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This is the print version of English in Use You won't see this message or any elements not part of the book's content when you print or preview this page. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

Contents
If you have saved this file to your computer, click on a link in the contents to go to that section. Introduction Words Overview · Nouns and pronouns · Verbs · Adjectives and adverbs · Prepostions, conjunctions, and interjections · Verbals Sentences Overview · Basic components · Phrases · Clauses · Fragments and run-on sentences Usage Adjective and adverb usage · Pronoun usage · Subject-verb agreement · Verb usage Punctuation

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Introduction
Contents (edit template) General: Introduction Parts of speech: Articles - Nouns - Verbs - Gerunds and participles - Pronouns - Adjectives - Adverbs - Conjunctions - Prepositions Interjections Other English topics: Orthography - Punctuation - Syntax Figures of Syntax - Glossary

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Welcome
Welcome to the English language Wikibook on the English language! To learn about chapter format and whether this is the right book for you, continue reading this page. Most of this material is not dependant on other sections, so you can also use this book as a reference by clicking on any subject you would like to learn more about on the contents page. If you don't want to bother looking through chapters for a specific piece of information, click here to ask a question on any subject covered in this book. To learn more about this book and view a list of authors, see the About page. Additionally, those knowledgeable about the English language are welcome and highly encouraged to contribute. See the About page to learn more about contributing and add your name to the authors listing.

Print/export Create a collection Download as PDF Printable version

Introduction to the English language
English has become one of the most popular languages in the world. Proper English skills are becoming a valuable asset in business around the world. Do not put off learning English because of the great variety of word orders available (even for simple things). Have a go and keep trying. Practice. It is well worth remembering that English is not a fixed language - it is shifting like sand and so these "rules" are in the process of change and are often ignored or bent - much to the disdain of erudite scholars. This may be one reason why English can be tricky to learn.

Purpose and structure - What will this book cover?
This book will function as: 1. A guide to structure and grammar, 2. A usage guide, and 3. A manual of style It is divided into six units: Words and usage, Sentences, Punctuation, Other key topics, Appendices, and Topics in detail. The eventual goal is to be usable in English classrooms around the world. This book will not include English vocabulary and pronunciation (covered in English as an

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Additional Language). Advanced writing topics (covered in Rhetoric and Composition

(PDF))

will also be excluded.

Intended audience - Who is this book for?
This book is written for native English speakers and those who wish to learn the finer grammar and mechanics points of the language and improve their writing and speech, including ESL speakers. It is meant to be both a structured textbook read chapter by chapter and a reference book. English as an Additional Language and Business English present English in the manner of a traditional foreign language course. Rhetoric and Composition (PDF) covers advanced writing techniques not covered in this book. See External resources for other pages to read.

Chapter format
All pages of this book should be about the same length and difficulty, in order to provide consistency and allow readers to plan ahead how much they want to read each session. Each chapter will try to not be dependent on previous chapter as much as possible. Each chapter should be accompanied by exercises using {{English/Exercise}}. </nowiki> on the bottom of the page to include the template. Secondly, you are encouraged to comment on each chapter on its talk page. Don't understand something? Please say so so others don't experience the same problem! If you feel you understand the material on a page pretty well, write some exercises as practice. Be bold! </noinclude>

Brief language history
A Wikibookian disputes the factual accuracy of this page or section. You can help make it accurate. Please view the relevant discussion. Modern English has evolved out of old Anglo-Saxon, a language much like modern German. In the process, it has borrowed many Latin words, and completely changed its grammar. Wikipedia has related information at History of the English language

The story starts when the Romans left Britain, leaving the Celtic Britons in chaos. One Celtic king asked the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes to come and fight for him, but they decided to take over England instead, since the Celts couldn't put up a decent fight. Soon, there were no Celts left in England, and hardly any trace of the Celtic languages. There are a few river names inherited from the Celts, or earlier, and maybe a dozen words, but no more. This complete obliteration of the Celts was unusually thorough for the times. A few generations later the English converted to Christianity. The new religion brought with it a flood of new words, borrowed from Latin and Greek; religious terms such as Angel, priest, and nun, but also names of un-English things such lion, pepper, and oyster. Around this time, the English began slurring the ends of words. This was the start of the process that created modern English grammar. After a few centuries of peace the Vikings invaded. They spoke Old Norse, a language related to English. After much fighting, they settled down in North East England, and introduced many Norse words into English, including the pronouns them, they, and their. Just as the Viking invasions stopped, the French-speaking Normans invaded. Commoners continued speaking English, but for the next two centuries the noblemen spoke French. A few French words trickled into English during the period, but the number stayed pretty low until the nobles stopped speaking French, in the mid thirteenth century. This precipitated a large influx of words of French origin into the English language as an entire class migrated from French to English. Many of the French words were Anglicized, but some of the spelling of the words remained roughly intact. It should be noted that the Normans spoke an older version of French known as Old French that may sometimes actually seem to be closer to English than current French, because English took some words from Old French wholesale, such as mansion. Around the same time the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded. During the Renaissance, the scholars of England added many more Greek and Latin words to the English language. As a result, much of the technical vocabulary in English consists of Greek or Latin words. Since then, English has also borrowed many words from the major European languages, such as French, as well as a few words from almost every other language. It is still changing and developing.

Unit I: Words Parts of Speech Overview
English in Use/Parts of Speech Overview

Nouns
Contents (edit template) General: Introduction Parts of speech: Articles - Nouns - Verbs - Gerunds and participles - Pronouns - Adjectives - Adverbs - Conjunctions - Prepositions Interjections Other English topics: Orthography - Punctuation - Syntax Figures of Syntax - Glossary

This page is written in English, and therefore needs to be translated at a later date to other languages for it to become more useful. A noun, or noun substantive, is a part of speech (a word or phrase) which functions as the head of a noun phrase. The word "noun" derives from the Latin nomen meaning "name", and a traditional definition of nouns is that they are only those expressions that refer to a person, place, thing, event, substance, quality, or idea. They serve as the subject or object of a verb and as the governed term of a preposition, and can co-occur with articles and attributive adjectives. Examples
Janet is the name of a girl. Apple is a fruit and a computer company. In the above sentence, "computer" is an adjective because it is describing "company".

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There are different groups of nouns: Common nouns—"chair", Proper nouns—"Fred", Abstract nouns—"love", Collective nouns—"gaggle", Compound nouns—"butterfly", Verbal nouns—"triumphing".

Cleanliness is next to Godliness. The World Wide Web has become the least expensive way to publish information.

Each of these different groups of nouns has different properties, each making them different in how we use them. Thus, nouns are names of objects, places, people and things. They are used with adjectives to describe something, and with verbs to show an action.

Concrete nouns
Concrete nouns are proper nouns and common nouns.

Proper nouns
Proper nouns are the names of people, places, groups or dates: as, Adam, Boston, the Hudson, the Romans, the Azores, the Alps. They almost always have a capital letter as their first letter. Example: "Timmy is not someone to be toyed with."No one likes to hear other people boast their talents

Common nouns
Common nouns are the names of a sort, kind, or class, of beings or things: as, beast, bird, fish, insect, creatures, persons, children. They often refer to objects or things which we can see, touch and feel, like the word chair. Example: "I sat at the table."

Individual nouns Collective nouns
Collective nouns are the names of a groups of objects or many individuals together: as, council, meeting, committee, flock. Example: "They are a group."

Abstract nouns
Abstract nouns are the names of some particular qualities considered apart from its substance: as, goodness, hardness, pride, frailty. They are often names of the things that we cannot touch or see, but are there all the same. Example: "I think I've fallen in love!"

Attribute Verbal nouns
Verbal nouns or participial nouns are the names of some actions, or states of being; and are formed from a verb, like a participle, but employed as a noun: as, "The triumphing of the wicked is short."—Job, XX, 5.

Sui generis
A thing sui generis, (i.e., of its own peculiar kind,) is something which is distinguished, not as an individual of a species, but as a sort by itself, without plurality in either the noun or the sort of thing: as, galvanism, music, geometry.

Words and word groups used as nouns
Adjectives made nouns
"The Ancient of days did sit."—Bible. "Of the ancients."—Swift. "For such impertinents."—Steele. "He is an ignorant in it."—Id. "In the luxuriance of an unbounded picturesque."—Jamieson. "A source of the sublime;"—Burke. "The vast immense of space:"—Murray. "There is none his like."—Job, XLI, 33. "A little more than a little, is by much too much."—Shakespeare. "And gladly make much of that entertainment."—Sidney. "A covetous man makes the most of what he has."—L'Estrange. "It has done enough for me."—Pope. "He had enough to do."—Bacon. "All withers here; who most possess, are losers by their gain, stung by full proof, that bad at best, life's idle all is vain."—Young. "Nor grudge I you the much the Grecians give, nor murmuring take the little I receive."—Dryden.

Pronouns made nouns
"A love of seeing the what and how of all about him."—Story's Life of Flaxman: Pioneer, Vol. i, p. 133.

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"The nameless he, whose nod is Nature's birth."—Young, Night iv. "I was wont to load my she with knacks."—Shak. Winter's Tale. "Or any he, the proudest of your sort."—Shak. "I am the happiest she in Kent."—Steele. "The shes of Italy."—Shak. "The hes in birds."—Bacon. "We should soon have as many hes and shes as the French."—Cobbet's E. Gram., Para. 42. "If, for instance, we call a nation a she, or the sun a he."—Ib., Para. 198. "When I see many its in a page, I always tremble for the writer."—Ib., Para. 196. "Let those two questionary petitioners try to do this with their whos and their whiches."—Spect: Ash's Gr., p. 131. "Such mortal drugs I have; but Mantua's law is death to any he that utters them."—Shak.

