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EUROPEAN COMMISSION

SCIENCE RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

technical steel research

Properties and in-service performance

The fracture behaviour of girth welds in high strength high yield-to-tensile ratio linepipe steels

Report
EUR 18426 EN

h
STEEL ESEIICH

EUROPEAN COMMISSION Edith CRESSON, Member of the Commission responsible for research, innovation, education, training and youth DG XII/C.2 RTD actions: Industrial and materials technologies Materials and steel Contact: Mr H. J.-L. Martin Address: European Commission, rue de la Loi 200 (MO 75 1/10), B-1049 Brussels Tel. (32-2) 29-53453; fax (32-2) 29-65987

European Commission

technical steel research


Properties and in-service performance

The fracture behaviour of girth welds in high strength high yield-to-tensile ratio linepipe steels
A. Correia da Cruz
Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade Estrade Nacional 249-Km 3 Cabanas-leiao (Tagus Park) P-2781 Oeiras Codex

T. Lefevre
Lab. Soete voor weerstand van materialen en lastechniek c/o Belgisch Instituut voor Lastechniek St Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B-9000 Gent

F. Santamaria
Inasmet Camino de portuetxe 12 E-20009 San Sebastian

Contract No 7210-MC/202/932/933 1 April 1992 to 31 December 1994

Final report

Directorate-Genera! Science, Research and Development

1998

EUR 18426 EN

LEGAL NOTICE Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information.

A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu.int). Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1998 ISBN 92-828-4643-1 European Communities, 1998 Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. Printed in Luxembourg
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THE FRACTURE BEHAVIOUR OF GIRTH WELDS IN HIGH STRENGTH HIGH YS/TS RATIO LINEPIPE STEELS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Improvements in steel making practice and rolling techniques have led to the development of low carbon micro-alloyed (structural and linepipe) steels with increased yield and tensile strength, adequate notch toughness and improved weldability. High strength steel linepipes conforming to API 5L Grade X 80 (SMYS of 551 MPa) are now commercially available. Because of the lack of service data, potential users are reluctant to utilize these steels for onshore and offshore pipeline projects. The major concern is that girth welds in such steels might be less safe in terms of failure avoidance than welds in conventional steel pipes. This is linked with their lower strain hardening capacity (higher yield-to-tensile ratios) and with the fact that, with increasing pipe yield strength, it becomes more difficult to achieve weld metal yield strength (YS) overmatching. To gain a better understanding into the deformation and failure characteristics of defective girth welds in such micro-alloyed steel pipes, experimental work was conducted on manual girth welds in large diameter (40" O.D. 16,9 mm W.T. and 44" O.D. 16,2 mm W.T.) pipes of API 5L X 70 and X 80 qualities. The work was performed jointly by Instituto de Soldadura e Quali dade (ISQ), Lisboa, Portugal, INASMET, Centro Technologico de Materiales, San Sebastian, Spain, and the Research Centre of the Belgian Welding Institute (BWI), Gent, Belgium. To incorporate the effects of weld metal YS mismatch (over- / undermatching) girth welds were made in each grade by conventional stick electrode welding with consumables of different strength categories, including cellulosae (E 6010, E 701 OG and E 901 OG) and basic (E 10018G) coated electrodes. Portions of the welds incorporated intentionally introduced defects typical of SMAW welding, i.e. porosity and slag inclusions. Their linear extent was such that they excee ded current workmanship based defect acceptance levels. The welds were non-destructively inspected by conventional radiography (X-ray) and automated ultrasonics (P-scan). Though both techniques have confirmed the presence of out-ofspecification defects, X-ray performed better than P-scan for the detection of small and scattered volumetric defects, such as isolated gas pores. To detect such defects, excessively high magnifications are required which might lead to false (non-significant) indications due to noise. The welds were subjected to mechanical testing to quantify, in the as-welded condition, their hardness, tensile, Charpy V toughness and CTOD toughness properties. The tests have shown that conventional manual welding procedures can be applied with confidence to produce high-quality girth welds in X 70 and X 80 pipes. Weldability problems, such as poor HAZ toughness or high HAZ hardness, are not to be expected, provided adequate preheating is applied.

Tensile testing has shown that the target levels of weld metal YS mismatch were not achieved. In particular, a situation of undermatching was not formally obtained. This was attributed to the fact that the pipes had yield strengths towards the lower end of the distributions for X 70 and X 80 grades. However, in view of the inherent scatter of the tensile test data, a finite probability of occurrence of weld metal YS undermatching was identified for both pipe grades. Charpy testing involved the establishment of brittle-to-ductile transition curves, which were subsequently used to define the transition temperatures corresponding with Charpy energies of 40 J (mean) / 30 J (lowest individual) and to select the test temperatures for CTOD and wide plate testing. These were selected such as to produce weld metal notch toughness levels similar to those proposed in the European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG) guidelines. CTOD toughness testing has demonstrated that, owing to the lack of triaxial crack tip constraint, both "standard" specimens (either through-thickness notched 2B or surface notched ) and specimens with an "alternative" geometry (surface notched 3B testpieces) fail to correctly characterize the fracture behaviour of welds in thin walled pipe : lower bound weld metal CTOD values of the order of 0,12-0,15 mm were measured at maximum load (plastic collapse). Since fitness-for-purpose (Engineering Critical Assessment - ECA) methodologies base the calculation of tolerable defect size on the CTOD toughness and since, moreover, residual stresses of yield point magnitude are to be included as secondary stresses (the YS of X 80 steel is 60 % higher than the YS of normalized CMn steels), calculated defect tolerance levels might be unduly restrictive for high strength pipeline girth welds. Further, the ECA methodo-logies do not take into account the obvious benefits of weld metal YS overmatching. Therefore, the CTOD approach is, in its present form, not suitable to predict the fracture behaviour of defective girth welds in thin walled pipe. Wide plate testing has shown that girth welds containing gross (out-of-specification) volumetric defects could not be brought to fracture, even when tensile tested at -50 C. Instead, failure was through the onset of necking in the pipe body at stresses approaching the pipe metal tensile strength. Therefore, workmanship based defect tolerance criteria might be too conservative. The wide plate tests have demonstrated that the fracture behaviour of welds made with cellulosic and basic electrodes differ significantly. For the cellulosic welds, failure was by unstable fracture with only minor tearing, whereas for the basic welds failure was preceded by impressive ductile tearing, yielding, in some cases, a stable pop-through. Since basic electrodes produce welds with a high fracture initiation resistance, it is expected that this type of consumables will overrule the traditional use of cellulosic electrodes for onshore pipeline welding of high strength steel pipes. None of the welds, produced with cellulosic electrodes in X 70 pipes and incorporating surface notches of up to 180 mm long by 3,0 mm deep, yielded unstable fracture in the Net Section Yielding deformation mode. The welds, produced with either cellulosic or basic coated electro-des in X 80 pipes and provided with sharp surface notches of maximum 150 mm long by 4,0 mm deep, equally yielded failure (either by unstable fracture or by maximum load instability) after Gross Section Yielding. This behaviour was seen for all four weld metal mismatch levels, indicating that a level of overmatching of 5 % is sufficient to induce Gross Section Yielding.

In general terms, the work has demonstrated that the EPRG Tier 2 defect limits, set forth for girth welds in pipes up to X 70, can be applied with confidence for girth welds in higher strength (X 80) steel pipes. The wide plates provided with planar surface breaking root defects of 3,0 mm deep and with a length equal to 7 times the wall thickness invariably produced Gross Section Yielding prior to failure. This implies that the EPRG guidelines yield a conservative upper limit to defect acceptance for girth welds in high strength (up to X 80) steel pipes. The adequate fracture behaviour, as evidenced by the wide plate tests, also illustrates that current defect assessment procedures are over-conservative for (as-welded) high strength steel pipelines. In particular, the treatment of residual stresses as secondary stresses of yield point magnitude and the fact that the benefits of weld metal YS overmatching are completely ignored drastically reduce tolerable defect sizes predicted by current ECA methodologies.

THE FRACTURE BEHAVIOUR OF GIRTH WELDS IN HIGH STRENGTH HIGH YS/TS RATIO LINEPIPE STEELS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 1.1 1.2 2 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.3 3 3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 4 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3

INTRODUCTION Backgrounds Objectives of the research programme TEST MATERIALS, EXTENT OF TESTING AND ALLOCATION OF WORK Test materials Extent of testing Non-destructive inspection (NDT) of the girth welds Characterisation of the properties of the pipe metals and girth welds Experimental verification - wide plate tensile testing of curved pipe sections Allocation of work PIPE MATERIALS AND GIRTH WELDING Pipe materials Girth welding Welding of the API 5L X 70 pipes Welding of the API 5LX 80 pipes NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) OF THE GIRTH WELDS Radiographic (X-ray) inspection Ultrasonic (P-scan) inspection General features of the P-scan inspection equipment Ultrasonic inspection results Comparison between radiographic and ultrasonic (P-scan) inspection results

19 19 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 24 25 25 25 25 26 27 27 28 28 29 29

5 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.3.1 5.2.3.2 5.2.3.3 5.2.4 5.2.4.1 5.2.4.2 5.2.4.3 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.4 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.4 7.4.1 7.4.2

PIPE METAL, WELD METAL AND HEAT AFFECTED ZONE CHARACTERISATION TESTING (SMALL-SCALE MECHANICAL TESTING) Characterisation testing of the pipe materials Chemical analyses of the pipe metals Optical microscopic examination and Vickers HV 5 hardness testing Pipe metal tensile testing in the longitudinal (pipe axis) direction Characterisation testing of the deposited weld metals and heat affected zones of the girth welds Chemical analyses of the weld deposits Micro- and macrographic examinations and Vickers HV 5 hardness testing All-weld metal and transverse (cross-weld) tensile testing of the girth welds All-weld metal tensile testing Transverse (cross-weld) tensile testing Levels of weld metal yield strength mismatch Charpy V notch impact testing of the girth welds Extent of testing Test results Discussion and interpretation of the notch toughness test data CTOD FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TESTING OF THE GIRTH WELDS BY MEANS OF STANDARD AND ALTERNATIVE SPECIMEN GEOMETRIES Extent of testing and experimental procedures Test results Discussion of the weld metal CTOD toughness test data CTOD toughness of the girth welds in API 5L Grade X 70 pipes CTOD toughness of the girth welds in API 5L Grade X 80 pipes Effect of lateral constraint (triaxiality) on weld metal CTOD toughness WIDE PLATE TESTING OF CURVED PIPE SECTIONS EXTRACTED FROM THE GIRTH WELDS - EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Introduction Experimental procedures and testing details Wide plate test results Detailed presentation of the wide plate test data Summary of the wide plate test data General discussion of the wide plate test data Interpretation of the wide plate test performances in terms of the Gross Section Yielding (GSY) concept Fracture behaviour of girth welds incorporating intentionally introduced weld defects

30 30 30 30 31 31 31 32 33 33 33 34 35 35 36 36

38 38 39 39 39 40 41

42 42 43 44 44 45 46 47 48

7.4.3 7.4.3.1 7.4.3.2 7.4.4 7.4.4.1 7.4.4.2 7.5 8 9

Assessment of the fracture behaviour of the girth welds in the X 70 pipes Wide plate tensile testing at -30 C of "overmatching" girth welds (E 7010G / E 901 OG electrodes) in X 70 pipes Wide plate tensile testing at -20 C of "undermatching" girth welds (E 6010 / E 6010 electrodes) in X 70 pipes Assessment of the fracture behaviour of the girth welds in the X 80 pipes Wide plate tensile testing at -30 C of "overmatching" girth welds (E 6010G / E 10018G electrodes) in X 80 pipes Wide plate tensile testing at -20 C of "undermatching" girth welds (E 6010 / E 9010G electrodes) in X 80 pipes Summary and conclusions OVERALL CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES TABLES 1 TO 16 FIGURES 1 TO 7 ANNEXES I TO VI

4y

49 50 51 51
52 53

55

59

65 91 103

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 .a Table 1 .b Table 2.a Table 2.b Table 3.a Table 3.b Table 4.a Table 4.b Table 5.a Table 5.b Table 6.a Table 6.b Table 7.a

Chemical composition (in weight %) of the API 5L Grade X 70 pipe material. Chemical composition (in weight %) of the API 5L Grade X 80 pipe material. Details of girth welding of the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes. Details of girth welding of the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes. Results of pipe metal tensile testing in the longitudinal (pipe axis) direction of the API 5L Grade X 70 pipe material. Results of pipe metal tensile testing in the longitudinal (pipe axis) direction of the API 5L Grade X 80 pipe material. Chemical composition (in weight %) of the deposited weld metals of the girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes. Chemical composition (in weight %) of the deposited weld metals of the girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes. Results of all-weld metal tensile testing of the "overmatching" and "undermatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes. Results of all-weld metal tensile testing of the "overmatching" and "undermatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes. Results of transverse (cross weld) tensile testing of the "overmatching" and "undermatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes. Results of transverse (cross weld) tensile testing of the "overmatching" and "undermatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes. Results of Charpy V notch impact testing (transition curves) of the "overmatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes. (Welding consumables : E 7010G / E 901 OG) Results of Charpy V notch impact testing (transition curves) of the "undermatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes. (Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 6010)

Table 7.b

il

Table 8.a

Results of Charpy V notch impact testing (transition curves) of the "overmatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes. (Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 10018G) Results of Charpy V notch impact testing (transition curves) of the "undermatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes. (Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 901 OG) Summary of data of CTOD fracture toughness testing at -30 C of the "overmatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes. (Welding consumables : E 7010G / E 901 OG) Summary of data of CTOD fracture toughness testing at -20 C of the "undermatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes. (Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 6010) Summary of data of CTOD fracture toughness testing at -30 C of the "overmatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes. (Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 10018G) Summary of data of CTOD fracture toughness testing at -20 C of the "undermatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes. (Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 901 OG) Summary of data of wide plate tensile testing of curved pipe sections incorporating machined surface notches in the weld root. Pipe grade: API 5LX 70 "Overmatching" girth welds Welding consumables : E 7010G / E 901 OG Summary of data of wide plate tensile testing of curved pipe sections incorporating machined surface notches in the weld root. Pipe grade : API 5L X 70 "Undermatching" girth welds Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 6010 Summary of data of wide plate tensile testing of curved pipe sections incorporating intentionally introduced weld defects. Pipe grade: API 5LX 70 "Undermatching" girth welds Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 6010 Summary of data of wide plate tensile testing of curved pipe sections incorporating machined surface notches in the weld root. Pipe grade : API 5L X 80 "Overmatching" girth welds Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 10018G

Table 8.b

Table 9.a

Table 9.b

Table 10.a

Table 10.b

Table 11

Table 12

Table 13

Table 14

12

Table 15

Summary of data of wide plate tensile testing of curved pipe sections incorporating intentionally introduced weld defects. Pipe grade : API 5L X 80 "Overmatching" girth welds Welding consumables : E 6010/ E 10018 G Summary of data of wide plate tensile testing of curved pipe sections incorporating machined surface notches in the weld root. Pipe grade : API 5L X 80 "Undermatching" girth welds Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 901 OG

Table 16

13

LIST OF FIGU RES

Figure 1 .a

Summary of data (transition curves) of Charpy V notch impact testing of the weld metal centreline (cap and root) of the "overmatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes. (Welding consumables : E 701 OG / E 901 OG) Summary of data (transition curves) of Charpy V notch impact testing of the weld metal centreline (cap and root) of the "undermatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes. (Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 6010) Summary of data (transition curves) of Charpy V notch impact testing of the weld metal centreline (cap and root) of the "overmatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes. (Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 10018G ) Summary of data (transition curves) of Charpy V notch impact testing of the weld metal centreline (cap and root) of the "undermatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes. (Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 9010G) Summary of data of CTOD fracture toughness testing at -30 C of the weld metal of the "overmatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes by means of "standard" and "alternative" specimen geometries. (Welding consumables : E 7010G / E 901 OG) Summary of data of CTOD fracture toughness testing at -20 C of the weld metal of the "undermatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes by means of "standard" and "alternative" specimen geometries. (Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 6010) Summary of data of CTOD fracture toughness testing at -30 C of the weld metal of the "overmatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes by means of through-thickness ( 2B) and surface notched ( ) specimens. (Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 10018G ) Summary of data of CTOD fracture toughness testing at -20 C of the weld metal of the "undermatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes by means of through-thickness ( 2B) and surface notched ( ) specimens. (Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 901 OG)

Figure 1 .b

Figure 2.a

Figure 2.b

Figure 3.a

Figure 3.b

Figure 4.a

Figure 4.b

Figure 5 G eneral view of a curved wide plate test panel, photographed upon completion of testing and illustrating the geometry and the instrumentation (moir grid and elongation measuring devices) applied.

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Figure 6.a

Summary of data of wide plate tensile testing -20 / -30 C of curved pipe sections extracted from the girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes and incorporating machined surface notches in the weld root : Diagramme of the gross failure stress as a function of defect length (defect depth : 3,0 mm). Summary of data of wide plate tensile testing -20 / -30 C of curved pipe sections extracted from the girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes and incorporating machined surface notches in the weld root : Diagramme of the "corrected" (pipe metal) gross failure strain as a function of defect length (defect depth : 3,0 mm). Summary of data of wide plate tensile testing -20 / -30 C of curved pipe sections extracted from the girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes and incorporating machined surface notches in the weld root : Diagramme of the gross failure stress as a function of defect length (defect depths : 3,0 and 4,0 mm). Summary of data of wide plate tensile testing -20 / -30 C of curved pipe sections extracted from the girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes and incorporating machined surface notches in the weld root : Diagramme of the "corrected" (pipe metal) gross failure strain as a function of defect length (defect depths : 3,0 and 4,0 mm).

Figure 6.b

Figure 7.a

Figure 7.b

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Annexe I

Selection of microphotographs : Microstructures of the API 5L Grade X 70 & X 80 pipe metals and microstructures of the deposited weld metals of the girth welds made in each of the pipes. (7 pages) Summary of data of the non-destructive inspection (radiographic (X-ray) and ultrasonic (P-scan)) of the defective girth welds. (17 pages) Macrographic examination and Vickers HV 5 hardness testing of the girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 & X 80 pipes. (13 pages) Detailed results of CTOD fracture toughness testing at -20/-30 C of the weld metal centreline (WMC) of the girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 & X 80 pipes by means of "standard" and "alternative" specimen geometries. (9 pages) Detailed results of wide plate tensile testing of "overmatching" and "undermatching" girth welds in API 5L Grade X 70 pipes (40" O.D. 16,9 mm W.T.) (20 pages) Detailed results of wide plate tensile testing of "overmatching" and "undermatching" girth welds in API 5L Grade X 80 pipes (44" O.D. 16,2 mm W.T.) (13 pages)

Annexe

Annexe HI

Annexe TV

Annexe V

Annexe VI

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THE FRACTURE BEHAVIOUR OF GIRTH WELDS IN HIGH STRENGTH HIGH YS/TS RATIO LINEPIPE STEELS

1 1.1

INTRODUCTION Backgrounds

Improvements in steel making practice and rolling techniques have led to the development of low to very low carbon, micro alloyed steels with increased yield and tensile strength, adequate notch toughness and improved weldability (as reflected by their low CE and Pcm values). This trend was seen both for structural steels and for steels for gas transmission linepipes. These developments have, however, led to steels which are characterized by higher yield-to-tensile strength (YS/TS) ratios as compared with their more conventional (normalized) counterparts. Owing to their low strain hardening capacity, steels with a high YS/TS ratio have reduced capabilities to redistribute plastic deformations which might occur in the vicinity of defects in welded joints in such steels when these are subjected to incidental overloads. There are strong indications that this leads to lower defect tolerance levels as compared with more conventional (normalized) steels. This implies that pipeline girth welds in high YS/TS ratio steels could be less safe in terms of structural integrity, because their failure characteristics depend no longer on the strain hardening capacity but solely on toughness. In addition to this, the deformation capacity and failure behaviour of welded pipelines depend also on the level of mismatch of the weld metal relative to the pipe material. With increasing pipe metal yield strengths, it becomes increasingly difficult to achieve adequate weld metal yield strength overmatching. The possibility of weld metal matching, or even undermatching, can thus not be excluded. In such situations, one does not longer benefit from the shielding effect of overmatching when defects / flaws located in the girth weld or heat affected zone (HAZ) are subjected to high tensile or bending loads. This in turn reduces defect tolerance levels. Because of the lack of service data and documentation (experience gained from pipelines with conventional YS/TS ratios is no longer applicable), potential users of high YS/TS ratio pipeline steels are somewhat reluctant to modify their specifications. Service related laboratory tests are therefore urgently needed to provide information on the deformation and failure characteristics of "defective" girth welds (incorporating either intentionally introduced weld defects or machined and/or fatigue precracked surface notches) in modern micro alloyed high strength pipeline steels. A second important aspect to consider is that the integrity of girth welds in gas transmission pipelines is ensured by non-destructive inspection procedures. Advanced non-destructive

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techniques (such as e.g. ultrasonic P-scan, TOFD (time of flight diffraction),...) with increased sensitivity are currently available, which opens new perspectives. Defect acceptance / rejection levels are commonly being based on workmanship quality control procedures. Workmanship defect acceptance levels are, however, based on experience and are, by necessity, both arbitrary and in most instances unduly conservative. An alternative approach to defect acceptance in pipeline girth welds is based on fitness-forpurpose (ECA - Engineering Critical Assessment) concepts. Modern pipeline codes such as API 1104, BS 4515 and CSA ZI 83 contain a non-mandatory Appendix giving specific procedures for the derivation of tolerable defect sizes. These approaches are based upon optimized analyses ensuring that the girth weld defect will not lead to failure either by brittle fracture or by plastic collapse. For the fracture assessment, a CTOD based design curve is applied to ensure that brittle fracture will not occur for a given applied stress and critical CTOD toughness. The plastic collapse assessment uses a notional flow stress to prevent failure by yielding of the ligament underneath the defect. Defect assessments based on fitness-for-purpose principles are subjected to much controversy. The different input parameters (i.e. applied stress, fracture toughness, residual stresses,...) and safety factors suggested in the published codes produce significantly different defect acceptance levels. In particular, for the situation of low fracture toughness, the calculated defect sizes might be in conflict with the workmanship defect acceptance levels. Moreover, current defect assessment procedures do not account for the effects of weld metal yield strength mismatch on girth weld performance. An alternative, and much more straightforward, approach for girth weld defect acceptance / rejection has recently been developed by the European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG). Tier 2 of the EPRG Guidelines specifies that, for girth welds made in linepipe steels up to Grade X 70 (SMYS < 482 MPa) and with a YS/TS ratio of maximum 0,85, planar surface breaking defects of 3,0 mm deep (i.e. the height of one weld bead) and with a length equal to 7 times the nominal wall thickness are acceptable, provided the weld metal possesses a Charpy V notch impact energy at the minimum design / operating temperature of 40 Joules (mean) / 30 Joules (minimum). Hence, experimental work was clearly needed to elucidate some of the outstanding questions related to workmanship and fitness-for-purpose based girth weld defect acceptance criteria and to verify the degree of conservatism of existing codes and standards. In particular, the effects of higher yield strength (above X 70) and yield-to-tensile ratio (above 0,85) linepipe steels on girth weld performance needed to be addressed. Upon initiating the project, it was anticipated that the best approach was to conduct a series of wide plate tensile tests on girth welds containing either intentionally introduced workmanship type defects or machined and/or fatigue precracked surface notches. Such experimental information is needed to verify whether existing workmanship criteria and/or fitness-for-purpose (based on CTOD toughness test data) defect assessment criteria are applicable to defective girth welds in high strength high YS/TS ratio steel linepipes without being either unsafe or unduly conservative.

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1.2

Objectives of the research programme

By taking into account the above considerations, the objectives of the research programme were as follows : (1) To identify the effect of those factors affecting failure behaviour of defective girth welds in large diameter high strength steel linepipes, i.e. Charpy V toughness and/or CTOD fracture toughness, level of weld metal yield strength mismatch and yield-to-tensile ratio, and to investigate to what extent these factors interact. (2) To produce experimental data which can serve as a basis for simplifying and rationalizing current workmanship and fitness-for-purpose defect acceptance criteria for girth weld defects in high strength steel pipes. In particular, it was aimed at verifying whether the EPRG guidelines are also applicable to higher pipe grades. The sub-objectives of the research programme were as follows : (1) To verify whether welding procedures (manual (stick electrode) welding) and consumables currently being applied for pipeline girth welding of steel grades up to X 70 are also suitable for welding of higher grades. (2) To demonstrate the potentials of advanced non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques, such as e.g. the ultrasonic P-scan technique, and to determine their detection limits. (3) To determine the mechanical properties, in terms of hardness, tensile and (Charpy V and CTOD) toughness, of the deposited weld metals and heat affected zones of girth welds in high strength steel pipes. (4) To develop new testing techniques to determine the weld metal CTOD fracture toughness with increased lateral constraint. (5) To quantify, in terms of tolerable defect size, the effects of weld metal strength mismatch, CTOD toughness and YS/TS ratio of the pipe material on the failure characteristics of defective girth welds. 2 TEST MATERIALS, EXTENT OF TESTING AND ALLOCATION OF WORK

In order to realize the objectives and sub-objectives listed above, experimental work was conducted by each of the laboratories involved in the project, i.e. Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade (ISQ), Lisboa, Portugal (main contractor), INASMET, Centro Technologico de Materiales, San Sebastian, Spain (subcontractor), and the Research Centre of the Belgian Welding Institute (BWI), c/o Laboratory Soete, Universiteit Gent, Belgium (subcontractor). For convenience, the test materials, extent of testing and allocation of experimental work between the partners is briefly described below.

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2.1

Test materials

The experimental work was conducted on large diameter high strength steel linepipes of API 5L X 70 / X 80 quality. In order to properly incorporate the effects of the yield strength levels of the pipe material on girth weld performance, two pipe grades were selected, i.e. conforming either to API 5L Grade X 70 (SMYS of 482 MPa) or to Grade X 80 (SMYS of 551 MPa). Their nominal dimensions were as follows : Grade X 70 : outer diameter (O.D.) of 40" (1.016,0 mm) and wall thickness (W.T.) of 16,9 mm Grade X 80 : outer diameter (O.D.) of 44" (1.117,6 mm) and wall thickness (W.T.) of 16,2 mm A series of girth welds was made in each of the pipes (6 welds in X 70 pipe and 3 welds in X 80 pipe) by conventional stick electrode (shielded metal arc SMAW) welding. In order to incorporate the effect of weld metal yield strength mismatch, welds were made with different filler metals, including both cellulosic (types E 6010, E 701 OG and E 901 OG) and basic (type E 10018G) coated electrodes. Since girth welds were made in both pipe grades (X 70 and X 80), it was expected that this would result in four distinct weld metal yield strength mismatch levels (under and overmatching). Both "sound" (virtually defect free) and "defective" (incorporating intentionally introduced defects) girth welds were produced. The "sound" welds were reserved weld metal characterisa tion testing. The "defective" welds contained deliberately introduced nonplanar (volumetric) defects typical of the manual SMAW process, i.e. porosity and slag inclusions. The linear extent (length) of the defects / flaws was aimed at exceeding the current workmanship limits (based on radiographic inspection) by a factor of approximately two. In other words, the girth welds contained defects which would have required repair on the basis of the currently used standards.

2.2 2.2.1

Extent of testing Nondestructive inspection (ND T) of the girth welds

Upon completion of welding, the girth welds were radiographically (Xray) inspected by a certified inspection authority ( VINOTTE, Brussels, Belgium). This has confirmed the presence of porosities and slag inclusions over considerable lengths, as planned. In addition, the welds were ultrasonically (US) inspected by ISQ using a computerised ultrasonic (Pscan) technique. This inspection was aimed at detecting the defects, at defining their nature (type) and location (around the pipe circumference) and at accurately sizing their dimensions (length and height). The findings of the NDT inspection were used as input data for extracting curved pipe sections for wide plate tensile testing : these were taken out at those locations where the defect incidence was the highest.

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2.2.2

Characterisation of the properties of the pipe metals and girth welds

Small-scale mechanical (destructive) tests were conducted by both ISQ and INASMET to de termine the hardness, tensile, Charpy V toughness and CTOD toughness properties of the girth welds. Each of the "sound" welds (four distinct strength categories) was subjected to virtually the same test matrix and a sufficient number of repeat tests was performed to account for the variability in properties with the sampling position around the circumference. A condensed schedule of the experimental work is presented hereinafter : Tensile testing of the pipe materials, aimed at quantifying the actual strength properties in the longitudinal (axial) direction. All-weld metal tensile testing of the girth welds, aimed at quantifying the actual strength properties of the weld metals and, in conjunction with the pipe metal tensile tests, the actual levels of weld metal yield strength mismatch. Macrographic examinations and Vickers HV 5 hardness testing (cap and root side). The varia bles included were : pipe grade, weld metal strength level and sampling position around the circumference. Charpy V notch impact testing of the weld metals and HAZ's of the girth welds : Brittle-to-ductile transition curves were established for the weld metals and heat affected zones (HAZ's). The variables included were : pipe grade, weld metal strength level, throughthickness sampling location (cap versus root), notch position (WMC and HAZ), sampling position around the circumference and test temperature. The transition temperatures corresponding with Charpy V impact energies of 40 J (mean) / 30 J (lowest individual) were subsequently determined and selected as test temperatures for CTOD and wide plate tensile testing. CTOD fracture toughness testing of the girth welds : The CTOD toughness properties of the weld metals were determined by testing of 2B testpieces through-thickness notched in the weld metal (WMC) and testpieces surface notched in the weld metal from the root side. The variables incorporated were : pipe grade, weld metal strength level, sampling position around the circumference and specimen geometry (crack orientation). In addition, the effect of lateral constraint on CTOD test performance was evaluated by testing of specimens with an "alternative" geometry, i.e. surface notched testpieces width a width equal to 3B. 2.2.3 Experimental verification - wide plate tensile testing of curved pipe sections

Upon initiating this project, defective girth welds in high strength X 70 / X 80 linepipes had not yet been tested in terms of workmanship weld quality. Since girth welds are predominantly

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subjected to bending and tensile loading in the axial direction, wide plate tensile tests on curved pipe sections extracted and tensile loaded in the axial direction are the most representative tests to evaluate full-scale girth weld performance. The curved wide plates were tested at temperatures significantly below the minimum design / operating temperature of gas transmission pipelines. The test temperatures were selected on the basis of Charpy testing (40 J (mean) / 30 J (minimum) requirement). It was initially planned to extract the curved wide plates (width : 330 mm (arc length)) at those locations where the X-ray and ultrasonic (P-scan) inspection had revealed the highest defect incidence. These would be tensile loaded to failure, which would have allowed to accurately measure defect size (length and height) and to compare these with the findings of the NDT inspection. The initial wide plate tests showed that the linear extent of the (non-planar) defects, though exceeding the workmanship based acceptance limits, was too small to produce specimen failure. Therefore, it was decided, for the vast majority of wide plate tests, to introduce additional machined surface notches of nominally 3,0 mm deep (i.e. the height of one weld bead) and with varying lengths in the girth weld metal from the root (to simulate root cracks). The defect lengths were selected on the basis of the EPRG guidelines (7 times the wall thickness). The wide plate failure stresses were compared against the yield strength of the pipe materials, i.e. it was verified whether Gross Section Yielding (pipe yielding in cross sections remote from the defective girth weld) preceded failure. By adhering to this procedure, it was believed that the experimental information would be of considerable value to assess the significance of workmanship type defects which would have been rejected because they exceed the acceptance limits. Further, the information generated was believed to be useful to critically assess current assessment procedures for girth weld defects in high strength pipeline steels.

