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TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT

Meaning: Training may be viewed as a systematic and planned process which has its organizational purpose to impart and provide learning experiences, that will bring about improvement in an employee and thus enabling him to make his contribution in greater measure in meeting the goals and objectives of an organisation. Training is an organised procedure for increasing the knowledge and skill of people for a specific purpose. The trainees acquire new skill, technical knowledge, problem solving ability, etc. Training is the formal and systematic modification of behaviour through learning which occurs as a result of education, instruction, development and planned experience. (Armstrong, 2001: 543) Definitions: According to Edwin B. Flippo Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. According to Dales S. Beach Training is an organised procedure by which people learn knowledge and /or skills for a definite purpose. Development: Development is a related process. It covers not only those activities which improve job performance but also those which bring about growth of the personality; help individuals in the progress towards maturity and acualisation of their potential capacities so that they become not only good employees but better men and women. In organizational term it is intended to equip persons to earn promotion and hold greater responsibility. Training a person for a bigger and higher job is development. And this may well include not only

imparting specific skills and knowledge but also inculcating certain personality and mental attitudes. Development is any learning activity, which is directed towards future, needs rather than present needs, and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance. Difference Between Training & Development: Training is short term process uitlising a systematic and organised procedure by which non managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. Development is a long term educational process utilizing a systematic and organised procedure by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose. Training refers only to instruction in technical and mechanical operations while Development refers t philosophical and theoretical educational concepts. Training is designed for non managers, while development involves managerial personnel. Learning Dimensio ns Who What Why When Training Non managerial personnel Technical/Mechanical operations Specific job related purpose Short Term Development Managerial personnel Theoretical, conceptual ideas General Knowledge Long term

NEED FOR TRAINING The need for training of employees would be clear from the following:-

1. To Increase Productivity: Instruction can help employees increase their level of performance on their present assignment. Increased human performance often directly leads to increased operational productivity and increased profit. 2. Improve Quality: Better informed workers are less likely to make operational mistakes. Quality increases may help in relationship to company product or service, or in reference to intangible organitional employment atmosphere. 3. To Fulfill future Personnel Needs: organisations that have a good internal educational programme will have to make less drastic manpower changes and adjustments in the event of sudden personnel alternations when the need arises. 4. To Improve Organisational Climate: An endless chain of positive reactions results from a well planned training programme. Productions and product quality may improve: financial incentives may then be increased, internal promotions become stressed. Less supervisory pressure ensure and base pay rate increases results. 5. To Improve Health & Safety: proper training can help prevent industrial accidents. A safer work environment leads to more stable mental attitudes on the part of employees. Managerial mental state would also improve if supervisors know that they can better themselves through company designed development programmes. 6. Obsolescence Prevention: Training and development programmes foster the initiative and creativity of employees and help in prevent manpower obsolescence, which may be due to age, temperament or motivation or the inability of a person to adapt himself to technological changes. 7. Personal Growth: Employees on a personal basis gain individually from their exposure to educational experiences. Again management development programmes seems to give participant a wider awareness, and enlarged skill, and enlightened altruistic philosophy, and make enhanced personal growth possible.

The purpose of training The aim of training is to help the organisation achieve its purpose by adding value to its key resource the people it employs. The purpose of training is to: To increase productivity and quality To promote versatility and adaptability to new methods To reduce the number of accidents To reduce labour turnover To increase job satisfaction displaying itself in lower labour turn-over and less absenteeism To increase efficiency Advantages of training 1. Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes toward profits orientation. 2. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization. 3. Improves the morale of the workforce. 4. Helps people identify with organizational goals.

5. Helps create a better corporate image. 6. Fasters authentically, openness and trust. 7. Improves the relationship between boss and subordinate. 8. Aids in organizational development. 9. Learns from the trainee. 10. Helps prepare guidelines for work. 11. Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies. 12. Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization. 13. Organization gets more effective decision-making and problem solving. 14. Aids in development for promotion from within. 15. Aids in developing leadership skill, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and mangers usually display. 16. Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work. 17. Helps keep costs down in many areas, e.g. production, personnel. Administration, etc. 18. Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for being competent and knowledgeable. 19. Improves labor-management relations.

20. Reduces outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internal consulting.

Disadvantages of training 1. Can be a financial drain on resources; expensive development and testing, expensive to operate? 2. Often takes people away from their job for varying periods of time; 3. Equips staff to leave for a better job 4. Bad habits passed on 5. Narrow experience Principles of Training 1. Training Objectives: There should be specific training objectives. This will help in deciding about the type of training required. The performance standard of employees should be decided and training should be directed to achieve them. Aimless training programme will not be of much use. 2. Individual Considerations: All individuals do not have the same aptitude, background, education, experience, intellect, capability of understanding and interests. There may be some people who are comparatively slow in learning or may not at all be able to learn. Any training programmes should have to keep in view all these individual considerations.

