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1.A ) Public hospitals are funded by the government and therefore cannot turn away patients. 1.B) Private hospitals are privately funded and make their own rules. These are the hospitals that turn away homeless and uninsured patients, as the government doesn't regulate them.
2.A) Private Hospitals are expensive then Public Hospitals. 2. B) Public Hospitals are generally crowded and service somewhat questionable. Private Hospitals give better service. 3.A) Public Hospitals are owned by Governments . Public Hospitals are owned by Entrepreneurs/Businessmen and also by some Trusts. 4. Some Private Hospitals have more advanced facilities. But some Public Hospitals like AIIMS are also world class but overcrowded. 5. Public Hospitals have no eye on profit making. Government gives them funds to run. These are for the welfare of the common people. Private Hospitals are business oriented.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the provision of medical care. For other uses, see Health care (disambiguation).
Health care (or healthcare) is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans. Health care is delivered by practitioners in medicine, chiropractic, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, allied health, and other care providers. It refers to the work done in providing primary care, secondary care and tertiary care, as well as in public health. Access to health care varies across countries, groups and individuals, largely influenced by social and economic conditions as well as the health policies in place. Countries and jurisdictions have
political. who systematically provide personal and population-based preventive. The United States (16. In all cases. that may also include the provision of secondary and tertiary levels of care. In 2008.0 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) across the most developed OECD countries. France (11. Their exact configuration varies from country to country. whereas in others planning is made more centrally among governments or other coordinating bodies. according to the World Health Organization (WHO).2%).different policies and plans in relation to the personal and population-based health care goals within their societies. curative and rehabilitative care services. Health care systems are organizations established to meet the health needs of target populations. This includes professionals in medicine. and Switzerland (10.7%) were the top three spenders. and well maintained facilities and logistics to deliver quality medicines and technologies. The delivery of modern health care depends on groups of trained professionals and paraprofessionals coming together as interdisciplinary teams. Health care is conventionally regarded as an important determinant in promoting the general health and wellbeing of peoples around the world. a well-functioning health care system requires a robust financing mechanism. . An example of this is the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1980—declared by the WHO as the first disease in human history to be completely eliminated by deliberate health care interventions. health care planning is distributed among market participants. organizational and disciplinary perspectives. nursing. dentistry and allied health. plus many others such as public health practitioners. community health workers and assistive personnel. Health care can form a significant part of a country's economy. a well-trained and adequately-paid workforce. In some countries and jurisdictions. While the definitions of the various types of health care vary depending on the different cultural. the health care industry consumed an average of 9.  Health care delivery See also: Health care providers Primary care may be provided in community health centres.0%). there appears to be some consensus that primary care constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process. reliable information on which to base decisions and policies.
and patients with all manner of acute and chronic physical. including multiple chronic diseases. including all ages of patients. health education. mental and social health issues. Primary care Main article: Primary care See also: Primary health care Medical train "Therapist Matvei Mudrov" in Khabarovsk. such as family planning services and vaccinations. Russia Primary care is the term for the health care services which play a role in the local community. COPD. Primary care involves the widest scope of health care. health system organization. as patients usually prefer to consult the same practitioner for routine check-ups and preventive care. such as a general practitioner or family physician. It refers to the work of health care professionals who act as a first point of consultation for all patients within the health care system. Depending on the nature of the health condition. a primary care practitioner must possess a wide breadth of knowledge in many areas. Consequently. such as a pharmacist. and every time they require an initial consultation about a new health problem. Depending on the locality. back pain. Continuity is a key characteristic of primary care. asthma. patients may then be referred for secondary or tertiary care. The International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) is a standardized tool for understanding and analyzing information on interventions in primary care by the reason for the patient visit. depression and anxiety. a clinical officer (such as in parts of Africa). or a non-physician primary care provider. with increasing numbers of older adults at greater risk of chronic non-communicable diseases. rapidly increasing demand for primary care services is expected around the world. diabetes. or an Ayurvedic or other traditional medicine professional (such as in parts of Asia). In context of global population aging. a nurse (such as in the United Kingdom). for example: hypertension. Common chronic illnesses usually treated in primary care may include. in both developed and developing countries. arthritis or thyroid dysfunction. Such a professional would usually be a primary care physician. Primary care also includes many basic maternal and child health care services. such as a physician assistant or nurse practitioner. patients of all socioeconomic and geographic origins. and sometimes at the patient's discretion. The World Health . they may see another health care professional first. patients seeking to maintain optimal health.