2.3

Allocation of work

The experimental work, as well as the analysis of the test data, was carried out in a joined effort between the three collaborating laboratories, i.e. Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade (ISQ), INASMET, Centro Technologico de Materiales, and the Research Centre of the Belgian Welding Institute (BWI). The overall coordination of the research work was with ISQ, which was also responsible for small-scale mechanical testing (weld metal and HAZ characterisation testing) of the girth welds in API 5L X 80 pipes and for the non-destructive ultrasonic inspection. INASMET have focused their efforts on the characterisation in terms of hardness, tensile, notch and fracture toughness properties of the girth welds in API 5L X 70 pipes. In addition, they have looked into the possibilities of implementing a new testing technique (with increased lateral constraint) for characterizing the CTOD toughness of girth welds in thin-walled pipes. The BWI was responsible for the purchase of the test materials, the coordination of the welding activities and for wide plate tensile testing. The draft final report was prepared by the BWI, in close collaboration with ISQ and INASMET.

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3 3.1

PIPE MATERIALS AND GIRTH WELDING Pipe materials

The materials selected for the project were large diameter submerged arc (SAW) longitudinally welded steel linepipes conforming to Grades X 70 and X 80 of API 5L. The API 5L X 70 pipes (SMYS = 482 MPa - SMTS = 565 MPa) were stock pipes, which had been produced by GTS INDUSTRIES (formerly VALLOUREC), Dunkerque, France. They had an outer diameter (O.D.) of 40" (1.016,0 mm) and a wall thickness (W.T.) of 16,9 mm nominally. To account for the variability in pipe supply, the selected pipes, further referred to as Pipes "A", "B" and "C", originated from three Heats. Their chemical compositions are listed in Table La. The pipes have a carbon equivalent CE (UW) of 0,35-0,36 and a Pcm value of 0,18-0,19, thus ensuring an excellent weldability and a low hardenability. The pipe metal Charpy V notch toughness (transverse orientation) exceeded 150 Joules at -20 C. Typical optical microphotographs, illustrating the ferritic-pearlitic microstructure at pipe subsurface (1 mm below the outer wall) and at mid-thickness, are presented in Figure 1.1 of Annexe I. The API 5L X 80 pipes (SMYS = 551 MPa - SMTS = 620 MPa) had on purpose been produced for this research project by EUROPJPE GmbH (formerly MANNESMANN RHRENWERKE), Mlheim, Germany. They had an outer diameter (O.D.) of 44" (1.117,6 mm) and a wall thickness (W.T.) of 16,2 mm nominally. To account for the variability in pipe supply, the selected pipes originated from two Heats, further referred to as Pipes "D" and "E". Their chemical compositions are listed in Table l.b. The pipes have a carbon equivalent CE (UW) of 0,43-0,44 and a Pcm value of 0,20-0,21, thus ensuring an adequate weldability and a moderate hardenability. The pipe metal notch toughness (transverse orientation) exceeded 140 Joules at -10 C. Typical optical microphotographs, illustrating the low carbon bainitic-ferritic microstructure at pipe subsurface (1 mm below the outer wall) and at mid-thickness, are presented in Figure 1.4 of Annexe I.

3.2 3.2.1

Girth welding Welding of the API 5L X 70 pipes

Six girth welds have been produced by shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) in the API 5L X 70 pipes by an experienced onshore pipeline contractor (N.V. DENYS, Wondelgem, Belgium). The girth welds were made by means of conventional downhill (5G) welding with cellulosic coated electrodes, using standard procedures (V-bevel preparation with an included angle of 60 and a 2,5 mm root gap). To enable a proper assessment of the effects of weld metal strength mismatch on girth weld performance, the consumables selected had two distinct strength categories, yielding weld deposits with "undermatching" (E 6010 electrodes for the root, hot, fill and cap passes) and "overmatching" (E 7010G for the root pass, E 9010 for the hot, fill and cap passes) yield strength levels. For each weld metal strength level (E 6010 / E 6010 ("undermatching") and E 7010G / E 9010G ("overmatching")), three girth welds have been produced, i.e. :

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- one "sound" (i.e. virtually defect free) weld reserved for weld metal and HAZ characterisation testing and for wide plate tensile testing. These welds were identified as nos. "W 1" (E 7010G / E 9010G) and "W 2" (E 6010 / E 6010) - two "defective" (i.e. containing intentionally introduced defects) welds, which were reserved for wide plate testing. The defects, typical of stick electrode pipeline welding, were distributed around the circumference as follows : - 12-3 o'clock : elongated slag inclusions (in the root and hot pass) and clusters of porosities in one of the fill passes (towards the weld cap) - 3-6 o'clock : clusters of porosities in two successive fill passes (towards the weld cap) - 6-12 o'clock : defect free ("sound") The defective "overmatching" welds (E 7010G / E 9010G) were identified as nos. "W 3" and "W 4", the "undermatching" ones (E 6010 / E 6010) as nos. "W 5" and "W 6". The volumetric (non-planar) weld defects were deliberately introduced by either omitting slag removal by brushing and grinding (elongated slag inclusions) or by disturbing the shielding gas of the molten weld pool (cluster porosity). The target defect lengths were equal to twice the API 1104 (workmanship based) acceptance limits. As is normal practice in the pipeline industry, the welds were tested in the as-welded condition. For convenience, details on girth welding of the API 5L X 70 pipes are gathered in Table 2.a. 3.2.2 Welding of the API 5LX 80 pipes

Three girth welds have been produced by shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) in the API 5L X 80 pipes by the same onshore pipeline contractor. The welds were made by means of downhill (5G) welding using a V-bevel preparation with an included angle of 60 and a 2,5 mm root gap. Since there is a consensus in the pipeline industry that, in general, cellulosic electrodes fail to meet the requirement of weld metal strength overmatching for X 80 pipe and, moreover, have limited (notch and fracture) toughness, it was decided to focus the experimental work on girth welds made with basic coated electrodes of the E 10018G type (for the fill and cap passes). According to experience, these yield weld deposits whose yield strength exceeds (overmatches) the SMYS of API 5L X 80 pipes. In order to avoid root cracking, the root and hot pass were deposited with cellulosic (type E 6010) electrodes. Two girth welds were produced with this "overmatching" consumable combination (E 6010 / E10018G), i.e. : - a "sound" (i.e. virtually defect free) weld, identified as weld no. "W 8", was reserved for weld metal and HAZ characterisation testing and for wide plate tensile testing.

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- a partially "defective" (i.e. containing deliberately introduced volumetric defects) weld, identified as weld no. "W 9", was entirely reserved for wide plate tensile testing. Between the 12 and 6 o'clock position, the weld was provided with elongated slag inclusions and porosities in two subsequent fill passes (immediately following the hot pass), whereas between the 6 and 12 o'clock position, the weld was virtually defect free ("sound"). The linear extent and distribution of the weld defects, as well as the techniques applied to introduce them, were similar to those introduced in the X 70 girth welds. In addition, a third defect free weld was produced with a consumable combination (cellulosic electrodes) customarily being applied in the pipeline industry for the welding of X 70 pipes (type E 6010 for the root and hot pass and type E 901 OG for the fill and cap passes). These should normally yield weld deposits in API 5L X 80 pipes with slightly undermatching strength properties. This "undermatching" weld was identified as weld no. "W 7". As for the X 70 pipes, all testing was done in the as-welded condition. For convenience, details on girth welding of the API 5L X 80 pipes are gathered in Table 2.b. 4 NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) OF THE GIRTH WELDS

Upon completion of welding, all nine girth welds have been non-destructively tested. Apart from conventional radiography (X-ray), an advanced ultrasonic inspection technique (P-scan) has been applied to inspect the "defective" welds. 4.1 Radiographic (X-ray) inspection

This activity has been subcontracted to a certified inspection authority, i.e. Affi - VINOTTE, Brussels, Belgium. It is outside the scope of this report to present detailed information. It suffices to mention that the radiographic procedures (panoramic exposure using a G 2 (DIN) film), conformed to Section 8.0, whereas defect acceptance / rejection was based on Section 6.0 of API 1104 (note that API 1104 defect acceptance is entirely based on workmanship rules). It should further be noted that, apart from the interpretation (in terms of defect acceptability) of Affi - VINOTTE, the radiographs have been interpreted by an independent (third party) expert of ISQ. This included a detailed "mapping" of the distribution of all defects along the circumference. These mapping charts were used to select the sampling (o'clock) positions at which the curved wide plate test panels were to be extracted. The analyses have shown that, as planned, the "defective" welds effectively contained (spherical and cluster) porosity and - to a lesser extent - elongated slag inclusions. The linear extent and distribution of a number of these defects were such that, when the acceptability limits of API 1104 are strictly applied, the girth welds should either have been rejected or repaired.

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4.2 4.2.1

Ultrasonic (P-scan) inspection General features of the P-scan inspection equipment

The P-Scan, which means Projection View, is an ultrasonic system that produces an image of the reflectors of the ultrasonic beam (i.e. the defects) in a three-dimensional presentation, i.e. C-scan, B-scan and D-scan, corresponding with Top, End and Side views (see Figure . 1 of Annexe ). All data is recorded by the main unit (PSP-3), into which the essential information, such as probe characteristics and test parameters, are previously introduced. During testing, it is possible to observe a draft real time image in a B&W presentation. This is useful to have a qualitative idea of the type(s) of reflectors present and, eventually, to correct the parameters in order to optimize the final inspection results. The inspection is performed using an automated scanner (AWS-6), that holds and moves two probes over the pipe and weld area. The probes are fitted face-to-face in the scanner at either side of the girth weld. The ultrasound echoes are automatically recorded and related to the position (coordinates) of the probes. This information allows, together with the test parameters, such as probe angle (60 or 70), probe delay and sound velocity, to determine the position (in three dimensions) of each reflector (discontinuity or defect). The recorded data is processed and can be printed using a specific software package (PC-PROG), which allows to produce a recorded image of the reflectors, similar to the ones presented in Figures .3 to .8 of Annexe . Each recorded file corresponds with an inspected weld length of 125 mm. It is to be noted that, in some of the files, some recorded images were deleted, in order to avoid the presentation of noise and non-relevant reflectors, such as e.g. the weld root geometry. This judgement is based on the inspector's experience and knowledge. The software allows to print the Top, End and Side views along with the echo height (amplitude), which is referred to as Echo view and which is similar to an -scan presentation. The printed images are coloured, using four colours (red, yellow, blue and black) which are linked with a particular sound path and a particular probe (see Figure .2 of Annexe ). The red and yellow colour codes mean that the reflectors were detected with probe no. 1, whereas the blue and black colour codes indicate that they were detected with probe no. 2. For each probe, the two colours are linked with a particular sound path (see Figure .2 of Annexe ). The red corresponds to a sound path on the first " 1/2 V path" and selects a range of 20 to 98 % of the thickness, while the yellow corresponds to the second "1/2 V path" and uses a range of 98 to 200 % of the thickness. The images also include other relevant information (see Figures .3 to .8 of Annexe ). The first set of numbers at the top of the C-scan image are linked with the start and finish of a particular file, corresponding with the length of the inspected zone. Further, the coordinates of the cursor location are also indicated.

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4.2.2

Ultrasonic inspection results

It is beyond the scope of this report to present all detailed information. Therefore, only some typical examples, highlighting the potentials and drawbacks of the system, are presented (see Annexe ). Prior to the ultrasonic inspection of the project girth welds, a pipe weld of similar geometry was produced for calibration purposes, i.e. to set up and calibrate the P-Scan inspection conditions. The results of the X-ray and US inspection of this weld are presented in Table . 1 of Annexe . The same information is presented in Tables .2 and .3 of Annexe for the "defective" girth welds nos. W 5 and W 6 (both produced in API 5L X 70 pipe with an E 6010 / E 6010 consumable combination) respectively. Similar information is presented in Tables .4 and .5 of Annexe for girth welds nos. W 7 and W 9 (produced in API 5L X 80 pipe with either an E 6010 / E 9010G or an E 6010 / E 10018G consumable combination). In Figures .3 to .8 of Annexe a set of typical P-scan images is presented, corresponding to scannings with either 70 and 60 angle probes. It was found that some defects are only detected by one of the angle probes. Hence, to have a more clear picture of the existing defects, it is always advisable to perform scannings with different angle probes. Tables .2 to .5 of Annexe allow to compare the findings of the X-ray and ultrasonic (P-Scan) inspection. In general, the results agree reasonably well, with the exception of small and scattered porosities, which are better detected by radiography than by ultrasonic P-scan. However, this is not a true lack of detection. To detect small rounded defects, excessively high amplifications are needed, resulting in an increase in noise and signals related to geometric details (such as the root reinforcement). This yields a lack of resolution and, as a consequence, a loss of clarity between relevant and non-relevant indications. Another aspect is the length of the detected defects, which is normally higher on the X-ray film than observed on the P-scan printing. This can be explained by the higher amplifications needed to detect small defects existing at the ends of porosity clusters.

4.2.3

Comparison between radiographic and ultrasonic (P-scan) inspection results

The comparison between X-ray and P-scan inspection allows to conclude as follows : - Small spherical defects, like scattered porosity, are difficult to detect by ultrasonics. However, average size pores or clusters can be detected by using amplifications higher than the reference level. In this work, a 1,5 mm disk shaped reference reflector was used (1,5 mm DGS). - For the detection of small rounded and scattered defects, like isolated gas pores, radiography performs better than ultrasonics. The detection by ultrasonics requires excessively high magnifications which might lead to false or an increased number of indications due to noise.

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Pscan gives a threedimensional view presentation of the porosity, but not the actual size. Hence, there is no true correlation between the radiographic and ultrasonic images. Ultrasonic Pscan inspection has shown good detectibility for planar defects for a reference level of 1,5 mm DGS, as well as an accurate sizing of the defects that can be used for fitnessfor purpose assessments. It is advisable to test with two different angular probes. This leads to an increase of inspection time but increases also the ultrasonic detectibility of small defects.

PIPE METAL, WELD METAL AND HEAT AFFECTED ZONE CHARAC TERISATION TESTING (SMALLSCALE MECHANICAL TESTING)

5.1 5.1.1

Characterisation testing of the pipe materials Chemical analyses of the pipe metals

The chemical compositions (product analyses) of the pipe materials, including their carbon equivalents CE (UW) and their Pcm values, are listed in Tables 1 .a and 1 .b for the API 5L X 70 and X 80 pipes respectively. As a reference, the heat analyses of the pipes (taken from the pipe mill certificates) are also included. The X 70 pipe material has a low C content (0,08 %), a CE (W) carbon equivalent of 0,350,36 and a Pcm value of 0,180,19, thus ensuring an excellent weldability and a low hardenability. The X 80 pipe material has also a low C content (0,08 %) but the content in alloying elements (Mn, Cr, Ni, Mo) is significantly higher. Its carbon equivalent CE (UW) is 0,430,44 and its Pcm value is 0,200,21, thus ensuring an adequate weldability and a moderate hardenability. Both pipeline steels are very clean, with S and contents of below 0,0015 and 0,015 % respectively.

5.1.2

Optical microscopic examination and Vickers HV 5 hardness testing

Optical microphotographs of the X 70 pipe material, illustrating the ferriticpearlitic microstructure at pipe subsurface (1 mm below the outer wall) and at midthickness, are presented in Figure 1.1 of Annexe I. The average (through the wall thickness) Vickers hardness was 193 HV 5, with the highest hardness (205210 HV 5) being measured at the outer pipe wall. The pipe metal has adequate notch toughness in the transverse orientation with Charpy values exceeding 150 Joules being measured at 20 C. Optical microphotographs of the X 80 pipe material, illustrating the low carbon bainiticferritic microstructure at pipe subsurface (1 mm below the outer wall) and at midthickness, are presented in Figure 1.4 of Annexe I. The Vickers hardness was 242 HV 5 at the outer pipe wall and 230 HV 5 at the inner wall (average value : 236 HV 5). As the X 70 pipes, the pipe material has adequate notch toughness in the transverse direction with Charpy values exceeding 140 Joules being measured at 10 C.

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5.1.3

Pipe metal tensile testing in the longitudinal (pipe axis) direction

The actual mechanical (strength) properties of the X 70 and X 80 pipe materials were determined at room temperature by tensile testing of fullthickness prismatic tensile testpieces (1,5" wide) extracted in the longitudinal direction (this is the direction of interest for girth welds subjected to bending or tensile loads) at different positions around the pipe circumference. To quantify the variability in tensile properties through the wall thickness, limited tensile testing was also performed on cylindrical ( 5 mm) tensile specimens extracted at subsurface and at pipe midthickness. The test data are summarized in Tables 3.a and 3.b for the API 5L X 70 and X 80 pipes respectively. Both pipe materials were found to have a continuous yielding behaviour at the onset of yielding, i.e. their stressstrain curves did not exhibit an upper and lower yield point and a Lders elongation (plateau). Table 3.a reveals that the mechanical properties of all three pipes ("A", "B" and "C") exceed the minimum requirements for API 5L X 70 quality (SMYS : 482 MPa, SMTS : 565 MPa). The actual yield strength (YS) values measured ranged between 472 and 528 MPa, with an average of 498 MPa. This implies that the particular pipes selected for the Project have a yield strength towards the lower end of the distribution for Grade X 70 pipe. The average YS/TS ratio, measured on fullthickness testpieces, was 0,838. In line with experience, the round bar specimens gave a YS/TS ratio which was 0,050,06 lower. The tensile test data of the X 80 pipes are less conclusive (Table 3.b). Although the strength requirements for API 5L X 80 pipe (SMYS : 551 MPa, SMTS : 620 MPa) were met, the yield strength was found to depend largely on specimen geometry. Opposed to the expectations, the round bar specimens gave significantly higher yield strength values than the fullthickness prismatic ones (594 MPa versus 563 MPa). Further, the YS/TS ratio values measured ranged widely (between 0,80 and 0,88) and were apparently not linked with specimen geometry and throughthickness sampling position. As for the X 70 pipes, the X 80 pipes selected for the project were found to possess a yield strength towards the lower end of the distribution for Grade X 80 pipe.

5.2

Characterisation testing of the deposited weld metals and heat affected zones of the girth welds Chemical analyses of the weld deposits

5.2.1

The chemical compositions of the deposited weld metals are listed in Table 4.a and 4.b, respectively for the girth welds in X 70 and X 80 pipes. Since the samples for chemical analysis were extracted towards the weld cap, the chemistries listed are representative of the weld deposits of the fill and cap passes (i.e. of highest strength consumables). The type E 6010 (cellulosic) electrodes, used for root pass welding, were virtually unalloyed (apart from Ni 0,25 %). The chemistries of the E 9010G (cellulosic) electrodes, produced by two suppliers (BHLER and THYSSEN), differed significantly, in particular in their C and Mo contents. The E 10018G (basic coated) electrodes yielded weld deposits with a Ni content of nominally 2,0 %, which should give adequate low temperature notch and fracture toughness levels.

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5.2.2

Micro- and macrographic examinations and Vickers HV 5 hardness testing

Micro- and macrographic examinations were performed on a selected number of cross sections. The test matrix included : two pipe grades (X 70 and X 80), two weld metal YS mismatch levels ("overmatching" and "undermatching") and three sampling positions around the pipe circumference. Typical microphotographs illustrating the coarse (columnar) weld metal microstructures towards the weld cap and the grain refined (by depositing subsequent beads) weld metal microstructures in the weld root area are presented in Figures 1.2 and 1.3 (girth welds in Grade X 70 pipe) and in Figure 1.5 and 1.6 (girth welds in Grade X 80 pipe) of Annexe I. Macrophotographs of a series of selected polished and etched (5 % nital) cross sections, extracted from the "sound" (virtually defect free) portions of the girth welds, are presented in Annexe HI. These macrographs are typical of manual pipeline girth welding (V bevel with an included angle of 60 and a root gap of 2,5 mm). Further, they illustrate that adequate fusion had been obtained through the wall thickness, including the root area. On each of the macrographic sections, Vickers HV 5 hardness surveys, encompassing the pipe metal, heat affected zones and weld metal, were performed at three distinct through-thickness locations, i.e. at the weld cap (1 mm below the outer wall), at mid-thickness and at the weld root (1 mm below the inner wall). In addition, a fourth hardness survey was made in the through-thickness direction to characterize the weld metal hardness. The results of these detailed hardness measurements are, together with the corresponding macrophotographs, presented in tabular form in Annexe HI. It was found that the sampling (o'clock) position did not have a pronounced effect on the weld metal and HAZ hardness values. For convenience, the average pipe and weld metal hardness levels are tabulated below :

Pipe grade

Pipe metal HV 5 hardness (average)

Weld metal HV 5 hardness (average of each macrosection) "Overmatching" electrodes 210 210 224 237 256 255 "Undermatching" electrodes 206 204 203 231 214 233

API5LX70

193

API5LX80

236

These hardness data indicate that, for all four pipe metal / weld metal combinations studied, the average hardness of the deposited weld metals is higher than the pipe metal hardness levels. This implies that, in terms of tensile strength, all girth welds have "overmatching" strength properties.

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In line with experience, the maximum HAZ (and also weld metal) hardness values were measured close to the outer pipe wall (underneath the cap passes). Maximum HAZ hardness values of up to 277 HV 5 were measured for the X 70 girth welds and of up to 286 HV 5 for the X 80 welds. These maximum HAZ hardness values, which were virtually identical in the "undermatching" and "overmatching" welds, are typical of as-welded manual pipeline girth welds in X 70 and X 80 pipes (note that, since pipelines are, exception made for special cases, never stress relieved following welding, these values were measured in the as-welded condition).

5.2.3 5.2.3.1

All-weld metal and transverse (cross-weld) tensile testing of the girth welds All-weld metal tensile testing

The actual mechanical properties of the deposited weld metals were determined by room temperature tensile testing of cylindrical (diameter : either 4, 5 or 6 mm) all-weld metal tensile specimens extracted in the weld axis direction towards the weld cap. The test matrix included : two pipe grades (X 70 and X 80), two weld metal mismatch levels ("overmatching" and "undermatching") and three sampling (o'clock) positions. Duplicate tests were done for each combination of parameters. The test data are summarized in Tables 5.a and 5.b for the girth welds made in API 5L X 70 and X 80 pipes respectively. The results indicate that the ductility of all weld deposits (as quantified by the percentage elongation and reduction of area at fracture) was adequate. In case somewhat lower values were measured, these were found to be provoked by minor defects (gas pores) contained within the cross sectional area of the testpieces. Table 5.a shows that the average weld metal yield strength values of the welds made in X 70 pipe were 561 MPa for the E 7010G / E 9010G ("overmatching"), and 512 MPa for the E 6010 / E 6010 ("undermatching") consumable combination. In case of the E 6010/E 6010 welds, discrepancies were observed for the 12 o'clock sampling position, which gave unusually high YS values. A plausible explanation for these anomalous results could not be identified. The mean weld metal yield strength values of the girth welds in X 80 pipe (Table 5.b) were 699 MPa for the E 6010 / E 10018G ("overmatching"), and 594 MPa for the E 6010 / E 9010G ("undermatching") consumable combination. Further, the scatter between the individual values was low and not directly linked with the sampling position along the circumference. 5.2.3.2 Transverse (cross-weld) tensile testing

The soundness of the girth welds was verified by conducting a limited series of transverse (cross-weld) tensile tests. To account for the variability of the (pipe and weld metal) tensile properties, testpieces were extracted from each weld at three sampling (o'clock) positions. The testpieces were nominally 25 mm wide by full wall thickness and the weld reinforcements were machined flush with the pipe surfaces. Though this is not a standard procedure, an extensometer was mounted straddling the weld, which allowed to determine the yield strength of the "composite" testpieces.

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The test data are summarized in Tables 6.a and 6.b, respectively for the welds made in API 5L X 70 and X 80 pipes. In case of the X 70 welds, fracture was invariably confined to the pipe metal, indicating that, for both electrode combinations, the weld metal tensile strength exceeds ("overmatches") the pipe metal tensile strength. Further, the recorded "pseudo" yield strength values (which were virtually identical to the pipe metal YS) strongly suggest that this is also the case for the yield strength. In case of the welds in X 80 pipe, the "undermatching" electrode combination (E 6010 / E 9010G) produced failure in the weld metal, whereas for the "overmatching" combination (E 6010 / E 10018G) fracture occurred outside the weld area. This strongly suggests that the former combination yields weld deposits which are "softer" than the X 80 pipe material. 5.2.3.3 Levels of weld metal yield strength mismatch

Theoretically, the actual levels of weld metal yield strength (YS) mismatch (over- or undermatching) can be quantified for each combination of pipe grade and consumable combination by comparing the YS values of the pipe materials (Tables 3.a and 3.b) with those of the weld deposits (Tables 5.a and 5.b). Mainly because of the variability of the yield strength properties and the associated scatter band, such an analysis is, however, beset with difficulties. This is why a pragmatic approach was to be adhered to quantify (with an inherent degree of inaccuracy) the levels of weld metal yield strength mismatch. For each pipe / weld metal combination, three distinct cases were considered, i.e. based on the mean YS values of pipe and weld metal, based on the maximum YS of the pipe and the minimum YS of the weld metal and based on the minimum YS of the pipe and the maximum YS of the weld metal. The results of these comparisons are tabulated below for the X 70 and X 80 welds.

Girth welds in API 5L X 70 pipe Pipe metal yield strength (MPa) Weld metal yield strength (MPa) Level of weld metal YS mismatch (%) E 7010/E 9010 weld metal 561 (+12,7 %) 540 (+ 2,3 %) 584 (+ 23,7 %) E 6010/E 6010 weld metal 512 (+ 2,8 %) 479 (- 9,3 %) 552 (+16,9 %)

Mean values of pipe and weld metal Maximum pipe minimum weld metal Minimum pipe maximum weld metal

498 528 472

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Girth welds in API 5L X 80 pipe Pipe metal yield strength (MPa) Weld metal yield strength (MPa) Level of weld metal YS mismatch (%) E6010/E10018G weld metal 699 (+ 24,2 %) 632 (+ 0,3 %) 719 (+ 28,2 %) E6010/E9010G weld metal 594 (+ 5,5 %) 586 (-7,0%) 598 (+ 6,6 %)

Mean values of pipe and weld metal Maximum pipe minimum weld metal Minimum pipe maximum weld metal

563 630 561

These summary Tables provide evidence that, in case of the "overmatching" welds, the YS of the weld deposits invariably exceeds ("overmatches") the pipe metal YS. In case of the girth welds originally planned to yield undermatching in the X 70 and X 80 pipes, a situation of weld metal YS undermatching was not formally obtained, although the comparisons show this cannot be excluded totally, i.e. that there is a finite probability of occurrence of weld metal YS undermatching. In such case, the remotely applied strains are concentrated in the vicinity of the weld area. Such a situation implies that, in the event plastic strains should - incidently - be applied to such girth welds (e.g. as a result of settlements), the strains would be concentrated (strain accumulation) in the weld region, which is most suspectable (as compared with the pipe metal) to the presence of defects. The fact that, neither for the X 70 nor for the X 80 pipes, weld metal YS undermatching was formally obtained, as planned, is to a large extent due to the fact that the pipes selected for the project had YS levels which are located towards the lower ends of the distributions for Grades X 70 and X 80 pipes. Further, effects of dilution of the weld metal by the pipe material might have contributed to this. 5.2.4 5.2.4.1 Charpy V notch impact testing of the girth welds Extent of testing

The notch toughness properties of the girth welds in both pipe grades were determined over a range of temperatures (transition curves) by impact testing of standard Charpy V testpieces (10 mm 10 mm cross section) extracted transverse to the girth welds at the cap and root. Though all variables were not systematically investigated, the test matrix was such that the effects of the following variables on the notch toughness could be quantified : - two pipe grades (X 70 and X 80) - two levels of weld metal yield strength mismatch ("overmatching" and "undermatching") - one condition : as-welded

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- four sampling (o'clock) positions, to account for the variability of the impact properties around the pipe circumference - two notch positions, i.e. weld metal centreline (WMC) and heat affected zone HAZ (50 % line, sampling 50 % of weld metal and 50 % of HAZ and base metal) - two through-thickness sampling locations, i.e. weld root (1 mm below the inner surface) and weld cap (1 mm below the outer surface) - three test temperatures, ranging from +20 to -50 C, to assess the transitional behaviour - three repeat tests The test matrix detailed above involved more than 300 Charpy V impact tests in total. 5.2.4.2 Test results

The individual and mean Charpy V impact energy values are summarized in Tables 7.a and 7.b, for the "overmatching" (E 7010G / E 9010G) and "undermatching" (E 6010 / E 6010) welds in API 5L X 70 pipes respectively. The same information is presented in Tables 8.a and 8.b, respectively for the "overmatching" (E 6010 / E 10018G) and "undermatching" (E 6010 / E 9010G) welds in X 80 pipes. It can be appreciated from these Tables that only limited testing was done to characterize the notch toughness of the heat affected zones. This is because the initial series of tests had revealed that the HAZ's of both pipes possess fully adequate low temperature notch toughness properties. Therefore, it was decided to reserve the majority of Charpy V impact bars for the notch toughness characterisation of the deposited weld metals. The individual and mean weld metal Charpy V impact energy values are plotted versus test temperature (transition curves) in Figures La and l.b, for the "overmatching" (E 7010G / E 9010G) and "undermatching" (E 6010 / E 6010) welds in X 70 pipes respectively. The same information is presented in Figures 2.a and 2.b, respectively for the "overmatching" (E 6010 / E 10018G) and "undermatching" (E 6010 / E 9010G) welds in X 80 pipes. In these graphs, the through-thickness sampling location (cap versus root) and the sampling position around the circumference were used as parameters. 5.2.4.3 Discussion and interpretation of the notch toughness test data

Limited HAZ impact testing has clearly revealed that the heat affected zones (50 % line) of all four pipe / weld metal combinations possess fully adequate notch toughness properties. In case of the girth welds in the X 80 pipes, individual impact energy values exceeding 90 Joules were measured at - 20 C. The heat affected zone of the X 70 pipes gave somewhat lower (50 Joules at - 20 C), though still fully acceptable, impact energy values. The practical conclusion is that the welding of high strength steel linepipes does not pose any major problem as regards the HAZ notch toughness. It is obvious that these adequate toughness properties are due to the well balanced chemistry (low C, S and content, low CE (IJW) and Pcm values) and the optimized steelmaking route of modem high strength linepipe steels. In view of this, it was logical not to perform CTOD tests to characterize the fracture toughness of the HAZ's in both pipe grades.