Verbs made nouns
"Avaunt all attitude, and stare, and start theatric."—Cowper. "A may-be of mercy is sufficient."—Bridge. "Which cuts are reckoned among the fractures."—Wiseman. "The officer erred in granting a permit." "Feel darts and charms, attracts and flames."—Hudibras. "You may know by the falling off of the come, or sprout."—Mortimer. "And you have talked of sallies and retires."—Shak. "For all that else did come, were sure to fail; yet would he further none, but for avail."—Spenser.

Participles made nouns (gerunds)
"For the producing of real happiness."—Crabb. "For the crying of the poor and the sighing of the needy, I will arise."—Bible. "Surely the churning of milk brings forth butter, and the wringing of the nose brings forth blood; so the forcing of wrath brings forth strife."— Prov., xxx, 33. "Reading, writing, and ciphering, are indispensable to civilized man." "Hence was invented the distinction between doing and permitting."—Calvin's Inst., p. 131. "Knowledge of the past comes next."—Hermes, p. 113. "I am my beloved's, and his desire is toward me."—Sol. Song, vii, 10. "Here's—a simple coming-in for one man."—Shak. "What are your rents? What are your comings-in? O Ceremony, show me but your worth."—Id.

Adverbs made nouns
"In these cases we examine the why, the what, and the how of things."—L'Estrange. "If a point or now were extended, each of them would contain within itself infinite other points or nows."—Hermes, p. 101. "The why is plain as way to parish church."—Shak. "It is heaven itself that points out an hereafter."—Addison. "The dread of a hereafter."—Fuller. "The murmur of the deep amen."—Sir W. Scott. "For their whereabouts lies in a mystery."—Book of Thoughts, p. 14. Better. "Bid them farewell, Cordelia, though unkind; you lose here, a better where to find."—Shak.

Conjunctions made nouns
"The if, which is here employed, converts the sentence into a supposition."—Blair's Rhet. "Your if is the only peacemaker; much virtue is in if."—Shak. "So his lordship decreed with a grave solemn tone, decisive and clear, without one if or but—that whenever the nose put his spectacles on, by daylight or candlelight—eyes should be shut."—Cowper.

Prepositions made nouns
"O, not like me; for mine's beyond beyond."—Shakspeare: Cymb., iii, 2. "I.e., her longing is further than beyond; beyond anything that desire can be said to be beyond."—Singer's Notes. "You whirled them to the back of beyont to look at the auld Roman camp."—Antiquary, i. 37.

Interjections or phrases made nouns
"Come away from all the lo-heres! and lo-theres!"—Sermon. "Will cuts him short with a 'What then?'"—Sermon. "With hark and whoop, and wild halloo."—Scott. "And made a pish at chance and sufferance."—Shak. "A single look more marks the internal wo, than all the windings of the lengthened oh."—Lloyd.

Countable and uncountable nouns Inflections of Nouns
Nouns have modifications of genders, numbers, and cases.

Genders
Genders, in grammar, are modifications that distinguish objects in regard to sex. There are three genders; the masculine, the feminine, and the neuter:

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1. The masculine gender is that which denotes persons or animals of the male kind: as, man, father, king. 2. The feminine gender is that which denotes persons or animals of the female kind: as, woman, mother, queen. 3. The neuter gender is that which denotes things that are neither male nor female: as, pen, ink, paper. Hence, names of males are masculine; names of females, feminine; and names of things inanimate, literally, neuter. Masculine nouns make regular feminines, when their termination is changed to ess: as, Hunter, huntress; prince, princess; lion, lioness. In some instances the syllable ess is simply added: as, Accuser, accuseress; advocate, advocatess; archer, archeress; author, authoress; avenger, avengeress; barber, barberess; baron, baroness; canon, canoness; cit, cittess; coheir, coheiress; count, countess; deacon, deaconess; demon, demoness; diviner, divineress; doctor, doctoress; giant, giantess; god, goddess; guardian, guardianess; Hebrew, Hebrewess; heir, heiress; herd, herdess; hermit, hermitess; host, hostess; Jesuit, Jesuitess; Jew, Jewess; mayor, mayoress; Moabite, Moabitess; monarch, monarchess; pape, papess; or, pope, popess; patron, patroness; peer, peeress; poet, poetess; priest, priestess; prior, prioress; prophet, prophetess; regent, regentess; saint, saintess; shepherd, shepherdess; soldier, soldieress; tailor, tailoress; viscount, viscountess; warrior, warrioress. In other instances, the termination is changed, and there is no increase of syllables: as, Abbot, abbess; actor, actress; adulator, adulatress; adulterer, adulteress; adventurer, adventuress; advoutrer, advoutress; ambassador, ambassadress; anchorite, anchoress; or, anachoret, anachoress; arbiter, arbitress; auditor, auditress; benefactor, benefactress; caterer, cateress; chanter, chantress; cloisterer, cloisteress; commander, commandress; conductor, conductress; creator, creatress; demander, demandress; detractor, detractress; eagle, eagless; editor, editress; elector, electress; emperor, emperess, or empress; emulator, emulatress; enchanter, enchantress; exactor, exactress; fautor, fautress; fornicator, fornicatress; fosterer, fosteress, or fostress; founder, foundress; governor, governess; huckster, huckstress; or, hucksterer, hucksteress; idolater, idolatress; inhabiter, inhabitress; instructor, instructress; inventor, inventress; launderer, launderess, or laundress; minister, ministress; monitor, monitress; murderer, murderess; negro, negress; offender, offendress; ogre, ogress; porter, portress; progenitor, progenitress; protector, protectress; proprietor, proprietress; pythonist, pythoness; seamster, seamstress; solicitor, solicitress; songster, songstress; sorcerer, sorceress; suitor, suitress; tiger, tigress; traitor, traitress; victor, victress; votary, votaress. In a few instances the feminine is formed as in Latin, by changing or to rix; but some of these have also the regular form, which ought to be preferred: as, Adjutor, adjutrix; administrator, administratrix; arbitrator, arbitratrix; coadjutor, coadjutrix; competitor, competitress, or competitrix; creditor, creditrix; director, directress, or directrix; executor, executress, or executrix; inheritor, inheritress, or inheritrix; mediator, mediatress, or mediatrix; orator, oratress, or oratrix; rector, rectress, or rectrix; spectator, spectatress, or spectatrix; testator, testatrix; tutor, tutoress, or tutress, or tutrix; deserter, desertress, or desertrice, or desertrix. The following are irregular words, in which the distinction of sex is chiefly made by the termination: Amoroso, amorosa: archduke, archduchess; chamberlain, chambermaid; duke, duchess; gaffer, gammer; goodman, goody, or goodwife; hero, heroine; landgrave, landgravine; margrave, margravine; marquis, marchioness; palsgrave, palsgravine; sakeret, sakerhawk; sewer, sewster; sultan, sultana; tzar, tzarina; tyrant, tyranness; widower, widow.

Numbers
Numbers, in grammar, are modifications that distinguish unity and plurality. There are two numbers; the singular and the plural. The singular number is that which denotes but one: as, "The boy learns." The plural number is that which denotes more than one: as, "The boys learn." Plurals in meaning and form: Analects, annals, archives, ashes, assets, billiards, bowels, breeches, calends, cates, chops, clothes, compasses, crants, eaves, embers, estovers, forceps, giblets, goggles, greaves, hards or hurds, hemorrhoids, ides, matins, nippers, nones, obsequies, orgies, piles, pincers or pinchers, pliers, reins, scissors, shears, skittles, snuffers, spectacles, teens, tongs, trowsers, tweezers, umbles, vespers, victuals. Plurals by formation, derived chiefly from adjectives: Acoustics, aeronautics, analytics, bitters, catoptrics, commons, conics, credentials, delicates, dioptrics, economics, ethics, extraordinaries, filings, fives, freshes, glanders, gnomonics, goods, hermeneutics, hustings, hydrodynamics, hydrostatics, hydraulics, hysterics, inwards, leavings, magnetics, mathematics, measles, mechanics, mnemonics, merils, metaphysics, middlings, movables, mumps, nuptials, optics, phonics, phonetics, physics, pneumatics, poetics, politics, riches, rickets, settlings, shatters, skimmings, spherics, staggers, statics, statistics, stays, strangles, sundries, sweepings, tactics, thanks, tidings, trappings, vives, vitals, wages, withers, yellows. Plurals by composition: Backstairs, cocklestairs, firearms, headquarters, hotcockles, spatterdashes, self-affairs. To these may be added the Latin words, aborigines, antipodes, antes, antoeci, amphiscii, anthropophagi, antiscii, ascii, literati, fauces, regalia, and credenda, with the Italian vermicelli, and the French belles-lettres and entremets.

Regular plurals
The plural form is usually represented orthographically by adding s to the singular form. The phonetic form of the plural morpheme is [z] by default. When the preceding sound is a voiceless consonant, it is pronounced [s]. Examples: boy makes boys; girl, girls; chair, chairs; cat, cats. Where a noun ends in a sibilant sound, the plural is formed by adding es (pronounced [?z]), which is spelled es if the word does not already end with e: glass makes glasses; dish, dishes; witch, witches; phase, phases; judge, judges. Most nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant also form their plurals by adding es (pronounced [z]): hero makes heroes; potato, potatoes;

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volcano, volcanoes. Nouns ending in a y preceded by a consonant drop the y and add ies (pronounced [iz]): cherry makes cherries; lady, ladies. Proper nouns (particularly those for people or places) ending in a y preceded by a consonant form their plurals regularly: Harry makes Harrys; Germany, Germanys. This does not apply to words that are merely capitalised common nouns: as, P&O Ferries. A few common nouns ending in a y preceded by a consonant form their plurals regularly: henry makes henrys; zloty, zlotys. Words ending in ey form their plurals regularly, in order to avoid the unpleasant-appearing vowel sequence eie: monkey, monkeys.