also generally work in secondary care. patients may be required to see a primary care provider for a referral before they can access secondary care. and some primary care services are delivered within hospitals. such as in a hospital emergency department. urologists and dermatologists. respiratory therapists. For example in the United States. occupational therapists. for example. intensive care. which operates under a mixed market health care system. The "secondary care" is sometimes used synonymously with "hospital care". and medical imaging services. and dietitians. and patients may decide whether self-referral is preferred.  Tertiary care . However many secondary care providers do not necessarily work in hospitals. It also includes skilled attendance during childbirth. or this restriction may be imposed under the terms of the payment agreements in private/group health insurance plans. accessed through either patient self-referral or through physician referral. regardless of whether the funding is from private insurance schemes or national health insurance. some physicians might voluntarily limit their practice to secondary care by requiring patients to see a primary care provider first. Depending on the organization and policies of the national health system. cardiologists. Allied health professionals.  Secondary care Secondary care is the health care services provided by medical specialists and other health professionals who generally do not have first contact with patients. In other cases medical specialists may see patients without a referral. such as physical therapists. It includes acute care: necessary treatment for a short period of time for a brief but serious illness. patient self-referral to a medical specialist for secondary care is rare as prior referral from another physician (either a primary care physician or another specialist) is considered necessary. injury or other health condition. such as psychiatrists. In the United Kingdom and Canada. speech therapists. clinical psychologists or physiotherapists.Organization attributes the provision of essential primary care as an integral component of an inclusive primary health care strategy.
such as a tertiary referral hospital. treatment for severe burns. and other types of health and social care services. distribution of condoms and needle-exchange programmes for the prevention of transmissible diseases. and set within a bigger picture of financing and governance structures. plastic surgery. and other complex medical and surgical interventions. in a facility that has personnel and facilities for advanced medical investigation and treatment. Examples of tertiary care services are cancer management.The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery in London. assisted living. They also include the services of professionals in residential and community settings in support of self care. They include many interventions of public health interest. and resources to deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations. such as food safety surveillance. These services are usually only offered in a limited number of regional or national health care centres. palliative.  Home and community care See also: Public health Many types of health care interventions are delivered outside of health facilities. encompassing many related sectors. usually for inpatients and on referral from a primary or secondary health professional. home care. Experimental medicine and some types of uncommon diagnostic or surgical procedures are considered quaternary care. also sometimes referred to as health care system or healthcare system is the organization of people. United Kingdom is a specialist neurological hospital. long-term care. treatment for substance use disorders. advanced neonatology services. cardiac surgery. institutions.  Quaternary care The term quaternary care is also used sometimes as an extension of tertiary care in reference to medicine of advanced levels which are highly specialized and not widely accessed. neurosurgery.  Health system Main articles: Health system and Health systems by country A health system. See also: Medicine Tertiary care is specialized consultative health care. .  Related sectors Health care extends beyond the delivery of services to patients.
the United Nations' International Standard Industrial Classification categorizes health care as generally consisting of hospital activities. or other allied health professions. The last class involves activities of. acupuncture. diagnostic laboratories and substances. music therapy. etc. occupational therapy. Health care industry See also: Health care industry and Health economics A group of Chilean 'Damas de Rojo' volunteering at their local hospital. and drug manufacturing and delivery. List of medical journals. chiropody. and List of health care journals . hydrotherapy. midwives. in the field of optometry. For example. The United States dominates the biopharmaceutical field. The health care industry incorporates several sectors that are dedicated to providing health care services and products. and "other human health activities". scientific or diagnostic laboratories. As a basic framework for defining the sector. medical and dental practice activities. In addition.g. residential health facilities. homeopathy. accounting for three-quarters of the world’s biotechnology revenues.  Health care research See also: Medical research. pathology clinics. yoga therapy. pharmaceuticals and other medical devices are the leading high technology exports of Europe and the United States. instruments and services as well as biotechnology. speech therapy. physiotherapists. chiropractics. e. according to industry and market classifications. medical massage. nurses. health care includes many categories of medical equipment. or under the supervision of. such as the Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark.