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As to the notch toughness of the deposited weld metals (Figures La, Lb, 2.a and 2.b), the experiments have shown that the sampling (o'clock) position of the testpieces does not have a pronounced effect on the impact energy values. Further, in line with experience, the weld cap yielded systematically higher notch toughness levels as compared with the weld root. This is the reason why the wide plate tensile testpieces were provided with machined surface notches introduced in the weld deposit from the root. As to the effect of the weld metal chemistry, it was found that the E 6010 / E 6010 (lowest alloy content) electrodes yielded the lowest notch toughness levels. As expected, the high strength, basic coated E 10018G electrode (alloyed with nominally 2,0 % Ni) gave the highest weld metal Charpy V impact energies. The transition curves established for the weld root (Figures La, Lb, 2.a and 2.b) were used to determine the transition temperatures corresponding with weld metal impact values of 40 Joules (mean value) and 30 Joules (lowest individual value). Note that these weld metal toughness levels were used by the European Pipeline Research Group to establish their guidelines for defect acceptance in pipeline girth welds. These transition temperatures are, for each pipe / weld metal combination, listed in the Table hereinafter :
Pipe grade Consumable combination Transition temperatures (C) Mean value : 40 Joules
(Ttfoj)

Lowest value : 30 Joules () -30 < TUOj < -20 -20 < TU0J < -10 -50 < TU0J < -40 -30<T,30J<-20

API 5L X 70

E7010G/E9010G ("overmatching") E 6010/E 6010 ("undermatching")

-21 -10 -43 -24

API 5L X 80

E6010/E10018G ("overmatching") E6010/E9010G ("undermatching")

Based on the above, the test temperatures for CTOD toughness and wide plate tensile testing were, somewhat arbitrarily, defined as follows : - API 5L Grade X 70 pipes : "Overmatching" girth welds (E 7010G / E 9010G) : -30 C "Undermatching" girth welds (E 6010 / E 6010) : -20 C - API 5L Grade X 80 pipes : "Overmatching" girth welds (E 6010 / E 10018G) : -30 C "Undermatching" girth welds (E 6010 / E 9010G) : -20 C.

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6 6.1

CTOD FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TESTING OF THE GIRTH WELDS BY MEANS OF STANDARD AND "ALTERNATIVE" SPECIMEN GEOMETRIES Extent of testing and experimental procedures

An extensive series of CTOD toughness tests has been performed to characterize, in the as-welded condition, the fracture toughness of the weld deposits (weld metal centreline) of the girth welds made in both high strength steel pipe grades. Testing was conducted at temperatures significantly below the minimum design / operating temperature of gas transmission linepipes, i.e. at either -20 or -30 CC. This was done to be able to correlate the weld metal CTOD toughness test data with the fracture behaviour of the curved pipe sections ("wide plates") incorporating either intentionally introduced weld defects or machined surface notches in the weld root. To account for the variability of the weld metal CTOD toughness with the sampling position, testpieces were extracted at either two or three positions around the circumference, whereas the degree of scatter was assessed by performing three repeat tests for each combination of parameters. In case of the girth welds in API 5L X 70 pipes (two consumable combinations), the effect of crack orientation on CTOD toughness was assessed by testing two specimen geometries, i.e 2B specimens, through-thickness notched (a/W = 0,5) at the weld metal centreline (WMC), and specimens, surface notched (a</W = 0,33) in the weld metal from the root. In an attempt to increase the lateral constraint (triaxiality), exploratory tests were also conducted on specimens with an "alternative" geometry, i.e. on so-called 3B testpieces. These had a width equal to 3.B (B is the wall thickness), a height equal to and were surface notched (ayW = 0,33) in the weld metal from the root. The test matrix detailed above (two consumable combinations, three specimen geometries, three sampling (o'clock) positions and three repeat tests) involved as much as 54 CTOD tests in total. CTOD toughness testing of the welds in X 80 pipes (two consumable combinations) was much less extended. The effect of crack orientation on weld metal CTOD toughness was evaluated by testing two geometries, i.e 2B specimens, through-thickness notched (ag/W = 0,5) at the weld metal centreline (WMC), and specimens, surface notched (a^W = 0,5) in the weld metal from the root. The variability in CTOD toughness was evaluated by extracting testpieces at the 1 and 6 o'clock position. For each consumable combination ("overmatching" and "undermatching"), 12 tests were conducted, yielding 24 CTOD tests in total. The experimental procedure and the evaluation of the CTOD values conformed to BS 7448 : Part 1 : 1991 ("Methods for Determination of Klc, critical CTOD and critical J Values of Metallic Materials"). CTOD bend testing was done using displacement control on specimens provided with fatigue extended (either through-thickness or surface) cracks. To obtain acceptable ("valid") fatigue crack fronts, the ligament sections of the through-thickness cracked ( 2B) specimens were laterally precompressed prior to fatigue precracking. Lateral precompression was, however, not applied to the surface notched ( and 3B ) testpieces since, according to experience, these yield usually acceptable fatigue crack fronts without precompression.

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6.2

Test results

The weld metal CTOD toughness values, measured by means of each of the specimen geometries considered, are presented in detail in Tables TV 1 to TV.4 of Annexe Fv\ according to the following scheme : Tables rv.l.a, b & c : Grade X 70 pipe-E 7010G/E 9010G consumables ("overmatching") Tables IV.2.a, b & c : Grade X 70 pipe - E 6010 / E 6010 consumables ("undermatching") Table IV.3 : Grade X 80 pipe - E 6010 / E 10018G consumables ("overmatching") Table IV.4 : Grade X 80 pipe - E 6010 / E 9010G consumables ("undermatching").

For each individual specimen, the sampling (o'clock) position, the geometry and crack orientation ( 2B, B or 3B B), the CTOD fracture toughness value, measured at either -20 or -30 C, and the fracture mode ("c" : pop-in or short arrested brittle fracture, "u" : unstable fracture preceded by slow stable crack extension of minimum 0,20 mm, "m" : maximum force plateau or maximum load instability) are listed in these Tables. For convenience, the weld metal CTOD toughness values are, along with the essential variables (test temperature, specimen geometry, crack orientation and sampling position), summarized in Tables 9.a and 9.b, for the "overmatching" (E 7010G / E 9010G) and "undermatching" (E 6010 / E 6010) girth welds in API 5L X 70 pipes respectively. The same information is presented in Tables 10.a and lO.b, for the "overmatching" (E 6010 / E 10018G) and "undermatching" (E 6010 / E 9010G) girth welds in X 80 pipes respectively. To facilitate the interpretation, the test data are graphically presented in Figures 3.a and 3.b (girth welds made in Grade X 70 pipes) and in Figures 4.a and 4.b (girth welds made in Grade X 80 pipes).

6.3 6.3.1

Discussion of the weld metal CTOD toughness test data CTOD toughness of the girth welds in API 5L Grade X 70 pipes

In case of the welds in X 70 pipes, the test matrix was designed such that the effects of welding consumable combination, sampling (o'clock) position and specimen geometry (and associated crack orientation - through-thickness versus surface cracked) on weld metal CTOD toughness could be properly assessed. For obvious reasons, distinction is made between both weld metal strength categories, which are discussed separately. (1) "Overmatching" welds made with E 7010G / E 9010G electrodes and CTOD tested at -30 C (Table 9.a and Figure 3.a) : As compared with the other geometries, the through-thickness notched ( 2B) specimens yielded the lowest weld metal CTOD values and, moreover, exhibited the highest degree of scatter. Further, the critical event was either unstable fracture (modes "c" and "u") or maximum load instability. CTOD values of between 0,042 mm and 0,283 mm were measured for the 2B specimens and no distinct effect of the sampling (o'clock) position could be identified.

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The surface notched specimens gave CTOD values which were, on the average, 50 % higher than those measured by means of 2B specimens with CTOD toughness values ranging from 0,132 mm to 0,308 mm being recorded at -30 C. The vast majority of CTOD values was associated with the occurrence of a maximum force plateau, indicating that failure was through plastic collapse. Also here, the CTOD toughness was not affected by the sampling (o'clock) position. (2) "Undermatching" welds made with E 6010 / E 6010 electrodes and CTOD tested at -20 C (Table 9.b and Figure 3.b) : The through-thickness notched ( 2B) specimens yielded, as compared with the surface notched ( B) specimens, the lowest (mean and individual) weld metal CTOD values and, moreover, exhibited the highest degree of scatter with CTOD values ranging from 0,112 mm to 0,382 mm being measured at -20 C. The data suggest that testpieces extracted at the 9 o'clock position gave the highest CTOD toughness. The surface notched specimens gave CTOD values which were, on the average, 35 % higher than those measured by means of 2B specimens. Again, the vast majority of CTOD values was associated with the occurrence of a maximum force plateau, indicating that failure was predominantly through plastic collapse. In line with the 2B specimen geometry, the highest weld metal CTOD toughness was measured at the 9 o'clock position. 6.3.2 CTOD toughness of the girth welds in API 5L Grade X 80 pipes

Testing of the girth welds in X 80 pipes was, for each welding consumable combination, limited to testing of two specimen geometries (and associated crack orientations) and two sampling positions (1 and 6 o'clock). (1) "Overmatching" welds made with E 6010 / E 10018G electrodes and CTOD tested at -30 C (Table 10.a and Figure 4.a) : The through-thickness notched ( 2B) specimens gave significantly higher (on the average, 43 % higher) CTOD values than the surface notched ( B) specimens. This is not surprising since, owing to their geometry and type of loading, 2B specimens produce a higher degree of triaxial constraint at the fatigue crack tip. Since all specimens failed by plastic collapse of the ligament underneath the crack (fracture mode "m"), a high triaxial constraint is "beneficial" for obtaining high CTOD toughness values. This is the more true since the specimens were fatigue precracked to % = 0,5.W nominally. The 2B geometry yielded weld metal CTOD values at -30 C ranging from 0,165 mm to 0,201 mm. In case of the specimens, these ranged between 0,113 mm and 0,171 mm. (2) "Undermatching" welds made with E 6010 / E 901 OG electrodes and CTOD tested at -20 C (Table lO.b and Figure 4.b) :

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Here again, the through-thickness notched ( 2B) specimens yielded, as compared with the surface notched ( ) specimens, significantly higher (mean and individual) weld metal CTOD values : the weld metal CTOD toughness values were, on the average, 30 % higher. Individual values, all being associated with maximum load instability (plastic collapse - mode "m"), ranging from 0,118 mm to 0,206 mm were recorded for the 2B testpieces and ranging from 0,105 mm to 0,154 mm for the specimens. Further, there is a tendency to conclude that the 6 o'clock position gave the lowest CTOD toughness and the highest scatter.

6.4

Effect of lateral constraint (triaxiality) on weld metal CTOD toughness

The CTOD toughness tests have clearly demonstrated that, when the weld metal fracture toughness of girth welds in (thin-walled) linepipes is measured by means of specimens of "standard" geometry (either through-thickness notched 2B testpieces or surface notched testpieces), lower bound CTOD values of the order of 0,12-0,15 mm are not uncommon. These are usually associated with the occurrence of a maximum force plateau in the load versus notch opening displacement diagramme (fracture mode "m"). This type of "failure" at low to moderate CTOD values is due to the lack of triaxial constraint at the fatigue crack tip, typical of CTOD testing of thin walled sections, such as onshore pipeline girth welds (the selected pipes had wall thicknesses of nominally 16,9 mm and 16,2 mm). The fact that plastic collapse is defined as the critical event penalizes the potentials of pipeline girth welds as to their fracture resistance. This is due to the fact that all engineering critical assessment (ECA) methodologies currently in vigour base the calculation of tolerable defect sizes on the material CTOD toughness ("omar). When CTOD values of the order of 0,12-0,15 mm are used as input data for the calculations, and when, moreover, residual stresses of yield point magnitude are included as secondary stresses (note that pipeline girth welds are seldom stress relieved following welding), the calculated tolerable defect sizes might be unduly restrictive and even in conflict with the workmanship based defect acceptance levels. Since, moreover, the wide plate tensile tests (see Section 7) have convincingly demonstrated that the pipeline girth welds tested possess an adequate resistance against fracture initiation (Gross Section Yielding (pipe yielding) invariably preceded wide plate specimen failure) in the presence of very severe defects (surface notches), whose dimensions exceed the ECA based tolerable defect lengths by a factor of at least 3, it can be concluded that the CTOD test, in its present form, is not suitable to correctly predict the failure behaviour of defective (thin-walled) pipeline girth welds. In an attempt to overcome this problem, experimental work was initiated in which it was aimed to increase the lateral constraint at the fatigue crack tip. To that end, an "alternative" specimen geometry was implemented, i.e. the so-called 3B specimen geometry. The testpieces had a width equal to 3. ( is the wall thickness), a height equal to B, were provided with a fatigue extended surface crack (nominal depth : ag = 0,33.B) introduced from the weld root and were subjected to an out-of-plane three-point bending load with a loading span equal to 4.B. The results of these exploratory CTOD tests, which were performed on the girth welds in API 5L Grade X 70 pipe only, are contained in Tables 9.a and 9.b and in Figures 3.a and 3.b. It can be

41

appreciated from these data that, in general, the CTOD values were in between those measured by means of and 2B specimens. In other words, the expectation that, by increasing the specimen width (and, hence, the lateral and triaxial constraint at the fatigue crack tip), higher CTOD values would have been measured, was not confirmed by the experiments. Though this was not further explored, it might, however, be that the irregularity of the fatigue crack fronts (which were, for all testpieces, such that they violated the stringent validity requirements set forth in BS 7448 : Part 1 : 1991) has contributed to this. In conclusion, it can be stated that the utilisation of an "alternative" specimen geometry, designed such as to increase the lateral constraint, equally fails to correctly characterize the fracture initiation resistance of thin-walled pipeline girth welds.

7 7.1

WIDE PLATE TESTING OF CURVED PIPE SECTIONS EXTRACTED FROM THE GIRTH WELDS - EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Introduction

To gain a better understanding of the failure characteristics of defective girth welds in high strength (Grades X 70 and X 80) steel pipes, a series of wide plate tensile tests was performed. Since pipeline girth welds are predominantly subjected to bending and tensile loading in the axial direction, wide plate tests on curved pipe sections extracted from the welded pipes and tensile loaded in the axial direction are the most representative tests to evaluate full-scale girth weld performance. The wide plate test configuration was selected because, of all the tests currently in vigour, this test simulates most closely the performance of defective welded joints under tensile loading conditions. The curved wide plates were loaded to failure, with the tensile load being applied transverse to the girth weld, at temperatures significantly below the minimum design / operating temperature of gas transmission pipelines, i.e. at either -20 C ("undermatching" girth welds) or -30 C ("overmatching" girth welds). These temperatures were selected on the basis of Charpy testing of the weld root of the girth welds and corresponded, for each pipe / weld metal combination, approximately with the 40 J (mean) / 30 J (lowest individual) transition temperatures. According to the guidelines of the European Pipeline Research Group, these minimum weld metal Charpy V impact energy values guarantee that girth weld failure will be by plastic collapse. Since one of the main objectives of the research project was to verify whether the EPRG defect acceptance limits are also applicable to higher strength (above X 70) steel pipelines, it was logical to lower the test temperatures such that the weld metal notch toughness approached the 40 J / 30 J levels. It was initially planned to extract the curved wide plates (width (arc length) : 330 mm) at those locations where the X-ray and P-scan inspections had revealed the highest weld defect incidence. These would be tensile loaded to failure, which would have allowed to accurately measure defect size (length and height) and to compare these with the findings of the non-destructive (NDT) inspection. The initial wide plate tests have, however, shown that the linear extent of the (volumetric) defects, though exceeding the workmanship based acceptance limits by a factor of approximately two, was too small to produce specimen failure.

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It was decided, therefore, for the vast majority of wide plate tensile tests, to introduce additional machined surface notches of nominally 3,0 mm deep (i.e. the height of one weld bead) and with varying lengths in the girth weld metal from the root (to simulate root cracks). The defect lengths were selected on the basis of the EPRG guidelines (7 times the wall thickness). Note further that, to make testing more severe, the weld reinforcements of a significant number of wide plate test-pieces were ground flush with the pipe walls (the weld overfills represent a "geometrical" overmatching). The wide plate failure stresses were compared against the yield strength of the pipe materials, i.e. it was verified whether Gross Section Yielding (pipe yielding in cross sections remote from the defective girth weld) preceded specimen failure. The outcome of the wide plate tests can serve to verify existing fracture mechanics (CTOD) based fitness-for-purpose defect assessment methodologies for thin walled pipeline girth welds. This part of the investigations has been performed by the Belgian Welding Institute, using the 8.000 kN tensile testing facility of the Laboratory Soete for Strength of Materials and Welding Technology of the Universiteit Gent. It is obvious that a detailed description of the experimental procedures and wide plate data is beyond the scope of this report. Therefore, only the most highlighting points are addressed hereinafter. 7.2 Experimental procedures and testing details

The wide plates were of the equistress type, in which the girth weld and (eventually) the surface notch are transverse to the tensile load. The prismatic cross sectional area was nominally 330 mm wide (arc length) by full wall thickness, which allowed the specimens to be tested on the 8.000 kN testing machine of the Laboratory Soete. Note further that the testpieces were not flattened, i.e. that the original pipe curvature was retained. As an illustration, a typical view on a curved wide plate is reproduced in Figure 5. The vast majority of curved wide plates was provided with mechanical (machined) surface notches (notch tip acuity : 0,15 mm) in the weld deposit from the root (to simulate root cracks). It was decided not to consider fatigue precracked surface notches. This can be justified as follows. At first, fatigue surface cracks introduce an additional interpretation difficulty in that the crack depth can vary considerably along the crack bottom. Secondly, the weld metal notch toughness levels were such that failure was expected to occur by plastic collapse, in which case the notch tip acuity (fatigue precracked versus machined) has no further direct relevance. To visualize the extent and distribution of the plastic deformations at the notched side (inner pipe wall) and, hence, to define the deformation mode at failure, the specimen moir technique was applied. For a qualitative understanding of moir interference fringe patterns, it suffices to recall that the smaller the spacing between adjacent fringes, the higher the plastic strain in the direction perpendicular to the original grid lines is. Hence, areas having been subjected to high plastic strains are characterized by a dense moir pattern, whereas the absence of fringes indicates that no plastic deformations have occurred during tensile testing.

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The moir technique assists in evaluating whether or not an overall plastic deformation of the wide plate has preceded failure. As such, it is a handsome tool in interpreting wide plate tests in terms of the G ross Section Yielding (G SY) concept since it enables to distinguish between an overall deformation mode in which plastic strains are confined to the ligament (or net) section ("Net Section Yielding") and a deformation mode in which plastic deformations are spread over the entire specimen surface ("G ross Section Yielding"). The difference between these deformation modes forms the basis of the G ross Section Yielding concept, along which lines the wide plate test performances were evaluated and interpreted. For typical moir fringe patterns, representing the Gross Section (pipe metal) Yielding deformation mode at failure, reference is made to Annexes V and VI. The test temperatures (either -20 or -30 C) were obtained and maintained by circulating refrigerated methylalcohol through cooling boxes firmly clamped against the specimen surfaces at either side of the girth weld. Specimen temperature was monitored by means of chromel-alumel thermocouples. The overall elongation (strain) was measured on a gauge length of 500 mm straddling the girth weld (and - if applicable - the surface notch) at mid-length by means of linear voltage differential transducers (LVDT's). The local ductility of the weld metal ahead of the crack tip was quantified by measuring the crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD). The latter, which is not directly comparable with the crack tip opening displacement as measured in a CTOD bend test, was measured on a gauge length of 8 mm by means a clip-on gauge straddling the test crack at midlength. During tensile loading, which was continued up to failure at a constant displacement rate of 1 mm per minute, the tensile load (P) and crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) were autographically plotted as a function of the overall elongation (1). Upon completion of testing, the fracture faces were subjected to a detailed visual inspection using a low magnification stereo microscope. The examinations were aimed at accurately sizing the weld defects (porosities and slag inclusions) contained with the prismatic (test) section (if any), at characterizing the fracture morphology (brittle versus ductile) and at estimating the linear extent of ductile tearing (slow stable crack extension) ahead of the surface notches.

7.3 7.3.1

Wide plate tensile test results Detailed presentation of the wide plate test data

The numerical wide plate test data are presented in detail in Tables V. 1 to V.6 of Annexe V and in Tables VI. 1 to VI.6 of Annexe VI, respectively for the girth welds in the API 5L X 70 and X 80 pipes. These Tables contain, for each individual curved wide plate specimen, the following information : - the pipe grade (either X 70 or X 80) - the strength level of the deposited weld metal (either "overmatching" or "undermatching") - the sampling (o'clock) position of the wide plate around the pipe circumference

44

- the type of weld defects incorporated in the test section, i.e. either deliberately introduced "natural" weld defects or machined surface notches - the wide plate test temperature (either -20 or -30 C) - a statement as to whether or not the weld reinforcements were ground flush with the surfaces - the specimen dimensions, i.e. the width (arc length) and wall thickness - the dimensions (length and maximum depth) of the machined surface notches, if applicable - the gross () and net () cross sectional area - the gross and net section stresses (oN02 and on02) and CMOD02 value measured at 0,2 % offset strain ("apparent" yield strength of the wide plate) - the gross and net section stresses (oN0 5 and on05) and CMOD0 5 value measured at 0,5 % offset , strain ("apparent" yield strength of the wide plate) - the failure mechanism or critical event, i.e. either unstable fracture or maximum load instability - the gross and net section stresses (oNmax and onmax), overall elongation (^), gross strain (e^J and CMODmax value at the critical event - the deformation mode at the critical event, i.e. either Net Section (ligament) Yielding or Gross Section (pipe metal) Yielding. In order to illustrate some of the most highlighting findings, which are discussed hereinafter, Annexes V (girth welds in API 5L X 70 pipes) and VI (girth welds in API 5L X 80 pipes) further contain detailed graphical and photographic documentation on a selected number of wide plate tests. The following information is presented : - a selection of typical load (P) and crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) versus overall elongation (1) diagrammes recorded during testing - a selection of moir interference fringe patterns, visualizing the extent and distribution of plastic strains at the inner pipe wall (notched side) at specimen failure - a selection of typical photographs of fracture faces, portraying the surface notch and the crack initiation and propagation area.

7.3.2

Summary of the wide plate test data

The essential wide plate test data are summarized in Tables 11 to 16 according to the scheme detailed hereinafter:

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Pipe grade API5LX70

Consumable combination E7010G/E9010G ("overmatching") E 6010/E 6010 ("undermatching")

Sound/ Defective Sound Sound Defective Sound Defective Sound

Data summarized in Table 11 Table 12 Table 13 Table 14 Table 15 Table 16

API5LX80

E6010/E10018G ("overmatching") E6010/E9010G ("undermatching")

These summary Tables contain, for each wide plate test, the following information : - the pipe grade (either X 70 or X 80) - the strength mismatch level of the weld deposit relative to the pipe material (either "overmatching" or "undermatching") - the sampling (o'clock) position of the wide plate around the circumference - a statement as to whether the prismatic cross sectional area incorporated intentionally introduced weld defects ("defective") or was virtually defect free ("sound") - a statement as to whether or not the weld reinforcements were ground flush with the surfaces - the wide plate test temperature (either -20 or -30 C) - the dimensions (length and depth) of the machined surface breaking root cracks (if applicable) - the type(s) of the intentionally introduced weld defects (if applicable) - the gross section stress (oN max), gross (or overall) strain (emax), crack mouth opening displacement (CMODmax) and gross strain in the pipe metal (epipeiniax) at the critical event - the critical event, i.e. either unstable fracture or maximum load instability - the deformation mode at the critical event, i.e. Gross Section Yielding (pipe yielding). In order to facilitate the analysis and interpretation of the experimental data, the gross section stresses (~N,max) anc* the pipe metal strains (epemax ) at wide plate specimen failure have been plotted as a function of the defect length in Figures 6.a and 6.b for the girth welds in API 5L X 70 pipes and in Figures 7.a and 7.b for the girth welds in API 5L X 80 pipes. General discussion of the wide plate test data

7.4

It is beyond the scope of this report to discuss the wide plate test performances in full detail. Therefore, only the most highlighting aspects will be addressed hereinafter.

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7.4.1

Interpretation of the wide plate test performances in terms of the Gross Section Yielding (GSY) concept

A series of wide plate tensile tests incorporating surface cracks / notches of different lengths but with virtually identical depths (e.g. 3,0 mm, i.e. the height of one weld bead) allows to derive the crack length for Gross Section Yielding, lgy, demarcating the transition from Gross Section (GSY) to Net Section Yielding (NSY). Such an exercise requires, however, a careful analysis of the magnitudes of the stresses, strains and CMOD values at specimen failure. The moir interference fringe patterns, when available, are also helpful in this respect. In principle, defining lgy is straightforward : GSY is obtained when the gross failure stress exceeds the pipe metal yield strength (YS), measured in the longitudinal (axial) direction. The problem lies, however, in quantifying the yield strength and the associated scatter band. Apart from its arbitrary definition, the yield strength is affected by the specimen sampling (o'clock) position and by the specimen cross sectional area (small-scale versus wide plate tests). Therefore, the pipe metal YS should preferably by determined on an unnotched wide plate. An analysis of the wide plate test data has allowed to estimate the pipe metal yield strength values (at 0,5 % total strain - Rt0 5) at the wide plate test temperatures (-20 and -30 C) with a reasonable accuracy. These were as follows : - for the X 70 pipe material : YS = 514 MPa - for the X 80 pipe material : YS = 601 MPa Analysis of Figures 6.a (girth welds in X 70 pipes) and 7.a (girth welds in X 80 pipes) clearly indicates that the G SY deformation mode invariably preceded wide plate specimen failure / maximum load instability. Further, a unique minimum gross failure strain level guaranteeing Gross Section Yielding cannot be defined without ambiguity. This is because the failure strain (overall elongation divided by the gauge length) depends on the gauge length (10) and on the crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD). The CMOD contributes to the overall elongation (1), as follows : 1 = 1 + CMOD or . 1, = 1 - CMOD

in which 1 is the elongation of the "unnotched" pipe material. By dividing by the gauge length (10), one obtains : e = epipe + CMOD/10 or e ^ = e - CMOD/l0 in which "epi" is the "corrected" pipe metal failure strain, i.e. when abstraction is made of the surface crack / notch. The formulae above show that, for a given CMOD, the failure strain decreases with increasing gauge length and that, for a given gauge length, the failure strain increases with increasing CMOD. The latter observation is of particular relevance for materials which fail by plastic collapse. The significant ductile tearing (slow stable crack growth) associated with the failure process results in high CMOD values and, therefore, in too "optimistic" gross strain values at failure / maximum load instability.

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Gross Section Yielding is formally achieved when the "corrected" pipe metal failure strain (epipe max) is equal to 0,5 % (note that this definition is in line with the definition of the yield strength (R,05 - at 0,5 % total strain) for linepipe steels). This criterion allows to determine, by interpolation between wide plate test data producing Gross and Net Section Yielding, the crack length for GSY, 1^. Figures 6.b and 7.b clearly indicate that, for all defect sizes tested, the deformation mode was Gross Section Yielding. An alternative method to verify whether Gross Section Yielding precedes wide plate specimen failure is to rely on the moir interference fringe patterns (see Figures V.2, V.4, V.6, V.8 and V.10 of Annexe V and Figures VI.2 and VI. 4 of Annexe VI). If no, or only very few, moir fringes are present in the gross cross sections remote from the "defective" area, the deformation mode is clearly Net Section Yielding. If moir fringes are spread out over the entire wide plate, then the deformation mode at failure is Gross Section Yielding.