Almost-regular plurals
Many nouns of Italian or Spanish origin are exceptions to the oes rule: canto makes cantos; piano, pianos; portico, porticos; quarto, quartos; solo, solos. Many nouns ending in a voiceless fricative mutate that sound to a voiced fricative before adding the plural ending. In the case of [f] changing to [v] the mutation is indicated in the orthography as well: calf makes calves; bath, baths; mouth, mouths; house, houses. Some retain the voiceless consonant: proof makes proofs; moth, moths; place, places; dwarf, dwarfs or dwarves; hoof, hoofs or hooves; staff, staffs or staves; turf, turfs or turves; roof, roofs or rooves.

Irregular plurals
There are many other less regular ways of forming plurals. While they may seem quirky, they usually stem from older forms of English or from foreign borrowings.

Irregular Germanic plurals
The plural of a few Germanic nouns can also be formed from the singular by adding n or en, stemming from the obsolete weak declension: ox makes oxen; child, children. The plural is sometimes formed by simply changing the vowel sound of the singular, in a process called umlaut (these are sometimes called mutated plurals): foot makes feet; goose, geese; louse, lice; man, men; mouce, mice; tooth, teeth; woman, women. Some nouns have singular and plural alike, although they are sometimes seen as regular plurals: as, aircraft, sheep, deer, fish, cod, trout, head, cannon. Generally, plurals refer to several species or kinds of animal, while the unmarked plural is used to describe multiple individual animals; one would say the classification of fishes, but five fish in an aquarium.

Irregular plurals of foreign origin
Such nouns often retain their original plurals. In some cases both forms are still vying: for a librarian, the plural of appendix is appendices; for physicians, the plural of appendix is appendixes. A radio engineer works with antennas and an entomologist deals with antennae. The "correct" form is the one that sounds better in context. Correctly formed Latin plurals are the most acceptable, in academic and scientific contexts. In common usage, plurals with s are sometimes preferred. Final a becomes ae (also æ) or just adds s: Formula makes formulae, lamina, laminae; macula, maculae; minutia, minutiae; nebula, nebulae; siliqua, siliqiuae; dogma, dogmas or dogmata; exanthema, exanthemas or exanthemata; miasm or miasma, miasms or miasmata; stigma, stigmas or stigmata. Saliva and scoria have no occasion for the plural. Final ex or ix becomes ices (pronounced [??si?z] or [??siz]) or just adds es. Of nouns in x, there are few, if any, which ought not to form the plural regularly, when used as English words; though the Latins changed x to ces, and ex to ices, making the i sometimes long and sometimes short: as, Apex, apices, for apexes; appendix, appendices, for appendixes; calix, calices, for calixes; calx, calces, for calxes; calyx, calyces, for calyxes; caudex, caudices, for caudexes; cicatrix, cicatrices, for cicatrixes; helix, helices, for helixes; index, indices, for indexes; matrix, matrices, for matrixes; quincunx, quincunces, for quincunxes; radix, radices, for radixes; varix, varices, for varixes; vertex, vertices, for vertexes; vortex, vortices, for vortexes. Some Greek words in x change that letter to ges: as, larynx, larynges, for larinxes; phalanx, phalanges, for phalanxes. Billet-doux, from the French, is billets-doux in the plural. Final is becomes es (pronounced [?i?z]. Of nouns in is, some are regular: as, trellis, trellises: so, annolis, butteris, caddis, dervis, iris, marquis, metropolis, portcullis, proboscis. Some seem to have no need of the plural: as, ambergris, aqua-fortis, arthritis, brewis, crasis, elephantiasis, genesis, orris, siriasis, tennis. But most nouns of this ending follow the Greek or Latin form, which simply changes is to es: as, amanuensis, amanuenses; analysis, analyses; antithesis, antitheses; axis, axes; basis, bases; crisis, crises; diaeresis, diaereses; diesis, dieses; ellipsis, ellipses; emphasis, emphases; fascis, fasces; hypothesis, hypotheses; metamorphosis, metamorphoses; oasis, oases; parenthesis, parentheses; phasis, phases; praxis, praxes; synopsis, synopses; synthesis, syntheses; syrtis, syrtes; thesis, theses. In some, however, the original plural is not so formed; but is made by changing is to ides: as, aphis, aphides; apsis, apsides; ascaris, ascarides; bolis, bolides; cantharis, cantharides; chrysalis, chrysalides; ephemeris, ephemerides; epidermis, epidermides. So iris and proboscis, which we make regular; and perhaps some of the foregoing may be made so too. Final ies remains unchanged: as, series, species. Final on becomes a. Of nouns in on, derived from Greek, the greater part always form the plural regularly: as, etymons, gnomons, ichneumons, myrmidons, phlegmons, trigons, tetragons, pentagons, hexagons, heptagons, octagons, enneagons, decagons, hendecagons, dodecagons, polygons. So trihedrons, tetrahedrons, pentahedrons, etc., though some say, these last may end in dra. For a few words of this class, however, there are double plurals in use; as, automata or atomatons, criteria or criterions, parhelia or parhelions; and the plural of phenomenon' appears to be always phenomena.

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The plural of legumen is legumens or legumina; of stamen, stamens or stamina: of cherub, cherubs or cherubim; of seraph, seraphs or seraphim; of beau, beaus or beaux; of bandit, bandits or banditti. Final um becomes a or just adds s: as, addendum makes addenda, medium makes media or mediums. Of nouns in um, some have no need of the plural: as, Bdellium, decorum, elysium, equilibrium, guaiacum, laudanum, odium, opium, petroleum, serum, viaticum. Some form it regularly; as, asylums, compendiums, craniums, emporiums, encomiums, forums, frustums, lustrums, mausoleums, museums, pendulums, nostrums, rostrums, residuums, vacuums. Others take either the English or the Latin plural; as, desideratums or desiderata, mediums or media, menstruums or menstrua, memorandums or memoranda, spectrums or spectra, speculums or specula, stratums or strata, succedaneums or succedanea, trapeziums or trapezia, vinculums or vincula. A few seem to have the Latin plural only: as, arcanum, arcana; datum, data; effluvium, effluvia; erratum, errata; scholium, scholia. Final us becomes i (second declension), era, ora (third declension), or just adds es (especially in fourth declension, where it would otherwise be the same as the singular): as, alumnus makes alumni, viscus viscera, corpus corpora, prospectus prospectuses. But such as have properly become English words, may form the plural regularly in es; as, chorus, choruses: so, apparatus, bolus, callus, circus, fetus, focus, fucus, fungus, hiatus, ignoramus, impetus, incubus, isthmus, nautilus, nucleus, prospectus, rebus, sinus, surplus. Radius makes radii or radiuses. Genius has genii, for imaginary spirits, and geniuses, for men of wit. Genus, a sort, becomes genera in Latin, and genuses in English. Denarius makes denarii or denariuses. Of nouns in us, a few have no plural: as, asparagus, calamus, mucus. Some have only the Latin plural, which usually changes us to i: as, alumnus, alumni; androgynus, androgyni; calculus, calculi; dracunculus, dracunculi; echinus, echini; magus, magi. Final us in nouns of Greek origin "properly" add es. These words are also heard with the Latin i instead, which is sometimes considered "over-correct", but this is so common as to be acceptable in most circumstances, even technical ones: cactus makes cactuses or cacti; hippopotamus, hippopotamuses or hippopotami, octopus, octopuses, octopi, or octopodes; platypus, platypuses, rhinoceros, rhinoceroses or rhinoceri, uterus, uteruses or uteri. Final as in one case of a noun of Greek origin changes to antes: Atlas makes Atlantes; atles, atlases. Final ma in nouns of Greek origin add ta: stigma makes stigmata; stoma, stomata; zeugma, zeugmata. Though some take s more commonly: schema makes schemata or schemas; dogma, dogmata or dogmas; lemma, lemmata or lemmas. Some nouns of French origin add x: beau makes beaux; chateau, chateaux; bureau, bureaus or bureaux. Nouns from Slavic languages: kniazhestvo makes kniazhestvos or kniazhestva; kobzar, kobzars or kobzari, oblast, oblasts or oblasti. Nouns of Hebrew language origin add im, ot (generally m/f), or just s: cherub makes cherubim or cherubs; seraph, seraphim or seraphs; matzoh, matzot or matzos. The Hebrew plurals cherubim and seraphim, being sometimes mistaken for singulars, other plurals have been formed from them. Some nouns of Japanese origin have no plural and do not change: as, samurai, otaku. However, other nouns such as kimonos, futons and tsunamis are more often seen with a regular English plural. In New Zealand English, nouns of Maori origin can either take an s or have no separate plural form: as, waka makes waka; marae, marae; kohwai, kohwai or kohwais; tui, tuis or tui, kiwi, kiwi or kiwis. Nouns from languages that have donated few words to English, and that are spoken by relatively few English-speakers, generally form plurals as if they were native English words: canoe makes canoes; kayak, kayaks; igloo, igloos; kangoroo, kangoroos; sauna, saunas; cwm, cwms; pizza, pizzas; kindergarten, kindergartens. In Canada and Alaska, some words borrowed from Inuktitut retain traditional plurals: Inuk makes Inuit; inukshuk, inukshuit. Some words of foreign origin are much better known in the plural. In common usage, the proper plural is considered the singular form. Backformation has usually resulted in a regularized plural: candelabra makes candelabras; data, data; agenda, agendas or agendae; graffiti, graffiti; insignia, insignias; algae, algae or algaes; opera, operas; viscera, viscera; panini, paninis; phalanx, phalanges; magazine, magazines.

