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# EE 221

Problem Set 4

Problem 1:

An one-hour dry oxidation at 1000C is followed by a 5-hour wet oxidation at 1100C . a) Calculate the oxide thickness after each step for a <100> wafer. b) Find the final oxide thickness graphically.
Solution
T 1000 T 1100 B/A 4.478E-02 B/A 2.895 B 1.042E-02 B 0.529 <100> Silicon - Dry Oxygen A 0.233 <100> Silicon - Wet Oxygen A 0.183 Xi 0.025 Xi 0.058 tau 0.618 tau 0.026 t 1.000 t 5.000 Xo (m) 0.058 Xo (m) 1.542

(b) In below figure, 1 hr at 1000 oC in dry oxygen produces approximately 0.053 m oxide, and 5 hours at 1100 oC in wet oxygen produces a 1.5 m thick oxide. The 0.053-m oxide would grow in less than 0.1 hour in wet oxygen at 1100 oC and has a negligible effect on the wet oxide growth.

Problem 2:

An one-hour dry oxidation at 1100C is followed by a 5-hour wet oxidation at 1100C . a) Calculate the oxide thickness after each step for a <111> wafer. b) Find the final oxide thickness graphically.
Solution
T 1100 T 1100 B/A 0.284 B/A 4.865 B 0.024 B 0.529 <111> Silicon - Dry Oxygen A 0.083 <111> Silicon - Wet Oxygen A 0.109 Xi 0.025 Xi 0.126 tau 0.115 tau 0.056 t 1.000 t 5.000 Xo (m) 0.126 Xo (m) 1.582

(b) From Fig. 3.7, 1 hr at 1100 oC in dry oxygen produces approximately 0.12-m oxide, and 5 hours at 1100 oC in wet oxygen produces a 1.5 m thick oxide. The 0.12-m oxide would grow in less than 0.1 hour in wet oxygen at 1100 oC and has a negligible effect on the wet oxide growth.
Problem 3:

A square window is etched through 200nm of oxide prior to a second oxidation. The second oxidation grows 300nm of oxide in the thick oxide region at 100C . Make a scale drawing of the cross section of the wafer after the second oxidation. What are the colors of the various regions under vertical illumination by white light? Assume a temperature of 1000C
Solution

To make a numeric calculation, we must choose a temperature say 1100 oC. Using the values from Table 3.1 for wet oxygen at 1100 oC on <100> silicon yields (B/A) = 2.895 m/hr and B = 0.529 m2/hr. In the oxidized region, the initial oxide Xi = 0.2 m which gives = X i B + X i / (B / A) = 0.144 hrs. The time required to reach a thickness of 0.5 m
2

= 0.52/0.53 + 0.5/2.9 - 0.144 = 0.50 hrs. In the unoxidized region, 0.5 hours oxidation yields X o = 0 .5 (0.183

## [1 + 4 (0.53 )(0.5 )/ (0 .183 ) 1 ]= 0.43 m

2

This result can also be obtained using Fig. 3.6 in a manner similar to the solution of Problem 3.13.

20 nm 50 nm Original 43 nm Final

Note that this result is almost independent of the temperature chosen. The growth in the unoxidized area ranges from 41 nm at 1000 oC to 44 nm at 1200 oC.
Problem 4:

A 10m square window is etched through a 1m thick oxide on a silicon wafer. The wafer is reoxidized to grow a new 1m thick oxide film in the window at 1000C . a) Draw a cross

section of the wafer following the second oxidation. b) What are the colors of the oxide under vertical illumination by white light? Assume a temperature of 1100C .
Solution

To make a numeric calculation, we must choose a temperature say 1100 oC. Using the values from below table for wet oxygen at 1100 oC on <100> silicon yields (B/A) = 2.895 m/hr, B = 0.529
=1

## m. In the unoxidized region, we desire Xo = 1

m which gives t = X o2 B + X o / (B / A) = 2.24 hrs. In the oxidized region, the initial oxide Xi
m which gives = X i2 B + X i / (B / A) = 2.24 hrs. The final thickness in the oxidized region is

## 2.895 (4.472) 1 = 1.45 m X o = 0.5(0.183m ) 1 + 4 0.183

1 m 1.45 m 1 m

Original

Final

Note that this result is almost independent of the temperature chosen. The total growth in the oxidized area ranges from 1.49 m at 1000 oC to 1.43 m at 1200 oC. The 1-m region will appear carnation pink in color, and the 1.45-m region will appear violet.