7.4.2

Fracture behaviour of girth welds incorporating intentionally introduced weld defects

During the initial stage of the project, two wide plate tests (specimens nos. WP 54 and WP 55) were conducted at -20 C on "undermatching" (E 6010 / E 6010) girth welds in API 5L X 70 pipes, incorporating significant weld defects (cluster porosity and / or elongated slag inclusions). These particular specimens were selected because the incidence and severity of weld defects were the highest ("worst case" approach). Further, to make testing more severe, the weld reinforcements at either side had been ground flush with the pipe surfaces (note that the weld overfills represent a "geometrical" overmatching). Despite these measures, fracture did not initiate from the weld defects as expected. Instead, necking and failure (by overload) occurred in the pipe body at gross stresses approaching or even exceeding the pipe metal tensile strength and at overall strain levels exceeding 7,5 % (see Table 13). This implies that the presence of weld defects (either "double" layer of porosities or slag inclusions in combination with porosities) does not adversely affect girth weld behaviour. In this context, note that the extent and distribution of defects incorporated in the wide plates was such that, when current workmanship defect acceptance criteria should have been applied, these particular welds would have been rejected. A consequence of these adequate girth weld performances is that, since the specimens failed outside the "defective" welds, it was not possible to determine the location and size (length and height) of the defects and to compare these with the findings of the US (P-scan) inspection. To overcome this "inconvenience", two alternatives were considered : - Wide plate testing could be performed at significantly lower temperatures, e.g. at -50 C. This would reduce the weld metal toughness and, hence, tend to produce failure (by brittle fracture) in the weld deposit. - Since the defects were apparently too small to produce specimen failure, additional machined surface notches could be introduced in the girth welds from the weld root. These would, hopefully, "trigger" failure in the weld metal and, hence, make the defects accessible for visual examination.

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To verify to what extent lowering the test temperature was effective, two further wide plate tests (specimens nos. WP 64 and WP 65) were conducted at -50 C (i.e. 50 C below the minimum operating temperature of onshore pipelines) on "undermatching" (E 6010 / E 6010) girth welds in API 5L X 70 pipes. As before, the curved wide plates contained significant volumetric weld defects (cluster porosity and / or elongated slag inclusions) and the weld reinforcements had been ground flush with the pipe surfaces. Despite this, only specimen no. WP 65 could be brought to fracture at a gross stress of 620 MPa and a gross strain of as high as 5,64 %. Its fracture face (see Figure V. 13 of Annexe V) revealed the presence of elongated slag inclusions ("waggon track") whose extent was such that, based on current workmanship mies, the girth weld would have been rejected. In case of wide plate specimen no. WP 64 unstable fracture did again not initiate from the weld defects. , Instead, necking and failure (by overload) occurred in the pipe body at a gross stress of 620 MPa and an overall strain of 5,66 % (see Table 13). This implies that the defects incorporated in the cross sectional area ("double" layer of porosities) do not adversely affect girth weld failure behaviour. It was also verified for the girth welds in X 80 pipes to what extent lowering the test temperature to -50 C was effective in "triggering" unstable fracture from the weld defects. To that end, two wide plate tests (specimens nos. WP 91 and WP 92), extracted from an "overmatching" (E 6010 / E 10018G) girth weld in X 80 pipe were tensile loaded at -50 C. As before, the wide plates incorporated significant volumetric weld defects (cluster porosity and elongated slag inclusions in two subsequent fill passes immediately following the hot pass), which were such that, according to current workmanship defect acceptance criteria, were either to be rejected or repaired. Despite this, unstable fracture did again not initiate from the weld defects. Instead, necking (localised plastic deformation) and failure (by overload) occurred in the pipe body at gross section stresses exceeding 717 MPa and at overall strains of more than 4,70 % (see Table 15). This confirms that the defects incorporated in the cross sectional areas did not adversely affect girth weld failure behaviour. In view of the above results, it was decided, for the remainder of the wide plate tests, to introduce additional machined surface notches in the girth welds from the weld root. 7.4.3 7.4.3.1 Assessment of the fracture behaviour of the girth welds in the X 70 pipes Wide plate tensile testing at -30 C of "overmatching" girth welds (E 7010G / E 9010G electrodes) in X 70 pipes

Five wide plate tensile tests were performed at -30 C on curved pipe sections extracted from girth welds nos. "W3" and "W 4". They incorporated surface notches at the weld root of 3,0 mm deep and with lengths ranging from 120 mm (7,1 wall thickness) to 180 mm (10,7 wall thickness). The wide plate test data are, along with the variables, summarized in Table 11. Photographs of typical fracture faces are reproduced in Figure V. 11 of Annexe V. It can be seen that failure was through brittle fracture, though after some ductile tearing. For convenience, the essential wide plate test data is presented hereinafter.

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Wide plate specimen number

Weld overfills Defect dimensions removed length depth (mmx mm)

At unstable fracture Gross stress


Njtiax

Pipe metal strain


w

(MPa) WP31 WP 32 WP 33 WP 41 WP 42 Yes No Yes No Yes 120,0 3,0 150,0x3,0 180,0x3,0 120,0 3,0 150,0x3,0 572 554 592 605 563

pipe.max

1,99 1,00 2,78 3,37 1,27

The data provide evidence that the GSY (pipe yielding) deformation mode preceded unstable fracture. This implies that, for girth welds in X 70 pipes made with cellulosic E 7010G / E 901 OG electrodes (which produce weld deposits with overmatching YS as compared with the pipe material), planar surface breaking defects of 180 mm long by 3,0 mm deep are still acceptable. When comparing the maximum defect length (180 mm) with the EPRG limit (7 W.T. = 118,3 mm), it follows that the EPRG guidelines are conservative. 7.4.3.2 Wide plate tensile testing at -20 C of "undermatching" girth welds (E 6010 / E 6010 electrodes) in X 70 pipes

Five wide plate tensile tests were performed at -20 C on curved pipe sections extracted from girth welds nos. "W 5" and "W 6". As before, they incorporated surface notches at the weld root of 3,0 mm deep and with lengths ranging from 120 mm (7,1 wall thickness) to 180 mm (10,7 wall thickness). The wide plate test data are, along with the variables, summarized in Table 12. Photographs of typical fracture faces are reproduced in Figure V. 12 of Annexe V. Again, failure was through brittle fracture, though after some ductile tearing. To enable a proper appreciation of the wide plate test performances, the essential experimental information is presented hereinafter.

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Wide plate specimen number

Weld overfills Defect dimensions removed length depth (mmx mm)

At unstable fracture Gross stress (MPa)


Njriax

Pipe metal strain


. ^pipe.max

WP51 WP 52 WP 53 WP61 WP 62

Yes No No No Yes

120,0 3,0 150,0x3,0 180,0x3,0 120,0 3,0 150,0x3,0

548 543 563 563 548

(%) 1,21

1,19 1,87 1,85 1,01

Again, the data demonstrate that Gross Section Yielding (pipe yielding) preceded unstable fracture. The practical consequence is that, for girth welds made in X 70 pipe with unalloyed cellulosic E 6010 electrodes (which should normally produce a situation of weld metal yield strength undermatching), planar surface breaking defects of 180 mm long by 3,0 mm deep are still acceptable. When the maximum defect length tested (180 mm) is compared with the EPRG limit (7 W.T. = 118,3 mm), it follows again that the EPRG guidelines are conservative. 7.4.4 7.4.4.1 Assessment of the fracture behaviour of the girth welds in the X 80 pipes Wide plate tensile testing at -30 C of "overmatching" girth welds (E 6010 / E 10018G electrodes) in X 80 pipes

As much as eight wide plate tensile tests were performed at -30 C on curved pipe sections extracted from girth welds nos. "W 8" and "W 9". They were provided with sharp machined surface notches in the root of either 3,0 or 4,0 mm deep and with lengths of either 110 mm (6,8 wall thickness) or 150 mm (9,2 wall thickness). In addition, two wide plates (nos. WP 93 and WP 94) contained significant, intentionally introduced cluster porosity. The wide plate test data are, along with the variables, summarized in Tables 14 and 15. Photographs of typical fracture faces are reproduced in Figure VI.5 of Annexe VI. It can be seen that, opposed to the girth welds made with cellulosic electrodes, the weld metal deposited with basic coated electrodes (E 6010 / E 10018G) has a very high tearing resistance. This is evidenced by the fact that, in the majority of cases, impressive slow stable crack extension in the through-thickness direction preceded specimen failure. In some cases, this resulted in a stable pop-through (slow stable crack growth towards the outer pipe wall) and failure was by overloading (maximum load instability) of the remaining ligament section ("global plastic collapse"). This fracture behaviour is totally different from the cellulosic girth welds, which failed in a predominantly brittle manner. This in turn provides evidence that, when girth welds are produced with basic coated electrodes, the risk of brittle fracture initiation is very remote. Although it is acknowledged that girth welds made with cellulosic electrodes produced an acceptable fracture behaviour, it cannot be denied that the utilisation of high

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toughness (2,0 % Ni alloyed) basic electrodes yields girth welds with a very high resistance against fracture initiation. In view of the current trends in the pipeline industry to gradually increase the Charpy V notch toughness requirements, it might well be that, in the long term, this type of consumables will overrule the traditional use of cellulosic electrodes for onshore pipeline girth welding of higher strength pipe grades. For the sake of clarity, the essential wide plate test data are summarized hereinafter.

Wide plate specimen number

Weld overfills Defect dimensions removed length depth (mmx mm)

Critical event
a

At the critical event Gross stress (MPa)


Nmax

Pipe metal strain

WP81 WP 82 WP 95 WP 96 WP 97 WP 98 WP 93 WP 94

Yes No Yes No Yes No No No

110,0x4,0 110,0x4,0 150,0x3,0 150,0x3,0 150,0 4,0 150,0x4,0 110,0x3,0 150,0 3,0

Max. load Max. load Unst. fracture Max. load Unst. fracture Unst. fracture Unst. fracture Unst. fracture

655 683 649 665 657 638 661 659

1,74 1,60 0,90 1,65 1,11 0,66 1,59 1,14

The wide plate test data convincingly demonstrate that the GSY (pipe yielding) deformation mode preceded the occurrence of either a maximum load plateau (corresponding with a stable pop-through) or unstable fracture initiation. The practical consequence is that, for girth welds in X 80 pipe made with basic coated E 10018G electrodes (except for root welding, for which E 6010 electrodes were used), planar surface breaking root defects of 150 mm long by maximum 4,0 mm deep still allow to produce fully adequate girth weld performance under static loading conditions. When comparing the maximum defect length (150 mm) and defect depth (4,0 mm) tested with the EPRG limits (length of maximum 7 W.T. = 113,4 mm and depth of maximum 3,0 mm), it follows that the EPRG guidelines are conservative, i.e. can be used with confidence to predict the failure characteristics of girth welds in API 5L X 80 pipes. 7.4.4.2 Wide plate tensile testing at -20 C of "undermatching" girth welds (E 6010 / E 9010G electrodes) in X 80 pipes

Wide plate testing was limited to two tests on curved pipe sections extracted from girth weld no. "W 7". The wide plates were provided with 3,0 mm deep machined surface notches at the weld root of either 75 or 150 mm long. The wide plate test data are, along with the variables, summarized in Table 16. A photograph of a typical fracture face is reproduced in Figure VI.6 of Annexe VI. As for

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the cellulosic welds in X 70 pipe, failure was clearly through brittle fracture, though after some ductile tearing. For convenience, the wide plate test performances are also summarized hereinafter.
Wide plate specimen number Weld overfills Defect dimensions removed length depth (mm mm) At unstable fracture Gross stress (MPa) WP71 WP 72 No No 75,0 3,0 150,0 3,0 675 662
N,max

Pipe metal strain


^pipe.max

1,62 1,28

As before, the experiments have demonstrated that Gross Section Yielding (pipe yielding) preceded unstable fracture. It can thus be concluded that, for girth welds made in X 80 pipe with cellulosic E 6010 / E 901 OG electrodes (which should normally produce a situation of weld metal yield strength undermatching), planar surface breaking defects of 150 mm long by 3,0 mm deep are still acceptable. When the maximum defect length tested is compared with the EPRG limit (7 W.T. = 113,4 mm), it follows again that the EPRG guidelines are conservative.

7.5

Summary and conclusions

A series of wide plate tensile tests has been conducted on curved pipe sections extracted from the girth welds made in API 5L X 70 and X 80 large diameter pipes. Throughout, testing was done in the as-welded condition at temperatures significantly below the minimum design / operating temperature of gas transmission pipelines. In order to comply with the minimum notch toughness levels specified by the European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG) in their girth weld defects guidelines (401 (mean) / 301 (minimum individual)), the wide plate test temperatures were lowered to either -20 or -30 C. A number of curved wide plate incorporated intentionally introduced volumetric (non-planar) weld defects (cluster porosity and slag inclusions), whose linear extent and distribution were such that, based on current workmanship defect acceptance standards, the girth welds would have been rejected. Since the weld defects were apparently to small to produce failure, the majority of curved wide plates were provided with sharp machined (notch acuity : 0,15 mm) surface breaking notches in the weld root (to simulate root cracks). The surface notches had a maximum depth of 3,0 mm (i.e., the height of one weld bead) and lengths ranging from 75 mm to 180 mm. The defect lengths were varied in order to verify whether the EPRG Tier 2 defect length limit for planar defects (set at 7 times the nominal wall thickness) is also applicable to girth welds in high strength high YS / TS ratio steel pipelines. Further, the curved wide plates were provided with surface notches of varying length so as to produce data points giving Gross Section (pipe metal) Yielding (small defects) and Net Section (ligament) Yielding (large defects) at specimen failure. The wide plate tests were interpreted in terms of the Gross Section Yielding concept.

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To enable a proper assessment of the effects of weld metal yield strength mismatch on the weld failure characteristics, wide plate tests were conducted on girth welds made in both pipe grades (X 70 and X 80) with (cellulosic and basic coated) electrodes yielding different levels of weld metal YS mismatch. The main conclusions arrived at are summarized below : - None of the girth welds incorporating gross (out-of-specification) volumetric defects could be brought to fracture, even when the test temperature was lowered to -50 C. Instead, failure was through the onset of necking (localised plastic deformation) in the pipe body at gross stresses approaching the tensile strength the pipe metals and pipe metal strains exceeding 4,5 %. This adequate resistance against fracture initiation in the presence of gross weld defects was found both for the "undermatching" and "overmatching" girth welds in both pipe grades. It can, therefore, be concluded that, in their present form, workmanship based defect tolerance levels are presumably too restrictive. - The wide plate tests on specimens provided with machined surface notches in the root have clearly demonstrated that the fracture behaviour of girth welds made with cellulosic (types E 6010, E 701 OG and E 901 OG) electrodes and with basic coated (type E 10018G) electrodes differ significantly. For the cellulosic welds, specimen failure was invariably by unstable (cleavage) fracture with only minor slow stable crack extension (ductile tearing) preceding fracture. For the welds made with basic electrodes, failure was preceded by impressive ductile tearing ahead of the notch tip, which, in a number of cases, yielded a stable pop-through. Final fracture was then by overloading of the remaining ligament (global plastic collapse). It should be acknowledged, however, that testing was done at temperatures significantly below the minimum design temperature of onshore pipelines. Whether the same trends would emerge at e.g. 0 C could not be elucidated, since no testing was done. - None of the girth welds, produced with cellulosic electrodes (either type E 7010G / E 901 OG or type E 6010 / E 6010) in API 5L 70 pipes and incorporating surface breaking root notches of maximum 180 mm long by 3,0 mm deep, yielded unstable fracture initiation in the Net Section (or ligament) Yielding deformation mode. The "corrected" pipe metal failure strains invariably exceeded the 1,0 % level and the gross failure stresses were at least 30 MPa above the pipe metal yield strength at the wide plate test temperatures. This adequate fracture behaviour was seen for both weld metal strength categories, indicating that even a slight level (e.g. 5 %) of weld metal YS overmatching is sufficient to induce Gross Section Yielding. - The girth welds, produced with either cellulosic electrodes (type E 6010 / E 9010G) or basic electrodes (type E 6010 / E 10018G) in API 5L X 80 pipes and incorporating surface breaking notches of maximum 150 mm long by 4,0 mm deep, equally yielded wide plate specimen failure (either by unstable fracture or by maximum load instability) in the Gross Section Yielding deformation mode. Except for the largest defects, the "corrected" pipe metal failure strains exceeded the 1,0 % level and the gross failure stresses were at least 25 MPa above the pipe metal YS at the wide plate test temperatures. This adequate fracture behaviour was seen for both weld metal strength categories, indicating that even a slight level (e.g. 5 %) of weld metal YS overmatching is sufficient to induce Gross Section Yielding.

54

The wide plate tests have demonstrated that the weld reinforcements (which act as a kind of "geometrical" overmatching) do not contribute to any significant extent to increase gross failure stresses and strains. In some instances the weld overfills appear to be beneficial, whereas in others the opposite trend was seen. The experimental work has demonstrated that the EPRG Tier 2 defect limits, established for girth welds in pipe grades up to X 70, can be applied with confidence for welds in high strength (X 80) steel pipes. The wide plates provided with planar surface breaking defects of 3,0 mm deep and with a length equal to 7 times the wall thickness invariably produced Gross Section Yielding prior to failure. Even when the defect lengths were increased to 180 mm (i.e. 10,7 W.T. for X 70 pipe) or to 150 mm (9,2 W.T. for X 80 pipe), the wide plate fracture behaviour was fully adequate. This implies that the EPRG guidelines yield a conservative upper limit to defect acceptance for girth welds in high strength steel pipes.

OVERALL CONCLUSIONS

The experimental work performed within the framework of this research project allows the following detailed conclusions to be drawn : (1) The small-scale mechanical tests have demonstrated that conventional manual (SMAW) welding procedures can be applied with confidence to produce high-quality girth welds in high strength (Grade X 70 and X 80) steel linepipes. Weldability problems, such as poor HAZ notch toughness or high HAZ hardness, are not to be expected, provided preheating (at minimum 120 C) is applied. This is to a large extent due to the well balanced chemistry and the optimized steel making practice of modem micro alloyed high strength steel linepipes. The radiographic (X-ray) inspection has provided evidence that, as planned, the girth weld contained significant out-of-specification weld defects typical of manual linepipe welding, i.e. cluster porosity and slag inclusions. Further, it was found that, for the detection of small rounded and scattered defects, such as isolated gas pores, radiography performs better than the automated ultrasonic P-scan technique. To detect such defects, excessively high magnifi cations are required which might lead to "false" (non-significant) indications due to noise. Further, the P-scan technique fails to accurately size (length and height) volumetric (nonplanar) defects. The comparison between the all-weld metal and pipe metal tensile test data has revealed that the levels of weld metal yield strength mismatch aimed for (by a proper selection of welding consumables) were not achieved in practice. In particular, it was found that, even when unalloyed (E 6010) electrodes were used, weld metal YS undermatching was not formally achieved in the X 70 girth welds. This was attributed to the fact that the pipes purchased for the project had strength properties which were located towards the lower end of the distribution for X 70 and X 80 quality. However, in view of the inherent scatter of the all-weld metal and pipe metal tensile test data, a finite probability of occurrence of weld metal YS undermatching was identified for both pipe grades.

(2)

(3)

55

(4)

Charpy V impact testing of the weld root of the "undermatching" and "overmatching" girth welds has allowed to define the transition temperatures corresponding with mean and lowest individual impact energies of 40, respectively 30 Joules. These data were subsequently used to define the test temperatures for CTOD and wide plate testing (-20 C for the "undermatching" welds and -30 C for the "overmatching" welds). These were selected such as to produce weld metal notch toughness levels similar to those proposed in the EPRG guidelines. As expected, the basic coated (E 10018G) electrodes yielded weld deposits with the highest notch toughness, whereas the unalloyed cellulosic (E 6010) electrodes produced the lowest, though still acceptable, toughness. CTOD toughness testing has demonstrated that, when the weld metal fracture toughness of girth welds in (thin-walled) linepipes is measured by means of "standard" (either 2B or ) specimens, lower bound values of the order of 0,12-0,15 mm are not uncommon. This is attributed to the lack of triaxial constraint at the crack tip, typical of CTOD testing of thin walled sections. This penalizes the potentials of pipeline girth welds as to their fracture resistance. This is due to the fact that currentfitness-for-purpose(ECA) methodologies base the calculation of tolerable defect sizes on the material CTOD toughness ("omat..). When values of the order of 0,12-0,15 mm are used as input data for the calculations, and when, moreover, residual stresses of yield point magnitude are included as secondary stresses, tolerable defect sizes might be unduly restrictive and even in conflict with the workmanship based defect acceptance levels. Further, the ECA methodologies do not take into account the obvious benefits of weld metal YS overmatching, which reduces the applied CTOD ("). It was concluded, therefore, that the CTOD test, in its present form, is not suitable to correctly predict the fracture behaviour of defective (thin-walled) pipeline welds. In an attempt to overcome this problem, an "alternative" specimen geometry, the so-called 3B geometry, was implemented. It was expected that, by increasing the specimen width (and, hence, the lateral and triaxial constraint at the crack tip), higher CTOD values would have been measured. This expectation was, however, not confirmed by the experiments : lower bound values of the same order of magnitude, all being associated with maximum load instability (plastic collapse), were measured. It was concluded, therefore, that the utilisation of an "alternative" specimen geometry, designed such as to increase the lateral constraint, equally fails to correctly characterize the fracture initiation resistance of pipeline girth welds.

(5)

(6)

Wide plate tensile testing has shown that the "undermatching" and "overmatching" girth welds incorporating gross (out-of-specification) volumetric weld defects could not be brought to fracture, even when the test temperature was lowered to -50 C. Instead, failure was through the onset of necking (localised plastic deformation) in the pipe body at gross stresses approaching the pipe metal tensile strength. It was concluded, therefore, that, in their present form, workmanship based defect tolerance levels are presumably too restrictive. The wide plate tests have clearly demonstrated that the fracture behaviour of girth welds made with cellulosic (types E 6010, E 701 OG and E 901 OG) electrodes and with basic (type E 10018G) electrodes differ significantly. For the cellulosic welds, failure was invariably by unstable (cleavage) fracture with only minor ductile tearing preceding fracture. For the welds made with basic electrodes, failure was preceded by impressive ductile tearing, which, in a

(7)

56

number of cases, yielded a stable pop-through. Final fracture was by overloading of the remaining ligament (global plastic collapse). It was acknowledged, however, that testing was done significantly below the minimum design temperature of onshore pipelines. Whether the same trends would emerge at e.g. 0 C could not be elucidated, since no testing was done. Although it is acknowledged that girth welds made with cellulosic electrodes produced an acceptable fracture behaviour, it cannot be denied that the utilisation of high toughness (2,0 % Ni alloyed) basic electrodes yields girth welds with a very high fracture initiation resistance. In view of the current trends in the pipeline industry to gradually increase the Charpy V requirements, it is expected that, in the long term, this type of consumables will overrule the traditional use of cellulosic electrodes for onshore pipeline welding of high strength steel pipes. (8) None of the girth welds, produced with cellulosic electrodes (either type E 701 OG / E 901 OG or type E 6010 / E 6010) in API 5L 70 pipes and incorporating surface breaking root notches of maximum 180 mm long by 3,0 mm deep, yielded unstable fracture initiation in the Net Section (or ligament) Yielding deformation mode. This adequate fracture behaviour was seen for both weld metal strength categories, indicating that a slight level (e.g. 5 %) of weld metal YS overmatching is sufficient to induce Gross Section Yielding.

(9) The girth welds, produced with either cellulosic electrodes (type E 6010 / E 901 OG) or basic coated electrodes (type E 6010 / E 10018G) in API 5L X 80 pipes and incorporating surface breaking root notches of maximum 150 mm long by 4,0 mm deep, equally yielded wide plate specimen failure (either by unstable fracture or by maximum load instability) in the Gross Section Yielding deformation mode. This adequate fracture behaviour was seen for both weld metal strength categories, which indicates again that a slight level (e.g. 5 %) of weld metal YS overmatching is sufficient to induce Gross Section Yielding. (10) The wide plate tests have demonstrated that the weld reinforcements (which act as a "geome trical" overmatching) do not contribute to any significant extent to increase gross failure stresses and strains. In some instances the weld overfills appear to be beneficial, whereas in others the opposite trend was seen. (11) In more general terms, the experimental work has demonstrated that the EPRG Tier 2 defect limits, established for girth welds in pipe grades up to X 70, can be applied with confidence for girth welds in high strength (X 80) steel pipes. The wide plates provided with planar surface breaking defects of 3,0 mm deep and with a length equal to 7 times the wall thickness invariably produced Gross Section Yielding prior to failure. Even when the defect lengths were increased to 180 mm (i.e. 10,7 W.T. for X 70 pipe) or to 150 mm (9,2 W.T. for X 80 pipe), the wide plate fracture behaviour was fully adequate. This implies that the EPRG guidelines yield a conservative upper limit to defect acceptance for girth welds in high strength steel pipes. (12) The adequate fracture behaviour, as evidenced by the wide plate tensile tests, also illustrates that current defect assessment procedures are unduly conservative for as-welded high strength steel pipelines (the curved wide plates were 330 mm wide, which is sufficient to retain the residual welding stresses). In particular, the treatment of residual stresses as secondary stresses

57

of yield point magnitude penalizes their utilisation (note that the YS of Grade X 80 is approximately 60 % higher than the YS of conventional CMn structural steels). This inevitably has repercussions (i.e. an adverse effect) on tolerable defect sizes as predicted by current ECA (Engineering Critical Assessment) methodologies.

REFERENCES

NN., The American Petroleum Institute API Standard API 5L, Specification for Line Pipe, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, 1990. NN., Stahlrohre fur Femleitungen fur Brennbare Flssigkeiten und Gaze, Technische Lieferungs bedingungen, D IN 17172. NN., Steel Pipes for Pipe lines for Combustible Fluids, Technical Delivery Conditions, Part 2 : Pipes of Requirement Class B, En 102082, 1993. NN, Standard for Field Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities, The American Petroleum Institute API Standard 1104 Appendix A, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, 1988. NN., Specifications for Field Welding of Carbon Steel Pipelines, BS 4515 Appendix H, British Standards Institution, London, 1995. NN, Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities, CSA 184 Appendix (1986) CSA ZI 83 1986 and the Draft Note on the Proposed Changes to CSA ZI 83 Appendix NN, Australian Standard, Pipelines Gas and Liquid Petroleum, Part 2 : Welding, AS 2885.2,1995. NN, Guidance on Some Methods for the Derivation of Acceptance Levels for Defects in Fusion Welded Joints", BSI PD 6493 : 1980, British Standards Institution, London, 1980. NN, Guidance on Some Methods for the Derivation of Acceptance Levels for Defects in Fusion Welded Joints, BSI PD 6493 : 1991, British Standards Institution, London, 1991. NN, Method of Assessment for Defects in Fusion Welded Joints with respect to Brittle Fracture, Japan Welding Engineering Society Standards WES 28051980, The Japan Welding Engineering Society, Tokyo, 1980. BURDEKIN, F.M., YOUNG J.G., and HARRISON, J.D., "The Effect of Weld Defects with Special Reference to BWRA Research", Proc. of the 1st Conference on the Significance of Defects in Welds, Institute of Welding, 1967. HARRISON, J.D., BURDEKIN, F.M., and YOUNG, J.G., "A Proposed Acceptance Standard for Weld Defects Based upon Suitability for Service", Proc. of the 2nd Conf. on the Significance of Defects in Welds, Institute of Welding, TWI, May 1968.

59

HARRISON, J.D., "The Basis for an Acceptance Standard for Weld Defects", Part 1 : Porosity, Metal Construction, March 1972,4 (3), pp. 99-103 and Part 2 : Slag Inclusions, Metal Construction, July 1972,4 (7), pp. 262-268. FEARNEHOUGH, G.D., and JONES, D.G., "An Approach to Defect Tolerance in Pipelines", I. Mech. E. Paper C97/78, London, May 1978, pp. 205-227. HOOD, J.E., "Fracture of Steel Pipelines", Int. Journal Pres. Ves. & Piping, (2), 1974, pp. 165-178. MCHENRY, H I , READ, D.T., and BEGLEY, JA., "Fracture Mechanics Analysis of Pipeline Girth Welds", ASTM STP 668,1979, pp. 632-642. PICK, R.J., GLOVER, A.G., and COOTE, R.I., "Full Scale Testing of Large Diameter Pipelines", Proc. Int. Conf. Pipelines and Energy Plant Piping, Calgary, Nov. 1980, pp. 357-366, Pergamon Press, Oxford. VON ROSENBERGH, E.L., "Alternative Girth Weld Defect Assessment Criteria for Pipelines, Proc. Int. Conf. Pipelines and Energy Plant Piping, Calgary, Nov. 1980, pp. 319-328, Pergamon Press, Oxford. GLOVER, A.G., COOTE R, I., and PICK, R.J., "Engineering Critical Assessment of Pipeline Girth Welds", Conf. Fitness for Purpose Validation of Welded Construction, TWI, 1981, Paper 30. GARWOOD, S.J., WTLLOUGHBY, A.A., and RIETJENS, P., 'The Application of CTOD Methods for Safety Assessments in Ductile Pipeline Steels", Proc. Conf. Fitness for Purpose Validation of Welded Construction, TWI, 1981, Paper 22. HARRISON, J.D., and KAMATH, M.S., "Progress in Fracture Mechanics for the Establishment of Acceptance Criteria for Circumferential welds in Line Pipe", Symposium on Pipeline Welding in the 80's, Melbourne, Australia, March 1981. COOTE, R.I., GLOVER, A.G., PICK, R.J., and BURNS, D.J., "Alternative Girth Weld Acceptance Standards in the Canadian Gas Pipeline Code", Conf. Fitness for Purpose Validation of Welded Construction, TWI, 1981, Paper 21. VON ROSENBERGH, E.L., and ROYER, C.P., "Pipeline Welding Standards", Pipeline Welding and Inspection, American Welding Society, Miami, 1982. ERDOGAN, F., "Theoretical and Experimental Study of Fracture in Pipelines Containing Circumferential Flaws", Report DOT-RC-82007, Lehigh University, 1982. WILKOWSKI, G.M., and EIBER, R.J., "Evaluation of Tensile Failure of Girth Weld Repair Grooves in Pipe Subjected of Offshore Laying Stresses", Journal of Energy Resources, Volume 103, 1992, pp. 48-55.