Cases
Cases, in grammar, are modifications that distinguish the relations of nouns or pronouns to other words. There are three cases; the nominative, the possessive, and the objective.

The nominative case
The nominative case is that form or state of a noun or pronoun, which usually denotes the subject of a finite verb: as, "The boy runs;" "I run." The subject of a finite verb is that which answers to who or what before it: as, "The boy runs." Who runs? "The boy." Boy is therefore here a noun in the nominative case, or nominative. For example: I eat an orange I buy a chocolate I love my family I love yellow

The possessive case
The possessive case is that form or state of a noun or pronoun, which usually denotes the relation of property: as, "My hat;"

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"The boy's hat." Boy is here a noun in the possessive case, or possessive. The possessive case of nouns is formed, in the singular number, by adding to the nominative s preceded by an apostrophe; and, in the plural, when the nominative ends in s, by adding an apostrophe only: as, singular, boy's; plural, boys'; sounded alike, but written differently.

The objective case
The objective case is that form or state of a noun or pronoun which usually tells the object of a verb, participle, or preposition: as, "I know the boy, having seen him at school; and he knows me." The object of a verb, participle, or preposition, is that which answers to whom or what after it: as, "I know the boy." I know whom? "The boy." Boy is therefore here a noun in the objective case, or objective. The nominative and the objective of nouns, are always alike in form, being distinguishable from each other only by their place in a sentence, or by their simple dependence according to the sense. For example: I am playing with my football. I take her bag. Anoud's room is dirty.

The declension of nouns
The declension of a noun is a regular arrangement of its numbers and cases. Thus:

Sing. Nom. friend, Poss. friend's, Obj. friend; Sing. Nom. man, Poss. man's, Obj. man; Sing. Nom. fox, Poss. fox's, Obj. fox; Sing. Nom. fly, Poss. fly's, Obj. fly;

Plur. Nom. friends, Poss. friends', Obj. friends. Plur. Nom. men, Poss. men's, Obj. men. Plur. Nom. foxes, Poss. foxes', Obj. foxes. Plur. Nom. flies, Poss. flies', Obj. flies.

The noun as a modifier A short syntax
The subject must be in the nominative case, as "You say it." The subject is placed before the attribute, as "Peace dawned on his mind," except the following cases: a question, as "How many loaves have you?" imperative mood, as "Go you," strong feeling, as "May she be happy!" a supposition, as "Were it true," neither or nor, as "Neither shall you touch it," emphasis, as "Here am I," no regimen, as "Echo the mountains round," dialogue, as "My name is Hassan," and the adverb there, as "There lived a man." A noun in apposition is put in the same case as the noun it explains, as "But he, our gracious master, knows us." A possessive is governed by the name of the thing possessed, as "Man's life." A possessive comes immediately before the governing noun, as "Nature's peace," except the following cases: an intervening adjective, as "Flora's earliest smells," affirmation or denial, as "The book is not John's," a possessive without sign, as "Brother Absalom's house," or "David and Jonathan's friendship." The predicate is governed by attribute in objective case, as "I found her." A noun or a pronoun put after a non-transitive verb or participle, agrees in case with a preceding noun or pronoun referring to the same thing, as "The child was named John." The case of absolute noun or pronoun depends on no other word, as "Your fathers, where are they?"

References
A part of the text in this article, was taken from the public domain English grammar "The Grammar of English Grammars" 1851. An English Grammar by W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell, 1895. The Wikipedia article on Collective noun. The Wikipedia article on Count noun. The Wikipedia article on English plural. The Wikipedia article on Mass noun. The Wikipedia article on Noun. by Goold Brown,

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Pronouns
Contents (edit template) General: Introduction Parts of speech: Articles - Nouns - Verbs - Gerunds and participles - Pronouns - Adjectives - Adverbs - Conjunctions - Prepositions Interjections Other English topics: Orthography - Punctuation - Syntax Figures of Syntax - Glossary

A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun: as, "The boy loves his book; he has long lessons, and he learns them well." Pronouns are not a requirement of a sentence, and it is possible for them to never to be used in sentences. However, many sentences become unwieldy without them: "Alistair is doing what Alistair thinks is best according to Alistair's rights as a human being." Better, "Alistair is doing what he thinks is best according to his rights as a human being." The pronouns in English language are twenty-four; and their variations are thirty-two: so that the number of words of this class, is fifty-six. Pronouns are divided into three classes; personal, relative, and interrogative. Pronouns also change depending on whether they refer to one person or thing (singular) or a group of people or things (plural).

Personal pronouns
A personal pronoun or personal is a pronoun that shows, by its form, of what person it is: as, "Whether it were I or they, so we preach, and so you believed."—1 Cor., xv, 11. The simple personal pronouns are five: namely, I, of the first person; you, of the second person; he, she, and it, of the third person. The compound personal pronouns are also five: namely, myself, of the first person; yourself, of the second person; himself, herself, and itself, of the third person. First person pronouns are used when referring to oneself: "I think I am not silly." Second person pronouns are used to refer to someone who you are conversing with, the person the sentence is intended to be heard by: "You are not very silly." Third person pronouns are used when referring to something else that is outside the conversation, either some other person, or an object not capable of understanding or communicating: "I don't like the tree because it is ugly." "I don't like the RIAA because they sued me." Third person singular pronouns are the only pronouns marked for gender. If gender is unknown, use he or she or use a plural.

Relative pronouns
A relative pronoun or relative is a pronoun that represents an antecedent word or phrase, and connects different clauses of a sentence: as, "No people can be great, who have ceased to be virtuous."—Dr. Johnson. The relative pronouns are who, which, what, that, as, and the compounds whoever or whosoever, whichever or whichsoever, whatever or whatsoever. What is a kind of double relative, equivalent to "that which" or "those which"; and is to be parsed first as antecedent, and then as relative: as, "This is what I wanted; that is to say, the thing which I wanted."—L. Murray. III.

Interrogative pronouns
An interrogative pronoun or interrogative is a pronoun with which a question is asked: as, "Who touched my clothes?"—Mark, v, 30. The interrogative pronouns are who, which, and what; being the same in form as relatives. Who demands a person's name; which, that a person or thing be distinguished from others; what, the name of a thing, or a person's occupation and character. Pronouns have the same modifications as nouns; namely, persons, numbers, genders, and cases. Definitions universally applicable have already been given of all these things; it is therefore unnecessary to define them again in this place. The declension of a pronoun is a regular arrangement of its numbers and cases.

Simple personals
The simple personal pronouns are thus declined:

I, of the first person, any of the genders. Sing. Nom. I, Poss. my, or mine, Plur. Nom. we, Poss. our, or ours,

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Obj.

me;

Obj.

us.

Plur. Nom. you, Poss. your, or yours, Obj. you. He, of the third person, masculine gender. Sing. Nom. he, Poss. his, Obj. him; Plur. Nom. they, Poss. their, or theirs, Obj. them.

She, of the third person, feminine gender. Sing. Nom. she, Poss. her, or hers, Obj. her; Plur. Nom. they, Poss. their, or theirs, Obj. them.

It, of the third person, neuter gender. Sing. Nom, it, Poss. its, Obj. it; Plur. Nom. they, Poss. their, or theirs, Obj. them.

Compound personals
The word self, added to the simple personal pronouns, forms the class of compound personal pronouns; which are used when an action reverts upon the agent, and also when some persons are to be distinguished from others. They all want the possessive case, and are alike in the nominative and objective. Thus:

Myself, of the first person, any of the genders Sing. Nom. myself, Poss. ------, Obj. myself; Plur. Nom. ourselves Poss. ---------, Obj. ourselves.

Yourself, of the second person, any of the genders. Sing. Nom. yourself, Poss. --------, Obj. yourself. Plur. Nom. yourselves, Poss. ----------, Obj. yourselves. Himself, of the third person, masculine gender. Sing. Nom. himself, Poss. -------, Obj. himself; Plur. Nom. themselves, Poss. ----------, Obj. themselves.

Herself, of the third person, feminine gender. Sing. Nom. herself Poss. -------, Obj. herself; Plur. Nom. themselves, Poss. ----------, Obj. themselves.

Itself, of the third person, neuter gender. Sing. Nom. itself, Poss. ------, Obj. itself; Plur. Nom. themselves, Poss. ----------, Obj. themselves.

Relatives and interrogatives
The relative and the interrogative pronouns are thus declined:

Who, literally applied to persons only. Sing. Nom. who, Poss. whose, Obj. whom; Plur. Nom. who, Poss. whose, Obj. whom.

Which, applied to animals and things.

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Sing. Nom. which, Poss. ----, Obj. which;

Plur. Nom. which, Poss. -----, Obj. which.

What, applied ordinarily to things only. Sing. Nom. what, Poss. ----, Obj. what; Plur. Nom. what, Poss. ----, Obj. what.

That, applied to persons, animals, and things. Sing. Nom. that, Poss. ----, Obj. that; Plur. Nom. that, Poss. ----, Obj. that.

As, applied to persons, animals, and things. Sing. Nom. Poss. Obj. as, ----, as; Plur. Nom. as, Poss. ----, Obj. as.

Compound relatives
The compound relative pronouns, whoever or whosoever, whichever or whichsoever, and whatever or whatsoever are declined in the same manner as the simples. Thus:

Whoever or whosoever, applied only to persons. Sing. Nom. whoever, Poss. whosever, Obj. whomever; Plur. Nom. whoever, Poss. whosever, Obj. whomever.

Sing. Nom. whosoever, Plur. Nom. whosoever, Poss. whosesoever, Poss. whosesoever, Obj. whomsoever; Obj. whomsoever. Whichever or whichsoever, applied to persons, animals, and things. Sing. Nom. whichever, Poss. ---------, Obj. whichever; Plur. Nom. whichever, Poss. --------, Obj. whichever.