50bn compared to €27. Europe spends a little less than the United States (€22. involving for the patient and built into standard procedures. This is sometimes referred to as two-tier health care or universal health care. in terms of pharmaceutical research and development spending. county or municipality social health insurance voluntary or private health insurance out-of-pocket payments donations to health charities In most countries. general taxation to the state. In almost every jurisdiction with a government-funded health care system. low burden. a parallel private.05bn in 2006). They form the basis of evidence-based medicine and evidence-based practice in health care delivery. timely. The United States accounts for 80% of the world's research and development spending in biotechnology. but the exact distribution varies across countries and over time within countries. For example.  Health care financing See also: Health care system. system is allowed to operate.The quantity and quality of many health care interventions are improved through the results of science. the financing of health care services features a mix of all five models. In all countries and jurisdictions. and this coverage and the services provided are regulated. and Universal health care There are generally five primary methods of funding health care systems: 1. 2. social health insurance is where a nation's entire population is eligible for health care coverage. 3. private sector business or other group to adopt a specific health policy regarding the financing structure. and usually forprofit. including biomedical research and pharmaceutical research. In addition. there are many topics in the politics and evidence that can influence the decision of a government. as advanced through the social model of health and disability. 4. the results of health services research can lead to greater efficiency and equitable delivery of health care interventions. culturally sensitive. 5. Results from health services research often form the basis of evidence-based policy in health care systems. For example. Health services research is also aided by initiatives in the field of AI for the development of systems of health assessment that are clinically useful. such as advanced through the medical model of health which focuses on the eradication of illness through diagnosis and effective treatment. sensitive to change. Many important advances have been made through health research. low cost. which emphasizes the societal changes that can be made to make population healthier.  Health care administration and regulation See also: Healthcare provider requisites . Health policy.
and knowledge for communication and decision making” (Brailer. and eHealth Health information technology (HIT) is “the application of information processing involving both computer hardware and software that deals with the storage. such as machines. However.The management and administration of health care is another sector vital to the delivery of health care services. & Thompson. but can also encompass broader themes.  Health information technology See also: Health information technology. and use of health care information. In particular. hardware or utensils. and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt to its environment. and techniques. 2004). data. technology represents computers and communications attributes that can be networked to build systems for moving health information. For HIT. sharing. "technology" can refer to material objects of use to humanity. . Informatics is yet another integral aspect of HIT. including systems. retrieval. the practice of health professionals and operation of health care institutions is typically regulated by national or state/provincial authorities through appropriate regulatory bodies for purposes of quality assurance. a strict definition is elusive. Health informatics. methods of organization. Most countries have credentialing staff in regulatory boards or health departments who document the certification or licensing of health workers and their work history. Technology is a broad concept that deals with a species' usage and knowledge of tools and crafts.
1 Stakeholder Roles bk paper1 2.6 Materials Management 4 Models in Healthcare PPP 21 4.2 Risk Allocation and Sharing 29 6 Recommendations 31 6. Private Providers in Healthcare 10 ii .3 Capacity Building and Training 18 3.2 Operationalization Next Steps 32 7 Conclusion 34 List of Tables Table 1.2 Demographic Changes bk paper1 1.2 Existing Frameworks 21 5 Evaluation of PPP Models 24 5.6 Social and National Objectives 8 2 Key stakeholders in Healthcare PPP 10 2.4 Health Infrastructure 6 1.1 Indian Healthcare Sector bk paper-1 1.3 Managing Stakeholder Interests 11 3 Key Thrust Areas for Healthcare PPP 15 3.1 A simplified PPP model 31 6.1 Dimensions of PPP in Healthcare 21 4. Private bk paper1 2.1 Evaluation Framework 24 5.5 IT Infrastructure 19 3.Structural snapshot of Indian healthcare system 3 Table 2 Stakeholder roles in a Healthcare PPP 10 Table 3 Public vs.2 Public vs.Contents Executive Summary 1 1 Overview 3 1.5 Financing Mechanism 7 1.1 Infrastructure Development 15 3.4 Financing Mechanism 19 3.2 Management and Operations 16 3.3 The Burden of Disease 5 1.
Private participation in ICT in Healthcare 11 Table 6 Dimensions of a Healthcare PPP 21 Table 7 Different types of PPP models 22 Table 8 Evaluation Parameters for PPP models 25 Table 9 Evaluation of Healthcare PPP in Tamilnadu. India 27 iii .Table 4 Public vs. Private Financing for Healthcare Payment 11 Table 5 Public vs.