3. Motivation to Trainees: The importance of training should be properly explained to employees. Training help employees in increasing their performance. This will bring them more financial benefits and create greater avenues for promotions. When employees realize the need of training for their own benefit and future development then they will take keen interest in it. 4. Use of Previous Training: The previous experience of education acquired by the employees should also be made use of while planning their training. The previous background should be used as a foundation for new development. If the new training is entirely different than what the employee had learnt, he will find difficulty in following it. So training should be related to the previous background of trainees. 5. Suitable Organisational Conditions: The conditions prevailing in the organisation should be conducive to the training programmes. The conditions should rather encourage employees to learn more and more. The persons learning better techniques of doing the things should be suitably rewarded. This will not only encourage those employees but will motivate others to improve their performance. Training should be imparted with the full support of the management otherwise it will not succeed. 6. Involvement of Trainees: To make training an effective tool of learning, trainees should also be involved in these programmes. They should be provided with opportunity to practise the newly needed behaviour norms. 7. Preparing the Instructor: The instructor or trainer is the key figure in the training programme. The trainer should not only be a good teacher but must know the subject and the job also. Good trainers should be developed both from inside and outside the organisation. 8. Feedback: The trainees should be provided with feedback about their performance. If their performance is not up to the expected levels, then they should be told to improve their work.

They themselves may not be able to judge whether training has improved their work or not. When they get regular and constructive feedback, it will help them in improving their work. 9. Practice: Practice make a man perfect. Skills that are practiced often are better learned and less easily forgotten. Therefore, trainees should be allowed continuous practice. Teach and demonstrate knowledge and skills and then let the trainee try them himself. 10. Appropriate Techniques: The methods and processes of training should be related directly to the needs and objectives of the organisation. It should be conducted as far as possible in the actual job environment so as to be meaning full. To be effective training should be based on the tested principles of learning.

METHODS OF TRAINING
A multitude of methods of training is used to train employees. Training methods are categorized into two groups (i) on the job training and (ii) off-the job methods. On the job training: refers to methods that are applied in the workplace, while the employees are actually working. On-job training Cannell (1997:28) defines on-the-job training as: Training that is planned and structured that takes place mainly at the normal workstation of the trainee- although some instruction may be provided in a special training area on site - and where a manager, supervisor, trainer or peer colleague spends significant time with a trainee to teach a set of skills that have been specified in advance. Advantages Tailor-made course situations/examples. content with use of REAL company

It is usually less expensive than off-job training Learning will take place using the equipment which will be actually used Trainees acclimatize more rapidly Disadvantages Possibility of poor instruction and insufficient time. Trainee may be exposed to bad work practices. A large amount of spoiled work and scrap material may be produced. Valuable equipment may be damaged. Training takes place under production conditions that are stressful, i.e. noisy, busy, confusing and exposing the trainee to comments by other workers. Off-job training Advantages A specialist instructor enables delivery of high quality training. Wider range of facilities and equipment are available. The trainee can learn the job in planned stages. It is free from the pressures and distractions of company life. It is easier to calculate the cost of off-job training because it is more self-contained Cross-fertilisation of ideas between different companies.

Disadvantages Can result in transfer of learning difficulties when a trainee changes from training equipment to production equipment. No training can be entirely off-job as some aspects of the task can only be learned by doing them in the normal production setting, with its own customs and network of personal relationships. Can be more expensive. Carrying out the training Everyone involved in the training should be informed well in advance of the training session(s). It is equally important that the person(s) delivering the training whether in-job or off-job training - are well versed in what has to be achieved and the most suitable techniques to adopt.

On the Job Training Orientation training Job-instruction training Apprentice training Internships and assistantships Job rotation Coaching

Off-the job training: are used away from workplaces. Vestibule Lecture Special study

Films Television Conference or discussion Case study Role playing Simulation Programmed instruction Laboratory training