Sing. Nom. whichsoever, Plur. Nom. whichsoever, Poss. ---------, Poss. --------, Obj. whichsoever; Obj. whichsoever. Whatever or whatsoever, applied ordinarily to things only. Sing. Nom. whatever, Poss. --------, Obj. whatever; Sing. Nom. whatsoever, Poss. ---------, Obj. whatsoever; Plur. Nom. whatever, Poss. --------, Obj. whatever. Plur. Nom. whatsoever, Poss. --------, Obj. whatsoever.

Unclear Usage of Pronouns
Although helpful to eliminate repetitiveness of nouns, pronouns, when used too much, can make a sentence extremely vague: as, "Pictures on walls make it look pretty." The reader does not know what it is. "The teachers prepared the food. The students ate it. They had fun." The reader does not know who they are.

Y'all
The pronoun y'all is a contraction of "You all". It is traditionally used in the south of the United States, where in the north you all is more common. Y'all follows the same conjugation rules as they. Very often it is incorrectly spelled ya'll.

A short syntax
A pronoun must agree with its antecedent, as "This is the book; it is excellent," except the following cases: something indefinite, as "Tell me who it was," a neuter pronoun, as "I cannot view it," the pronoun it, as "It is not for kings," the adjective many, as "Many a great genius, they

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have no friends," enallage, as "We shall close our remarks," another sense, as "Lamps is of the plural number," nominatives, as "Who are you?", absolute nominatives, as "It need not be any wonder," possessives, as "Him whose yoke is easy," objectives, as "Those whom she persuaded," neuter verbs, as "Whom did you suppose me to be?", familiar language, as "The man [whom] I trust," omission of the relative, as "The worst thing [that] could happen," a collective noun, as "The council were divided," the conjunction or, as "James or John will favour us with his company," the conjunction and, as "Saul and Jonathan were pleasant in their lives," one person or thing, as "This great philosopher and statesman," empathy, as "The good man, and the sinner too, shall have his reward," and each, every, or no, as "Every plant and every tree produces others after its kind."

Reference
A part of the text in this article, was taken from the public domain English grammar "The Grammar of English Grammars" 1851. by Goold Brown,

See also
The Wikipedia article on Ain't The Wikipedia article on Generic you The Wikipedia article on Personal pronouns The Wikipedia article on Possessive pronouns The Wikipedia article on Relative pronouns The Wikipedia article on Singular they The Wikipedia article on Y'all The Wikipedia article on You The Wikipedia article on Who

Verbs
Contents (edit template) General: Introduction Parts of speech: Articles - Nouns - Verbs - Gerunds and participles - Pronouns - Adjectives - Adverbs - Conjunctions - Prepositions Interjections Other English topics: Orthography - Punctuation - Syntax Figures of Syntax - Glossary

Verbs are often called action words that show what the subject (a noun or pronoun) is doing. A verb is a word that signifies to be, to act, or to be acted on: as, I am, I rule, I am ruled, I love, you love, he loves. Verbs are so called, from the Latin verbum, a word; because the verb is that word which most essentially contains what is said in any clause or sentence. Although described as "action words", they can describe abstract concepts. They are a requirement of any sentence. Verbs have modifications of four kinds: moods, tenses, persons and numbers.

Morphological forms
An English verb has four morphological forms (forms of word formation) ever needful to be ascertained in the first place: the present, the past, the present participle, and the past participle. The third person singular is the fifth morphological form. The present is that form of the verb, which is the root of all the rest; the verb itself; or that simple term which we should look for in a dictionary: as, be, act, rule, love, defend, terminate. The past is that simple form of the verb, which denotes time past; and which is always connected with some noun or pronoun, denoting the subject of the assertion: as, I was, I acted, I ruled, I loved, I defended. The present participle is that form of the verb, which ends commonly in ing, and implies a continuance of the being, action, or passion: as, being, acting, ruling, loving, defending, terminating. The past participle is that form of the verb, which ends commonly in d or ed, and implies what has taken place: as, been, acted, ruled, loved.

Regularity
English, like many Germanic languages, contains both strong (or irregular, which is not quite the same as strong) and weak (regular) verbs. Irregular verbs are one of the most difficult aspects of learning English. Each irregular verb must be memorized, because they are not often easy to identify otherwise. Verbs are divided, with respect to their regularity, into four classes: regular and irregular, redundant and defective. A regular verb is a verb that forms the past and the past participle by assuming d or ed: as, love, loved, loving, loved. An irregular verb is a verb that does not form the past and the past participle by assuming d or ed: as, see, saw, seeing, seen. A redundant verb is a verb that forms the past or the past participle in two or more ways, and so as to be both regular and irregular: as, thrive, thrived or throve, thriving, thrived or thriven. A defective verb is a verb that forms no participles, and is used in but few of the moods and tenses: as, beware, ought, quoth.

Persons and numbers
The person and number of a verb are those modifications in which it agrees with its subject. There are three persons and two numbers: thus, 1. Singular first person. I love. 2. Singular third person. He loves. 3. Plural first person. We love.

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4. Plural second person. You love. 5. Plural third person. They love. Where the verb is varied, the third person singular in the present tense, is regularly formed by adding s or es: as, I see, he sees; I give, he gives; I go, he goes; I fly, he flies; I vex, he vexes; I lose, he loses. Where the verb is not varied to denote its person and number, these properties are inferred from its subject: as, if I love, if he love; if we love, if you love, if they love.

Tenses
Tenses are those modifications of the verb, which distinguish time. There are six tenses; the present, the past, the perfect, the past perfect, the first-future, and the second-future. One could even say there are twelve tenses because each of those comes in simple and in progressive forms, which have different meaning. The past tense is sometimes called imperfect, but the names perfect and imperfect do not fit their meaning. These names were derived from Latin where they were correct. The present tense simple is that which expresses what now exists, is normal or correlated to senses. It is used with adverbs like always, generally. "There is a house in New Orleans." "I read a book every week." "I hear a noise." The present tense continuous is that which expresses what is temporary: "I am reading a letter." "The car is running at high speed." "Someone is always working." The past tense simple is that which expresses what took place in time fully past. It is used with adverbs like yesterday, last week. "Last week, I read several of Shaw's novels." The past tense continuous is that which expresses what was taking place when (suddenly) something else occurred. "I saw him yesterday, and hailed him as he was passing." "I was giving a presentation when the microphone broke." The present perfect tense simple is that which expresses what has taken place, within some period of time not yet fully past, or is still valid. It is used with adverbs like ever, never, today, this week. "I have read several of Shaw's novels." "I have seen him today; something must have detained him." "Have you ever tried fugu fish?" The present perfect tense continuous is that which which started in the past and has not yet finished. "Since I have been standing here, five planes took off." The past perfect tense simple is that which expresses what had taken place, at some past time mentioned, before something other happened. "I had seen him, when I met you." "As soon as my car had been repaired, I could continue my trip." The past perfect tense continuous is that which expresses what had started before and was still going on, when something else occurred. "I had been listening to the radio when she dropped in." The first-future tense simple is that which expresses what will take place hereafter. "I shall see him again, and I will inform him." The first-future tense continuous is that which expresses what will be currently taking place at a certain time in future. "I will be swimming in the sea by the time you'll awake." The second-future tense simple is that which expresses what will have taken place at some future time mentioned. "I shall have seen him by tomorrow noon." The second-future tense continuous is that which expresses what will have started at some time and will still be ongoing, at some future time mentioned. "I will have been swimming in the sea for four hours by the time you'll awake tomorrow."

Signification
An active verb is a verb in an active sentence, in which the subject performs the verb: as, "I hit the dog." An active verb can be transitive or intransitive, but not passive or neuter. Verbs are divided again, with respect to their signification, into four classes: transitive, intransitive, passive, and neuter. A transitive verb is a verb that expresses an action which has some person or thing for its object: as, "Cain slew Abel." "Cassius loved Brutus." An intransitive verb is a verb that expresses an action which has no person or thing for its object: as, "John walks." "Jesus wept." A passive verb is a verb in a passive sentence (passive voice) that represents its subject, or what the nominative expresses, as being acted on:

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as, "I am compelled." "Caesar was slain." In a passive sentence, the action is performed on the subject. "I hit the dog," "The dog was hit by me." These sentences have the same denotative meaning, but their connotative meaning is quite different; active verbs are much more powerful and personal. A neuter verb or impersonal passive verb is a verb that expresses neither action nor passion, but simply being, or a state of being: as, "There was light." "The babe sleeps."

Voice
Voice of speech can be active or passive. Principally in passive voice the same tenses can be used as in active voice. There are two forms of passive voice (the second form is preferred): "He gave me the book." => "The book was given to me," "I was given the book." There are however some things to note. "They build a house." "The house is built." Here active and passive do not really have the same meaning. If for example you describe a picture where people build a house, the first sentence is perfectly correct. The second sentence however will be interpreted as the static perfect of the sentence "The house has been built—it is built now." This is, the house is now ready and not under construction. So the correct passive form is "The house is being built." Passive voice can be built quite formally by adhering to some rules. You will however not find normally all tenses as in active voice. Formal rules will lead you to monstrosities like the following, you will certainly never hear (already the active sentence is quite monstrous): "The speech will have been being held for four hours when finally you'll arrive." "The president will have been holding a speech for four hours when finally you'll arrive."