and to recommend public policy initiatives that would foster Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) and stimulate investment in healthcare sector to shape the future of Indian Healthcare Industry.Establishment of national and regional IT backbones and health data repositories for ready access to clinical information 6 Materials Management . this policy paper is the outcome of extensive and exhaustive deliberations by a Healthcare Sub-Committee constituted by the CII National Committee on Healthcare involving leading stakeholders in the Healthcare Industry. operational economy and quality 3 Capacity Building and Training . and thereby increase healthcare access to the people. and the government is also 1 . Today.Executive Summary With the rapid growth of the Indian economy in recent times and the changing demographics and socioeconomic mix of the Indian population. para-professional and ancillary staff engaged in the delivery of healthcare 4 Financing Mechanism . The recommendations in this document are based on a specific mandate provided to the sub-committee. informal and continuing education of professional. the healthcare system in India faces a challenge in raising the service quality and ensuring equitable access to people while simultaneously gearing up its capabilities to tackle the changing disease incidence profiles. For example.Development of a maintenance and supply chain for ready availability of serviceable equipment and appliances. there are different capabilities and drivers for the public and private sectors in a PPP arrangement. Over the years. The five areas where private sector contribution can prove very beneficial are: 1 Infrastructure Development . distributed and accessed. the government is the largest provider of healthcare in the country especially at the primary and secondary care levels.Development and strengthening of healthcare infrastructure that is evenly distributed geographically and at all levels of care 2 Management and Operations . allocated and utilized as well as the extent to which the services are developed. In this context. and medical supplies and sundries at the point of care In each of the above areas. there has been an immense change to the healthcare requirements in the country. which was to study the avenues of collaboration between the public and private sectors of the healthcare industry. the public and private sectors have helped in addressing the health needs of the country and made good India’s progress on key health indicators like life expectancy and infant mortality.Creation of voluntary as well as mandated third-party financing mechanisms 5 IT Infrastructure . since it is the public policy which influences the manner in which a nation’s healthcare resources and funds are collected. This challenge needs to be addressed through a concerted effort of both public and private sectors by their agreeing on suitable public policy initiatives which incentivize financing and provision of healthcare. The role of an effective public policy is critical here.Management and operation of healthcare facilities for technical efficiency.Capacity building for formal. The observations from the study indicate five major thrust areas where a Public-Private-Partnership could be evolved as a synergistic model to combine both the social objectives of universal healthcare access and the business objective of running a profitable healthcare facility.
The private sector investments in healthcare have been driven by free market economy. PPP frameworks. As a recommendation. the PPP model proposed primarily assumes a facilitator role for the public sector by way of offering support and aiding the private sector’s role of managing the service delivery and quality of care. these services have remained outof-reach of a large majority of our population due to cost consideration. 2 . thrust areas. An evaluation framework proposed in this document brings out four key principles on which any PPP model must be assessed 1 Effectiveness or the ability to meet program objectives 2 Efficiency or the financial efficiency in transfer of ownership and associated risks 3 Equity or the ability to accrue the benefits of the program to the poor people 4 Financial Sustainability or financial viability of the model An example of the usage of the evaluation framework in India highlights some key issues that need to be identified thoroughly before signing a PPP agreement. Consequently. key recommendations and next steps for the governing body. and the pricing of healthcare services has been largely influenced by investment cost. it is essential to have clarity of the public and private sector positions and develop unambiguous criteria for assessing PPP models. In order to make PPP as a sustainable common ground for both public and private sectors and to evolve successful PPP models. a case for PPP in Indian healthcare is presented with a detailed discussion on stakeholder roles.the largest buyer of healthcare services at the tertiary and quaternary care levels. Specific policy initiatives recommended for increasing private sector interest and participation along the key thrust areas include: 1 Providing help in infrastructure set-up especially in areas like land acquisition 2 Offer equity participation where possible or extend subsidized debt and other fiscal benefits 3 Provide budgetary grants for capital and operating expenses of the PPP systems 4 Ensure a non-compete policy within a predefined geographical limit of the PPP facilities 5 Buy-back a share of capacity for government identified beneficiaries In the following sections.
India’s total expenditure in healthcare as a percentage of GDP is still one of the lowest in the world.20246810121416IndiaChinaThailandBrazilMalaysiaSaudi ArabiaJapanUSPercentage of GDP Table 1.73. community health centers.48.23. up to medical colleges.215. secondary level district hospitals. Though the public health services infrastructure is widespread. Yet. the quality of these are not uniform and subject to regional vagaries. The table below provides a structural snapshot of the Indian healthcare system.1 Indian Healthcare Sector At over 8 percent GDP growth in recent years. primary health centers.94.1 Overview 1. Demand is moderate Conditions requiring care from specialized clinicians and facilities. Demand is the highest in this sector Healthcare facilities that require constant medical attention including short period of hospitalization.Structural snapshot of Indian healthcare system Stage of Demand of Healthcare The basic healthcare facilities for common and minor ailments and where prevention is most effective. starting with sub-centers. Demand requirements are highly specialized and thus minimal Healthcare Primary Care Secondary Care Tertiary Care . Healthcare services which are critical to the growth in economy have seen vast improvements over the past few years in India.57. India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world in terms of GDP and is expected to be the third largest economy by 2050. 54.