60

CARNE, M.M.P, and HARRISON, J.D., "Proposals for a Fracture Mechanics based Criterion for the Acceptance of Defects in Pipeline Girth Welds", Pipeline Welding and Inspection, American Welding Society, Miami, 1982. RE, G, "Evaluation of Girth Welds in Transmission Pipelines by Fracture Mechanics Approach", Doc. UWX1416-83, 1983. CARNE, M.P., and MUDGE, P.J.,"Fracture Mechanics and Inspection to Ensure Girth Weld Integrity", Int. Conf. on Pipeline Inspections, Canada, June 1983, pp. 13-16. HOPKINS, P., FEARNEHOUGH, G.D, and JONES, D.G., "Defect Tolerance in Pipeline Girth Welds", British Gas R&D, ERS E.353, March 1983, p. 113. REED, R.P., McHENRY, H.I, KASEN, M.B., FORTUNKO, CM., and REED, D.T., "Fitness for Purpose Criteria for Pipeline Girth Weld Quality", WRC Bulletin no. 296, July 1984. GLOVER, A.G., "Effects of Real Defects on Girth Weld Fracture Behaviour", AGA Report Catalog No L51457, American Gas Association, or Welding Institute of Canada Rep. RC75/3/83, Jan. 1984. HILTON, P.D., and MAYVTLLF, R.A., "An Evaluation of Girth Weld Defect Acceptance Criteria" Report Little Inc., Cambridge MA, June 1985. WORSWICK, M.J., and PICK, R.J., "Influence of Weld Misalignment and Weld Metal Overmatch on the Prediction of Fracture in Pipeline Girth Welds", Int. J. Pressure Vessels & Piping, 21, 1985 pp. 209-234. LIAN, B., DENYS, R.M., and VAN DE WALLE, L., "An Experimental Assessment on the Effcet of Weld Metal Yield Strength Overmatching in Pipeline Girth Welds.", Proc. of the 3rd Conference on Welding and Performance of Pipelines, TWI, London, Nov. 1986. RIETJENS, P.I., "Safe Weld and Repair of In-service Pipe Lines", Pipe Line Industry, December 1986, pp. 26-29. ROODBERGEN, A.H., and DENYS, R.M., "Limitations of Fitness for Purpose Assessments of Pipeline Girth Welds", International Conf. on Pipeline Technology, AIM and Commission of European Communities, Rome, Nov. 1987. HOPKINS, P., "Limitations of Fitness-for-Purpose Assessments of Pipeline Girth Welds", 7th NG18/EPRG Joint Biennal Technical Meeting on Pipeline Research, Calgary, August 1988. HOPKINS, P.,"The Application of Fitness for Purpose Methods to Defects Detected in Offshore Transmission Pipelines", UW SC XI-E Doc. 4/89, Sept. 1989. JUTLA, T., FERREGUT, C , and GLOVER, A.G., "Pipeline Girth Welds : Defect Assessment Incorporating Reliability Theory", OMAE Conf. Proc, Vol. , Houston, March, 1990, pp. 47-55.

61

HOPKINS, P., DEMOFONTI, G, KNAUF, G, and DENYS, R.M., "An Experimental Appraisal of the Significance of Defects in Pipeline Girth Welds", Paper 20, Proc. EPRG/NG18 Eight Biennal Joint Technical Meeting on Line Pipe Research, Paris, May 1417, 1991. DENYS, R.M., and DEXTER, R.J., "Behaviour of Line Pipe with Overmatched / Undermatched Girth Weld or Softened Heat Affected Zone", Paper 22, Proc. EPRG/NG18 Eight Biennal Joint Technical Meeting on Line Pipe Research, Paris, May 1417, 1991. GLOVER, A.G., LAMBERT, S.B., and DORLING, D.V., "Assessment of Pipeline Girth Welds Subject to High Longitudinal Strain", Proc. of the 11th OMAE Conference, Vol. V, Pipelines, Calgary, 1992, pp. 8398. COUSIN, V., and BAGULEY, R., "Enhancing Pipeline Reliability : A Contractors Perspective", Proc. Int. Conf. on Pipeline Reliability, Canmet, Calgary, Pergamon Press, 1992, Paper 9. DENYS, R.M., "Fracture Behaviour of Girth Welds Containing Natural Defects, Comparison with Existing Workmanship Standards", AGA Report No. PRC 202009, Feb. 1992, Arlington, VA. DORLING, D.V., and GLOVER, A.G., "The Assurance of Structural Integrity of Pipeline Girth Welds", Canmet, Int. Conf. on Pipeline Reliability, June 25, 1992, Calgary, Paper VII. TYSON, W.R., and GLOVER, A.G., "Perspectives on Fracture Control For Pipelines", Canmet, Int. Conf. on Pipeline Reliability, June 25, 1992, Calgary, Paper VJ11. HOPKINS, P., and DENYS, R.M., "The Backgrounds to the European Pipeline Research Groups Girth Weld Limits for Transmission Pipelines", Paper 33, Proc. EPRG/NG 18 Ninth Biennal Joint Technical Meeting on Line Pipe Research, Houston, May 1113,1993. GORDON, J.R., "A Review of Fracture Assessment Procedures and Their Applicability to Welded Structures," Fracture Control in Welded Structures : Codes and Standards, Special Issue, Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 3, JulySept. 1993, pp. 195204. SCOTT, P.M., "Interpretative Study of Published and Recent Research on the Applicability and Limitations of Current Fracture Prediction Models for Girth Welds", Fracture Control in Welded Structures : Codes and Standards, Special Issue, Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 3, JulySept. 1993, pp. 223238. DENYS, R.M., and GLOVER, A.G., "Experimental Investigation of the Fracture Behaviour of Over and Undermatched Pipeline Girth Welds", Int. Symp. on MisMatching of Welds, Geesthacht, May 2628, 1993, ESIS 17, MEP Publication, London, 1994. MARTIN, J.T., DENYS, R.M., LEFEVRE, A.A., and GLOVER, A.G., "Yield Strength MisMatch Effects on Fitness for Purpose Assessments of Girth Welds", Second International Pipeline Technology Conference, Belgium, Volume 1, pp. 635645,1995.

62

BILSTON, K., DIETCH, ., and FLETCHER, L, "Performance Requirements for Onshore Pipeline Girth Welds in Australia", a Discussion Paper, Proc. Conference on Welding of High Strength ThinWalled Pipelines", Wollongong, October 26, 1995, Paper 8, pp. 1-12. ROTHWELL, A.B., and DORLING, D.V., "The Toughness Properties of Girth Welds in Modem Pipeline Steels", Conf. on HSLA Steels Technology & Applications, ASM, Philadelphia, 3-6 October 1983, pp. 943-955. PISARSKY, H.G . and HARRISON, J.D., "Fracture Toughness Considerations for Offshore structures in UK waters", Conf. Welding for Challenging environments, October, 85, Toronto Canada. TEALE, R.A., "Deepwater Pipeline Welding Specifications", 18th Annual Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, May 5-8, 1986, OTC paper 53-49, pp. 541-551. TEALE, R.A., SMOOT, W.T., and TROTTER, J.J., "Pipeline Girth Welding Consumables for High Strength Steels", Proc. 5th. Int. OMAE Conf. Houston, 1986, pp. 145-148. TEALE, R.A., and PRICE, J.C., "Welding Requirements for Major North Sea Gas Pipelines", Proc. Conference on Pipeline Technology, Oostende, Oct. 14-18, 1990. DENYS, R.M., "Toughness Requirements for Pipeline Integrity", Proceeding of 13th OMAE Conference, Vol. Part A, p. 8-16, Copenhagen, June 18-24, 1995. BURDEKIN, M., DAWES, M.G ., EGAN, J., SHACKLETON, D. and WIDGERY, D., "The Properties and Requirements for Weld Metal in relation to Failure by Brittle Fracture", HW Doc. X506-69, 1969. DENYS, R.M., "Measurements of Plastic Strains in Transverse Welded Joints between Mild Steels by the Moir Method", HW Doc. X-647-71, 1971 DENYS, R.M., VINCKIER, ., BOONE, P., and SYS, W., "Some Examples of Application of the Moir Method in Welding Research", Revue de la Soudure, Vol. 29, no 3/1973, 16p. HOWDEN, D.G ., "Effective Use of Weld Metal Yield Strength for HY-Steels", NMAB380, Committee on Effective Utilization of Weld Metal Yield Strength, Jan. 1983. SATOH, K., and TOYODA, M., "Applicability of Bending COD Test of Welds for Securing Required Fracture Performance of Welded Structure", JJW Doc. X-1063-1984, 1984. ABSON, D. J., and PARGETER, R. J., "Factors influencing Strength of Manual Metal Arc Welds", ASM, International Metals Reviews, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1986. DENYS, R.M., "Toughness Requirements in Transversely Loaded Welded Joints - An Evaluation based on Wide Plate Testing", The Fracture Mechanics of Welds, EG F Pub. 2, Mechanical Engineering Publications, London, pp. 155-189,1987.

63

MILLER, D. K., "What Structural Engineers and Fabricators Need to Know About Weld Metal", Proceedings of the NSC/AISC Conference, June 1988, Paper 35. DENYS, R.M., "Difference between Small and Large Scale Testing of Weldments, An Evaluation of the Weld Metal Overmatching Effects in relation to Weld Joint Performance", The Welding Journal, 2, 1989, Research Supplement, 33s-43s. DENYS, R.M., "Implications of Overmatching/Undermatching of Weld Metal Yield Strength", Preprints Proc. AWS/Microalloying Conf, Houston, Nov. 1991, pp. 569-605. DENYS, R.M., "The Effect of HAZ Softening on the Fracture Characteristics of Modem Steel Weldments and the Practical Integrity of Marine Structures Made by TMCP Steels", Proc. Int. Conf on Evaluation of Materials Performance in Severe Environments, Japanese Steel Institute, Tokyo, March 1990. DENYS, R.M., and LEFEVRE, A.A., "Fracture Behaviour of High Strength Steel Welds : Effect of Weld Metal Matching", Proceedings of 11th OMAE Conference, Vol. HI Part A, Glasgow, June 23-28, 1993. DENYS, R.M., "Weld Metal Yield Strength Mis-Match Effects on Structural Integrity", Proceedings Fracture '94 Conference, University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg, South Africa, Nov. 23-24 1994, pp. 1-33. SCHIPAANBOORD, W.N., and SLOTERDUK, W., "Practical Significance of Weld Strength Matching", HW Doc. XI-E 15/95,1995.

64

TABLE 1.a CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (IN WEIGHT %) OF THE API 5L GRADE X 70 PIPE MATERIAL

Element

Pipe A (no. 901195548306) 0,080 0,42 1,60 0,016 0,001 0,022 0,01 0,02 0,02 0,00 0,061 0,044 0,005
-

Pipe (no.9013274 48450) 0,080 0,42 1,59 0,017 0,001 0,019 0,01 0,02 0,02 0,00 0,060 0,045 0,006
-

Pipe C (no. 901205049903) 0,080 0,43 1,61 0,020 0,001 0,024 0,01 0,02 0,02 0,00 0,060 0,044 0,005
-

Check analysis (INASMET) 0,092 0,44 1,45 0,013 0,0015 0,022 0,01 0,02 0,02 0,02 0,053 0,040
-

C Si Mn S Al Cu Cr Ni Mo V Nb Ti CE (UW) (*) Pcm (*)

0,005 0,352 0,187

0,365 0,182

0,363 0,181

0,366 0,181

(*) : CE (IIW) = C + Mn/6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 + (Ni + Cu)/15 Pcm= C + Si/30 +(Mn + Cu + Cr)/20 + Ni/60 + Mo/15 + V/10 + 5B

65

TABLE l.b CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (IN WEIGHT %) OF THE API 5L GRADE X 80 PIPE MATERIAL

Element

Pipe D (no. 10138) 0,080 0,31 1,89 0,012 0,001 0,037 0,03 0,06 0,04 0,11 0,01 0,048 0,0032 0,018 0,436 0,200

Pipes E & F (nos. 10142 & 10143) 0,080 0,30 1,90 0,013 0,001 0,045 0,03 0,08 0,06 0,02 0,01 0,045 0,0035 0,021 0,425 0,195

Check analysis (ISQ) 0,093 0,33 1,86 0,014 0,0006 0,041 0,03 0,06 0,04 0,05 0,01 0,047
-

C Si Mn S Al Cu Cr Ni Mo V Nb Ti CE (HW) (*)
1

0,020 0,432 0,207

f*
cm V /

(*) : CE (IIW) = C + Mn/6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 + (Ni + Cu)/15 Pcm= C + Si/30 +(Mn + Cu + Cr)/20 + Ni/60 + Mo/15 + V/10 + 5B

66

TABLE 2.a DETAILS OF GIRTH WELDING OF THE API 5L GRADE X 70 PIPES Welding position Clamping technique Preheat temperature Interpass temperature Welding parameters 5 G vertical down Hydraulic outer clamp device (fully restrained condition) 150 C minimum 140180 C DC welding Polarity +/ Current : 120200 A Voltage : 2832 V

Girth weld number

Pipe metals

Welding consumables
(*)

Type of girth Location and type of weld intentionally introduced weld defects Sound (defect free) Sound (defect free) Defective N/A

W1 (Over matching) W2 (Under matching) W3 (Over matching) W4 (Over matching) W5 (Under matching) W6 (Under matching)

"B"&"C"

E 7010G 4 mm (root pass) E9010G(j>4&5mm(hot, fill and cap passes) E 6010 4 mm (root pass) E 6010 4 & 5 mm (hot, fill and cap passes) E 7010G 4 mm (root pass) E9010G<t>4&5mm(hot, fill and cap passes) E 7010G 4 mm (root pass) E9010G4&5mm(hot, fill and cap passes) E 6010 4 mm (root pass) E60104&5mm(hot,fill and cap passes) E 6010 4 mm (root pass) E 6010 4 & 5 mm (hot, fill passes)

"A" & "B"

N/A

"A" & "C"

123 o'clock: S + P 36 o'clock : + 69 o'clock : defect free 123 o'clock: S + P 36 o'clock : + 69 o'clock : defect free 123 o'clock : S + 36 o'clock : + 69 o'clock : defect free 123 o'clock: S + P 36 o'clock : + 69 o'clock : defect free

"A" & "A"

Defective

"B" & "B"

Defective

"A" & "C"

Defective

(*) :

AWS A 5.1 Class. : E 6010 (Brand name : Bhler Fox Cel cellulosic) AWS A 5.5 Class. : E 7010G (Brand name : Bhler Fox Cel 75 cellulosic) AWS A 5.5 Class. : E 9010G (Brand name : Bhler Fox Cel 90 cellulosic) S + : slag inclusions in the root and hot pass, in combination with porosity in one fill pass (towards the weld cap) + : porosity in two subsequent fill passes (towards the weld cap)

(**) :

67

TABLE 2.b DETAILS OF GIRTH WELDING OF THE API 5L GRADE X 80 PIPES Welding position Clamping technique Preheat temperature Interpass temperature Welding parameters 5 G - vertical down Hydraulic outer clamp device (fully restrained condition) 120 C minimum 100-150 C DC welding - Polarity +/Current : 120-200 A - Voltage : 25-30 V

Girth weld number

Welding consumables
(*)

Type of girth Location and type of intentionally introduced weld weld defects Sound (defect free) N/A

W7 (Undermatching) W8 (Over matching) W9 (Over matching)

E 6010 - 4 mm (root and hot pass) 9010-4&5(11 and cap passes) E 6010 - 4 mm (root and hot pass) E10018G-<|>4mm(filland cap passes) E 6010 - 4 mm (root and hot pass) E10018G-<|>4mm(filIand cap passes)

Sound (defect free)

N/A

Sound and defective

12-6 o'clock : sound 6-12 o'clock: S + P

(*) :

AWS A 5.1 Class. : E 6010 (Brand name : Thyssen Cel 70 - cellulosic) AWS A 5.5 Class. : E 9010G (Brand name : Thyssen Cel 90 - cellulosic) AWS A 5.5 Class. : E 10018G (Brand name : Thyssen 90 - basic) S + : slag inclusions and porosities in two subsequent fill passes, immediately following the root and hot pass.

(**) :

68

TABLE 3.a : RESULTS OF PIPE METAL TENSILE TESTING IN THE LONGITUDINAL (PIPE AXIS) DIRECTION OF THE API 5L GRADE X 70 PIPE MATERIAL

Specimen geometry : conforming to API 5L (full-thickness prismatic specimens - 1,5" wide) Pipe A Upper yield point - ReH (MPa) Yield strength at 0,2 % offset strain - Rp02(MPa) Yield strength at 0,5 % total strain - Rt0,5 (MPa) Yield strength at 0,5 % offset strain - Rp0 5 (MPa) Ultimate tensile strength - Rm (MPa) Yield-to-tensile ratio - Rt0,5 / Rm or YS / TS (-) Elongation at fracture A(I 0 = 2")(%) A (10 = 5,65.S0"2)(%)
-(*) -(*)

Pipe
-(*) .(*)

Pipe C
-(*) -(*)

Specimen geometry : round bar specimens (diameter : 12,5 mm) Pipe A Pipe Pipe C
.(*) -(*) -(*)

511 521 537 620 0,840 41,5 22,0

478 485
-

527 528 534 611 0,864 42,5 24,0

482 487
-

484 493 515 583 0,846 41,5 23,0

466 472
-

459 465
-

461 469
-

441 451
-

586 0,828 36,5

586 0,831 37,5

577 0,818 39,0

601 0,774 26,5

588 0,798 27,0

585 0,771 27,5

(*) : All three pipe materials possess a continuous yielding behaviour, i.e. their stress strain curves exhibit no distinct upper and lower yield point and no Luders elongation.

TABLE 3.b : RESULTS OF PIPE METAL TENSILE TESTING IN THE LONGITUDINAL (PIPE AXIS) DIRECTION OF THE API 5L GRADE X 80 PIPE MATERIAL

Specimen geometry : conform in g to API 5L (full-thickness prismatic specimens- 1,5" wide) Upper yield point - RcH (MPa)
o

Specimen geometry : round bar specimens (diameter : 5,0 mm) Subsurface location
-(*) -(*) -(*)

Mid-thickness location
-(*) -(*) -(*)

-(*)

-(*)

Yield strength at 0,2 % offset strain - Rp02(MPa) Yield strength at 0,5 % total strain - Rt0i5 (MPa) Yield strength at 0,5 % offset strain - R ^ (MPa) Ultimate tensile strength - Rm (MPa) Yield-to-tensile ratio - Rt0,5 / Rm or YS / TS (-) Elongation at fracture A(l 0 = 2")(%) A (10 = 5,65.S0"2)(%)

558 564 607 701 0,805 34,0 18,5

559 561 633 704 0,797 37,0 21,0

569 571 598 683 0,837

630 630 633 717 0,878

586 587 620 731 0,803

570 573 599 694 0,825

629 629 633 724 0,870

572 575 611 729 0,789

24,5

24,5

24,5

24,5

20,0

24,5

(*) : The pipe material possesses a continuous yielding behaviour, i.e. all stress-strain curves exhibit no distinct upper and lower yield point and no Lders elongation.

TABLE 4.a CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (IN WEIGHT %) OF THE DEPOSITED WELD METALS OF THE GIRTH WELDS MADE IN API 5L GRADE X 70 PIPES

Element

"Overmatching" weld metal (E9010G)


(*)

"Undermatching" weld metal (E6010) r**\ 0,10 0,18 0,62 0,010 0,012 0,03 0,25 0,05 0,025 <0,01 0,014

C Si Mn S Cr Ni Mo V Nb Ti

0,10 0,20 0,90 0,014 0,011 0,03 0,45 0,10 0,059 <0,01 0,015

(*) : AWS A 5.5 Class. : E 9010G (Brand name : Bhler Fox Cel 90) cellulosic (**) : AWS A 5.1 Class. : E 6010 (Brand name : Bhler Fox Cel) cellulosic

71

TABLE 4.b CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (IN WEIGHT %) OF THE DEPOSITED WELD METALS OF THE GIRTH WELDS MADE IN API 5L GRADE X 80 PIPES

Element

"Overmatching" weld metal (E 10018G)


(*)

"Undermatching" weld metal (E9010G) 0,17 0,26 0,99 0,013 0,010 0,03 0,48 0,012 0,050 0,010

C Si Mn S Cr Ni Mo V Ti

0,09 0,59 1,30 0,011 0,008 0,03 2,02 0,014 <0,01 0,010

(*) : AWS A.5.5 Class. : E 10018G (Brand name : Thyssen 90) - basic (**) : AWS A.5.5 Class. : E 9010G (Brand name : Thyssen Cel 90) - cellulosic

72

TABLE 5.a : RESULTS OF ALL-WELD METAL TENSILE TESTING OF THE "UNDERMATCHING" AND "OVERMATCHING" GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 70 PIPES Through-thickness sampling location : Weld cap Specimen geometry : cylindrical (round bar) specimens (diameter : d0 = 4,0 or 6,0 mm - see below)

"Overmatching" girth welds (E7010G/E9010G) Sampling position (o'clock) 3 Specimen diameter - d0 (mm) Upper yield point - ReH (MPa) Yield strength at 0,2 % offset strain - Rp02(MPa) Yield strength at 0,5 % total strain - Rl0,5 (MPa) Yield strength at 0,5 % offset strain - R ^ (MPa) Ultimate tensile strength - Rm (MPa) Yield-to-tensile ratio - Rl0,5 / R, or YS / TS (-) Elongation at fracture - A (10 = 5.d0) (%) A(l 0 = 4.d0)(%) Reduction of area at fracture - (%) 6,0 559 539 547 543 613 0,892 15,0 25,0 37 72 3 4,0
-

vvelds "Undermatching" girth < (E 6010/E 6010) Sampling position (o'c ock) 3 6,0 489 470 479 483 546 0,877 20,5 3 4,0
-

9 4,0
-

12 4,0
-

9 4,0
-

12 4,0
-

12 4,0
-

12 4,0
-

564 574
-

576 584
-

531 540
-

504 512
-

491 503
-

543 552
-

544
-

540
-

648 0,886

662 0,882 21,5 61

612 0,882 16,5 40

606 0,845 25,5

610 0,825 21,5 65

569 0,970 19,0 70

632 0,861 23,0 57

619 0,872 23,5 69

58

69

TABLE 5.b : RESULTS OF ALL-WELD METAL TENSILE TESTING OF THE "UNDERMATCHING" AND "OVERMATCHING" GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 80 PIPES Through-thickness sampling location : Weld cap Specimen geometry : cylindrical (round bar) specimens (diameter : d0 = 5,0 or 6,0 mm - see below)

"Overmatching" girth welds (E 6010/E 10018G) Sampling position (o'clock) 12 Specimen diameter - d0 (mm) Upper yield point - R^ (MPa) Yield strength at 0,2 % offset strain - R02(MPa) Yield strength at 0,5 % total strain - Rt05 (MPa) Yield strength at 0,5 % offset strain - Rp05 (MPa) Ultimate tensile strength - Rm (MPa) Yield-to-tensile ratio - Rt05 / Rm or YS / TS (-) Elongation at fracture - A (10 = 5.d0) (%) Reduction of area at fracture - (%) 5,0 632 633 713 0,886 31,0 3 5,0 719 718 770 0,934 26,0 6 5,0 675 682 761 0,887 28,5 9 6,0 700 694 692 695 739 0,936 20,0 66 9 6,0 732 706 706 709 757 0,933 22,0 70

"Undermatching" girth welds (E6010/E9010G) Sampling position (o'c ock) 12 5,0 586 588 672 0,871 23,5 3 5,0 595 598 678 0,877 21,0 6 5,0 596 596 688 0,866 17,5 10 6,0 607 598 598 603 688 0,869 17,5 53

TABLE 6.a : RESULTS OF TRANSVERSE (CROSS WELD) TENSILE TESTING OF THE "UNDERMATCHING" AND "OVERMATCHING" GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 70 PIPES Specimen geometry : prismatic full-thickness specimens (width : 25,4 mm - 1 ")

Overmatching" girth welds (E7010G/E9010G) Sampling position (o'clock)


12

"Undermatching" girth welds (E 6010/E 6010) Sampling position (o'clock)


3 12

Specimen thickness - a (mm) Specimen width - b (mm) Yield strength at 0,2 % offset strain - Rp02(MPa) Ultimate tensile strength - Rm (MPa) Elongation at fracture - A (10 = 16,0 mm) (%) (*) Fracture location

17,8
25,4
545

17,8
25,3
540

17,8
25,2
543

18,0
25,2

17,8
25,2

18,0
25,3
504

536 575 36,5 Base metal

522
582

583
37,0

588 36,5 Base metal

589 36,0 Base metal

580 36,5 Base metal

37,5

Base metal

Base metal

(*) : Measured on a gauge length of 16,0 mm straddling the girth weld.

TABLE 6.b : RESULTS OF TRANSVERSE (CROSS WELD) TENSILE TESTING OF THE "UNDERMATCHING" AND "OVERMATCHING" GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 80 PIPES Specimen geometry : prismatic reduced thickness specimens (width : 25,0 mm)

"Overmatching" girth welds (E 6010/ E 10018G) Sampling position (o'clock)


ON

"Undermatching" girth welds (E6010/E9010G) Sampling position (o'clock) 12 13,0 24,6 572 684 Weld metal 3 12,7 24,5 583 683 Weld metal (*) 6 13,0 25,2 596 698 Weld metal

12 Specimen thickness - a (mm) Specimen width - b (mm) Yield strength at 0,5 % offset strain - Rp05(MPa) Ultimate tensile strength - Rm (MPa) Fracture location 11,8 24,8 601 676 Base metal

3 11,3 24,5 603 691 Base metal

6 12,8 24,8 593 689 Base metal

(*) : Fracture was located partially in the weld deposit and partially in the heat affected zone (HAZ) at the fusion boundary.

TABLE 7.a : RESULTS OF CHARPY V NOTCH IMPACT TESTING (TRANSITION CURVES) OF THE "OVERMATCHING" GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 70 PIPES Welding consumables : E 7010G / E 9010 G
Notch location : Heat Affected Zone (HAZ - 50 % line) Weld Cap Charpy V impact energy (Joules) Individual 136 78 176-256-95 139 171 - 114 6 3 - 2 1 2 - 149 89 - 59 - 74 Mean 136 78 176 139 143 141 74 Weld Root Charpy V impact energy (Joules) Individual 152 120 134 180-286 212- 142- 161 126-86 122-48-91 Mean 152 120 134 233 172 106 87

Sampling position (o'clock)

Test temperature

Notch location : Weld Metal Centreline (WMC) Weld Cap Charpy V impact energy (Joules) Individual Mean 110 76 42 99 60 50 92 71 42 Weld Root Charpy V impact energy (Joules) Individual 107 59-55 2 3 - 14-20 54 - 64 - 59 55-47-50 4 0 - 2 2 - 15 94 40-61 35-30-32 95 61 - 5 8 - 6 0 28-29-32 Mean 107 57 19 59 51 26 94 51 32 95 60 30

CO

12

+20 -10 -30

110 76 40 - 40 - 45 92- 106 72-47 45 - 44 - 60 92 71 - 7 5 - 6 7 55-32-39

-10 -20 -30

+20 -10 -30

+20 -10 -30

TABLE 7.b : RESULTS OF CHARPY V NOTCH IMPACT TESTING (TRANSITION CURVES) OF THE "UNDERMATCHING" GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 70 PIPES Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 6010
Notch location : Heat Affected Zone (HAZ - 50 % line) Weld Cap Charpy V impact energy (Joules) Individual 110 62-51-57 160 77-60 66 - 84 - 79 102 3 5 - 146-91 Mean 110 57 160 69 76 102 91 Weld Root Charpy V impact energy (Joules) Individual 98 108 200 114-90 250- 100-78 144 118-142-94 Mean 98 108 200 102 143 144 118

Sampling position (o'clock)

Test temperature (C)

Notch location : Weld Metal Centreline (WMC) Weld Cap Charpy V impact energy (Joules) Individual Mean 90 49 53 108 70 52 105 66 73 Weld Root Charpy V impact energy (Joules) Individual 85-97-91 42-35 27-37-48 45-51 -55 21-33-39 7 - 7 - 10 112 36-21 31-33-50 83 31-52 27 - 23 - 25 Mean 91 39 37 50 31 8 112 29 38 83 42 25

12
OO

+20 -10 -20

90 49 43 - 42 - 73 108 74-65 50-58-49 105 66 68 - 82 - 68

-10 -20 -30

+20 -10 -20

+20 -10 -20

TABLE 8.a : RESULTS OF CHARPY V NOTCH IMPACT TESTING (TRANSITION CURVES) OF THE "OVERMATCHING" GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 80 PIPES Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 10018 G
Test temperature (C) Notch location : Weld Metal Centreline (WMC) Weld Cap Charpy V energy (Joules) Individual 2 -10 -30
VO

Sampling position (o'clock)

Notch location : Heat Affected Zone (HAZ - 50 % line) Weld Cap Charpy V energy (Joules) Individual 208-250-238 240-208-214 Mean 232 221 284 - 285 - 282 284 Weld Root Charpy V energy (Joules) Individual 212-243-295 258 - 278 - 262 236-238-246 Mean 250 266 240

Weld Root Charpy V energy (Joules) Individual 85 - 76 - 74 58 - 52 - 52 24 - 26 - 22 64-48-59 44 - 48 - 40 42-37-41 15-31 -25 90-81 -86 57-58-52 45 - 44 - 46 52 - 54 - 54 40 - 38 - 36 45 - 56 - 46 Mean 78 54 24 57 44 40 23 86 56 45 53 38 49

Mean 82 65 52 80 66 52 64 35 35

79 - 83 - 83 62 - 65 - 69 54 - 52 - 50 82 - 83 - 76 62-65-70 53 - 49 - 54 68 - 60 - 64 32-39-34 34-36-36

-50 6 -10 -30 -40 -50 7 -10 -30 -50 11 -10 -30 -50

TABLE 8.b : RESULTS OF CHARPY V NOTCH IMPACT TESTING (TRANSITION CURVES) OF THE "UNDERMATCHING" GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 80 PIPES Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 9010 G
Sampling position (o'clock) Test temperature Notch location : Weld Metal Centreline (WMC) Weld Cap Charpy V energy (Joules) Individual 2 -10 -20
oo o

Notch location : Heat Affected Zone (HAZ - 50 % line) Weld Cap Charpy V energy (Joules) Individual 9 2 - 9 6 - 102 110- 106- 105 140- 144- 150 Mean 97 107 145 Weld Root Charpy V energy (Joules) Individual 248 - 278 - 288 280 - 264 - 273 194-222- 199 Mean 271 272 205 -

CO

Weld Root Charpy V energy (Joules) Individual 56 - 52 - 54 48 - 49 - 42 52 - 40 - 53 33 - 24 - 27 52 - 49 - 48 40-38-36 41 - 4 4 - 4 1 31 - 3 5 - 3 2 23-17-31 2 6 - 2 4 - 15 48 - 47 - 53 40 - 42 - 42 32-36-44 Mean 54 46 48 28 50 38 42 33 24 21 49 41 37

Mean 64 62 56 45 43 35 50 41 36

62 - 63 - 68 62 - 65 - 58 56-53-59 44 - 47 - 42 48-38-42 32-39-34 48 - 49 - 54 42 - 40 - 42 36-34-38

-30 7 -10 -20 -30 10 -10 -20 -30 -40 11 -10 -20 -30

TABLE 9.a : SUMMARY OF DATA OF CTOD FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TESTING AT 30 C OF THE "OVERMATCHING"GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 70 PIPES Welding consumables : E 7010 G / E 9010 G

SPECIMEN GEOMETRIES : * Preferred 2B geometry ( = 14 mm, W = 2 = 28 mm), through thickness notched to a0/W = 0,5 nominally * Subsidiary geometry ( = 14 mm, W = = 14 mm), surface notched from the weld root to ao/W = 0,33 nominally * "Alternative" 3B geometry (3B = 42 mm, W = = 14 mm), surface notched from the weld root to a0/W = 0,33 nominally NOTCH LOCATION : Weld metal centreline (WMC) TEST TEMPERATURE : 30 C CONDITION : Aswelded

Sampling position (o'clock)

Weld metal CTOD fracture toughness at 30 C (mm) Specimen geometry : Bx2B Individual Mean Specimen geometry : BxB Individual 0,213 (J 0,159 0,197 (J 0,287 ( J 0,296 (J 0,146 0,171 (J 0,295 (J 0,209 ( J 0,163 0,132(6,) 0,308 (u) 0,216 0,251 0,232 Mean Specimen geometry : 3BxB
(*)

Individual 0,120 (J 0,153 (J 0,139 (J 0,290 ( J 0,190 (J 0,216 (J 0,146 (J 0,318 ( J 0,271 (J

Mean

0,190 ( J 0,149 (J 0,137 (J

0,137

0,132 (J 0,089 (J 0,217 (J

0,206

12

0,165 (J 0,283 (J 0,042 (c)

0,245

(*) : Strictly speaking, all tests were invalid to BS 7448 : Part 1 : 1991. This was due to the irregularity of the fatigue crack fronts, which were such that they violated the stringent validity requirements set forth.