Moods
Moods are different forms of the verb, each of which expresses the being, action, or passion, in some particular manner. There are five moods; the infinitive, the indicative, the potential, the subjunctive, and the imperative. The infinitive mood is that form of the verb, which expresses the being, action, or passion, in an unlimited manner, and without person or number: as, "To die,—to sleep;—to sleep!—perchance, to dream!"—from Hamlet by William Shakespeare. The indicative mood is that form of the verb, which simply indicates or declares a thing: as, "I write," "You know." or asks a question: as, "Do you know?" "Know you not?" The potential mood is that form of the verb which expresses the power, liberty, possibility, or necessity, of the being, action, or passion: as, "I can walk." "He may ride." "We must go." The subjunctive mood is that form of the verb, which represents the being, action, or passion, as conditional, doubtful, and contingent: as, "If you go, see that you offend not." "See you do it not."—Rev., xix, 10. "God save the queen." "It is a requirement that ... be done." "It's high time you were in bed." "If I were you,..." The imperative mood is that form of the verb which is used in commanding, exhorting, entreating, or permitting: as, "Depart you." "Be comforted." "Forgive me." "Go in peace."

Conjugation
The conjugation of a verb is a regular arrangement of its moods, tenses, persons, numbers, and participles.

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An auxiliary, or a sign of a verb, is a short verb prefixed to one of the morphological forms of another verb, to express some particular mode and time of the being, action, or passion. The auxiliaries are do, be, have, shall, will, may, can, and must, with their variations. Do, be, and have express the indicative mood. Most often, the auxiliaries are used in the following way: When talking about actions that take place in the future, add the word will before the verb. To describe an action that is temporary, add the appropriate form of the verb be before the verb and add ing to the end of the verb root. To describe an action that has taken place, put the verb in the past tense and add the appropriate form of the verb have before the verb. You can combine the previous two auxiliaries by putting the appropriate form of have before been, and putting both of them before the verb.

Do
Present tense, sign of the present. I do, he does, we do, you do, they do. Past tense, sign of the past. I did, he did, we did, you did, they did.

Be
Present tense, sign of the present. I am, he is, we are, you are, they are. Past tense, sign of the past. I was, he was, we were, you were, they were.

Have
Present tense, sign of the perfect. I have, he has, we have, you have, they have. Past tense, sign of the past perfect. I had, he had, we had, you had, they had.

Shall and will
Often confused with each other in modern English. These auxiliaries have distinct meanings, and, as signs of the future, they are interchanged thus: Present tense, sign of the indicative first-future. Simply to express a future action or event: I shall, he will, we shall, you will, they will. To express a promise, command, or threat: I will, he shall, we will, you shall, they shall. Past tense, sign of aorist, or indefinite. Used with reference to duty or expediency: I should, he should, we should, you should, they should. Used with reference to volition or desire: I would, he would, we would, you would, they would. See also: Shall and will by Wikipedia

May
Present tense, sign of the potential present. I may, he may, we may, you may, they may. Past tense, sign of the potential past. I might, he might, we might, you might, they might.

Can
Present tense, sign of the potential present. I can, he can, we can, you can, they can. Past tense, sign of the potential past. I could, he could, we could, you could, they could.

Must
Present tense, sign of the potential present. I must, he must, we must, you must, they must. If must is ever used in the sense of the past tense, the form is the same as that of the present: this word is entirely invariable.

Is being
English grammar has changed, "The house is being built." no longer means the same as "The house is built." The first sentence refers to an ongoing action, the second to a completed one. "If the expression, 'Is being built,' be a correct form of the present indicative passive, then it must be equally correct to say in the perfect, 'Has been being built;' in the past perfect, 'Had been being built;' in the present infinitive, 'To be being built;' in the perfect infinitive, 'To have been being built;' and in the present participle, 'Being being built;' which all will admit to be expressions as incorrect as they are inelegant, but precisely analogous to that which now begins to prevail."—Bullions's Principles of English Gram., p. 58.

Forms of conjugation
Verb may be conjugated in four ways: Affirmatively: as, I write, I do write, or, I am writing; and so on. Negatively: as, I write not, I do not write, or, I am not writing. Interrogatively: as, write I? do I write? or, am I writing? Interrogatively and negatively: as, write I not? do I not write? or, am I not writing? The verbs would be conjugated affirmatively, unless said otherwise.

Love, conjugated in simple form
The verb love is a regular active verb.

Simple form, active or neuter

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The simplest form of an English conjugation, is that which makes the present and past tenses without auxiliaries; but, even in these, auxiliaries are required for the potential mood, and are often preferred for the indicative.

Morphological forms
Present Love Past Loved Present Participle Past Participle Loving Loved

Participles
Present Loving Past Past Perfect

Loved Having loved.

Infinite mood
The infinitive mood is that form of the verb, which expresses the being, action, or passion, in an unlimited manner, and without person or number. It is used only in the present and perfect tenses.

Present tense
This tense is the root, or radical verb; and is usually preceded by the preposition to, which shows its relation to some other word: thus, To love.

Perfect tense
This tense prefixes the auxiliary have to the past participle; and, like the infinitive present, is usually preceded by the preposition to: thus, To have loved.

Indicative mood
The indicative mood is that form of the verb, which simply indicates or declares a thing, or asks a question. It is used in all the tenses.

Present tense
The present indicative, in its simple form, is essentially the same as the present infinitive, or radical verb; except that the verb be has am in the indicative. The simple form of the present tense is varied thus: I love, he loves, we love, you love, they love. This tense may also be formed by prefixing the auxiliary do to the verb: thus, I do love, he does love, we do love, you do love, they do love.

Past tense
This tense, in its simple form is the past; which, in all regular verbs, adds d or ed to the present, but in others is formed variously. The simple form of the past tense is varied thus: I loved, he loved, we loved, you loved, they loved, This tense may also be formed by prefixing the auxiliary did to the present: thus, I did love, he did love, we did love, you did love, they did love.

Perfect tense
This tense prefixes the auxiliary have to the past participle: thus, I have loved, he has loved, we have loved, you have loved, they have loved.

Past perfect tense
This tense prefixes the auxiliary had to the past participle: thus, I had loved, he had loved, we had loved, you had loved, they had loved.

First-future tense
This tense prefixes the auxiliary shall or will to the present: thus, Simply to express a future action or event: I shall love, he will love, we shall love, you will love, they will love. To express a promise, volition, command, or threat: I will love, he shall love, we will love, you shall love, they shall love.

Second-future tense
This tense prefixes the auxiliaries shall have or will have to the past participle: thus, I shall have loved, he will have loved, we shall have loved, you will have loved, they will have loved.

Potential mood
The potential mood is that form of the verb, which expresses the power, liberty, possibility, or necessity of the being, action, or passion. It is used in the first four tenses; but the potential past is properly an aorist: its time is very indeterminate: as, "He would be devoid of sensibility were he not greatly satisfied."—Lord Kames, El. of Crit., Vol. i, p. 11.

Present tense
This tense prefixes the auxiliary may, can, or must, to the radical verb: thus, I may love, he may love, we may love, you may love, they may love.

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Past tense
This tense prefixes the auxiliary might, could, would, or should, to the radical verb: thus, I might love, he might love, we might love, you might love, they might love.

Perfect tense
This tense prefixes the auxiliaries, may have, can have, or must have, to the past participle: thus, I may have loved, he may have loved, we may have loved, you may have loved, they may have loved.

Past perfect tense
This tense prefixes the auxiliaries, might have, could have, would have, or should have, to the past participle: thus, I might have loved, he might have loved, we might have loved, you might have loved, they might have loved.

Subjunctive mood
The subjunctive mood is that form of the verb, which represents the being, action, or passion, as conditional, doubtful, or contingent. This mood is generally preceded by a conjunction: as, if, that, though, lest, unless, except. But sometimes, especially in poetry, it is formed by a mere placing of the verb before the nominative: as, "Were I," for, "If I were;" "Had he," for, "If he had;" "Fall we" for, "If we fall;" "Knew they," for, "If they knew." It does not vary its termination at all, in the different persons. It is used in the present, and sometimes in the past tense; rarely, and perhaps never properly, in any other. As this mood can be used only in a dependent clause, the time implied in its tenses is always relative, and generally indefinite: as, "It shall be in eternal restless change, self-fed, and self-consumed: if this fail, the pillared firmament is rottenness."—Milton, Comus, l. 596.

Present tense
This tense is generally used to express some condition on which a future action or event is affirmed. It is therefore erroneously considered by some grammarians, as an elliptical form of the future. If I love, if he love, if we love, if you love, if they love. In this tense, the auxiliary do is sometimes employed: as, "If you do prosper my way."—Genesis, xxiv, 42. "If he do not utter it."—Leviticus, v, 1. "If he do but intimate his desire."—Murray's Key, p. 207. "If he do promise, he will certainly perform."—Ib., p. 208. "An event which, if it ever do occur, must occur in some future period."—Hiley's Gram., 3d Ed., Lond., p. 89. "If he do but promise, you are safe."—Ib., 89. "Until old experience do attain to something like prophetic strain."—Milton: Il Penseroso.

Past tense
If I loved, if he loved, if we loved, if you loved, if they loved. This tense, like the past of the potential mood, with which it is frequently connected, is properly an aorist, or indefinite tense; for it may refer to time past, present, or future: as, "If therefore perfection were by the Levitical priesthood, what further need was there that an other priest should rise?"—Heb., vii, 11. "They must be viewed exactly in the same light, as if the intention to purchase now existed."—Murray's Parsing Exercises, p. 24. "If it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect."—Matt., xxiv, 24. "If the whole body were an eye, where were the hearing?"—1 Corinthians, xii, 17. "If the thankful refrained, it would be pain and grief to them."—Atterbury.

Imperative mood
The imperative mood is that form of the verb, which is used in commanding, exhorting, entreating, or permitting. It is commonly used only in the second person of the present tense. Love [you,] or do you love.

See, conjugated in simple form
The verb see is an irregular active verb.

Morphological forms
Present Past Present Participle Past Participle See. Saw. Seeing. Seen.

Participles
Present Seeing. Past Seen. Past Perfect Having seen.

