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Based on the material used • Applications • Recent discoveries • Recent applications • References 2 . Based on energy level 2.CONTENTS • Acknowledgement • Introduction • Laser action • Einstein theory of laser • Types of lasers 1.

This acknowledgement will be incomplete if I fail to express my deep sense of obligation and reverence to my Parents and especially to my friends without whom this work would not have been the light of the day.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is a great pleasure to have the opportunity to extend my heart-felt thanks to everybody who helped me through the successful completion of this project.: RB6003B60 3 . First of all. Name: Abhilash Bisht Roll no. I also want to thank all the staff members of Department of maths for their kind help during the whole project. Vishal Thakur for providing me the opportunity to undertake my project. I would like to thank Mr.

4 . With a good laser an object at a distance of 1 km (0.INTRODUCTION The nameLA S ER is an acronym forLightAmplification by theStimulatedEmission of Radiation. and vibrates at a certain angle. Light is really an electromagnetic wave. Every part of the beam has (almost) the exact same direction and the beam will therefore diverge very little. This is also true for laser light but it is more parallel than any other light source. so-called polarization.6 mile) can be illuminated with a dot about 60 mm (2.3 inches) in radius. Each wave has brightness and color.

emit short pulses of laser light. Many different materials can be used as lasers. Others. When an electron drops from an outer to an inner level. The technology is very close but does not use a visible light. by a flash of light. Before the Laser there was the Maser In 1954. laser emissions are not usually very strong when it comes to energy content. an invention that would use infrared and/or visible spectrum light. The wavelength or color of the emitted light is precisely related to the amount of energy 5 . The energy levels can be imagined as rings or orbits around a nucleus. It can also be made very monochromic. but even a colored light. "excess" energy is given off as light. Charles Townes and Arthur Schawlow were granted a patent for the maser. White light contains all the colors in the spectrum. so that just one light wavelength is present.the maser was invented before the (optical) laser.As it is so parallel it can also be focused to very small diameters where the concentration of light energy becomes so great that you can cut. On the other hand. they did not proceed with any research at the time. In 1958. the difference is in how parallel it is. Charles Townes and Arthur Schawlow theorized and published papers about a visible laser. Electrons exist at specific energy levels or states characteristic of that particular atom or molecule. It also makes it possible to illuminate and examine very tiny details. using ammonia gas and microwave radiation . Electrons can be bumped up to higher energy levels by the injection of energy-for example. Charles Townes and Arthur Schawlow invented the maser (microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation). LASER ACTION Lasers are possible because of the way light interacts with electrons. It is this property that is used in surgical appliances and in CD players. 1959. like helium-neon gas lasers or liquid dye lasers emit a continuous beam of light. Electrons in outer rings are at higher energy levels than those in inner rings. like the ruby laser. This is not the case with ordinary light sources. drill or turn with the beam. The maser was used to amplify radio signals and as an ultrasensitive detector for space research. A very powerful laser of the kind that is used in a laser show does not give off more light than an ordinary streetlight. such as a red LED (light emitting diode) contains a continuous interval of red wavelengths. however. Some. On March 24.

some atoms emit particles of light called photons. The green and blue wavelengths in the flash excite electrons in the atoms to a higher energy level. the electrons emit their characteristic ruby-red light. This is laser light. exciting some of the atoms in the ruby crystal to higher energy levels. continuing this process of stimulated emission and amplification. Photons from one atom stimulate emission of photons from other atoms and the light intensity is rapidly amplified. High-voltage electricity causes the quartz flash tube to emit an intense burst of light. In a cylinder a fully reflecting mirror is placed on one end and a partially reflecting mirror on the other. specific wavelengths of light are absorbed (to energize or excite the electrons) and specific wavelengths are emitted (when the electrons fall back to their initial level). The mirrors reflect some of this light back and forth inside the ruby crystal. The photons leave through the partially silvered mirror at one end. At first the photons are emitted in all directions. At a specific energy level. Upon returning to their normal state. Mirrors at each end reflect the photons back and forth. 6 . Depending on the particular lasing material being used. until the light pulse builds up to high power and drains the energy stored in the crystal. stimulating other excited chromium atoms to produce more red light.released. A high-intensity lamp is spiraled around the ruby cylinder to provide a flash of white light that triggers the laser action.