At this point, it is worthwhile to elaborate on important techniques of training. Let us go through the following for better understanding - lectures, audio-visuals, on-the job training, programmed instruction, computer-aided instruction, simulation 1. Vestibule Training: This training method attempt to duplicate on-the-job-situation in a company classroom. It is a classroom training that is often imported with the help of the equipment and machines, which are identical with those in use in the place of work. This technique enables the trainees to concentrate on learning new skill rather than on performing on actual job. This type of training is efficient to train semi-skilled personnel, particularly when many employees have to be trained for the same kind of work at the same time. Often used to train bank tellers, inspectors, machine operators, typists etc. In this, training is generally given in the form of lectures, conferences, case studies, role-play etc. 2. Demonstrations And Example: In this type of training method trainer describes and displays something, as & when he teaches an employee, how to do something by actually performing the activity himself & going on explaining why & what he is doing. This method is very effective in

teaching because it is much easier to show a person how to do a job than tell him or give him instruction about a particular job. This training is done by combination with lectures, pictures, text materials etc. 3. Lectures: Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience. The lecture is presumed to possess a considerable depth of knowledge of the subject at hand. A virtue of this method is that is can be used for very large groups, and hence the cost per trainee is low. This method is mainly used in colleges and universities, though its application is restricted in training factory employees. Limitations of the lecture method account for its low popularity. The method violates the principle of learning by practice. It constitutes a one-way communication. There is no feedback from the audience. Continued lecturing method can be made effective it if is combined with other methods of training. 4. Audio-visuals: Audio-visuals include television slides, overheads, video-types and films. These can be used to provide a wide range of realistic examples of job conditions and situations in the condensed period of time. Further, the quality of the presentation can be controlled and will remain equal for all training groups. But, audio-visuals constitute a one-way system of communication with no scope for the audience to raise doubts for clarification. Further, there is no flexibility of presentation from audience to audience. 5. Programmed Instruction (PI): This is method where training is offer without the intervention of a trainer. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks, either in a book form of through a teaching machine.

PI involves: 1. Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner 2. Allowing the person to respond 3. Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers 4. If the answers are correct, the learner proceeds to the next block. If not, he or she repeats the same.

6. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI): this is an extension of the PI method. CAI provides for accountability as tests are taken on the computer so that the management can monitor each trainees progress and needs. CAI training program can also be modified easily to reflect technological innovations in the equipment for which the employee is being trained. This training also tends to be more flexible in that trainees can usually use the computer almost any time they want, thus get training when they prefer. 7. Apprenticeship: This method of training is usually done in crafts, trades and in technical areas. It is the oldest and most commonly used method, if the training is relatively for a longer period. Here a major part of training is spent on the job productive work. Each apprentice is given a programme of assignments according to a pre-determined schedule, which provide for efficient training in trade skills. 8. Simulation: A simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the

job. Simulation then, is an attempt to create a realistic decisionmaking environment for the trainee. Simulations present likely problem situations and decision alternatives to the trainee. The more widely held simulation exercises are case study, role-playing and vestibule training. 9. Conference: In this method, the participating individuals confer to discuss points of common interest to each other. It is a basic to most participative group centered methods of developments. This emphasis on small group discussion, on organized subject matter and on the active participation of the members involved. There are three types of conferences, * Direct discussion: - Here trainer guides the discussion in such a way that the facts, principles or concepts are explained. *Training Conference: - The instructor gets the group to pool its knowledge and past experience and brings different points of view to bear on the problem. * Seminar Conference: - In this method instructor defines the problem, encourages and ensures the full participation in the discussion. 10. Case Studies: This method is developed in 1800S At the Harvard Law School. The case study is based upon the belief that managerial competence can best be attained through the study, contemplation and discussion of concrete cases. When the trainees are given cases to analyse, they are asked to identify the problem and recommend tentative solution for it. The case study is primarily useful as a training technique for supervisors and is specially

valuable as a technique of developing discussion-making skills, and for broadening the prospective of the trainee. In case study method the trainee is expected to master the facts, should acquainted with the content of the case, define the objective sought in dealing with the issues in the case, identify the problem, develop alternative courses of action, define the controls needed to make the action effective and role play the action to test its effectiveness and find conditions that may limit it. 11. Role Playing :In role-playing trainees act out the given role as they would be in stage play. Two or more trainees are assigned parts to play before the nest of the class. Here role players are informed of a situation and of the respective roles they have to pay. Sometimes after the preliminary planning, the situation is acted out by the role players. This method primarily involves employee-employer relationship Hiring, firing, discussing a grievance procedure, conducting a post appraisal interview etc. 12. Programmed Instructions: This method involves a sequence of steps that are often set up through the central panel of an electronic computer as guides in the performance of desired operation or series of operations. This method involves breaking information down into meaningful units and then arranging these in a proper way to form a logical and sequential learning. The programme involves presenting questions, facts or problems to trainees to utilize the information given and the trainee instantly receive feedback on the basis of the accuracy of his answers.