pterygoid

Superior: greater wing of sphenoid Inferior: lateral pterygoid plate (lateral surface)

Sup: disc & neck of mandible Inf: Condylar neck

Medial Pterygoid

Medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate


Superficial and Deep attach to zygomatic arch & zygomatic process of maxilla Temporal fossa


Pterygoid tuberosity on medial surface of mandibular angle Superficial: external mandibular angle Deep: Superior ramus of mandible Coronoid process of mandible

Sup: pulls disc forward during jaw closing Inf: depresses jaw, protrudes mandible, unilaterally deviates jaw to opposite side Elevates mandible, protrudes, deviates jaw to opposite side Elevates and protrudes mandible




Vertical Fibers: elevate mandible Horizontal: retrusion Unilateral: lateral excursion of mandible



Muscle Brachioradialis Origin Sup to lateral epicondyle of humerus (lat boundry of forearm) & SUPERFICIA L Sup to lat epicondyle, just distal to brachioradialis Insertion Distal radius (lateral aspect) Action Elbow flexion (w/ thumb up) neutral pron/ sup Innervation Radial

CUBITAL FOSSA Exctensor Carpi Radialis Longus

Dorsal base of 2nd metacarpal

Pronator Teres (superficial) (anterior compt)

Humeral Head: proximal to med epi Ulnar Head: coronoid process SUPERFICIA POSTERIOR L Extensor carpi Lat hum epi radialis brevis (part of common ext mass and share common extendor tendon coming from lat humeral condyle)

Anterolateral surface of midshaft of radius

Wrist ext, radial Radial dev (to test muscle by itself), plays small roll in elbow flex Pronation of Median forearm; weak elbow flex

COMPARTM ENT Dorsal base of 3rd MC

Wrist ext Radial dev

Deep radial (post interosseous branch)

Extensor digitorum

Lat hum epi or common ext mass/tendon

Dorsal ext mech digits 2-5

Extensor Digiti Minimi Extensor carpi ulnaris


Muscular slip from ext digitorum Humeral Head: common ext mas (lat epi) Ulnar Head: post aspect of ulna POSTERIOR Lat hum epi; sup crest annular lig Dorsal surf of radius, ulna, interosseous membrane Dorsal surface of midshaft on ulna, IO memb

Ext mech for digit 5 Dorsal medial base of 5th MC

Primarily ext MP 2-5, ext IP 2-5, secondary action: wrist ext, finger abd due to relation w/ ext mechanism (aka extensor hood) Ext of MP 5 and IP 5 Wrist ext & ulnar dev

Deep radial

Deep radial

Deep radial

Abductor pollicis longus

COMPARTM ENT Prox anterolateral portion of radius Ventral surface of base 1st MC Dorsal surf distal phalanx, thumb via ext mech Dorsal surface prox phalnx of thumb via ext mech


Radial/ deep radial

Thumb abd, lat rotation of 1st MC Thumb ext of CMC, MP, IP

Deep radial

Extensor pollicis longus

Deep radial

Extensor pollicis brevis

dorsal radial surface, IO memb, distal to origin to abductor pollicis longus

Ext of MP jt

Deep radial

Extensor indicis

Dorsal surface of ulna, distal to others Origin ANTERIOR

Ext mech

Ext of index finger MP & IP Action

Deep radial

Muscle SUPERFICIA L Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus

Insertion COMPARTM ENT Common flexor Base of 2nd mass/tendon; metacarpal med hum epi (ventral) Med hum epi Palmar apneuorosis


Wrist flex & radial deviate


Flexor carpi ulnaris (cubital tunnel)

Humeral Head: med hum epi (CFT) Ulnar Head: proximal ulna

Pisiform, hamate, base of 5th MC (via

Weak wrist Median flex, effect on thumb pulling it into abd Wrist flexion, Ulnar ulnar deviation

INTERMEDI ATE Flexor digitorum superficialis

DEEP Flexor policis longus Flexor digitorum profundus

ligaments) piso hamate lig, piso MC lig ANTERIOR COMPARTM ENT Humeral Middle phalanx Flex of PIP Head: med epi of digits 2-5 Some wrist flex Ulnar: base of cornoid process (proximal portion) Radial Head: proximal to mid 1/3 radius ANTERIOR COMPARTM ENT Middle 1/3 of Distal phalanx Flex of IP radius and IO of thumb thumb, membrane Flex MP jt Middle prox Base of distal Flex DIP assist portion of ulna phalanx 2-5 MP, wrist flex and IO membrane


Median- ant IO nerve Ant IO: lateral two heads Ulnar: medial two heads

Pronator Quadratus THENAR MASS Abductor Pollicis Brevis Flexor Pollicis Brevis

Dist ventral surf ulna

Distal ventral Pronation surf radius

Median- ant IO branch

Opponens Pollicis

Flexor retinaculum & trapezium Superficial Head: retinaculum/ trapezium Deep Head: deep floor of carpal tunnel Flex retinac/ trapezium

Proximal Thumb abd phalnx (radial side) Proximal Thumb flexion phalnx of thumb in line to pull thumb into flexion


Superficial Head: median Deep Head: ulnar

Along radial surface of 1st MC

Thumb opposition


MUSCLE Adductor Pollicis

ORIGIN Transverse head: shaft of 3rd MC Oblique head: base of MC 1, 2, 3 & floor of carpal canal (short muscles of 5th digit) Pisiform

INSERTION ACTION Base of Thumb add proximal phalnx on ulnar side


HYPOTHEN AR MASS Abductor digiti minimi

Flexor digiti minimi brevis

Flex retinac & hamate

Opponens digiti minimi

Flexor retinac & hamate

Base of Abd of 5th proximal digit phalnx on ulnar side Base of 5th Flexes 5th digit proximal phalnx on ulnar side just a lil more proximal Opposition Shaft of 5th MC




Lumbricales (superficial to IOM on palmer surface)

From tendons of FDP #1from radial side of tendons to the index finger #2- from radial side of tendon to the middle finger #3&#4- from both FDP tendons

Extensor expansion/ mechanism of digits 2-5 on dorsal side

Involved in / of IP jts and flexion of MP jts

#1&#2 branches from median n. #3&#4 branches from ulnar n.


#1- ulnar surface, shaft of 2nd MC #2 & #3Radial surface, shaft of 4th &

Extensor expansion of respective digit

PAD: add of digits 2, 4, 5 may @ flexion of MP and / of IP jts.

Deep branch of ulnar nerve

Dorsal Interossei DAB

5th MCs From adjacent sides of adjacent MCs #1: from adjacent sides of mets 1&2 #2: from adjacent sides of mets 2&3 #3: from adjacent sides of mets 3&4 #4: from adjacent sides of mets 4&5

Possibly into DAB- abd of the base of digits 2, 3 & 4 proximal phalnx of respective digit, extensor expansion of respective digits

Deep branch of ulnar nerve