EINSTEIN THEORY OF LASER Although Einstein did not invent the laser his work laid the foundation. More remarkably. He used his photon mathematics to examine the case of a large collection of atoms full of excess energy and ready to emit a photon at some random time in a random direction. It was Einstein who pointed out that stimulated emission of radiation could occur along with spontaneous emission & absorption. If a stray photon passes by. then the atoms are stimulated by its presence to emit their photons early. the emitted photons go in the 7 .

All it took to invent the laser was for someone to find the right kind of atoms and to add reflecting mirrors to help the stimulated emission along . neon tubes and even the sun is generated in this way. more and more photons will leave their atoms early to join in the subatomic parade. such as bulbs. All light created in normal light sources. 8 .The acronym LASER means Light Amplification by (using Einstein's ideas about) Stimulated Emission of Radiation. candles. as the small crowd of identical photons moves through the rest of the atoms. Stimulated Emission Normally atoms and molecules emit light at more or less random times and in random directions and phases.same direction and have exactly the same frequency as the original photon ! Later.

Energy is stored in the atom (same as above) . The process taking place in this case is called Stimulated Emission. This means that the passing light has been amplified which is necessary for the oscillation taking place between the mirrors in a laser. forms the conditions for laser. provided three conditions are met: .Four level: In this photon from mata stable state jumps to fourth level on excitation 9 . It can amplify a passing beam.Two level: In this photon from mata stable state jumps to second level on excitation 2. Light is normally emitted from atoms or molecules that meet with two conditions.They have stored energy originating from heat or previous absorption of light . together with feedback in a resonant cavity between mirrors. . which.Light passes close enough to the atom before the time has expired and the light is emitted in the random fashion described above The passing light has a wavelength suitable for the atom. TYPES OF LASER • ON THE BASIS OF ENERGY LEVEL 1. The atom emits light that is totally synchronous with the passing light. with random phases and at random times.Three level: In this photon from mata stable state jumps to third level on excitation 3.A time has passed since the energy was stored Light emitted in this way goes in random directions.If energy is stored in the atom and light of the correct wavelength passes close by something else can happen. Albert Einstein predicted early in the 1900s that there is also another way for light to be emitted.

It has greater bandwidth (potentially 100. Within the pulp mill industry the concentration of lye is measured by observing how the laser beam refracts in it. In the manufacturing industry. Laser is also used to supervise wastewater purification. laser can be found in a broad range of applications within industry. both at ground level where it isn't wanted and in the upper layers of the atmosphere where it is needed. where it can be used for such things as pointing and measuring. laser is used to point out the drilling direction.Today. Other examples are being able to predict and measure the existence of photochemical smog and ozone. laser is used to measure the ball cylindricity in bearings by observing the dispersion of a laser beam when reflected on the ball. Yet another example is to measure the shadow of a steel band with the help of a laser light to find out the thickness of the band. Laser technologies have also been used within environmental areas. One example is the ability to determine from a distance the environmental toxins in a column of smoke.000 times greater) than an ordinary copper cable 10 . Laser works as a light source in all fiber optics in use. This is. In the mining industry. for instance. Laser also works as a spirit level and can be used to indicate a flat surface by just sweeping the laser beam along the surface. used when making walls at building sites.

It is insensitive to interference from external electrical and magnetic fields. Crosstalk (hearing 11 .

12 . Medicine Laser is used in medicine to improve precision work like surgery. To make sure of this. lasers are used both to measure and to point in the area in question. The operations are quick and heal quickly and. Brain surgery is an example of precision surgery that calls for the surgeon to reach the intended area precisely. best of all. they are less painful than ordinary surgery performed with a scalpel. warts and discoloring of the skin can easily be removed with an unfocused laser. Fiber optics is used increasingly often in data and telecommunications around the world. Birthmarks.someone else's phone call) is of rare occurrence.