Infinitive mood

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Present tense. To see. Perfect tense. To have seen.

Indicative mood
Present tense. I see, he sees, we see, you see, they see. Past tense. I saw, he saw, we saw, you saw, they saw. Perfect tense. I have seen, he has seen, we have seen, you have seen, they have seen. Past perfect tense. I had seen, he had seen, we had seen, you had seen, they had seen. First-future tense. I shall see, he will see, we shall see, you will see, they will see. Second-future tense. I shall have seen, he will have seen, we shall have seen, you will have seen, they will have seen.

Potential mood
Present tense. I may see, he may see, we may see, you may see, they may see. Past tense. I might see, he might see, we might see, you might see, they might see. Perfect tense. I may have seen, he may have seen, we may have seen, you may have seen, they may have seen. Past perfect tense. I might have seen, he might have seen, we might have seen, you might have seen, they might have seen.

Subjunctive mood
Present tense. If I see, if he see, if we see, if you see, if they see. Past tense. If I saw, if he saw, if we saw, if you saw, if they saw.

Imperative mood
Present tense. See [you,] or do you see.

Be, conjugated in simple form
The verb be is an irregular neuter verb.

Morphological forms
Present Be. Past Was. Present Participle Being. Past Participle. Been.

Participles
Present Being. Past Been. Past Perfect Having been.

Infinitive mood
Present tense. To be. Perfect tense. To have been.

Indicative mood
Present tense. I am, he is, we are, you are, they are. Past tense. I was, he was, we were, you were, they were. Perfect tense. I have been, he has been, we have been, you have been, they have been. Past perfect tense. I had been, he had been, we had been, you had been, they had been. First-future tense. I shall be, he will be, we shall be, you will be, they will be. Second-future tense. We shall have been, he will have been, we shall have been, you will have been, they will have been.

Potential mood
Present tense. I may be, he may be, we may be, you may be, they may be. Past tense. I might be, he might be, we might be, you might be, they might be. Perfect tense. I may have been, he may have been, we may have been, you may have been, they may have been. Past perfect tense. I might have been, he might have been, we might have been, you might have been, they might have been.

Subjunctive mood
Present tense. If I be, if he be, if we be, if you be, if they be. Past tense. If I were, if he were, if we were, if you were, if they were.

Imperative mood
Present tense. Be [you,] or do you be.

Read, conjugated in progressive form
The verb read is an irregular active verb.

Compound or progressive form
Active and neuter verbs may also be conjugated, by adding the present participle to the auxiliary verb be, through all its changes: as,

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"I am writing a letter." "He is sitting idle." "They are going." This form of the verb denotes a continuance of the action or state of being, and is, on many occasions, preferable to the simple form of the verb.

Morphological forms of the simple verb
Present Read. Past Read. Present Participle Reading. Past Participle Read.

Participles
Present Being reading. Past ———————— Past Perfect Having been reading.

Infinitive mood
Present tense. To be reading. Perfect tense. To have been reading.

Indicative mood
Present tense. I am reading, he is reading, we are reading, you are reading, they are reading. Past tense. I was reading, he was reading, we were reading, you were reading, they were reading. Perfect tense. I have been reading, he has been reading, we have been reading, you have been reading, they have been reading. Past perfect tense. I had been reading, he had been reading, we had been reading, you had been reading, they had been reading. First-future tense. I shall be reading, he will be reading, we shall be reading, you will be reading, they will be reading. Second-future tense. I shall have been reading, he will have been reading, we shall have been reading, you will have been reading, they will have been reading.

Potential mood
Present tense. I may be reading, he may be reading, we may be reading, you may be reading, they may be reading. Past tense. I might be reading, he might be reading, we might be reading, you might be reading, they might be reading. Perfect tense. I may have been reading, he may have been reading, we may have been reading, you may have been reading, they may have been reading. Past perfect tense. I might have been reading, he might have been reading, we might have been reading, you might have been reading, they might have been reading.

Subjunctive mood
Present tense. If I be reading, if she be reading, if we be reading, if you be reading, if they be reading. Past tense. If I were reading, if he were reading, if we were reading, if you were reading, if they were reading.

Imperative mood
Be you reading, or do you be reading.

Be loved, conjugated in simple form
The verb be loved is a regular passive verb.

Form of passive verbs
Passive verbs, in English, are always of a progressive form; being made from transitive verbs, by adding the past participle to the auxiliary verb be, through all its changes: thus from the active transitive verb love, is formed the passive verb be loved.

Morphological forms of the active verb
Present Love Past Loved Present Participle Past Participle Loving Loved Loving

Infinitive mood
Present tense. To be loved. Perfect tense. To have been loved.

Indicative mood
Present tense. I am loved, he is loved, we are loved, you are loved, they are loved. Past tense. I was loved, he was loved, we were loved, you were loved, they were loved. Perfect tense. I have been loved, he has been loved, we have been loved, you have been loved, they have been loved. Past perfect tense. I had been loved, he had been loved, we had been loved, you had been loved, they had been loved. First-future tense. I shall be loved, he will be loved, we shall be loved, you will be loved, they will be loved. Second-future tense. I shall have been loved, he will have been loved, we shall have been loved, you will have been loved, they will have been loved.

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Potential mood
Present tense. I may be loved, he may be loved, we may be loved, you may be loved, they may be loved. Past tense. I might be loved, he might be loved, we might be loved, you might be loved, they might be loved. Perfect tense. I may have been loved, he may have been loved, we may have been loved, you may have been loved, they may have been loved. Past perfect tense. I might have been loved, he might have been loved, we might have been loved, you might have been loved, they might have been loved.

Subjunctive mood
Present tense. If I be loved, if he be loved, if we be loved, if you be loved, if they be loved. Past tense. If I were loved, if he were loved, if we were loved, if you were loved, if they were loved.

Imperative mood
Present tense. Be you loved, or do you be loved.

Love, conjugated negatively
Form of negation
A verb is conjugated negatively, by placing the adverb not and participles take the negative first: as, not to love, not to have loved; not loving, not loved, not having loved.

First person singular
Indicative. I love not, or I do not love; I loved not, or I did not love; I have not loved; I had not loved; I shall not, or will not, love; I shall not, or will not, have loved. Potential. I may, can, or must not love; I might, could, would, or should not love; I may, can, or must not have loved; I might, could, would, or should not have loved, Subjunctive. If I love not, if I loved not, if they loved.

Third person singular
Indicative. He loves not, or he does not love; he loved not, or he did not love; he has not loved; he had not loved; he shall not, or will not, love; he shall not, or will not, have loved. Potential. He may, can, or must not love; he might, could, would, or should not love; he may, can, or must not have loved; he might, could, would, or should not have loved. Subjunctive. If he love not, if he loved not.

Love, conjugated interrogatively
Form of question
A verb is conjugated interrogatively, in the indicative and potential moods, by placing the nominative after it, or after the first auxiliary: as,

First person singular
Indicative. Love I? or do I love? loved I? or did I love? have I loved? had I loved? shall I love? shall I have loved? Potential. May, can, or must I love? might, could, would, or should I love? may, can, or must I have loved? might, could, would, or should I have loved?

Third person singular
Indicative. Loves he? or does he love? loved he? or did he love? has he loved? had he loved? shall or will he love? will he have loved? Potential. May, can, or must he love? might, could, would, or should he love? may, can, or must he have loved? might, could, would, or should he have loved?

Love, conjugated interrogatively and negatively
Form of question with negation
A verb is conjugated interrogatively and negatively, in the indicative and potential moods, by placing the nominative and the adverb not after the verb, or after the first auxiliary: as,

First person plural
Indicative. Love we not? or do we not love? loved we not? or did we not love? have we not loved? had we not loved? shall we not love? shall we not have loved? Potential. May, can, or must we not love? might, could, would, or should we not love? may, can, or must we not have loved? might, could, would, or should we not have loved?

Third person plural
Indicative. Are they not loved? were they not loved? have they not been loved? had they not been loved? shall or will they not be loved? will they not have been loved? Potential. May, can, or must they not be loved? might, could, would, or should they not be loved? may, can, or must they not have been loved? might, could, would, or should they not have been loved?

Irregular verbs
An irregular verb is a verb that does not form the past and the past participle by assuming d or ed: as, see, saw, seeing, seen. Of this class of

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verbs there are about one hundred and ten, beside their several derivatives and compounds. Methods of learning irregular verbs: To remember verbs: 1. Learn them by heart. 2. Write a reference lists of verbs. 3. Say the verbs aloud (not silently). 4. Set yourself targets, e.g. learn one verb a day. 5. Learn this verbs in groups. 6. Test yourself. To learn how to use them: 1. Write your own example sentences. 2. Collect some examples of use for each verb, e.g. from books, magazines or newspapers. 3. Use an English grammar. List of the top irregular verbs:

Present Awake, Arise, Be, Bear, Begin, Bend, Blow, Break, Bring, Build, Buy, Catch, Choose, Come, Cost, Cut, Do, Draw, Drink, Drive, Eat, Fall, Feel, Fight, Find, Fly, Forget, Forgive, Get, Give, Go, Grow, Have, Hear, Hide, Hold, Hit, Hold, Keep, Know, Lay, Lead, Leave, Lend, Let, Lie, Lose, Make, Mean, Meet, Pay Put, Read, Rend, Ride, Ring, Rise, Run, Say,

Past awoke, arose, was,were bore, began, bent, blew, broke, brought, built, bought, caught, chose, came, cost, cut, did, drew, drank, drove, ate, fell, felt, fought, found, flew, forgot, forgave, got, gave, went, grew, had, heard, hid, held, hit, held, kept, knew, laid, led, left, lent, let, lay, lost, made, meant, met, paid put, r~ead, rent, rode, rung or rang, rose, ran, said,