81

TABLE 9.b : SUMMARY OF DATA OF CTOD FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TESTING AT 20 C OF THE "UNDERMATCHING" GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 70 PIPES Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 6010

SPECIMEN GEOMETRIES : * Preferred 2B geometry ( = 14 mm, W = 2B = 28 mm), through thickness notched to a0/W = 0,5 nominally * Subsidiary geometry ( = 14 mm, W = = 14 mm), surface notched from the weld root to a</W = 0,33 nominally * "Alternative" 3B geometry (3B = 42 mm, W = = 14 mm), surface notched from the weld root to a0/W = 0,33 nominally NOTCH LOCATION : Weld metal centreline (WMC) TEST TEMPERATURE : 20 C CONDITION : Aswelded

Sampling position (o'clock)

Weld metal CTOD fracture toughness at 20 C (mm) Specimen geometry : Bx2B Individual Mean Specimen geometry : BxB Individual 0,277 ( J 0,153 0,168 ( J 0,260 ( J 0,392 (J 0,241 0,281 (J

Specimen geometry : 3BxB


(*)

Mean

Individual 0,186 ( J

Mean

0,112 ( J 0,204 ( J 0,144(0 J

0,235

0,163 ( J 0,4( J 0,202 ( J

0,174

0,148(0 J 0,382 (J 0,192(0 J

0,337

0,147 (J 0,317(0 J 0,208 ( J

0,222

12

0,147(0 J 0,194 (J 0,162(0 J 0,168

0,281 ( J 0,134 (J 0,130(0 J 0,182

0,240 ( J 0,239 (J

0,229

(*) : Strictly speaking, all tests were invalid to BS 7448 : Part 1 : 1991. This was due to the irregularity of the fatigue crack fronts, which were such that they violated the stringent validity requirements set forth.

82

TABLE 10.a : SUMMARY OF DATA OF CTOD FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TESTING AT 30 C OF THE "OVERMATCHING" GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 80 PIPES Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 10018 G

SPECIMEN GEOMETRIES : * Preferred 2B geometry ( = 16 mm, W = 2B = 32 mm), through thickness notched to a/W = 0,5 nominally * Subsidiary geometry ( = 16 mm, W = = 16 mm), surface notched from the weld root to a0/W = 0,5 nominally NOTCH LOCATION : Weld metal centreline (WMC) TEST TEMPERATURE : 30 C CONDITION : Aswelded

Sampling position (o'clock)

Weld metal CTOD fracture toughness at 30 C (mm) Specimen geometry : Bx2B Individual Mean Specimen geometry : BxB Individual 0,171 ( J 0,189 0,163(0 J 0,116 ( J 0,137(0 J 0,208 . 0,113(0 J 0,132(0 J 0,127 0,150 Mean

0,201 (J 0,199(0 J 0,166(0 J

0,165(0 J 0,278 (J 0,180 ( J

83

TABLE lO.b : SUMMARY OF DATA OF CTOD FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TESTING AT 20 C OF THE "UNDERMATCHING" GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 80 PIPES Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 9010 G

SPECIMEN GEOMETRIES : * Preferred 2B geometry ( = 16 mm, W = 2B = 32 mm), through thickness notched to a0/W = 0,5 nominally * Subsidiary geometry ( = 16 mm, W = = 16 mm), surface notched from the weld root to a0/W = 0,5 nominally NOTCH LOCATION : Weld metal centreline (WMC) TEST TEMPERATURE : 20 C CONDITION : Aswelded

Sampling position (o'clock)

Weld metal CTOD fracture toughness at 20 C (mm) Specimen geometry : Bx2B Individual Mean Specimen geometry : BxB Individual 0,154 (J 0,207 0,139 (J

Mean

0,206 ( J 0,208 (J

0,147

0,173(0 J 0,118(0 J 0,176 ( J 0,156

0,105(0 J 0,141 (J
_.

0,123

84

TABLE 11 : SUMMARY OF DATA OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF CURVED PIPE SECTIONS INCORPORATING SURFACE NOTCHES IN THE WELD ROOT PIPE GRADE : API 5L X 70 "OVERMATCHING" GIRTH WELDS WELDING CONSUMABLES : E 7010G / E 9010 G

Wide plate specimen number WP 31 WP 32 WP 33 WP 41 WP 42

Sampling position (o'clock) 6-7,5 10,5- 12 4,5-6 6-7,5 10,5- 12

Sound/ Defective Sound Sound Defective (*) Sound Sound

Weld overfills removed Yes No Yes No Yes

Test Defect dimensions temperature (length depth) (mm mm) (C) -30 -30 -30 -30 -30 120,0x3,0 150,0x3,0 180,0x3,0 120,0x3,0 150,0x3,0

Wide plate specimen number

Numerical values at the critical event (**) Gross stress (MPa)


^Njnax

Gross strain
w

CMODmax (mm)

Pipe metal strain


^pipe.max

Critical event

Deformation mode

(%)

max

(8/o)

WP 31 WP 32 WP 33 WP 41 WP 42

572 554 592 605 563

2,25 1,20 3,22 3,82 1,53

1,32 0,98 2,21 2,24 1,30

1,99 1,00 2,78 3,37 1,27

Unstable fracture Unstable fracture Unstable fracture Unstable fracture Unstable fracture

GSY GSY GSY GSY GSY

(*) : (**) :

Wide plate no. WP 33 incorporated scattered porosity in two subsequent fill passes. The gross strain was measured on a gauge length of 500 mm, whereas the crack mouth opening displacement was measured on a gauge length of 8,0 mm straddling the surface notch. (***): The critical event was invariably the occurrence of unstable fracture. (****) : GSY = Gross Section Yielding (pipe yielding).

85

TABLE 12 : SUMMARY OF DATA OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF CURVED PIPE SECTIONS INCORPORATING SURFACE NOTCHES IN THE WELD ROOT PIPE GRADE : API 5L X 70 "UNDERMATCHING" GIRTH WELDS WELDING CONSUMABLES : E 6010 / E 6010

Wide plate specimen number WP 51 WP 52 WP 53 WP 61 WP 62

Sampling position (o'clock) 6-7,5 10,5- 12 4,5-6 6-7,5 10,5- 12

Sound / Defective Sound Sound Defective


(*)

Weld overfills removed Yes No No No Yes

Test Defect dimensions temperature (length depth) (mm mm) (C) -20 -20 -20 -20 -20 120,0x3,0 150,0x3,0 180,0x3,0 120,0x3,0 150,0x3,0

Sound Sound

Wide plate specimen number

Numerical values at the critical event (**) Gross stress


"Kmax

Gross strain
(%)
w max

CMODmax (mm)

Pipe metal strain


. pipe.max (B/o)

Critical event

Deformation mode

(MPa) WP 51 WP 52 WP 53 WP 61 WP 62 548 543 563 563 548

1,38 1,41 2,13 2,15 1,21

0,85 1,12 1,32 1,50 1,02

1,21 1,19 1,87 1,85 1,01

Unstable fracture Unstable fracture Unstable fracture Unstable fracture Unstable fracture

GSY GSY GSY GSY GSY

(*) : (**) :

Wide plate no. WP 53 incorporated scattered porosity in two subsequent fill passes. The gross strain was measured on a gauge length of 500 mm, whereas the crack mouth opening displacement was measured on a gauge length of 8,0 mm straddling the surface notch. (***) : The critical event was invariably the occurrence of unstable fracture. (****) : GSY = Gross Section Yielding (pipe yielding).

86

TABLE 13 : SUMMARY OF DATA OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF CURVED PIPE SECTIONS INCORPORATING INTENTIONALLY INTRODUCED WELD DEFECTS PIPE GRADE : API 5L X 70 "UNDERMATCHING" GIRTH WELDS WELDING CONSUMABLES : E 6010 / E 6010

Wide plate specimen number WP 54 WP 55 WP 64 WP 65

Sampling position (o'clock) 3-4,5 1,5-3 3-4,5 1,5-3

Sound / Defective Defective Defective Defective Defective

Weld overfills removed Yes Yes Yes Yes

Test Type(s) of weld defects temperature

(C)
-20 -20 -50 -50 Porosities in two subsequent weld beads Slag inclusions & porosities in two weld beads Porosities in two subsequent weld beads Slag inclusions & porosities in two weld beads

Wide plate specimen number

Numerical values at the critical event (*) Gross stress (MPa)


Njnax

Gross strain
^max

CMODmax (mm)

Pipe metal strain


^pipe.max

Critical event

Deformation mode

(%)

(8/o)

WP 54 WP 55 WP 64 WP 65

615 610 620 620

7,76 7,54 5,66 5,64

2,13 1,63 1,54 0,86

7,33 7,21 5,35 5,46

Maximum load instability Maximum load instability Maximum load instability Unstable fracture

GSY GSY GSY GSY

(*) :

The gross strain was measured on a gauge length of 500 mm, whereas the crack mouth opening displacement was measured on a gauge length of 8,0 mm straddling the surface notch. (**) : Except for wide plate no. WP 65, the critical event was invariably the occurrence of maximum load instability, which corresponded with the onset of necking (localised plastic deformation) in the pipe body. Tensile testing was subsequently stopped (no girth weld failure). (***) : GSY = Gross Section Yielding (pipe yielding).

87

TABLE 14 : SUMMARY OF DATA OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF CURVED PIPE SECTIONS INCORPORATING SURFACE NOTCHES IN THE WELD ROOT PIPE GRADE : API 5L X 80 "OVERMATCHING" GIRTH WELDS WELDING CONSUMABLES : E 6010 / E 10018 G

Wide plate specimen number WP 81 WP 82 WP 95 WP 96 WP 97 WP 98

Sampling position (o'clock) 4-5 10- 11 6-7 4-5 3-4 1 -2

Sound / Defective Sound Sound Sound Sound Sound Sound

Weld overfills removed Yes No Yes No Yes No

Test Defect dimensions temperature (length depth) (mm mm) (C) -30 -30 -30 -30 -30 -30 110,0x4,0 110,0x4,0 150,0x3,0 150,0x3,0 150,0x4,0 150,0x4,0

Wide plate specimen number

Numerical values at the critical event (*) Gross stress (MPa)


~N.max

Critical event

Deformation mode

Gross strain
^max

CMODmax (mm)

Pipe metal strain


.

(%) 2,23 2,35 1,07 2,14 1,46 0,88 2,45 3,76 0,81 2,47 1,73 1,12 1,74 1,60 0,90 1,65 1,11 0,66 Maximum load Maximum load Unstable fracture Maximum load Unstable fracture Unstable fracture GSY GSY GSY GSY GSY GSY

WP 81 WP 82 WP 95 WP 96 WP 97 WP 98

655 683 649 665 657 638

(*) :

The gross strain was measured on a gauge length of 500 mm, whereas the crack mouth opening displacement was measured on a gauge length of 8,0 mm straddling the surface notch. (**) : The critical event was either the occurrence of a maximum load instability, corresponding with a stable pop-through of the surface notch, or the occurrence of unstable fracture, corresponding with unstable pop-through of the surface notch. (***) : GSY = Gross Section Yielding (pipe yielding).

88

TABLE 15 : SUMMARY OF DATA OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF CURVED PIPE SECTIONS INCORPORATING INTENTIONALLY INTRODUCED WELD DEFECTS PIPE GRADE : API 5L X 80 "OVERMATCHING" GIRTH WELDS WELDING CONSUMABLES : E 6010 / E 10018G

Wide plate specimen number WP 91 WP 92 WP 93 WP 94

Sampling position (o'clock) 11 - 12 10- 11 8-9 7-8

Sound / Defective
(*)

Weld overfills removed No No No No

Test temperature

Defect dimensions (length depth)


(mm mm)

(C)
-50 -50 -30 -30

Defective Defective Defective Defective

N/A N/A 110,0x3,0 150,0x3,0

Wide plate specimen number

Numerical values at the critical event (**) Gross stress


~Rmax

Gross strain
e

CMODmax (mm)

Pipe metal strain


. w pipe,max (B/o)

Critical event

Deformation mode

(MPa) WP 91 WP 92 WP 93 WP 94 717 720 661 659

(%)

raax

4,70 4,85 1,83 1,35

0,84 1,03 1,18 1,04

4,53 4,64 1,59 1,14

Maximum load instability Maximum load instability Unstable fracture Unstable fracture

GSY GSY GSY GSY

(*) :

The girth welds incorporated slag inclusions and porosities in two subsequent fill passes, immediately following the root and hot pass. (**) : The gross strain was measured on a gauge length of 500 mm, whereas the crack mouth opening displacement was measured on a gauge length of 8,0 mm straddling the surface notch. (***) : The critical event was either the occurrence of a maximum load instability, corresponding with the onset of necking (localised plastic deformation) in the pipe body, or the occurrence of unstable fracture. (****) : GSY = Gross Section Yielding (pipe yielding).

89

TABLE 16 : SUMMARY OF DATA OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF CURVED PIPE SECTIONS INCORPORATING SURFACE NOTCHES IN THE WELD ROOT Pipe grade : API 5L X 80 "Undermatching" girth welds Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 9010G

Wide plate specimen number WP 71 WP 72

Sampling position (o'clock) 4-5 9 - 10

Sound / Defective Sound Sound

Weld overfills removed No No

Test Defect dimensions temperature (length depth) (mm mm) CO -20 -20 75,0x3,0 150,0x3,0

Wide plate specimen number

Numerical values at the critical event (*) Gross stress (MPa)


~Njnax

Critical event

Deformation mode

Gross strain (%) 1,83 1,55


max

CMODmax (mm)

Pipe metal strain


. w pipe,max

(B/o)

WP 71 WP 72

675 662

1,04 1,36

1,62 1,28

Unstable fracture Unstable fracture

GSY GSY

(*) :

The gross strain was measured on a gauge length of 500 mm, whereas the crack mouth opening displacement was measured on a gauge length of 8,0 mm straddling the surface notch. (**) : The critical event was invariably the occurrence of unstable fracture. (***) : GSY = Gross Section Yielding (pipe yielding).

90

Pipe metal : X70 Welding consumables : E7010G / E9010G Notch position: Weld Metal Centre

12 o' clock
120 120

2 o' clock
120

3 o' clock
120

6 o' clock

90

90

>
vo

*->

o . E
re

60 --

60

30 -- CAP ROOT

30 CAP ROOT
h

-40

-20

20

-40

-20

20

-40

-20

20

-40

-20

20

Test temperature (C)

Test temperature (C)

Test temperature (C)

Test temperature (C)

Figure 1 .a : Summary of data (transition curves) of Charpy V notch impact testing of the weld metal centreline (cap and root) of the "overmatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes. (Welding consumables : E 701 OG / E 901 OG)

Pipe metal : X70 Welding consumables : E6010 / E 6010 Notch position: Weld Metal Centre

12 o' clock
120 120

2 o' clock
120

3 o' clock
120

6 o' clock

90 >>
iQ) C
to

90

90

*-

60

60

60

o re
Q.
EPRG limit

30

7 CAP ROOT

30 CAP ROOT

30

i
' ' -20 |
i !

CAP ROOT
1

0 40 20 0 20 40 20 0 20 -40

20

-40

-20

20

Test temperature (C)

Test temperature (C)

Test temperature (C)

Test temperature (C)

Figure Lb : Summary of data (transition curves) of Charpy V notch impact testing of the weld metal centreline (cap and root) of the "undermatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes. (Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 6010)

Pipe metal : X80 Welding consumables : E6010/E10018G Notch position: Weld Metal Centre

11 o' clock
120 7 120

2 o' clock
120

6 o' clock
120

7 o' clock

90

+->

c o ro
Q.

60

30

EPRG limit CAP

ROOT -60 -40 -20 0 -60 -40 -20 0 -60 -40 -20 0

-60

-40

-20

Test temperature (C)

Test temperature (C)

Test temperature (C)

Test temperature (C)

Figure 2.a : Summary of data (transition curves) of Charpy V notch impact testing of the weld metal centreline (cap and root) of the "overmatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes. (Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 10018G)

Pipe metal : X80 Welding consumables : E 6010/E 9010G Notch position: Weld Metal Centre

11o' clock
120 120

2 ' clock
120

7 o' clock
120

10 o' clock

90

90

90 -

> U)
i

c
*->

_ 60

60 60 -

ro

o.
E
30 CAP ROOT 30

o
50 30 10 50 30 10

50

30

10

-50

-30

-10

Test temperature (C)

Test temperature (C)

Test temperature (C)

Test temperature (C)

Figure 2.b : Summary of data (transition curves) of Charpy V notch impact testing of the weld metal centreline (cap and root) of the "undermatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes. (Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 901 OG)

Test temperature : 30C


0,4

E
0,3 ( (

c
JC O) O +

0,2

fi

D O h O

0,1

2
D

0,0


10

11

12

13

Sampling position (o'clock)

Figure 3.a : Summary of data of CTOD fracture toughness testing at 30 C of the weld metal of the "overmatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes by means of "standard" and "alternative" specimen geometries. (Welding consumables : E 701 OG / E 901 OG) Test temperature : 20C
0,4

E
0,3 (
CO

c
C O)
O +

0,2

D O

0,1

3 0,0

10

11

12

13

Sampling position (o'clock) Figure 3.b : Summary of data of CTOD fracture toughness testing at 20 C of the weld metal of the "undermatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes by means of "standard" and "alternative" specimen geometries. (Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 6010)

95

Test temperature : 30C


0,4

E
co

0,3

Bx2B
0,2

c sz
Q O O
D) D O +

0,1

Bx2B BxB

BxB
0,0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Sampling position (o'clock)

Figure 4.a : Summary of data of CTOD fracture toughness testing at 30 C of the weld metal of the "overmatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes by means of throughthickness ( 2B) and surface notched ( ) specimens. (Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 10018G)
Test temperature : 20C
0,4,

E E
(

0,3

2
0,2

SI U) O
*-

0,1

0,0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Sampling position (o'clock)

Figure 4.b : Summary of data of CTOD fracture toughness testing at 20 C of the weld metal of the "undermatching" girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes by means of throughthickness ( 2B) and surface notched ( ) specimens. (Welding consumables : E 6010 / E 901 OG)

96

VC

Figure 5 : General view of a curved wide plate test panel, photographed upon completion of testing and illustrating the geometry and the instrumentation (moir grid and elongation measuring devices) applied. (2661/5)

Pipe grade : API 5L X 70 650

E7010G/E7010G;-30C Defect depth 3,0 mm

600
0.
CO

CO W
i*-*

550 -

(0
514
E6010/E6010;-20C Defect depth 3,0 mm

VO

oo

0) ( O a-

500
Weld overfill removed - a - Weld overfill not removed

450
60 100 140

180

Defect length (mm)

Figure 6.a : Summary of data of wide plate tensile testing -20 / -30 C of curved pipe sections extracted from the girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes and incorporating machined surface notches in the weld root : Diagramme of the gross failure stress as a function of defect length (defect depth : 3,0 mm).

Pipe grade : API 5L X 70


3,50 Weld overfill removed Weld overfill not removed
E7010G/E7010G ; 30C Defect depth 3,0 mm

3,00

^
C

2,50

"(
(f

2,00

'S
o

1,50

.
S" 1,00
E6010/E6010;20C Defect depth 3,0 mm

0,50

0,00 60 100 140

180

Defect length (mm)


Figure 6 b : Summary of data of wide plate tensile testing 20 / 30 C of curved pipe sections extracted from the girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 70 pipes and incorporating machined surface notches in the weld root : Diagramme of the "corrected" (pipe metal) gross failure strain as a function of defect length (defect depth : 3,0 mm).

Pipe grade : API 5L X 80


750

E6010/E9010G;20C Defect depth 3,0 mm

700
CO Q.

E6010/E10018G;30C Defect depth 4,0 mm

650

en co
V

2: S^r.
E6010/E10018G;30C Defect depth 3,0 mm

^=0

+> CO CO

co

601

600 = = Weld overfill removed a Weld overfill not removed 550 60 100 140 180

Defect length (mm)

Figure 7.a : Summary of data of wide plate tensile testing 20 / 30 C of curved pipe sections extracted from the girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes and incorporating machined surface notches in the weld root : Diagramme of the gross failure stress as a function of defect length (defect depths : 3,0 and 4,0 mm).

Pipe grade : API 5L X 80


3,50
Weld overfill removed

3,00

- -

Weld overfill not removed

2,50

C "co
CO

E6010/E10018G;-30C Defect depth 3,0 mm

2,00 Q

Q.

1,50
/

1,00 -0,50

E6010/E9010G;-20C Defect depth 3,0 mm E6010/E10018G;-30C Defect depth 4,0 mm

0,00

60

100

140

180

Defect length (mm)


Figure 7.b : Summary of data of wide plate tensile testing -20 / -30 C of curved pipe sections extracted from the girth welds in the API 5L Grade X 80 pipes and incorporating machined surface notches in the weld root : Diagramme of the "corrected" (pipe metal) gross failure strain as a function of defect length (defect depths : 3,0 and 4,0 mm).

ANNEXE I

SELECTION OF OPTICAL MICROPHOTOGRAPHS :

MICROSTRUCTURES OF THE API 5L GRADE X 70 & X 80 PIPE METALS


&

MICROSTRUCTURES OF THE DEPOSITED WELD METALS OF THE GIRTH WELDS MADE IN EACH OF THE PIPES

103

Subsurface location (1 mm below outer wall)

Pipe mid-thickness location Figure 1.1 : Microphotographs illustrating the ferritic-pearlitic microstructure of the API 5L Grade X 70 pipe material. (Magnification : 400)

104

Through-thickness location : weld cap

Through-thickness location : weld root

Figure 1.2 : Microphotographs illustrating the microstructure of the weld metal, deposited with overmatched (E 9010G) electrodes in API 5L Grade X 70 pipe. (Magnification : 400)

105

Through-thickness location : weld cap

Through-thickness location : weld root

Figure 1.3 : Microphotographs illustrating the microstructure of the weld metal, deposited with undermatched (E 6010) electrodes in API 5L Grade X 70 pipe. (Magnification : 400)

106

Subsurface location (1 mm below outer wall)

Pipe mid-thickness location

Figure 1.4 : Microphotographs illustrating the low carbon bainitic - ferritic-pearlitic microstructure of the API 5L Grade X 80 pipe material. (Magnification : 500)

107

j'S
A:,\ HHHRII3
BttSrKt!

nfw^SRSGKMM

Figure 1.5 : Microphotographs illustrating the microstructure of the weld metal, deposited with overmatched (E 10018G) electrodes in API 5L Grade X 80 pipe. (Magnification : 500)

108

Through-thickness location : weld cap

Through-thickness location : weld root

Figure 1.6 : Microphotographs illustrating the microstructure of the weld metal, deposited with undermatched (E 901 OG) electrodes in API 5L Grade X 80 pipe. (Magnification : 500)

109

ANNEXE II

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS OF THE NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION (RADIOGRAPHIC (X-RAY) & ULTRASONIC (P-SCAN)) OF THE DEFECTIVE GIRTH WELDS

111

TABLE ILI : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS OF THE NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION (X-RAY & US P-SCAN) OF A GIRTH WELD USED FOR CALIBRATION PURPOSES

X-ray (RX) inspection


N
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 g 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Type** D Aa A Aa +Ab A a + Ab C+A A Ab Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa B/C Very small Very small Very small Very small Cluster Very small Small Cluster Aligned Cluster Comments Start 0 25 52 92 120 140 130 180 208 255 280 306 353 364 430 515 367 440 0 End Start 20 32 75 105 130 162 152 0 29,5 59 88 123 131 125 180 203 End 22 38,5 80 95 134 148 157 188 210

Ultrasonic (P-scan) inspection


Probe angle : 70 dB*** -3 3 -4 -3 -3 7 9 2 -1 Image* 1+4 1+2 1+3+4 1+2 4 1+2 2+3+4 1+2 1+2 92 125 131 130 188 208 272 103,4 129 142 154 191 211 274 -5 2 3 7 -12 -5 -12 2+4 4 2+4 2 1 4 1 Start 16,6 27,4 Probe angle : 60 End 20,2 35,3 dB*** 4 4 1+2 Image*

429 507,8 531,4 5 1+4 519

431 527

-13 4

1 4

(*) : Images = Colour assigned 1 =Red 2 = Yellow 3 = Black 4 = Blue

(**) : Type of discontinuity : A = Porosity Aa = Rounded Porosity Ab = Wormholes = Slag inclusions C = Lack of fusion D = Lack of penetration

(***) : Detectibility :
dB>0 -4<dB< 0 -6<dB< -4 dB<-6 Good Fair Poor Bad

TABLE .2 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS OF THE NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION (X-RAY & US P-SCAN) OF DEFECTIVE GIRTH WELD No. W 5 (Grade X 70 pipe - undermatching (E 6010) electrodes)

X-ray (RX) inspection


N
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Type** Aa Aa A A A Aa A Ec A Aa Aa Aa Ec Aa Ec Aa Ec Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa A Cluster-Very small Very small Cluster-Very small Cluster Very small Cluster (small and spreaded) Very small Cluster (small and spreaded) Very small Shallow indication Cluster-Very small Very small Root Very small Cluster-Very small Shallow indication Cluster-Very small Small Small Small Root Cluster-Very small Shallow indication Very small Root Comments Start 0 17 87 163 185 230 279 313 379 385 405 450 492 530 650 680 700 720 743 744 764 784 800 851 950 990 1012 1060 1083 1105 1108 1063 1010 . 814 860 752 765 750 480 506 588 330 382 388 94 166 196 263 End 0

Ultrasonic (P-scan) inspection


Start End dB*** Image*

162

164

-12

300,2 385

330 393

-2 -2

1 1

841,7

845

-8

(*) : Images = Colour assigned 1 =Red 2 = Yellow 3 = Black 4 = Blue

(**) : Type of discontinuity : A = Porosity Aa = Rounded Porosity Ab = Wormholes = Slag inclusions C = Lack of fusion D = Lack of penetration

(***) : Detectibility : dB>0 -4<dB<0 -6<dB<-4 dB<-6 Good Fair Poor Bad

113

TABLE .2 : CONTINUED

X-ray (RX) inspection N 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 Type** Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa+Ab Aa Aa+Ab Aa+Ab A A Aa Aa+Ab A A Aa Aa Aa+Fb Aa+Ab Ab Aa A Aa Aa Ec Ab Aa Aa A A A Very small Very small Cluster Cluster-Very small Very small Cluster Comments Cluster-Very small Very small Very small Cluster-Very small Cluster-Very small Cluster Cluster Cluster Root Cluster-Very small Very small Cluster Cluster-Very small Cluster-Very small Very small Very small Very small Cluster-Very small Start 1255 1324 1343 1380 1495 1675 1720 1913 1980 2050 2088 2100 2155 2186 2234 2284 2360 2476 2527 2580 2650 2795 2815 2885 2900 2920 2933 2990 3010 3024 2993 3013 3030 2905 2825 2360 2510 2530 2585 2685 1455 1650 1686 1875 1955 1986 2060 2090 2120 2165 2230 2239 End 1270

Ultrasonic (P-scan) inspection Start End dB*** Image*

1530 1652 1738 1919

1540 1782 1980

-6 -2 0 -4

3+4 1 1 1

2115 2150

2118 2155

-5 -5

2903

2908

2980 3024

2987 3026

5 -4

1 1

(*) : Images = Colour assigned 1 =Red 2 = Yellow 3 = Black 4 = Blue

(**) : Type of discontinuity : A = Porosity Aa = Rounded Porosity Ab = Wormholes = Slag inclusions C = Lack of fusion D = Lack of penetration

(***) : Detectibility : dB>0 -4<dB<0 -6<dB<-4 dB<-6 Good Fair Poor Bad

114

TABLE .3 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS OF THE NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION (X-RAY & US P-SCAN) OF DEFECTIVE GIRTH WELD No. W 6 (Grade X 70 pipe - undermatching (E 6010) electrodes)