13 . Every point on a particular layer is read during every revolution of the disc. Fogged surfaces are okay. The result is an oscillation . and only one layer is to be read at a time.RECENT APPLICATIONS DVD A DVD player contains a laser that is used not because it produces a parallel beam. On the other hand. In both cases.longitudinally. different depths can be reached in the disc. someone else has to hold the laser). ones and zeros. it is possible to reach areas farther in or out on the disc. If one points at a surface 200 meters (220 yards) distant in the dark. the speed is underrated. but reduce the maximum distance. Some send a laser beam parallel to the trajectory so that the point of impact becomes visible. The speed has to be measured straight from the front or from the back. The eternal question of range has more to do with the light's behavior on its way back to the sender than with the length of the beam. which enables it to be focused on the different layers of the disc.the same as when you tune a guitar . By moving the lens along the beam . This method exposes the marksman. the beam has to be focused on as small an area as possible. In order to make room for a lot of information on every disc. Laser Sights Laser sights for rifles and guns can be based on several different principles.with higher frequency (more treble) the faster the target moves. Laser Pointers Laser pointers are made from inexpensive semiconductor lasers that together with a lens produce a parallel beam of light that can be used to make a bright spot to point with. If it is measured at an angle. the dot can be produced with a ring around it. is stored in several layers. This cannot be done with any other light source than a laser.25 MB(yte) per mm2. By moving the lens sideways . Today this area has been reduced to about half a square micrometer. which yields 2 megabits or 0. This means that you cannot get false values that are too high. The information. The license plate is perfect. as are different types of reflecting objects. The measurement is dependent on the car having something that reflects well.laterally. a person standing close to the object being pointed at will have no trouble seeing the shining spot (of course. Speed Measurement Using Laser The method the police use to measure car speed is based on a laser signal that is sent towards the target. Some project a red dot inside a telescopic sight (instead of cross hairs). but rather because the light emerges from a tiny point. Their range is very large. the one holding the pointer will have difficulty seeing the spot. This beam bounces back and is mixed with light that has not hit the car.

A more recent application measures the distance to the car in front of the driver when driving on highways or other roads. Optical Loudspeaker Cable Any amplifier of worth nowadays has an optical cable for transmission to the loudspeakers. that is interference from electronic devices and radio transmitters such as cell phones. This makes driving more efficient and faster as long as it all works. they are less painful than ordinary surgery performed with a 14 . lasers are used both to measure and to point in the area in question. To make sure of this. Brain surgery is an example of precision surgery that calls for the surgeon to reach the intended area precisely. The light source used as a transmitter is a small laser semiconductor. Medicine Laser is used in medicine to improve precision work like surgery. The operations are quick and heal quickly and. Birthmarks. It is insensitive to interference from external electrical and magnetic fields. but the car industry is catching on.000 times. You simply lock in the distance to the car in front of you in order to maintain that distance. This kind of laser is found in most robots with mechanical vision. Fiber optics is used increasingly often in data and telecommunications around the world. but the potential ratio is 10. warts and discoloring of the skin can easily be removed with an unfocused laser. Crosstalk (hearing someone else's phone call) is of rare occurrence.Laser Distance Meter The primary users of laser distance meters today are surveyors and constructors. For example. Least spectacular is the so-called parking assistance that helps the driver to estimate the distance to the car behind when parking. best of all. the maximum bit rate for broadband applications is today 50100 times higher using optics. The advantage of this method is that it is insensitive to interference from electromagnetic fields. All equipment using optic cable uses the same standard.

dhyacagrajan.k.e.P.ghatak *universities publishers.laser theory and application.B LAUD *macmillan publisher. LTD..ak.a siegman * 15 .REFRENCES *NEWAGE PUBLISHER PVT.nobel.LASERANDNONLINEAROPTICS.laser.