Present Participle

Past Participle awoken. arisen. been. borne. begun. bent. blown. broken. brought. built bought. caught chosen. come. cost. cut. done. drawn. drunk. driven. eaten. fallen. felt. fought. found. flown. forgotten. forgiven. gotten. given. gone. grown. had. heard. hidden or hid. held. hit. held. kept. known. laid. led. left. lent. let. lain. lost. made. meant met. paid put. r~ead. rent. ridden. rung. risen. run. said.

arising, being, bearing, beginning,

breaking, bringing, buying, choosing, coming, costing, cutting, doing, drawing, drinking, driving, eating, falling, feeling, fighting, finding, flying,

getting, giving, going, growing, having, hearing, hiding, hitting, holding, keeping, knowing,

leaving, lending, letting, lying, losing, making, meeting, putting, reading, rending, riding, ringing, rising, running, saying,

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See, Seek, Sell, Send, Set, Shake, Shine, Shoot, Show, Sing, Sit, Sleep, Speak, Spend, Stand, Steal, Strike, Swim, Take, Teach, Tear, Tell, Think, Throw, Wake, Wear, Win, Write,

saw, sought, sold, sent, set, shook, shone, shot, showed, sang, sat, slept, spoke, spent, stood, stole, struck, swam, took, taught, tore, told, thought, threw, woke, wore, won, wrote,

seeing, seeking, selling, sending, setting,

shooting, singing, sitting, speaking, spending, standing, stealing, striking, swimming, taking, teaching, tearing, telling, thinking,

wearing, winning, writing,

seen. sought. sold. sent. set. shook. shone. shot. shown. sung. sat. slept. spoken. spent. stood. stolen. struck. swum. taken. taught. torn. told. thought. thrown. woken. worn. won. written.

English irregular verbs

Redundant verbs
A redundant verb is a verb that forms the past or the past participle in two or more ways, and so as to be both regular and irregular: as, thrive, thrived or throve, thriving, thrived or thriven. Of this class of verbs, there are about ninety-five, beside sundry derivatives and compounds. List of the redundant verbs:

Present Abide, Awake, Belay, Bend, Bereave, Beseech, Bet, Betide, Bide, Blend, Bless, Blow, Build, Burn, Burst, Catch, Clothe, Creep, Crow, Curse, Dare, Deal, Dig, Dive, Dream, Dress, Dwell, Freeze, Geld, Gild, Gird, Grave, Grind, Hang, Heat, Heave, Hew, Kneel, Knit,

Past abode or abided, awaked or awoke, belayed or belaid, bent or bended, bereft or bereaved, besought, beseeched, betted or bet, betided or betid, bode or bided, blended or blent, blessed or blest, blew or blowed, built or builded, burned or burnt, burst or bursted, caught or catched, clothed or clad, crept or creeped, crowed or crew, cursed or curst, dared or durst, dealt or dealed, dug or digged, dived or dove, dreamed or dreamt, dressed or drest, dwelt or dwelled, froze, gelded or gelt, gilded or gilt, girded or girt, graved, ground or grinded, hung or hanged, heated or het, heaved or hove, hewed, kneeled or knelt, knit or knitted,

Present Participle abiding, awaking, belaying, bending, bereaving, beseeching, betting, betiding, biding, blending, blessing, blowing, building, burning, bursting, catching, clothing, creeping, crowing, cursing, daring, dealing, digging, diving, dreaming, dressing, dwelling, freezing, gelding, gilding, girding, graving, grinding, hanging, heating, heaving, hewing, kneeling, knitting,

Past Participle abode or abided. awaked or awoke. belayed or belaid. bent or bended. bereft or bereaved. besought, beseeched. betted or bet. betided or betid. bode or bided. blended or blent. blessed or blest. blown or blowed. built or builded. burned or burnt. burst or bursted. caught or catched. clothed or clad. crept or creeped. crowed. cursed or curst. dared. dealt or dealed. dug or digged. dived or diven. dreamed or dreamt. dressed or drest. dwelt or dwelled. frozen. gelded or gelt. gilded or gilt. girded or girt. graved or graven. ground or grinded. hung or hanged. heated or het. heaved or hoven. hewed or hewn. kneeled or knelt. knit or knitted.

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Lade, Lay, Lean, Leap, Learn, Light, Mean, Mow, Mulct, Pass, Pay, Pen, Plead, Prove, Quit, Rap, Reave, Rive, Roast, Saw, Seethe, Shake, Shape, Shave, Shear, Shine, Show, Sleep, Slide, Slit, Smell, Sow, Speed, Spell, Spill, Split, Spoil, Stave, Stay, String, Strive, Strow, Sweat, Sweep, Swell, Thrive, Throw, Wake, Wax, Weave, Wed, Weep, Wet, Whet, Wind, Wont, Work, Wring,

laded, laid or layed, leaned or leant, leaped or leapt, learned or learnt, lighted or lit, meant or meaned, mowed, mulcted or mulct, passed or past, paid or payed, penned or pent, pleaded or pled, proved, quitted or quit, rapped or rapt, reft or reaved, rived, roasted or roast, sawed, seethed or sod, shook or shaked, shaped, shaved, sheared or shore, shined or shone, showed, slept or sleeped, slid or slided, slitted or slit, smelled or smelt, sowed, sped or speeded, spelled or spelt, spilled or spilt, split or splitted, spoiled or spoilt, stove or staved, staid or stayed, strung or stringed, strived or strove, strowed, sweated or sweat, swept or sweeped, swelled, thrived or throve, threw or throwed, waked or woke, waxed, wove or weaved, wedded or wed, wept or weeped, wet or wetted, whetted or whet, wound or winded, wont or wonted, worked or wrought, wringed or wrung,

lading, laying, leaning, leaping, learning, lighting, meaning, mowing, mulcting, passing, paying, penning, pleading, proving, quitting, rapping, reaving, riving, roasting, sawing, seething, shaking, shaping, shaving, shearing, shining, showing, sleeping, sliding, slitting, smelling, sowing, speeding, spelling, spilling, splitting, spoiling, staving, staying, stringing, striving, strowing, sweating, sweeping, swelling, thriving, throwing, waking, waxing, weaving, wedding, weeping, wetting, whetting, winding, wonting, working, wringing,

laded or laden. laid or layed. leaned or leant. leaped or leapt. learned or learnt. lighted or lit. meant or meaned. mowed or mown. mulcted or mulct. passed or past. paid or payed. penned or pent. pleaded or pled. proved or proven. quitted or quit. rapped or rapt. reft or reaved. riven or rived. roasted or roast. sawed or sawn. seethed or sodden. shaken or shaked. shaped or shapen. shaved or shaven. sheared or shorn. shined or shone. showed or shown. slept or sleeped. slidden, slid, slided. slitted or slit. smelled or smelt. sowed or sown. sped or speeded. spelled or spelt. spilled or spilt. split or splitted. spoiled or spoilt. stove or staved. staid or stayed. strung or stringed. strived or striven. strowed or strown. sweated or sweat. swept or sweeped. swelled or swollen. thrived or thriven. thrown or throwed. waked or woke. waxed or waxen. woven or weaved. wedded or wed. wept or weeped. wet or wetted. whetted or whet. wound or winded. wont or wonted. worked or wrought. wringed or wrung.

Defective verbs
A defective verb is a verb that forms no participles, and is used in but few of the moods and tenses: as, beware, ought, quoth. List of the defective verbs:

Present Beware, Can, May, Methinks, Must, Ought, Shall, Will, Quoth, Wis, Wit,

Past ————— could. might. methought. must. ought. should. would. quoth. wist. wot.

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A short syntax
The finite verb must agree with its subject, as "The birds fly", except the following cases: the conjunction and, as "Rhetoric and logic are allied," one person or thing, as "Flesh and blood has not revealed it," empathy, as "Consanguinity, and not affinity, is the ground," each, every, or no, as "No one is the same," and the conjunction or, as "Fear or jealousy affects him."

References
A part of the text in this article, was taken from the public domain English grammar "The Grammar of English Grammars" 1851. by Goold Brown,

See also
English Verbs Fully Conjugated - 665 Regular and Irregular English verb list. Conjugated in various tenses. conjugation.com English Verb Conjugation. 15 000 English verbs conjugated in all 3 forms, affirmative, interrogative, and negative, in all tenses and persons. [1]

Adjectives
Contents (edit template) General: Introduction Parts of speech: Articles - Nouns - Verbs - Gerunds and participles - Pronouns - Adjectives - Adverbs - Conjunctions - Prepositions Interjections Other English topics: Orthography - Punctuation - Syntax Figures of Syntax - Glossary

An adjective is a word added to a noun or pronoun, and generally expresses quality: as, A wise man; a new book; you two are diligent. Adjectives may be divided into six classes; namely, common, proper, numeral, pronominal, participial, and compound. A common adjective is any ordinary epithet, or adjective denoting quality or situation: as, good, bad, peaceful, warlike, eastern, western, outer, inner. A proper adjective is an adjective formed from a proper name: as, American, English, Platonic, Genoese. A numeral adjective is an adjective that expresses a definite number: as, one, two, three, four, five, six, etc. A pronominal adjective is a definitive word which may either accompany its noun, or represent it understood: as, "All join to guard what each desires to gain."—Pope. That is, "All men join to guard what each man desires to gain." A participial adjective is one that has the form of a participle, but differs from it by rejecting the idea of time: as, "An amusing story," "A lying divination." A compound adjective is one that consists of two or more words joined together, either by the hyphen or solidly: as, nut-brown, laughter-loving, four-footed; threefold, lordlike, lovesick. Cardinal: one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen, twenty, twenty-one, twenty-two, etc. Ordinal: first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth,

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