X-ray (RX) inspection

Ultrasonic (P-scan) inspection Start 67 150 250 400 465 490 540 650 End 72 200 292 407 472 525 600 685 730 820 401 454 498 540 650,2 409,7 483 522,7 592 706,3 3 6 1 2 2 3 3 1 1+3 Start End dB*** Image*

N 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Type** Aa Aa Aa Ab A A C A A Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa A Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa A Aa Cluster

Comments Cluster - Very small Cluster - Very small Cluster - Very small

Cluster - Very small

Very small Cluster - Very small Very small Very small Cluster - Very small Cluster - Very small Cluster - Very small Cluster - Very small Cluster - Very small Cluster - Very small Cluster - Very small Cluster - Very small Cluster - small Cluster - small

700 805 885 900 931 1023 1108 1190 1276 1364 1405 1455 1490 1600 1850

1050 1194 1284 1367 1435 1475 1600 1800 1927

1019

1023

1502 1530 1620 1710 1800 1620 1710 1800 1827

-2 10 14 11

1+3 1 1 1 1

(*) : Images = Colour assigned 1 =Red 2 = Yellow 3 = Black 4 = Blue

(**) : Type of discontinuity : A = Porosity Aa = Rounded Porosity Ab = Wormholes = Slag inclusions C = Lack of fusion D = Lack of penetration

(***) : Detectibility : dB>0 -4<dB<0 -6<dB<-4 dB<-6 Good Fair Poor Bad

115

TABLE .3 : CONTINUED

X-ray (RX) inspection

Ultrasonic (P-scan) inspection Start 2030 2153 2193 2238 2295 2350 2410 2516 2550 2600 2686 2785 2900 2927 3000 3075 3020 3080 2620 2706 2806 2525 End 2110 2157 2200 2253 2311 2370 2150 2154 3 1 Start End dB*** Image*

N
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

Type** Aa Aa Aa A Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa A A Aa Aa

Comments Cluster - Very small Cluster - Very small Cluster - Very small Cluster - Very small Cluster-Very small Very small Cluster - Very small Very small Cluster - Very small Cluster - Very small Cluster - Very small Very small Very small Cluster - Very small Cluster - Very small

(*) : Images = Colour assigned 1 =Red 2 = Yellow 3 = Black 4 = Blue

(**) : Type of discontinuity : A = Porosity Aa = Rounded Porosity Ab = Wormholes = Slag inclusions C = Lack of fusion D = Lack of penetration

(***) : Detectibility : dB>0 -4<dB<0 -6<dB<-4 dB<-6 Good Fair Poor Bad

116

TABLE .4 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS OF THE NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION (X-RAY & US P-SCAN) OF DEFECTIVE GIRTH WELD No. W 7 (Grade X 80 pipe - undermatching (E 9010G) electrodes)

X-ray (RX) inspection


Film

Ultrasonic (P-scan) inspection


Position on the Xray film 60-100 287-300 355-360 Corrected position 1745-1785 1972-1985 2040-2045 Probe angle : 70 Start End dB*** Image Start Probe angle : 60 End dB*** Image

Type**

Comments

0-400

1 2 3

Aa Aa A Aa Aa Aa Aa + Aa A Aa A C

Small and scattered Small and scattered Small and scattered Small and scattered Small and scattered Small and scattered

400-800 800-1200 1200-1600 1600-2000 2000-2400 2400-2800 3200-0

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

2250 2980-3005 Cluster Small and scattered Shallow 3300-3500 3240-3248 3120-3127

350 1125-1150 1445-1645 1385-1393 1265-1272 1265 1272 -40 2

(*) : Images = Colour assigned 1 =Red 2 = Yellow 3 = Black 4 = Blue

(**) : Type of discontinuity : A = Porosity Aa = Rounded Porosity Ab = Wormholes = Slag inclusions C = Lack of fusion D = Lack of penetration

(***) : Detectibility : dB>0 -4<dB<0 -6<dB<-4 dB<-6 Good Fair Poor Bad

TABLE .5 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS OF THE NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION (X-RAY & US P-SCAN) OF DEFECTIVE GIRTH WELD No. W 9 (Grade X 80 pipe - overmatching (E 10018G) electrodes)

X-ray (RX) inspection


Film

Ultrasonic (P-scan) inspection


Position on the Xray film 1225-1235 1265-1285 1305-1325 Corrected position 0-10 40-60 80-100 115-375 Probe angle : 70" Start 10 41 83 116 125 250 End 13 61 96 125 250 375 500 625 750 875 1000 1015 1051 1275 1344 1460 1566 dB*** -56 -45 -52 -53 -45 -41 -47 -44 -49 -44 -44 -56 -57 -56 -47 -53 -49 1 +3 1+2+ 3+4 3 Image Start 9 41 59 105 125 250 375 500 625 750 875 1000 1042 1281 1332 1433 1500 Probe angle : 60 End 12 44 92 125 250 375 500 625 750 875 1000 1017 1065 1293 1358 1447 1580 dB*** -50 -45 -35 -41 -37 -42 -35 -41 -44 -48 -43 -49 -48 -44 -44 -44 -41 Image

Type**

Comments

1200-1600

1 2 3 4a

Aa A+B

Cluster

Aligned

1340-1600

1600-2000

4b

A+B

Aligned

1600-2000

375-775

375 500 625

2000-2400

4c

A+B

Aligned

2000-2240

775-1015

750 875 1000

5 2400-2800 6 7 8 9

A Aa Aa Aa

Small and scattered Shallow indication Scattered Cluster - small Cluster

2260-2300 2490-2500 2540-2570 2660-2680 2700-2785

1035-1075 1265-1275 1315-1345 1435-1455 1475-1560

1038 1265 1320 1441 1520

1 +3
1

1 +3

TABLE .5 : CONTINUED

X-ray (RX) inspection


Film

Ultrasonic (P-scan) inspection


Position on the Xray film 2840-2880 2940-2955 3031-3039 Corrected position 1615-1665 1715-1730 1805-1813 1860-1865 1885-1889 2085-2105 2175-2195 2275-2330 2380-2480 2530-2558 2790-2795 3290-3300 3307-3314 2787 3292 3318 2792 3295 3325 -49 -51 -51 1 1 3 2313 2376 2318 2396 -50 -57 1 1 2271 2391 2529 2794 3290 3315 2335 2484 2554 2801 3299 3321 -49 -47 -48 -40 -45 -55 1 +3 1 1 1 1 3 Probe angle : 70 Start 1626 1729 End 1651 1740 dB*** -56 -58 Image Start 1634 Probe angle : 60 End 1672 dB*** -45 Image

Type**

Comments

*
1 +3 1 +3 1811 1855 1882 1815 1862 1892 -46 -49 -44

*
1 +3

2800-3200

10 11a 11b 12a 12b

Aa Aa A Aa A Aa Aa Aa Aa A+ B A Aa C

Cluster Small and scattered Cluster Small and scattered Cluster-small Cluster Small and scattered Small and scattered Small and scattered Shallow indication Cluster

3085-3091 3110-3114 3310-3330 3400-3420 3500-0 50-100 200-228 460-465 960-970 987-994

1 1 1

SD

3200-0

13 14 15

0-400

16 17 18

800-1200

19 20

(*) : Images = Colour assigned 1 =Red 2 = Yellow 3 = Black 4 = Blue

(**) : Type of discontinuity : A = Porosity Aa = Rounded Porosity Ab = Wormholes = Slag inclusions C = Lack of fusion D = Lack of penetration

(***) : Detectibility :
dB>0 -4<dB< 0 -6<dB< -4 dB<-6 Good Fair Poor Bad

Figure ILI : Schematic sketch, detailing the different views (top view, end view and side view) presented by the ultrasonic P-scan.

120

^yS*.^

instituto de soldadura e qualidade

IMAGE, Probes; and Gates Iteri: U95IB78.2

Setup.

Probe no. Transnit ter Receiver Bean ang le Gates Rotation i 1 S9.5 deg 2 27 deg 2 2 72.5 deg 2 OB deg 2 F~1

MW

m
:

3 Inaye

(find v i e w )

Figure II.2 : Ultrasonic Pscan inspection : probe arrangement and colour codes.

121

F-SCn-N IMftGE TOP VIEU Top Ven tr Ini In2 3 L.4 45 nn 3.9 nn -42 dB Off Off Off

8 nn

X 39.8

2 8.8

125 nn

SIDE VIEH Side 17.8 nn


K)

ECHO VIEW Upper 68 dB Level -57 dB Louer -68 dB

^-"^"-'--y~~~~>^-*~?-

r*~V--^

END VIEW Side 17.8 nn ECHO VIEW Upper 68 dB Level -57 dB Lower -68 dB Projection view

Iten U11IB478.1

Figure II.3 : Typical P-scan image : Weld no. W 9 - Defects nos. 2, 3 and 4 (see Table II.5) (Probe angle : 70)

P-SCfH IMAGE TOP VIEW Top Vcntr Ini In2 n3M


:.> m

258 nn

355.8

7.8

11.3

375 nn

45 nn

5.9 nn -49 dB Off Off Off

LO

SIDE VIEW Side 17.8 ECHO VIEW Upper 28 Level -52 Lower -188

nn dB dB dB

END VIEW Side 17.8 ECHO VIEW Upper 28 Level -52 Lower -188

nn dB dB dB Projection view Iten W11IB468.3

Figure II.4 : Typical P-scan image : Weld no. W 9 - Defect no. 4 (see Table II.5) (Probe angle : 60)

PSCfiH IMAGE TOP VIEW Top Vcntr Inlffi In2 In3 In4 45 nn

1588 nn

X 1528.8

4.4

7.7

1625 nn

4 . 9 nn
Off Off 6 9 dB Off

SIDE VIEW Side 17.8 nn

ECHO VIEW Upper 28 dB Level -55 dB Lower -188 dB

END VIEW Side 17.8 nn ECHO VIEW Upper 28 dB Level -55 dB Lower -188 dB Projection view Figure II.5 : Typical Pscan image : Weld no. W 9 Defect no. 9 (see Table II.5) (Probe angle : 70) Iten U11IB478.13

F-SCAN IMAGE TOP VIEW Top tfcntr Ini InZ In4


45 nn

1588 nn

X 1588.8

-8.3

11.8

1625 nn

-2.3 nn
-63 dB Off f -128 dB 4 Off

SIDE VIEW Side 17.8 nn

ECHO VIEW Upper 28 dB Level -58 dB Lower -188 dB

EHD VIEW Side 17.8 nn ECHO VIEW Upper 28 dB Level 5 8 dB Lower 1 8 8 dB

"minili g " *
Projection view

Iten W11IB468.13

Figure II.6 : Typical Pscan image : Weld no. W 9 Defect no. 9 (see Table II.5) (Probe angle : 60)

P-SCAN IMAGE
TOP VIEW

1875 nn

X 1882.8

8.8

13.9

2888 nn

Top Vcntr Inlfl In2


hV3M In4

45 nn

-2.3 nn -68 dB Off Off Off

=53

as

SIDE VIEW Side 17.8 ECHO VIEW Upper 28 Level -51 Lower -188

nn dB dB dB

END VIEW Side 17.8 ECHO VIEW Upper 28 Level -51 Lower -188

nn dB dB dB
P r o j e c t i o n view I t e n W11IB468.16

Figure II.7 : Typical Pscan image : Weld no. W 9 Defect no. 12b (see Table II.5) (Probe angle : 60)

P-SCAN IMAGE TOP VIEW Top Vcntr Ini In2


.-.';

2258 nn

X 2313.8

8.3

9.8

2375 nn

45 nn -3.4 nn -59 dB Off Off Off

,,> m

11

to

SIDE VIEW Side 17.8 ECHO VIEW Upper 28 Level -68 Lower -188

nn dB dB dB

JMMEBI II

END VIEW Side 17.8 nn ECHO VIEW Upper 28 dB Level -68 dB Lower -188 dB Projection view Iten U11IB478.19

Figure II.8 : Typical Pscan image : Weld no. W 9 Defect no. 15 (see Table II.5) (Probe angle : 70)

ANNEXE III

MACROGRAPHIC EXAMINATION AND VICKERS HV 5 HARDNESS TESTING OF THE GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L GRADE X 70 & X 80 PIPES

129

Macrophotograph of a cross section extracted from a girth weld in API 5L X 70 pipe, made with overmatching (E 9010G) electrodes Sampling postion : 12 o'clock Magnification : 2,61

Microstructure

Vickers HV 5 hardness Line 1 (subsurface cap side) Line 2 (mid-wall thickness) 180 174 178 206 223 203 188 225 225 227 199 182 190 188 190 190 204 185 Line 3 (subsurface root side) 192 177 177 190 192 172 187

Vickers HV 5 hardness Line 4 (weld metal centreline) 206 216 227 212 199 208 204 10 8 175

Pipe Metal

203 199

Heat Affected Zone

193 212 227

Weld Metal

223 219 241 236

Heat Affected Zone

244 265 251

Pipe Metal

206 210

130

Macrophotograph of a cross section extracted from a girth weld in API 5L X 70 pipe, made with overmatching (E 9010G) electrodes Sampling postion : 3 o'clock Magnification : 2,62

Microstructure

Vickers HV 5 hardness Line 1 (subsurface cap side) Line 2 (mid-wall thickness) 183 180 188 192 214 212 Line 3 (subsurface root side) 183 185 177 183 188 193 195

Vickers HV 5 hardness Line 4 (weld metal centreline) 223 221 216 201 197

Pipe Metal

204 199

Heat Affected Zone

199 232 232

Weld Metal

232 234 214 216

199 203 203 204 210 212 195 192 190

20: 192 161 157

Heat Affected Zone

199 219 195

168 165 195 175 180

Pipe Metal

193 195

131

Macrophotograph of a cross section extracted from a girth weld in API 5L X 70 pipe, made with overmatching (E 9010G) electrodes Sampling postion : 9 o'clock Magnification : 2,61

Microstructure

Vickers HV 5 hardness Line 1 (subsurface cap side) Line 2 (mid-wall thickness) 192 193 199 212 230 229 210 216 229 225 216 197 185 192 195 158 187 187 188 Line 3 (subsurface root side) 192 193 182 175 185 188 188

Vickers HV 5 hardness Line 4 (weld metal centreline) 227 227 236 221 221 219 216 182 178

Pipe Metal

212 208

Heat Affected Zone

225 268 280

Weld Metal

239 236 234 234

Heat Affected Zone

219 262 210

Pipe Metal

204 203

132

Macrophotograph of a cross section extracted from a girth weld in API 5L X 70 pipe, made with undermatching (E 6010) electrodes Sampling postion : 12 o'clock Magnification : 2,61

Microstructure

Vickers HV 5 hardness Line 1 (subsurface cap side) Line 2 (mid-wall thickness) 199 195 212 201 204 206 210 193 206 249 212 180 178 185 188 190 225 199 Line 3 (subsurface root side) 197 193 199 244 216 203 199

Vickers HV 5 hardness Line 4 (weld metal centreline) 229 212 204 192 210 201 13 9 18 8 185

Pipe Metal

204 214

Heat Affected Zone

206 232 208

Weld Metal

227 214 214 221

Heat Affected Zone

271 277 204

Pipe Metal

199 206

133

Macrophotograph of a cross section extracted from a girth weld in API 5L X 70 pipe, made with undermatching (E 6010) electrodes Sampling postion : 3 o'clock Magnification : 2,62

Microstructure

Vickers HV 5 hardness Line 1 (subsurface cap side) Line 2 (mid-wall thickness) 190 183 187 201 208 Line 3 (subsurface root side) 195 199 201 257 216 195 199

Vickers HV 5 hardness Line 4 (weld metal centreline) 232 232 232 203 178 178 185

Pipe Metal

210 206

Heat Affected Zone

223 244

Weld Metal

232 216 195 193

204 204 183 183 225 204 192

175
201 232 190 188 188

Heat Affected Zone

244 223

Pipe Metal |

197 210

180 187

134

Macrophotograph of a cross section extracted from a girth weld in API 5L X 70 pipe, made with undermatching (E 6010) electrodes Sampling postion : 9 o'clock Magnification : 2,61

Microstructure

Vickers HV 5 hardness Line 1 (subsurface cap side) Line 2 (mid-wall thickness) 183 182 188 199 212 219 212 227 208 225 214 199 192 206 201 185 190 193 Line 3 (subsurface root side) 188 183 183 182 214 185 190

Vickers HV 5 hardness Line 4 (weld metal centreline) 192 178 216 219 199 216 204 187 182

Pipe Metal

210 192

Heat Affected Zone

204 239 257

Weld Metal

221 210 203 201

Heat Affected Zone

239 262 210

Pipe Metal

206 208

193

135

Macrophotograph of a cross section extracted from a girth weld in API 5L X 80 pipe, made with overmatching (E10018G) electrodes Sampling postion : 12 o'clock Magnification : 4,60

Microstructure

Vickers HV 5 hardness Subsurface cap side Subsurface root side 227 234 227 225 234 244 219 216 219 236 227 229 234 239 232

Vickers HV 5 hardness Weld metal centreline


310 262 223 225 227 234 229 214 208

Pipe Metal

246 246 249 271 271 283 303 306 286 268 246 246 249 249 254

Heat Affected Zone Weld Metal

Heat Affected Zone Pipe Metal

136

Wi e %^^>

Macrophotograph of a cross section extracted from a girth weld in API 5L X 80 pipe, made with overmatching (E 10018G) electrodes Sampling postion : 3 o'clock Magnification : 4,60

Microstructure

Vickers HV 5 hardness Subsurface cap side Subsurface root side 219 227 232 214 227 249 225 221 236 229 219 214 225 227 219

Vickers HV 5 hardness Weld metal centreline 329 293 249 262 249 257 246 208 214

Pipe Metal

241 239 246 232 259 277 277 286 260 234 239 241 236 239 232

Heat Affected Zone Weld Metal

Heat Affected Zone Pipe Metal

137

Macrophotograph of a cross section extracted from a girth weld in API 5L X 80 pipe, made with overmatching (E 10018G) electrodes Sampling postion : 6 o'clock Magnification : 4,60

Microstructure

Vickers HV 5 hardness Subsurface cap side Subsurface root side 229 229 234 223 227 236 221 223 221 232 225 229 234 234 239

Vickers HV 5 hardness Weld metal centreline 325 325 268 241 227 232 225 244 212

Pipe Metal

241 232 239 251 251 271 262 274 268 271 251 244 241 246 249

Heat Affected Zone Weld Metal

Heat Affected Zone Pipe Metal

138

"f
IBMIIMHlMOTtiiirnr

Macrophotograph of a cross section extracted from a girth weld in API 5L X 80 pipe, made with undermatching (E 9010G) electrodes Sampling postion : 12 o'clock Magnification : 4,60

Microstructure

Vickers HV 5 hardness Subsurface cap side Subsurface root side 232 225 216 212 214 203 228 232 227 236 219 214 225 229 234

Vickers HV 5 hardness Weld metal centreline 274 262 221 219 225 223 221 232 204

Pipe Metal

241 234 244 232 249 286 225 286 249 241 227 223 239 241 246

Heat Affected Zone Weld Metal

Heat Affected Zone Pipe Metal

139

Macrophotograph of a cross section extracted from a girth weld in API 5L X 80 pipe, made with undermatching (E 9010G) electrodes Sampling postion : 3 o'clock Magnification : 4,60

Microstructure

Vickers HV 5 hardness Subsurface cap side Subsurface root side 236 210 208 204 210 219 178 212 229 216 208 210 232 246 249

Vickers HV 5 hardness Weld metal centreline


254 241 206 225 206 206 206 201 190

Pipe Metal

244 216 236 227 241 232 241 239 249 236 246 241 246 244 257

Heat Affected Zone Weld Metal

Heat Affected Zone Pipe Metal

140

Macrophotograph of a cross section extracted from a girth weld in API 5L X 80 pipe, made with undermatching (E 9010G) electrodes Sampling postion : 6 o'clock Magnification : 4,60

Microstructure

Vickers HV 5 hardness Subsurface cap side Subsurface root side 241 236 225 221 223 212 260 236 234 227 234 236 229 239 244

Vickers HV 5 hardness Weld metal centreline 268 271 221 216 227 249 232 208 204

Pipe Metal

239 241 234 234 244 234 254 229 244 241 254 232 236 249 249

Heat Affected Zone Weld Metal

Heat Affected Zone Pipe Metal

141

ANNEXE IV

DETAILED RESULTS OF CTOD FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TESTING AT -20 / -30 C OF THE WELD METAL CENTRELINE (WMC) OF THE GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 70 & X 80 PIPES BY MEANS OF "STANDARD" AND "ALTERNATIVE" SPECIMEN GEOMETRIES

143

TABLE IV.l.a : RESULTS OF CTOD FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TESTING AT -30 C OF THE "OVERMATCHING" (WELDING CONSUMABLES : E 7010 G / E 9010 G) GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 70 PIPES

SPECIMEN GEOMETRY NOTCH LOCATION TEST TEMPERATURE CONDITION

Preferred 2B geometry ( = 14 mm, W = 2B = 28 mm), through-thickness notched to a0/W = 0,5 nominally Weld metal centreline (WMC) -30 C As-welded

Sampling position (o'clock) 6

Specimen number B2BOM6 - 1 B2BOM6 - 2 B2BOM6 - 3

CTOD fracture toughness at -30 C (mm) 0,190 0,149 0,137 0,132 0,089 0,217 0,165 0,283 0,042

Fracture mode m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) u (rupture) u (rupture) m (maximum) u (rupture) m (maximum) c (rupture)

Test valid to BS 7448 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

B2BOM9 - 1 B2BOM9 - 2 B2BOM9 - 3

12

B2BOM12- 1 B2BOM12-2 B2BOM12-3

144

TABLE IV.l.b : RESULTS OF CTOD FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TESTING AT -30 C OF THE "OVERMATCHING" (WELDING CONSUMABLES : E 7010 G / E 9010 G) GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 70 PIPES

SPECIMEN GEOMETRY NOTCH LOCATION TEST TEMPERATURE CONDITION

Subsidiary B x B geometry (B = 14 mm, W = = 14 mm), surface notched from the weld root to a depth a0 = 4,5 mm nominally Weld metal centreline - root side (WMC) -30 C As-welded

Sampling position (o'clock) 6

Specimen number BBOM6 - 1 BBOM6 - 2 BBOM6 - 3

CTOD fracture toughness at -30 C (mm) 0,213 0,197 0,287 0,296 0,171 0,295 0,209 0,132 0,308

Fracture mode m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) u (rupture) u (rupture)

Test valid to BS 7448 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

BBOM9 - 1 BBOM9 - 2 BBOM9 - 3

12

BBOM12- 1 BBOM12-2 BBOM12-3

145

TABLE IV.l.c : RESULTS OF CTOD FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TESTING AT -30 C OF THE "OVERMATCHING" (WELDING CONSUMABLES : E 7010 G / E 9010 G) GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 70 PIPES

SPECIMEN GEOMETRY NOTCH LOCATION TEST TEMPERATURE CONDITION

"Alternative" 3B geometry (3B = 42 mm, W = = 14 mm), surface notched from the weld root to a depth a0 = 4,5 mm nominally Weld metal centreline - root side (WMC) -30 C As-welded

Sampling position (o'clock) 6

Specimen number 3BBOM6 - 1 3BBOM6 - 2 3BBOM6 - 3

CTOD fracture toughness at -30 C (mm) 0,120 0,153 0,139 0,290 0,190 0,216 0,146 0,318 0,271

Fracture mode m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) u (rupture) m (maximum) m (maximum)

Test valid to BS 7448 (*) No No No No No No No No No

3BBOM9 - 1 3BBOM9 - 2 3BBOM9 - 3

12

3BBOM12- 1 3BBOM12-2 3BBOM12-3

(*) : Strictly speaking, all tests were invalid to BS 7448 : Part 1 : 1991. This was due to the irregularity of the fatigue crack fronts, which were such that they violated the stringent validity requirements set forth.

146

TABLE IV.2.a : RESULTS OF CTOD FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TESTING AT -20 C OF THE "UNDERMATCHING" (WELDING CONSUMABLES : E 6010 / E 6010) GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 70 PIPES

SPECIMEN GEOMETRY NOTCH LOCATION TEST TEMPERATURE CONDITION

Preferred 2B geometry ( = 14 mm, W = 2B = 28 mm), through-thickness notched to a0/W = 0,5 nominally Weld metal centreline (WMC) -20 C As-welded

Sampling position (o'clock) 6

Specimen number B2BUM6 - 1 B2BUM6 - 2 B2BUM6 - 3

CTOD fracture toughness at -20 C (mm) 0,112 0,204 0,144 0,148 0,382 0,192 0,147 0,194 0,162

Fracture mode m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) u (rupture) m (maximum) m (maximum) u (rupture) m (maximum) u (rupture)

Test valid to BS 7448 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

B2BUM9 - 1 B2BUM9 - 2 B2BUM9 - 3

12

B2BUM12- 1 B2BUM12-2 B2BUM12-3

147

TABLE IV.2.b : RESULTS OF CTOD FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TESTING AT -20 C OF THE "UNDERMATCHING" (WELDING CONSUMABLES : E 6010 / E 6010) GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 70 PIPES

SPECIMEN GEOMETRY NOTCH LOCATION TEST TEMPERATURE CONDITION

Subsidiary B x B geometry (B = 14 mm, W = = 14 mm), surface notched from the weld root to a depth a0 = 4,5 mm nominally Weld metal centreline - root side (WMC) -20 C As-welded

Sampling position (o'clock) 6

Specimen number BBUM6 - 1 BBUM6 - 2 BBUM6 - 3

CTOD fracture toughness at -20 C (mm) 0,277 0,168 0,260 0,392 0,281 0,281 0,134 0,130

Fracture mode m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) u (rupture) m (maximum) u (rupture) m (maximum)

Test valid to BS 7448 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

BBUM9 - 1 BBUM9 - 2

12

BBUM12- 1 BBUM12-2 BBUM12-3

148

TABLE IV.2.C : RESULTS OF CTOD FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TESTING AT -20 C OF THE "UNDERMATCHING" (WELDING CONSUMABLES : E 6010 / E 6010) GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 70 PIPES

SPECIMEN GEOMETRY NOTCH LOCATION TEST TEMPERATURE CONDITION

"Alternative" 3B geometry (3B = 42 mm, W = = 14 mm), surface notched from the weld root to a depth a0 = 4,5 mm nominally Weld metal centreline - root side (WMC) -20 C As-welded

Sampling position (o'clock) 6

Specimen number 3BBUM6 - 1 3BBUM6 - 2 3BBUM6 - 3

CTOD fracture toughness at -20 C (mm) 0,186 0,163 0,174 0,202 0,147 0,317 0,208 0,240 0,239

Fracture mode m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum)

Test valid to BS 7448


(*)

No Yes No No No No No No No

3BBUM9 - 1 3BBUM9 - 2 3BBUM9 - 3

12

3BBUM12- 1 3BBUM12-2 3BBUM12-3

(*) : Strictly speaking, all tests were invalid to BS 7448 : Part 1 : 1991. This was due to the irregularity of the fatigue crack fronts, which were such that they violated the stringent validity requirements set forth.

149

TABLE IV.3 : RESULTS OF CTOD FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TESTING AT -30 C OF THE "OVERMATCHING" (WELDING CONSUMABLES : E 6010 / E 10018 G) GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 80 PIPES SPECIMEN GEOMETRY NOTCH LOCATION TEST TEMPERATURE CONDITION Preferred 2B geometry ( = 16 mm, W = 2B = 32 mm), through-thickness notched to a0/W = 0,5 nominally Weld metal centreline (WMC) -30 C As-welded

Sampling position (o'clock) 1

Specimen number B2B81 - 1 B2B81-2 B2B81-3

CTOD fracture toughness at -30 C (mm) 0,201 0,199 0,166 0,165 0,278 0,180

Fracture mode m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum)

Test valid to BS 7448 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

B2B84- 1 B2B84- 2 B2B84- 3

SPECIMEN GEOMETRY NOTCH LOCATION TEST TEMPERATURE CONDITION

Subsidiary B x B geometry (B = 16 mm, W = = 16 mm), surface notched from the weld root to a0 /W = 0,5 mm nominally Weld metal centreline - root side (WMC) -30 C As-welded

Sampling position (o'clock) 1

Specimen number BB81 - 1 BB81 - 2 BB81-3

CTOD fracture toughness at -30 C (mm) 0,171 0,163 0,116 0,137 0,113 0,132

Fracture mode m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum)

Test valid to BS 7448 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

BB84 - 1 BB84 - 2 BB84 - 3

150

TABLE IV.4 : RESULTS OF CTOD FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TESTING AT -20 C OF THE "UNDERMATCHING" (WELDING CONSUMABLES : E 6010 / E 9010 G) GIRTH WELDS IN THE API 5L X 80 PIPES SPECIMEN GEOMETRY NOTCH LOCATION TEST TEMPERATURE CONDITION

Preferred 2B geometry ( = 16 mm, W = 2B = 32 mm), through-thickness notched to a0/W = 0,5 nominally Weld metal centreline (WMC) -20 C As-welded

Sampling position (o'clock) 1

Specimen number B2B71- 1 B2B71- 2

CTOD fracture toughness at -20 C (mm) 0,206 0,208 0,173 0,118 0,176

Fracture mode m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum)

Test valid to BS 7448 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

B2B74- 1 B2B74 - 2 B2B74 - 3

SPECIMEN GEOMETRY NOTCH LOCATION TEST TEMPERATURE CONDITION

Subsidiary B x B geometry (B = 16 mm, W = = 16 mm), surface notched from the weld root to a0 /W = 0,5 mm nominally. Weld metal centreline - root side (WMC) -20 C As-welded

Sampling position (o'clock) 1

Specimen number BB71 - 1 BB71 - 2

CTOD fracture toughness at -20 C (mm) 0,154 0,139 0,105 0,141

Fracture mode m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum) m (maximum)

Test valid to BS 7448 Yes Yes Yes Yes

BB74 - 1 BB74 - 2

151

ANNEXE V

DETAILED RESULTS OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF "OVERMATCHING" AND "UNDERMATCHTING" GIRTH WELDS IN API 5L GRADE X 70 PIPES (40" O.D. 16,9 mm W.T.)

153

TABLE V.l : SUMMARY OF DATA OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF THE "OVERMATCHING" GIRTH WELD No. W 3 PROVIDED WITH MACHINED SURFACE NOTCHES INTRODUCED IN THE WELD ROOT

Wide plate specimen no. Pipe grade Type of weld metal Sampling location (o'clock) Type of weld defects Test temperature (C) Weld reinforcements removed Geometry : width - arc length (mm) thickness (mm) Gauge lengths : elongation (1) (mm) CMOD (mm) Surface notch dimensions : length (mm) maximum depth (mm) Cross section : gross - (mm2) net - (mm2) Yield strength at 0,2 % offset strain : o N0 ,(MPa) on(U(MPa) CMOD 0 ,(mm) Yield strength at 0,5 % offset strain : 0,5 (MPa) 0,5 (MPa) CMOD05 (mm) Critical event : At the critical event :
0~Nmax ( M P a ) "nmax ( M P a )

WP 31 API 5L X 70

WP 32 API 5L X 70

WP 33 API 5L X 70

Overmatching Overmatching Overmatching (E7010G/E9010G) (E7010G/E9010G) (E7010G/E9010G) 6-7,5 N/A -30 Yes 331,0 17,53 500,0 8,0 120,0 3,0 5.802 5.514 505 531 0,13 533 561 0,41 Unstable fracture 572 602 11,25 2,25 1,32 1,99 Gross Section Yielding 10,5- 12 N/A -30 No 336,8 17,64 500,0 8,0 150,0 3,0 5.941 5.581 520 554 0,23 542 577 0,63 Unstable fracture 554 590 6,00 1,20 0,98 1,00 Gross Section Yielding 4,5-6 Porosities in two fill passes -30 Yes 331,5 17,51 500,0 8,0 180,0 3,0 5.805 5.373 511 552 0,12 536 579 0,48 Unstable fracture 592 639 16,10 3,22 2,21 2,78 Gross Section Yielding

Almax (mm) ema* (%) CMODmax (mm)


e

pipe max V ')

Deformation mode

154

TABLE V.2 : SUMMARY OF DATA OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF THE "OVERMATCHING" GIRTH WELD No. W 4 PROVIDED WITH MACHINED SURFACE NOTCHES INTRODUCED IN THE WELD ROOT

Wide plate specimen no. Pipe grade Type of weld metal Sampling location (o'clock) Type of weld defects Test temperature (C) Weld reinforcements removed Geometry : width - arc length (mm) thickness (mm) Gauge lengths : elongation (1) (mm) CMOD (mm) Surface notch dimensions : length (mm) maximum depth (mm) Cross section : gross - (mm2) net - (mm2) Yield strength at 0,2 % offset strain : oN02(MPa) o0,2(MPa) CMOD02(mm) Yield strength at 0,5 % offset strain : 0 5 (MPa) o-o,5 (MPa) CMODo.5 (mm) Critical event : At the critical event :
ONmax ( M P a )

WP 41 API 5L X 70 Overmatching (E7010G/E9010G) 6-7,5 N/A -30 No 332,8 17,54 500,0 8,0 120,0 3,0 5.837 5.549 521 548 0,23 543 572 0,54 Unstable fracture 605 637 19,10 3,82 2,24 3,37 Gross Section Yielding

WP 42 API 5L X 70 Overmatching (E7010G/E9010G) 10,5- 12 N/A -30 Yes 334,4 17,53 500,0 8,0 150,0 3,0 5.862 5.502 519 553 0,40 546 582 0,80 Unstable fracture 563 600 7,65 1,53 1,30 1,27 Gross Section Yielding

< W (MPa) Almax (mm)


emax ( % )
e

C M O D T (mm)
pipe max \')

Deformation mode

155

TABLE V.3 : SUMMARY OF DATA OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF THE "UNDERMATCHING" GIRTH WELD No. W 5 PROVIDED WITH MACHINED SURFACE NOTCHES INTRODUCED IN THE WELD ROOT

Wide plate specimen no. Pipe grade Type of weld metal Sampling location (o'clock) Type of weld defects Test temperature (C) Weld reinforcements removed Geometry : width - arc length (mm) thickness (mm) Gauge lengths : elongation (1) (mm) CMOD (mm) Surface notch dimensions : length (mm) maximum depth (mm) Cross section : gross - (mm2) net - (mm2) Yield strength at 0,2 % offset strain : oN0,2(MPa) on0,2(MPa) CMOD02(mm) Yield strength at 0,5 % offset strain : oN05 (MPa) ,5 (MPa) CMOD0 5 (mm) Critical event : At the critical event :
Nmax ( M P a ) Onmax ( M P a )

WP 51 API 5L X 70 Undermatching (E6010/E6010) 6-7,5 N/A -20 Yes 331,6 17,59 500,0 8,0 120,0 3,0 5.833 5.545 504 530 0,14 532 560 0,37 Unstable fracture 548 576 6,90 1,38 0,85 1,21 Gross Section Yielding

WP 52 API 5L X 70 Undermatching (E6010/E6010) 10,5- 12 N/A -20 No 330,0 17,61 500,0 8,0 150,0 3,0 5.811 5.451 502 536 0,17 524 558 0,52 Unstable fracture 543 579 7,05 1,41 1,12 1,19 Gross Section Yielding

WP 53 API 5L X 70 Undermatching (E6010/E6010) 4,5-6 Porosities in two fill passes -20 No 333,7 17,66 500,0 8,0 180,0 3,0 5.893 5.461 504 544 0,17 532 574 0,36 Unstable fracture 563 608 10,65 2,13 1,32 1,87 Gross Section Yielding

Almax (mm)
e,ax ( % )
e

C M O D T (mm)
pipemax \')

Deformation mode

156

TABLE V.4 : SUMMARY OF DATA OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF THE "UNDERMATCHING" GIRTH WELD No. W 5 INCORPORATING INTENTIONALLY INTRODUCED WELD DEFECTS

Wide plate specimen no. Pipe grade Type of weld metal Sampling location (o'clock) Type of weld defects Test temperature (C) Weld reinforcements removed Geometry : width - arc length (mm) thickness (mm) Gauge lengths : elongation (1) (mm) CMOD (mm) Surface notch dimensions : Cross section : gross - (mm2) net - (mm2) Yield strength at 0,2 % offset strain : oN0i2(MPa) on0.2(MPa) CMOD0,2(mm) Yield strength at 0,5 % offset strain : oN05 (MPa) ,5 (MPa) CMODo,5 (mm) Critical event : At the critical event :
ON ( M P a ) omax ( M P a )

WP 54 API 5L X 70 Undermatching (E6010/E6010) 3-4,5 Porosities in two subsequent beads -20 Yes 337,1 17,47 500,0 8,0 N/A 5.889 5.889 510 510 0,04 537 537 0,06 Maximum load instability 615 615 38,80 7,76 2,13 7,33 Gross Section Yielding

WP 55 API 5L X 70 Undermatching (E6010/E6010) 1,5-3 Slag inclusions and porosities -20 Yes 336,5 17,68 500,0 8,0 N/A 5.949 5.949 504 504 0,09 532 532 0,13 Maximum load instability 610 610 37,68 7,54 1,63 7,21 Gross Section Yielding

Alm (mm)
e m a x(%)
e

CMOD (mm)
pipemax \'0)

Deformation mode

157

TABLE V.5 : SUMMARY OF DATA OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF THE "UNDERMATCHING" GIRTH WELD No. W 6 PROVIDED WITH MACHINED SURFACE NOTCHES INTRODUCED IN THE WELD ROOT

Wide plate specimen no. Pipe grade Type of weld metal Sampling location (o'clock) Type of weld defects Test temperature (C) Weld reinforcements removed Geometry : width - arc length (mm) thickness (mm) Gauge lengths : elongation (1) (mm) CMOD (mm) Surface notch dimensions : length (mm) maximum depth (mm) Cross section : gross - (mm2) net - (mm2) Yield strength at 0,2 % offset strain : o Na2 (MPa) on0,2(MPa) CMOD 02 (mm) Yield strength at 0,5 % offset strain : 0>5 (MPa) 0,5 (MPa) CMOD05 (mm) Critical event : At the critical event :
oN,nax ( M P a ) Onmax ( M P a )

WP 61 API 5L X 70 Undermatching (E6010/E6010) 6-7,5 N/A -20 No 332,4 17,62 500,0 8,0 120,0 3,0 5.857 5.569 505 531 0,16 529 557 0,30 Unstable fracture 563 592 10,75 2,15 1,50 1,85 Gross Section Yielding

WP 62 API 5L X 70 Undermatching (E6010/E6010) 10,5- 12 N/A -20 Yes 332,6 17,49 500,0 8,0 150,0 3,0 5.817 5.457 529 564 0,35 541 577 0,71 Unstable fracture 548 584 6,05 1,21 1,02 1,01 Gross Section Yielding

Almax (mm)
emax ( % )
e

CMODm (mm)
pipemax \')

Deformation mode

158

TABLE V.6 : SUMMARY OF DATA OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF THE "UNDERMATCHING" GIRTH WELD No. W 6 INCORPORATING INTENTIONALLY INTRODUCED WELD DEFECTS

Wide plate specimen no. Pipe grade Type of weld metal Sampling location (o'clock) Type of weld defects Test temperature (C) Weld reinforcements removed Geometry : width arc length (mm) thickness (mm) Gauge lengths : elongation (1) (mm) CMOD (mm) Surface notch dimensions : Cross section : gross (mm2) net (mm2) Yield strength at 0,2 % offset strain : oN02(MPa) oo.2(MPa) CMOD02(mm) Yield strength at 0,5 % offset strain :
O"NO,5 ( M P a )

WP 64 API 5L X 70 Undermatching (E6010/E6010) 34,5 Porosities in two subsequent beads 50 Yes 326,0 17,53 500,0 8,0 N/A 5.715 5.715 528 528 0,09 545 545 0,09 Maximum load instability 620 620 28,30 5,66 1,54 5,35 Gross Section Yielding

WP 65 API 5L X 70 Undermatching (E6010/E6010) 1,53 Slag inclusions and porosities 50 Yes 333,8 17,54 500,0 8,0 N/A 5.855 5.855 529 529 0,05 543 543 0,08 Unstable fracture

no.5 ( M P a )

CMOD05 (mm) Critical event : At the critical event :


Owmax ( M P a )

onmax (MPa)
Almax ( m m ) e m a x(%)
e

CMOD, r (mm)
pipcmax \')

620 620 28,18 5,64 0,86 5,46 Gross Section Yielding

Deformation mode

159

OS

Figure V.l : Load (P) and crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) versus overall elongation (1) diagrammes recorded during wide plate tensile testing of specimen no. WP 31.

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I II II

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API 5L Grade X 70 pipe "Overmatching" consumables (E 701 OG / E 9010 G) Test temperature : 30 C Surface notch dimensions (weld root) : 120 mm 3,0 mm Gross failure stress : 572 MPa Gross failure strain : 2,25 % Deformation mode : Gross Section Yielding

Figure V.2 : Moir interference fringe pattern of wide plate specimen no. WP 31, visualizing the plastic deformations at the inner pipe wall. The lower fringe density at the location of the girth weld illustrates the beneficial effect of weld metal yield strength overmatching.

161

OS

to

Figure V.3 : Load (P) and crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) versus overall elongation (1) diagrammes recorded during wide plate tensile testing of specimen no. WP 42.

API 5L Grade X 70 pipe "Overmatching" consumables (E 7010G / E 9010 G) Test temperature : -30 C Surface notch dimensions (weld root) : 150 mm 3,0 mm Gross failure stress : 563 MPa Gross failure strain : 1,53 % Deformation mode : Gross Section Yielding

Figure V.4 : Moir interference fringe pattern of wide plate specimen no. WP 42, visualizing the plastic deformations at the inner pipe wall. The lower fringe density at the location of the girth weld illustrates the beneficial effect of weld metal yield strength overmatching.

163

Figure V.5 : Load () and crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) versus overall elongation (1) diagrammes recorded during wide plate tensile testing of specimen no. WP 51.

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API 5L Grade X 70 pipe "Undermatching" consumables (E 6010 / E 6010) Test temperature : -20 C Surface notch dimensions (weld root) : 120 mm 3,0 mm Gross failure stress : 548 MPa Gross failure strain : 1,38 % Deformation mode : Gross Section Yielding

Figure V.6 : Moir interference fringe pattern of wide plate specimen no. WP 51, visualizing the plastic deformations at the inner pipe wall. The difference in fringe density at either side of the girth weld evidences that the yield strength of the pipe metals differs significantly.

165

OS OS

Figure V.7 : Load (P) and crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) versus overall elongation (1) diagrammes recorded during wide plate tensile testing of specimen no. WP 54.

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DllllilllWIIl

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JUU II I I I ! Mllllli Il 11*1 M

lilil s API 5L Grade 70 pipe "Undermatching" consumables (E 6010 / E 6010) Test temperature : 20 C Porosities in two subsequent weld beads (towards the weld cap) Grosss stress at maximum load : 615 MPa Gross strain at maximum load: 7,76 % Deformation mode : Gross Section Yielding

f mi!

Figure V.8 : Moir interference fringe pattern of wide plate specimen no. WP 54, visualizing the plastic deformations at the inner pipe wall. The equal density of moir fringes provides evidence that the weld metal matches the yield strength of the pipe metals.

167

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Figure V.9 : Load (P) and crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) versus overall elongation (1) diagrammes recorded during wide plate tensile testing of specimen no. WP 65.

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API 5L Grade 70 pipe "Undermatching" consumables (E 6010 / E 6010) Test temperature : -50 C Slag inclusions and porosities in two subsequent weld beads (towards the weld cap) Gross failure stress : 620 MPa Gross failure strain : 5,64 % Deformation mode : Gross Section Yielding

Figure V.10 : Moir interference fringe pattern of wide plate specimen no. WP 65, visualizing the plastic deformations at the inner pipe wall.

169

Wide plate specimen no. WP 31 - "Overmatching" girth weld (E 7010G / E 901 OG) Surface notch dimensions : 120 mm 3,0 mm Weld reinforcements removed at either pipe wall Remark the brittle fracture appearance and the presence of porosities towards the weld cap (2664/15, 16, 17) Magnification : 0,85
o

Wide plate specimen no. WP 41 - "Overmatching" girth weld (E 7010G / E 901 OG) Surface notch dimensions : 120 mm 3,0 mm Weld reinforcements left intact at either pipe wall Remark the brittle fracture appearance and the presence of porosities towards the weld cap (2748/15, 16, 17) Magnification : 0,83 Figure V.l 1 : Typical fracture faces of wide plate specimens extracted from the "overmatching" girth welds in API 5L X 70 pipes.

Wide plate specimen no. WP 51 - "Undermatching" girth weld (E 6010 / E 6010) Surface notch dimensions : 120 mm 3,0 mm Weld reinforcements removed at either pipe wall Remark the brittle fracture appearance and the presence of porosities towards the weld cap (2664/12,13,14) Magnification : 0,86

Wide plate specimen no. WP 61 - "Undermatching" girth weld (E 6010 / E 6010) Surface notch dimensions : 120 mm 3,0 mm Weld reinforcements left intact at either pipe wall Remark the brittle fracture appearance and the presence of porosities towards the weld cap (2664/18,19,20) Magnification : 0,74 Figure V.12 : Typical fracture faces of wide plate specimens extracted from the "undermatching" girth welds in API 5L X 70 pipes.

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Wide plate specimen no. WP 65 - "Undermatching" girth weld (E 6010 / E 6010) Weld defects : Slag inclusions and porosities Weld reinforcements removed at either pipe wall Remark the presence of an elongated slag inclusion ("waggon track") towards the weld root (2664/21,22,23) Magnification : 0,87

Figure V.13 : Typical fracture face of a wide plate specimen extracted from the "undermatching" girth welds in API 5L X 70 pipes and incorporating intentionally introduced weld defects.

ANNEXE VI

DETAILED RESULTS OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF "OVERMATCHING" AND "UNDERMATCHTING" GIRTH WELDS IN API 5L GRADE X 80 PIPES (44" O.D. 16,2 mm W.T.)

173

TABLE VI.l : SUMMARY OF DATA OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF THE "OVERMATCHING" GIRTH WELD No. W 8 PROVIDED WITH MACHINED SURFACE NOTCHES INTRODUCED IN THE WELD ROOT

Wide plate specimen no. Pipe grade Type of weld metal Sampling location (o'clock) Type of weld defects Test temperature (C) Weld reinforcements removed Geometry : width - arc length (mm) thickness (mm) Gauge lengths : elongation (1) (mm) CMOD (mm) Surface notch dimensions : length (mm) maximum depth (mm) Cross section : gross - (mm2) net - (mm2) Yield strength at 0,2 % offset strain : oN0,2(MPa) on0,2(MPa) CMOD02(mm) Yield strength at 0,5 % offset strain : 0.5 (MPa) o-o,5 (MPa) CMOD0 5 (mm) Critical event : At the critical event : Nmax (MPa)
omax ( M P a ) Almax ( m m )

WP 81 API 5L X 80 Overmatching (E6010/E10018G) 4-5 N/A -30 Yes 336,3 16,59 500,0 8,0 110,0 4,0 5.578 5.226 579 618 0,22 612 653 0,56 Maximum load instability 655 699 11,15 2,23 2,45 1,74 Gross Section Yielding

WP 82 API 5L X 80 Overmatching (E6010/E10018G) 10- 11 N/A -30 No 330,6 16,66 500,0 8,0 110,0 4,0 5.508 5.156 589 629 0,22 633 676 0,59 Maximum load instability 683 730 11,75 2,35 3,76 1,60 Gross Section Yielding

emax (%) CMOD T (mm)


e

pipe max V 'J

Deformation mode

174

TABLE VI.2 : SUMMARY OF DATA OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF THE "OVERMATCHING" GIRTH WELD No. W 9 INCORPORATING INTENTIONALLY INTRODUCED WELD DEFECTS

Wide plate specimen no. Pipe grade Type of weld metal Sampling location (o'clock) Type of weld defects Test temperature (C) Weld reinforcements removed Geometry : width arc length (mm) thickness (mm) Gauge lengths : elongation (1) (mm) CMOD (mm) Surface notch dimensions : Cross section : gross (mm2) net (mm2) Yield strength at 0,2 % offset strain : o N02 (MPa) oo,2(MPa) CMOD 02 (mm) Yield strength at 0,5 % offset strain : 05 (MPa) ,5 (MPa) CMOD05 (mm) Critical event : At the critical event :
Nmax ( M P a ) "nmax ( M P a ) ALax ( m m ) emax (%) C M O D T (mm) eppcmax \')

WP 91 API 5L X 80 Overmatching (E6010/E10018G) 11 12

WP 92 API 5L X 80 Overmatching (E6010/E10018G) 10 11

Slag inclusions and Slag inclusions and porosities porosities 50 No 332,4 16,63 500,0 8,0 N/A 5.528 5.528 613 613 0,08 636 636 0,10 Maximum load instability 717 717 23,50 4,70 0,84 4,53 Gross Section Yielding 50 No 328,4 16,63 500,0 8,0 N/A 5.461 5.461 602 602 0,08 632 632 0,13 Maximum load instability 720 720 24,25 4,85 1,03 4,64 Gross Section Yielding

Deformation mode

175

TABLE VI.3 : SUMMARY OF DATA OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF THE "OVERMATCHING" GIRTH WELD No. W 9 PROVIDED WITH MACHINED SURFACE NOTCHES INTRODUCED IN THE WELD ROOT

Wide plate specimen no. Pipe grade Type of weld metal Sampling location (o'clock) Type of weld defects Test temperature (C) Weld reinforcements removed Geometry : width - arc length (mm) thickness (mm) Gauge lengths : elongation (1) (mm) CMOD (mm) Surface notch dimensions : length (mm) maximum depth (mm) Cross section : gross - (mm2) net - (mm2) Yield strength at 0,2 % offset strain : oN0i2(MPa) on0,2(MPa) CMOD02(mm) Yield strength at 0,5 % offset strain : 0,5 (MPa) ,5 (MPa) CMOD0 5 (mm) Critical event : At the critical event :
Nmax ( M P a ) Onmax ( M P a ) Almax ( m m )

WP 93 API 5L X 80 Overmatching (E6010/E10018G) 8-9 Slag inclusions and porosities -30 No 328,8 16,59 500,0 8,0 110,0 3,0 5.455 5.191 597 627 0,17 626 658 0,42 Unstable fracture 661 694 9,15 1,83 1,18 1,59 Gross Section Yielding

WP 94 API 5L X 80 Overmatching (E6010/E10018G) 7-8 Slag inclusions and porosities -30 No 329,2 16.65 500,0 8,0 150,0 3,0 5.481 5.121 599 641 0,24 636 680 0,30 Unstable fracture 659 705 6,75 1,35 1,04 1,14 Gross Section Yielding

emax (%) C M O D T (mm)


e

pipc max V ')

Deformation mode

176

TABLE VI.4 : SUMMARY OF DATA OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF THE "OVERMATCHING" GIRTH WELD No. W 9 PROVIDED WITH MACHINED SURFACE NOTCHES INTRODUCED IN THE WELD ROOT

Wide plate specimen no. Pipe grade Type of weld metal Sampling location (o'clock) Type of weld defects Test temperature (C) Weld reinforcements removed Geometry : width - arc length (mm) thickness (mm) Gauge lengths : elongation (1) (mm) CMOD (mm) Surface notch dimensions : length (mm) maximum depth (mm) Cross section : gross - (mm2) net - (mm2) Yield strength at 0,2 % offset strain : oN02(MPa) on0,2(MPa) CMOD02(mm) Yield strength at 0,5 % offset strain :
ONO,5 (MPa)

WP 95 API 5L X 80 Overmatching (E6010/E10018G) 6 N/A -30 Yes 327,1 16,68 500,0 8,0 150,0 3,0 5.456 5.096 610 653 0,26 640 686 0,65 Unstable fracture

WP 96 API 5L X 80 Overmatching (E6010/E10018G) 4-5 N/A -30 No 328,4 16,69 500,0 8,0 150,0 3,0 5.480 5.120 604 646 0,22 632 677 0,48 Maximum load instability 665 712 10,70 2,14 2,47 1,65 Gross Section Yielding

,5 (MPa) CMODo.5 (mm)

Critical event : At the critical event :


oNmax ( M P a ) omax ( M P a )

1,3 ( m m )
emax ( % )
e

C M O D T (mm)
pipe max \ ')

649 695 5,33 1,07 0,81 0,90 Gross Section Yielding

Deformation mode

177

TABLE VI.5 : SUMMARY OF DATA OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF THE "OVERMATCHING" GIRTH WELD No. W 9 PROVIDED WITH MACHINED SURFACE NOTCHES INTRODUCED IN THE WELD ROOT

Wide plate specimen no. Pipe grade Type of weld metal Sampling location (o'clock) Type of weld defects Test temperature (C) Weld reinforcements removed Geometry : width arc length (mm) thickness (mm) Gauge lengths : elongation (1) (mm) CMOD (mm) Surface notch dimensions : length (mm) maximum depth (mm) Cross section : gross (mm2) net (mm2) Yield strength at 0,2 % offset strain : oN0,2(MPa) on0,2(MPa) CMOD02(mm) Yield strength at 0,5 % offset strain : oN05 (MPa) ,5 (MPa) CMOD03 (mm) Critical event : At the critical event :
Nmax ( M P a ) Onmax ( M P a ) Almax ( m m ) emax (%) C M O D T (mm)
**pipe max V ' /

WP 97 API 5L X 80 Overmatching (E6010/E10018G) 3 N/A 30 Yes 330,0 16,57 500,0 8,0 150,0 4,0 5.468 4.988 600 657 0,40 633 694 0,88 Unstable fracture 657 720 7,30 1,46 1,73 1,11 Gross Section Yielding

WP 98 API 5L X 80 Overmatching (E6010/E10018G) 1 2 N/A 30 No 330,1 16,63 500,0 8,0 150,0 4,0 5.489 5.009 606 664 0,47 637 698 1,09 Unstable fracture 638 699 4,40 0,88 1,12 0,66 Gross Section Yielding

Deformation mode

178

TABLE VI.6 : SUMMARY OF DATA OF WIDE PLATE TENSILE TESTING OF THE "UNDERMATCHING" GIRTH WELD No. W 7 PROVIDED WITH MACHINED SURFACE NOTCHES INTRODUCED IN THE WELD ROOT

Wide plate specimen no. Pipe grade Type of weld metal Sampling location (o'clock) Type of weld defects Test temperature (C) Weld reinforcements removed Geometry : width - arc length (mm) thickness (mm) Gauge lengths : elongation (1) (mm) CMOD (mm) Surface notch dimensions : length (mm) maximum depth (mm) Cross section : gross - (mm2) net - (mm2) Yield strength at 0,2 % offset strain : o N02 (MPa) on0,2(MPa) CMOD02(mm) Yield strength at 0,5 % offset strain :
ONO,5 (MPa)

WP 71 API 5L X 80 Undermatching (E6010/E9010G) 4-5 N/A -20 No 327,5 16,63 500,0 8,0 75,0 3,0 5.446 5.266 615 636 0,17 641 663 0,37 Unstable fracture 675 698 9,15 1,83 1,04 1,62 Gross Section Yielding

WP 72 API 5L X 80 Undermatching (E6010/E9010G) 9-10 N/A -20 No 329,9 16,58 500,0 8,0 150,0 3,0 5.470 5.110 594 636 0,26 633 677 0,58 Unstable fracture 662 709 7,75 1,55 1,36 1,28 Gross Section Yielding

,5 (MPa) CMOD0,5 (mm)

Critical event : At the critical event :


oNmax ( M P a )

onmax (MPa)

Almax ( m m ) emax (%)

C M O D T (mm)
e

pipcmax \')

Deformation mode

179

00

..Will

Figure VI. 1 : Load (P) and crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) versus overall elongation () diagrammes recorded during wide plate tensile testing of specimen no. WP 98.

API 5L Grade X 80 pipe "Overmatching" consumables (E 6010 / E 10018G) Test temperature : -30 C Surface notch dimensions (weld root) : 150 mm 4,0 mm Grosss failure stress : 638 MPa Gross failure strain : 0,88 % Deformation mode : Onset of Gross Section Yielding

Figure VI.2 : Moir interference fringe pattern of wide plate specimen no. WP 98, visualizing the plastic deformations at the inner pipe wall. The low density of moir fringes in the pipe body illustrates that the deformation mode at failure was the onset of Gross Section Yielding.

181

00

Figure VI.3 : Load () and crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) versus overall elongation (1) diagrammes recorded during wide plate tensile testing of specimen no. WP 72.

API 5L Grade X 80 pipe "Undermatching" consumables (E 6010 / E 901 OG) Test temperature : -20 C Surface notch dimensions (weld root) : 150 mm 3,0 mm Grosss failure stress : 662 MPa Gross failure strain : 1,55 % Deformation mode : Gross Section Yielding

Figure VI.4 : Moir interference fringe pattern of wide plate specimen no. WP 72, visualizing the plastic deformations at the inner pipe wall. The low density of moir fringes at the location of the girth weld evidences that weld metal yield strength undermatching was not achieved.

183

ie Wide plate specimen no. WP 81 - "Overmatching" girth weld (E 6010 / E 10018G) Surface notch dimensions MIO mm 4,0 mm Weld reinforcements removed at either pipe wall Remark the ductile fracture appearance at the crack initiation area (stable pop-through) (2801/27,28,29) Magnification : 0,95

OO

4*

Wide plate specimen no. WP 98 - "Overmatching" girth weld (E 6010 / E 10018G) Surface notch dimensions : 150 mm 4,0 mm Weld reinforcements left intact at either pipe wall Remark the ductile fracture appearance at the crack initiation area (stable pop-through) (2814/27,28,29) Magnification : 0,80 Figure VI.5 : Typical fracture faces of wide plate specimens extracted from the "overmatching" girth welds in API 5L X 80 pipes.

00 on

Wide plate specimen no. WP 72 - "Undermatching" girth weld (E 6010 / E 901 OG) Surface notch dimensions : 150 mm 3,0 mm Weld reinforcements left intact at either pipe wall Remark the brittle fracture appearance (2782/20,21,22) Magnification : 0,83

Figure VI.6 : Typical fracture face of a wide plate specimen extracted from the "undermatching" girth weld in API 5L X 80 pipes.

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European Commission EUR 18426 Properties and in-service performance The fracture be haviour of girth we lds in high stre ngth high yie ld-totensile ratio linepipe ste e ls A. Correia da Cruz, T. Lefevre, F. Santamara Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities 1998 185 pp. 21 29.7 cm Technical steel research series ISBN 92-828-4643-1 Price (excluding VAT) in Luxembourg: ECU 31.50

An experimental study has been performed into the deformation and failure characteristics of girth welds in large diameter (40 and 44") pipelines incorporating either natural (porosity and slag inclusions) defects or artificially introduced planar surface breaking root defects. The work was done on micro-alloyed high strength (X 70 and X 80) high yield-to-tensile ratio steel pipes. To assess the effects of weld metal yield strength (YS) mismatch, welds were produced by stick electrode welding with consumables of different strength categories, including cellulosic and basic coated electrodes. Small-scale mechanical (qualification) testing has shown that conventional manual welding procedures can be applied with confidence to produce high quality welds in such pipes and that weldability problems are not to be expected, provided adequate preheating is applied. Wide plate testing of girth welds containing gross (out-of-specification) volumetric defects yielded failure in the pipe body at stresses approaching the tensile strength, indicating that current workmanship-based defect tolerance levels are over-conservative. The wide plate tests on welds made with either cellulosic or basic electrodes and containing surface notches in the root have shown that 3.0 mm deep (i.e. the height of one bead) by 150 mm long defects still produce gross section yielding (pipe yielding) prior to failure, provided the level of weld metal YS overmatching is a minimum 5 %. The adequate fracture behaviour, as evidenced by the wide plate tests, has confirmed that current CTO D-based defect assessment procedures are over-conservative for high strength steel pipelines. Further, it was concluded that the European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG) Tier 2 acceptance limits for planar defects (depth of 3.0 mm and length equal to seven times the wall thickness), set forth for pipe grades up to X 70, can be applied with confidence to welds in higher strength (X 80) pipes.

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